transformers documentation

OpenAI GPT2

# OpenAI GPT2

## Overview

OpenAI GPT-2 model was proposed in Language Models are Unsupervised Multitask Learners by Alec Radford, Jeffrey Wu, Rewon Child, David Luan, Dario Amodei and Ilya Sutskever. It’s a causal (unidirectional) transformer pretrained using language modeling on a very large corpus of ~40 GB of text data.

The abstract from the paper is the following:

GPT-2 is a large transformer-based language model with 1.5 billion parameters, trained on a dataset[1] of 8 million web pages. GPT-2 is trained with a simple objective: predict the next word, given all of the previous words within some text. The diversity of the dataset causes this simple goal to contain naturally occurring demonstrations of many tasks across diverse domains. GPT-2 is a direct scale-up of GPT, with more than 10X the parameters and trained on more than 10X the amount of data.

Tips:

• GPT-2 is a model with absolute position embeddings so it’s usually advised to pad the inputs on the right rather than the left.
• GPT-2 was trained with a causal language modeling (CLM) objective and is therefore powerful at predicting the next token in a sequence. Leveraging this feature allows GPT-2 to generate syntactically coherent text as it can be observed in the run_generation.py example script.
• The model can take the past_key_values (for PyTorch) or past (for TF) as input, which is the previously computed key/value attention pairs. Using this (past_key_values or past) value prevents the model from re-computing pre-computed values in the context of text generation. For PyTorch, see past_key_values argument of the GPT2Model.forward() method, or for TF the past argument of the TFGPT2Model.call() method for more information on its usage.
• Enabling the scale_attn_by_inverse_layer_idx and reorder_and_upcast_attn flags will apply the training stability improvements from Mistral (for PyTorch only).

Write With Transformer is a webapp created and hosted by Hugging Face showcasing the generative capabilities of several models. GPT-2 is one of them and is available in five different sizes: small, medium, large, xl and a distilled version of the small checkpoint: distilgpt-2.

This model was contributed by thomwolf. The original code can be found here.

## GPT2Config

class transformers.GPT2Config < >

( vocab_size = 50257 n_positions = 1024 n_embd = 768 n_layer = 12 n_head = 12 n_inner = None activation_function = 'gelu_new' resid_pdrop = 0.1 embd_pdrop = 0.1 attn_pdrop = 0.1 layer_norm_epsilon = 1e-05 initializer_range = 0.02 summary_type = 'cls_index' summary_use_proj = True summary_activation = None summary_proj_to_labels = True summary_first_dropout = 0.1 scale_attn_weights = True use_cache = True bos_token_id = 50256 eos_token_id = 50256 scale_attn_by_inverse_layer_idx = False reorder_and_upcast_attn = False **kwargs )

Parameters

• vocab_size (int, optional, defaults to 50257) — Vocabulary size of the GPT-2 model. Defines the number of different tokens that can be represented by the inputs_ids passed when calling GPT2Model or TFGPT2Model.
• n_positions (int, optional, defaults to 1024) — The maximum sequence length that this model might ever be used with. Typically set this to something large just in case (e.g., 512 or 1024 or 2048).
• n_embd (int, optional, defaults to 768) — Dimensionality of the embeddings and hidden states.
• n_layer (int, optional, defaults to 12) — Number of hidden layers in the Transformer encoder.
• n_head (int, optional, defaults to 12) — Number of attention heads for each attention layer in the Transformer encoder.
• n_inner (int, optional, defaults to None) — Dimensionality of the inner feed-forward layers. None will set it to 4 times n_embd
• activation_function (str, optional, defaults to "gelu") — Activation function, to be selected in the list ["relu", "silu", "gelu", "tanh", "gelu_new"].
• resid_pdrop (float, optional, defaults to 0.1) — The dropout probability for all fully connected layers in the embeddings, encoder, and pooler.
• embd_pdrop (int, optional, defaults to 0.1) — The dropout ratio for the embeddings.
• attn_pdrop (float, optional, defaults to 0.1) — The dropout ratio for the attention.
• layer_norm_epsilon (float, optional, defaults to 1e-5) — The epsilon to use in the layer normalization layers.
• initializer_range (float, optional, defaults to 0.02) — The standard deviation of the truncated_normal_initializer for initializing all weight matrices.
• summary_type (string, optional, defaults to "cls_index") — Argument used when doing sequence summary, used in the models GPT2DoubleHeadsModel and TFGPT2DoubleHeadsModel.

Has to be one of the following options:

• "last": Take the last token hidden state (like XLNet).
• "first": Take the first token hidden state (like BERT).
• "mean": Take the mean of all tokens hidden states.
• "cls_index": Supply a Tensor of classification token position (like GPT/GPT-2).
• "attn": Not implemented now, use multi-head attention.
• summary_use_proj (bool, optional, defaults to True) — Argument used when doing sequence summary, used in the models GPT2DoubleHeadsModel and TFGPT2DoubleHeadsModel.

Whether or not to add a projection after the vector extraction.

• summary_activation (str, optional) — Argument used when doing sequence summary. Used in for the multiple choice head in GPT2DoubleHeadsModel.

Pass "tanh" for a tanh activation to the output, any other value will result in no activation.

• summary_proj_to_labels (bool, optional, defaults to True) — Argument used when doing sequence summary, used in the models GPT2DoubleHeadsModel and TFGPT2DoubleHeadsModel.

Whether the projection outputs should have config.num_labels or config.hidden_size classes.

• summary_first_dropout (float, optional, defaults to 0.1) — Argument used when doing sequence summary, used in the models GPT2DoubleHeadsModel and TFGPT2DoubleHeadsModel.

The dropout ratio to be used after the projection and activation.

• scale_attn_weights (bool, optional, defaults to True) — Scale attention weights by dividing by sqrt(hidden_size)..
• use_cache (bool, optional, defaults to True) — Whether or not the model should return the last key/values attentions (not used by all models).
• scale_attn_by_inverse_layer_idx (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether to additionally scale attention weights by 1 / layer_idx + 1.
• reorder_and_upcast_attn (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether to scale keys (K) prior to computing attention (dot-product) and upcast attention dot-product/softmax to float() when training with mixed precision.

This is the configuration class to store the configuration of a GPT2Model or a TFGPT2Model. It is used to instantiate a GPT-2 model according to the specified arguments, defining the model architecture. Instantiating a configuration with the defaults will yield a similar configuration to that of the GPT-2 small architecture.

Configuration objects inherit from PretrainedConfig and can be used to control the model outputs. Read the documentation from PretrainedConfig for more information.

Example:

>>> from transformers import GPT2Model, GPT2Config

>>> # Initializing a GPT2 configuration
>>> configuration = GPT2Config()

>>> # Initializing a model from the configuration
>>> model = GPT2Model(configuration)

>>> # Accessing the model configuration
>>> configuration = model.config

## GPT2Tokenizer

class transformers.GPT2Tokenizer < >

( vocab_file merges_file errors = 'replace' unk_token = '<|endoftext|>' bos_token = '<|endoftext|>' eos_token = '<|endoftext|>' add_prefix_space = False **kwargs )

Parameters

• vocab_file (str) — Path to the vocabulary file.
• merges_file (str) — Path to the merges file.
• errors (str, optional, defaults to "replace") — Paradigm to follow when decoding bytes to UTF-8. See bytes.decode for more information.
• unk_token (str, optional, defaults to <|endoftext|>) — The unknown token. A token that is not in the vocabulary cannot be converted to an ID and is set to be this token instead.
• bos_token (str, optional, defaults to <|endoftext|>) — The beginning of sequence token.
• eos_token (str, optional, defaults to <|endoftext|>) — The end of sequence token.
• add_prefix_space (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to add an initial space to the input. This allows to treat the leading word just as any other word. (GPT2 tokenizer detect beginning of words by the preceding space).

Construct a GPT-2 tokenizer. Based on byte-level Byte-Pair-Encoding.

This tokenizer has been trained to treat spaces like parts of the tokens (a bit like sentencepiece) so a word will be encoded differently whether it is at the beginning of the sentence (without space) or not:

>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer
>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("gpt2")
>>> tokenizer("Hello world")['input_ids']
[15496, 995]
>>> tokenizer(" Hello world")['input_ids']
[18435, 995]

You can get around that behavior by passing add_prefix_space=True when instantiating this tokenizer or when you call it on some text, but since the model was not pretrained this way, it might yield a decrease in performance.

When used with is_split_into_words=True, this tokenizer will add a space before each word (even the first one).

This tokenizer inherits from PreTrainedTokenizer which contains most of the main methods. Users should refer to this superclass for more information regarding those methods.

## GPT2TokenizerFast

class transformers.GPT2TokenizerFast < >

( vocab_file = None merges_file = None tokenizer_file = None unk_token = '<|endoftext|>' bos_token = '<|endoftext|>' eos_token = '<|endoftext|>' add_prefix_space = False **kwargs )

Parameters

• vocab_file (str) — Path to the vocabulary file.
• merges_file (str) — Path to the merges file.
• errors (str, optional, defaults to "replace") — Paradigm to follow when decoding bytes to UTF-8. See bytes.decode for more information.
• unk_token (str, optional, defaults to <|endoftext|>) — The unknown token. A token that is not in the vocabulary cannot be converted to an ID and is set to be this token instead.
• bos_token (str, optional, defaults to <|endoftext|>) — The beginning of sequence token.
• eos_token (str, optional, defaults to <|endoftext|>) — The end of sequence token.
• add_prefix_space (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to add an initial space to the input. This allows to treat the leading word just as any other word. (GPT2 tokenizer detect beginning of words by the preceding space).
• trim_offsets (bool, optional, defaults to True) — Whether or not the post-processing step should trim offsets to avoid including whitespaces.

Construct a “fast” GPT-2 tokenizer (backed by HuggingFace’s tokenizers library). Based on byte-level Byte-Pair-Encoding.

This tokenizer has been trained to treat spaces like parts of the tokens (a bit like sentencepiece) so a word will be encoded differently whether it is at the beginning of the sentence (without space) or not:

>>> from transformers import GPT2TokenizerFast
>>> tokenizer = GPT2TokenizerFast.from_pretrained("gpt2")
>>> tokenizer("Hello world")['input_ids']
[15496, 995]
>>> tokenizer(" Hello world")['input_ids']
[18435, 995]

You can get around that behavior by passing add_prefix_space=True when instantiating this tokenizer, but since the model was not pretrained this way, it might yield a decrease in performance.

When used with is_split_into_words=True, this tokenizer needs to be instantiated with add_prefix_space=True.

This tokenizer inherits from PreTrainedTokenizerFast which contains most of the main methods. Users should refer to this superclass for more information regarding those methods.

## GPT2 specific outputs

( loss: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None mc_loss: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None logits: FloatTensor = None mc_logits: FloatTensor = None past_key_values: typing.Optional[typing.Tuple[typing.Tuple[torch.FloatTensor]]] = None hidden_states: typing.Optional[typing.Tuple[torch.FloatTensor]] = None attentions: typing.Optional[typing.Tuple[torch.FloatTensor]] = None )

Parameters

• loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) — Language modeling loss.
• mc_loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when mc_labels is provided) — Multiple choice classification loss.
• logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, num_choices, sequence_length, config.vocab_size)) — Prediction scores of the language modeling head (scores for each vocabulary token before SoftMax).
• mc_logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, num_choices)) — Prediction scores of the multiple choice classification head (scores for each choice before SoftMax).
• past_key_values (Tuple[Tuple[torch.Tensor]], optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of length config.n_layers, containing tuples of tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)).

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

• hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

• attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

GPT2Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Base class for outputs of models predicting if two sentences are consecutive or not.

( logits: Tensor = None mc_logits: Tensor = None past_key_values: typing.Optional[typing.List[tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor]] = None hidden_states: typing.Optional[typing.Tuple[tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor]] = None attentions: typing.Optional[typing.Tuple[tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor]] = None )

Parameters

• logits (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, num_choices, sequence_length, config.vocab_size)) — Prediction scores of the language modeling head (scores for each vocabulary token before SoftMax).
• mc_logits (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, num_choices)) — Prediction scores of the multiple choice classification head (scores for each choice before SoftMax).
• past_key_values (List[tf.Tensor], optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — List of tf.Tensor of length config.n_layers, with each tensor of shape (2, batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)).

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

• hidden_states (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

• attentions (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Base class for outputs of models predicting if two sentences are consecutive or not.

## GPT2Model

class transformers.GPT2Model < >

( config )

Parameters

• config (GPT2Config) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

The bare GPT2 Model transformer outputting raw hidden-states without any specific head on top.

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

forward < >

( input_ids = None past_key_values = None attention_mask = None token_type_ids = None position_ids = None head_mask = None inputs_embeds = None encoder_hidden_states = None encoder_attention_mask = None use_cache = None output_attentions = None output_hidden_states = None return_dict = None ) transformers.modeling_outputs.BaseModelOutputWithPastAndCrossAttentions or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Parameters

• input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, input_ids_length)) — input_ids_length = sequence_length if past_key_values is None else past_key_values[0][0].shape[-2] (sequence_length of input past key value states). Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

If past_key_values is used, only input_ids that do not have their past calculated should be passed as input_ids.

Indices can be obtained using GPT2Tokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

• past_key_values (Tuple[Tuple[torch.Tensor]] of length config.n_layers) — Contains precomputed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) as computed by the model (see past_key_values output below). Can be used to speed up sequential decoding. The input_ids which have their past given to this model should not be passed as input_ids as they have already been computed.
• attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.
• token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, input_ids_length), optional) — Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

• 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,
• 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.
• position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

• head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

If past_key_values is used, optionally only the last inputs_embeds have to be input (see past_key_values).

• use_cache (bool, optional) — If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past_key_values).
• output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
• output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
• return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

Returns

transformers.modeling_outputs.BaseModelOutputWithPastAndCrossAttentions or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

A transformers.modeling_outputs.BaseModelOutputWithPastAndCrossAttentions or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (GPT2Config) and inputs.

• last_hidden_state (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size)) — Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the model.

If past_key_values is used only the last hidden-state of the sequences of shape (batch_size, 1, hidden_size) is output.

• past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of tuple(torch.FloatTensor) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)) and optionally if config.is_encoder_decoder=True 2 additional tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, encoder_sequence_length, embed_size_per_head).

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks and optionally if config.is_encoder_decoder=True in the cross-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

• hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

• attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

• cross_attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True and config.add_cross_attention=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights of the decoder’s cross-attention layer, after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the cross-attention heads.

The GPT2Model forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example:

>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, GPT2Model
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("gpt2")
>>> model = GPT2Model.from_pretrained("gpt2")

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")
>>> outputs = model(**inputs)

>>> last_hidden_states = outputs.last_hidden_state
parallelize < >

( device_map = None )

Parameters

• device_map (Dict[int, list], optional, defaults to None) — A dictionary that maps attention modules to devices. Note that the embedding module and LMHead are always automatically mapped to the first device (for esoteric reasons). That means that the first device should have fewer attention modules mapped to it than other devices. For reference, the gpt2 models have the following number of attention modules:

• gpt2: 12
• gpt2-medium: 24
• gpt2-large: 36
• gpt2-xl: 48

This is an experimental feature and is a subject to change at a moment’s notice.

Uses a device map to distribute attention modules of the model across several devices. If no device map is given, it will evenly distribute blocks across all devices.

Example:

# Here is an example of a device map on a machine with 4 GPUs using gpt2-xl, which has a total of 48 attention modules:
device_map = {
0: [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8],
1: [9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21],
2: [22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34],
3: [35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47],
}
model.parallelize(device_map)
deparallelize < >

( )

Moves the model to cpu from a model parallel state.

Example:

# On a 4 GPU machine with gpt2-large:
device_map = {
0: [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7],
1: [8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15],
2: [16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23],
3: [24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35],
}
model.parallelize(device_map)  # Splits the model across several devices
model.deparallelize()  # Put the model back on cpu and cleans memory by calling torch.cuda.empty_cache()

( config )

Parameters

• config (GPT2Config) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

The GPT2 Model transformer with a language modeling head on top (linear layer with weights tied to the input embeddings).

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

forward < >

( input_ids = None past_key_values = None attention_mask = None token_type_ids = None position_ids = None head_mask = None inputs_embeds = None encoder_hidden_states = None encoder_attention_mask = None labels = None use_cache = None output_attentions = None output_hidden_states = None return_dict = None ) transformers.modeling_outputs.CausalLMOutputWithCrossAttentions or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Parameters

• input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, input_ids_length)) — input_ids_length = sequence_length if past_key_values is None else past_key_values[0][0].shape[-2] (sequence_length of input past key value states). Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

If past_key_values is used, only input_ids that do not have their past calculated should be passed as input_ids.

Indices can be obtained using GPT2Tokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

• past_key_values (Tuple[Tuple[torch.Tensor]] of length config.n_layers) — Contains precomputed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) as computed by the model (see past_key_values output below). Can be used to speed up sequential decoding. The input_ids which have their past given to this model should not be passed as input_ids as they have already been computed.
• attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.
• token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, input_ids_length), optional) — Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

• 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,
• 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.
• position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

• head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

If past_key_values is used, optionally only the last inputs_embeds have to be input (see past_key_values).

• use_cache (bool, optional) — If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past_key_values).
• output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
• output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
• return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.
• labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Labels for language modeling. Note that the labels are shifted inside the model, i.e. you can set labels = input_ids Indices are selected in [-100, 0, ..., config.vocab_size] All labels set to -100 are ignored (masked), the loss is only computed for labels in [0, ..., config.vocab_size]

Returns

transformers.modeling_outputs.CausalLMOutputWithCrossAttentions or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

A transformers.modeling_outputs.CausalLMOutputWithCrossAttentions or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (GPT2Config) and inputs.

• loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) — Language modeling loss (for next-token prediction).

• logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, config.vocab_size)) — Prediction scores of the language modeling head (scores for each vocabulary token before SoftMax).

• hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

• attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

• cross_attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Cross attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the cross-attention heads.

• past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor tuples of length config.n_layers, with each tuple containing the cached key, value states of the self-attention and the cross-attention layers if model is used in encoder-decoder setting. Only relevant if config.is_decoder = True.

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

The GPT2LMHeadModel forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example:

>>> import torch
>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, GPT2LMHeadModel

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("gpt2")

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")
>>> outputs = model(**inputs, labels=inputs["input_ids"])
>>> loss = outputs.loss
>>> logits = outputs.logits
parallelize < >

( device_map = None )

Parameters

• device_map (Dict[int, list], optional, defaults to None) — A dictionary that maps attention modules to devices. Note that the embedding module and LMHead are always automatically mapped to the first device (for esoteric reasons). That means that the first device should have fewer attention modules mapped to it than other devices. For reference, the gpt2 models have the following number of attention modules:

• gpt2: 12
• gpt2-medium: 24
• gpt2-large: 36
• gpt2-xl: 48

This is an experimental feature and is a subject to change at a moment’s notice.

Uses a device map to distribute attention modules of the model across several devices. If no device map is given, it will evenly distribute blocks across all devices.

Example:

# Here is an example of a device map on a machine with 4 GPUs using gpt2-xl, which has a total of 48 attention modules:
device_map = {
0: [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8],
1: [9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21],
2: [22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34],
3: [35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47],
}
model.parallelize(device_map)
deparallelize < >

( )

Moves the model to cpu from a model parallel state.

Example:

# On a 4 GPU machine with gpt2-large:
device_map = {
0: [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7],
1: [8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15],
2: [16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23],
3: [24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35],
}
model.parallelize(device_map)  # Splits the model across several devices
model.deparallelize()  # Put the model back on cpu and cleans memory by calling torch.cuda.empty_cache()

( config )

Parameters

• config (GPT2Config) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

The GPT2 Model transformer with a language modeling and a multiple-choice classification head on top e.g. for RocStories/SWAG tasks. The two heads are two linear layers. The language modeling head has its weights tied to the input embeddings, the classification head takes as input the input of a specified classification token index in the input sequence).

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

forward < >

( input_ids = None past_key_values = None attention_mask = None token_type_ids = None position_ids = None head_mask = None inputs_embeds = None mc_token_ids = None labels = None mc_labels = None use_cache = None output_attentions = None output_hidden_states = None return_dict = None **kwargs ) transformers.models.gpt2.modeling_gpt2.GPT2DoubleHeadsModelOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Parameters

• input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, input_ids_length)) — input_ids_length = sequence_length if past_key_values is None else past_key_values[0][0].shape[-2] (sequence_length of input past key value states). Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

If past_key_values is used, only input_ids that do not have their past calculated should be passed as input_ids.

Indices can be obtained using GPT2Tokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

• past_key_values (Tuple[Tuple[torch.Tensor]] of length config.n_layers) — Contains precomputed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) as computed by the model (see past_key_values output below). Can be used to speed up sequential decoding. The input_ids which have their past given to this model should not be passed as input_ids as they have already been computed.
• attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.
• token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, input_ids_length), optional) — Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

• 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,
• 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.
• position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

• head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

If past_key_values is used, optionally only the last inputs_embeds have to be input (see past_key_values).

• use_cache (bool, optional) — If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past_key_values).
• output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
• output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
• return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.
• mc_token_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, num_choices), optional, default to index of the last token of the input) — Index of the classification token in each input sequence. Selected in the range [0, input_ids.size(-1) - 1[.
• labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Labels for language modeling. Note that the labels are shifted inside the model, i.e. you can set labels = input_ids Indices are selected in [-100, 0, ..., config.vocab_size - 1] All labels set to -100 are ignored (masked), the loss is only computed for labels in [0, ..., config.vocab_size - 1]
• mc_labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size), optional) — Labels for computing the multiple choice classification loss. Indices should be in [0, ..., num_choices] where num_choices is the size of the second dimension of the input tensors. (see input_ids above)

Returns

transformers.models.gpt2.modeling_gpt2.GPT2DoubleHeadsModelOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

A transformers.models.gpt2.modeling_gpt2.GPT2DoubleHeadsModelOutput or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (GPT2Config) and inputs.

• loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) — Language modeling loss.

• mc_loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when mc_labels is provided) — Multiple choice classification loss.

• logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, num_choices, sequence_length, config.vocab_size)) — Prediction scores of the language modeling head (scores for each vocabulary token before SoftMax).

• mc_logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, num_choices)) — Prediction scores of the multiple choice classification head (scores for each choice before SoftMax).

• past_key_values (Tuple[Tuple[torch.Tensor]], optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of length config.n_layers, containing tuples of tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)).

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

• hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

• attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

GPT2Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

The GPT2DoubleHeadsModel forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example:

>>> import torch
>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, GPT2DoubleHeadsModel

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("gpt2")

>>> # Add a [CLS] to the vocabulary (we should train it also!)

>>> embedding_layer = model.resize_token_embeddings(
...     len(tokenizer)
>>> )  # Update the model embeddings with the new vocabulary size

>>> choices = ["Hello, my dog is cute [CLS]", "Hello, my cat is cute [CLS]"]
>>> encoded_choices = [tokenizer.encode(s) for s in choices]
>>> cls_token_location = [tokens.index(tokenizer.cls_token_id) for tokens in encoded_choices]

>>> input_ids = torch.tensor(encoded_choices).unsqueeze(0)  # Batch size: 1, number of choices: 2
>>> mc_token_ids = torch.tensor([cls_token_location])  # Batch size: 1

>>> outputs = model(input_ids, mc_token_ids=mc_token_ids)
>>> lm_logits = outputs.logits
>>> mc_logits = outputs.mc_logits

## GPT2ForSequenceClassification

class transformers.GPT2ForSequenceClassification < >

( config )

Parameters

• config (GPT2Config) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

The GPT2 Model transformer with a sequence classification head on top (linear layer).

GPT2ForSequenceClassification uses the last token in order to do the classification, as other causal models (e.g. GPT-1) do.

Since it does classification on the last token, it requires to know the position of the last token. If a pad_token_id is defined in the configuration, it finds the last token that is not a padding token in each row. If no pad_token_id is defined, it simply takes the last value in each row of the batch. Since it cannot guess the padding tokens when inputs_embeds are passed instead of input_ids, it does the same (take the last value in each row of the batch).

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

forward < >

( input_ids = None past_key_values = None attention_mask = None token_type_ids = None position_ids = None head_mask = None inputs_embeds = None labels = None use_cache = None output_attentions = None output_hidden_states = None return_dict = None ) transformers.modeling_outputs.SequenceClassifierOutputWithPast or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Parameters

• input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, input_ids_length)) — input_ids_length = sequence_length if past_key_values is None else past_key_values[0][0].shape[-2] (sequence_length of input past key value states). Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

If past_key_values is used, only input_ids that do not have their past calculated should be passed as input_ids.

Indices can be obtained using GPT2Tokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

• past_key_values (Tuple[Tuple[torch.Tensor]] of length config.n_layers) — Contains precomputed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) as computed by the model (see past_key_values output below). Can be used to speed up sequential decoding. The input_ids which have their past given to this model should not be passed as input_ids as they have already been computed.
• attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.
• token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, input_ids_length), optional) — Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

• 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,
• 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.
• position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

• head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

If past_key_values is used, optionally only the last inputs_embeds have to be input (see past_key_values).

• use_cache (bool, optional) — If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past_key_values).
• output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
• output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
• return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.
• labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size,), optional) — Labels for computing the sequence classification/regression loss. Indices should be in [0, ..., config.num_labels - 1]. If config.num_labels == 1 a regression loss is computed (Mean-Square loss), If config.num_labels > 1 a classification loss is computed (Cross-Entropy).

Returns

transformers.modeling_outputs.SequenceClassifierOutputWithPast or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

A transformers.modeling_outputs.SequenceClassifierOutputWithPast or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (GPT2Config) and inputs.

• loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) — Classification (or regression if config.num_labels==1) loss.

• logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, config.num_labels)) — Classification (or regression if config.num_labels==1) scores (before SoftMax).

• past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of tuple(torch.FloatTensor) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head))

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

• hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

• attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

The GPT2ForSequenceClassification forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example of single-label classification:

>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, GPT2ForSequenceClassification
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("microsoft/DialogRPT-updown")
>>> model = GPT2ForSequenceClassification.from_pretrained("microsoft/DialogRPT-updown")

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")
>>> labels = torch.tensor([1]).unsqueeze(0)  # Batch size 1
>>> outputs = model(**inputs, labels=labels)
>>> loss = outputs.loss
>>> logits = outputs.logits

Example of multi-label classification:

>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, GPT2ForSequenceClassification
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("microsoft/DialogRPT-updown")
>>> model = GPT2ForSequenceClassification.from_pretrained("microsoft/DialogRPT-updown", problem_type="multi_label_classification")

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")
>>> labels = torch.tensor([[1, 1]], dtype=torch.float)  # need dtype=float for BCEWithLogitsLoss
>>> outputs = model(**inputs, labels=labels)
>>> loss = outputs.loss
>>> logits = outputs.logits

## GPT2ForTokenClassification

class transformers.GPT2ForTokenClassification < >

( config )

Parameters

• config (GPT2Config) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

GPT2 Model with a token classification head on top (a linear layer on top of the hidden-states output) e.g. for Named-Entity-Recognition (NER) tasks.

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

forward < >

( input_ids = None past_key_values = None attention_mask = None token_type_ids = None position_ids = None head_mask = None inputs_embeds = None labels = None use_cache = None output_attentions = None output_hidden_states = None return_dict = None ) transformers.modeling_outputs.TokenClassifierOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Parameters

• input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, input_ids_length)) — input_ids_length = sequence_length if past_key_values is None else past_key_values[0][0].shape[-2] (sequence_length of input past key value states). Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

If past_key_values is used, only input_ids that do not have their past calculated should be passed as input_ids.

Indices can be obtained using GPT2Tokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

• past_key_values (Tuple[Tuple[torch.Tensor]] of length config.n_layers) — Contains precomputed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) as computed by the model (see past_key_values output below). Can be used to speed up sequential decoding. The input_ids which have their past given to this model should not be passed as input_ids as they have already been computed.
• attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.
• token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, input_ids_length), optional) — Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

• 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,
• 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.
• position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

• head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

If past_key_values is used, optionally only the last inputs_embeds have to be input (see past_key_values).

• use_cache (bool, optional) — If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past_key_values).
• output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
• output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
• return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.
• labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size,), optional) — Labels for computing the sequence classification/regression loss. Indices should be in [0, ..., config.num_labels - 1]. If config.num_labels == 1 a regression loss is computed (Mean-Square loss), If config.num_labels > 1 a classification loss is computed (Cross-Entropy).

Returns

transformers.modeling_outputs.TokenClassifierOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

A transformers.modeling_outputs.TokenClassifierOutput or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (GPT2Config) and inputs.

• loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) — Classification loss.

• logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, config.num_labels)) — Classification scores (before SoftMax).

• hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

• attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

The GPT2ForTokenClassification forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example:

>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, GPT2ForTokenClassification
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("microsoft/DialogRPT-updown")
>>> model = GPT2ForTokenClassification.from_pretrained("microsoft/DialogRPT-updown")

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")
>>> labels = torch.tensor([1] * inputs["input_ids"].size(1)).unsqueeze(0)  # Batch size 1

>>> outputs = model(**inputs, labels=labels)
>>> loss = outputs.loss
>>> logits = outputs.logits

## TFGPT2Model

class transformers.TFGPT2Model < >

( *args **kwargs )

Parameters

• config (GPT2Config) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

The bare GPT2 Model transformer outputting raw hidden-states without any specific head on top.

This model inherits from TFPreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a tf.keras.Model subclass. Use it as a regular TF 2.0 Keras Model and refer to the TF 2.0 documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

TF 2.0 models accepts two formats as inputs:

• having all inputs as keyword arguments (like PyTorch models), or
• having all inputs as a list, tuple or dict in the first positional arguments.

This second option is useful when using tf.keras.Model.fit method which currently requires having all the tensors in the first argument of the model call function: model(inputs).

If you choose this second option, there are three possibilities you can use to gather all the input Tensors in the first positional argument :

• a single Tensor with input_ids only and nothing else: model(inputs_ids)
• a list of varying length with one or several input Tensors IN THE ORDER given in the docstring: model([input_ids, attention_mask]) or model([input_ids, attention_mask, token_type_ids])
• a dictionary with one or several input Tensors associated to the input names given in the docstring: model({"input_ids": input_ids, "token_type_ids": token_type_ids})
call < >

( input_ids = None past = None attention_mask = None token_type_ids = None position_ids = None head_mask = None inputs_embeds = None encoder_hidden_states = None encoder_attention_mask = None use_cache = None output_attentions = None output_hidden_states = None return_dict = None training = False **kwargs ) transformers.modeling_tf_outputs.TFBaseModelOutputWithPastAndCrossAttentions or tuple(tf.Tensor)

Parameters

• input_ids (Numpy array or tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, input_ids_length)) — input_ids_length = sequence_length if past is None else past[0].shape[-2] (sequence_length of input past key value states). Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

If past is used, only input IDs that do not have their past calculated should be passed as input_ids.

Indices can be obtained using GPT2Tokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.call() and PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() for details.

• past (List[tf.Tensor] of length config.n_layers) — Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) as computed by the model (see past output below). Can be used to speed up sequential decoding. The token ids which have their past given to this model should not be passed as input ids as they have already been computed.
• attention_mask (tf.Tensor or Numpy array of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.
• token_type_ids (tf.Tensor or Numpy array of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

• 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,
• 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.
• position_ids (tf.Tensor or Numpy array of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

• head_mask (Numpy array or tf.Tensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• inputs_embeds (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.
• output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail. This argument can be used only in eager mode, in graph mode the value in the config will be used instead.
• output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail. This argument can be used only in eager mode, in graph mode the value in the config will be used instead.
• return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple. This argument can be used in eager mode, in graph mode the value will always be set to True.
• training (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to use the model in training mode (some modules like dropout modules have different behaviors between training and evaluation).
• encoder_hidden_states (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the encoder. Used in the cross-attention if the model is configured as a decoder.
• encoder_attention_mask (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on the padding token indices of the encoder input. This mask is used in the cross-attention if the model is configured as a decoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.
• past (Tuple[Tuple[tf.Tensor]] of length config.n_layers) — contains precomputed key and value hidden states of the attention blocks. Can be used to speed up decoding. If past are used, the user can optionally input only the last decoder_input_ids (those that don’t have their past key value states given to this model) of shape (batch_size, 1) instead of all decoder_input_ids of shape (batch_size, sequence_length).
• use_cache (bool, optional, defaults to True) — If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past). Set to False during training, True during generation

A transformers.modeling_tf_outputs.TFBaseModelOutputWithPastAndCrossAttentions or a tuple of tf.Tensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (GPT2Config) and inputs.

• last_hidden_state (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size)) — Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the model.

If past_key_values is used only the last hidden-state of the sequences of shape (batch_size, 1, hidden_size) is output.

• past_key_values (List[tf.Tensor], optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — List of tf.Tensor of length config.n_layers, with each tensor of shape (2, batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)).

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

• hidden_states (tuple(tf.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

• attentions (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

• cross_attentions (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights of the decoder’s cross-attention layer, after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the cross-attention heads.

The TFGPT2Model forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example:

>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, TFGPT2Model
>>> import tensorflow as tf

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("gpt2")
>>> model = TFGPT2Model.from_pretrained("gpt2")

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="tf")
>>> outputs = model(inputs)

>>> last_hidden_states = outputs.last_hidden_state

( *args **kwargs )

Parameters

• config (GPT2Config) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

The GPT2 Model transformer with a language modeling head on top (linear layer with weights tied to the input embeddings).

This model inherits from TFPreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a tf.keras.Model subclass. Use it as a regular TF 2.0 Keras Model and refer to the TF 2.0 documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

TF 2.0 models accepts two formats as inputs:

• having all inputs as keyword arguments (like PyTorch models), or
• having all inputs as a list, tuple or dict in the first positional arguments.

This second option is useful when using tf.keras.Model.fit method which currently requires having all the tensors in the first argument of the model call function: model(inputs).

If you choose this second option, there are three possibilities you can use to gather all the input Tensors in the first positional argument :

• a single Tensor with input_ids only and nothing else: model(inputs_ids)
• a list of varying length with one or several input Tensors IN THE ORDER given in the docstring: model([input_ids, attention_mask]) or model([input_ids, attention_mask, token_type_ids])
• a dictionary with one or several input Tensors associated to the input names given in the docstring: model({"input_ids": input_ids, "token_type_ids": token_type_ids})
call < >

( input_ids = None past = None attention_mask = None token_type_ids = None position_ids = None head_mask = None inputs_embeds = None encoder_hidden_states = None encoder_attention_mask = None use_cache = None output_attentions = None output_hidden_states = None return_dict = None labels = None training = False **kwargs ) transformers.modeling_tf_outputs.TFCausalLMOutputWithCrossAttentions or tuple(tf.Tensor)

Parameters

• input_ids (Numpy array or tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, input_ids_length)) — input_ids_length = sequence_length if past is None else past[0].shape[-2] (sequence_length of input past key value states). Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

If past is used, only input IDs that do not have their past calculated should be passed as input_ids.

Indices can be obtained using GPT2Tokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.call() and PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() for details.

• past (List[tf.Tensor] of length config.n_layers) — Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) as computed by the model (see past output below). Can be used to speed up sequential decoding. The token ids which have their past given to this model should not be passed as input ids as they have already been computed.
• attention_mask (tf.Tensor or Numpy array of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.
• token_type_ids (tf.Tensor or Numpy array of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

• 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,
• 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.
• position_ids (tf.Tensor or Numpy array of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

• head_mask (Numpy array or tf.Tensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• inputs_embeds (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.
• output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail. This argument can be used only in eager mode, in graph mode the value in the config will be used instead.
• output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail. This argument can be used only in eager mode, in graph mode the value in the config will be used instead.
• return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple. This argument can be used in eager mode, in graph mode the value will always be set to True.
• training (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to use the model in training mode (some modules like dropout modules have different behaviors between training and evaluation).
• encoder_hidden_states (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the encoder. Used in the cross-attention if the model is configured as a decoder.
• encoder_attention_mask (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on the padding token indices of the encoder input. This mask is used in the cross-attention if the model is configured as a decoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.
• past (Tuple[Tuple[tf.Tensor]] of length config.n_layers) — contains precomputed key and value hidden states of the attention blocks. Can be used to speed up decoding. If past are used, the user can optionally input only the last decoder_input_ids (those that don’t have their past key value states given to this model) of shape (batch_size, 1) instead of all decoder_input_ids of shape (batch_size, sequence_length).
• use_cache (bool, optional, defaults to True) — If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past). Set to False during training, True during generation
• labels (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Labels for computing the cross entropy classification loss. Indices should be in [0, ..., config.vocab_size - 1].

A transformers.modeling_tf_outputs.TFCausalLMOutputWithCrossAttentions or a tuple of tf.Tensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (GPT2Config) and inputs.

• loss (tf.Tensor of shape (n,), optional, where n is the number of non-masked labels, returned when labels is provided) — Language modeling loss (for next-token prediction).

• logits (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, config.vocab_size)) — Prediction scores of the language modeling head (scores for each vocabulary token before SoftMax).

• hidden_states (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

• attentions (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

• cross_attentions (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights of the decoder’s cross-attention layer, after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the cross-attention heads.

• past_key_values (List[tf.Tensor], optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — List of tf.Tensor of length config.n_layers, with each tensor of shape (2, batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)).

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

The TFGPT2LMHeadModel forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example:

>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, TFGPT2LMHeadModel
>>> import tensorflow as tf

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("gpt2")

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="tf")
>>> outputs = model(inputs)
>>> logits = outputs.logits

( *args **kwargs )

Parameters

• config (GPT2Config) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

The GPT2 Model transformer with a language modeling and a multiple-choice classification head on top e.g. for RocStories/SWAG tasks. The two heads are two linear layers. The language modeling head has its weights tied to the input embeddings, the classification head takes as input the input of a specified classification token index in the input sequence).

This model inherits from TFPreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a tf.keras.Model subclass. Use it as a regular TF 2.0 Keras Model and refer to the TF 2.0 documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

TF 2.0 models accepts two formats as inputs:

• having all inputs as keyword arguments (like PyTorch models), or
• having all inputs as a list, tuple or dict in the first positional arguments.

This second option is useful when using tf.keras.Model.fit method which currently requires having all the tensors in the first argument of the model call function: model(inputs).

If you choose this second option, there are three possibilities you can use to gather all the input Tensors in the first positional argument :

• a single Tensor with input_ids only and nothing else: model(inputs_ids)
• a list of varying length with one or several input Tensors IN THE ORDER given in the docstring: model([input_ids, attention_mask]) or model([input_ids, attention_mask, token_type_ids])
• a dictionary with one or several input Tensors associated to the input names given in the docstring: model({"input_ids": input_ids, "token_type_ids": token_type_ids})
call < >

( input_ids = None past = None attention_mask = None token_type_ids = None position_ids = None head_mask = None inputs_embeds = None mc_token_ids = None use_cache = None output_attentions = None output_hidden_states = None return_dict = None training = False **kwargs ) transformers.models.gpt2.modeling_tf_gpt2.TFGPT2DoubleHeadsModelOutput or tuple(tf.Tensor)

Parameters

• input_ids (Numpy array or tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, input_ids_length)) — input_ids_length = sequence_length if past is None else past[0].shape[-2] (sequence_length of input past key value states). Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

If past is used, only input IDs that do not have their past calculated should be passed as input_ids.

Indices can be obtained using GPT2Tokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.call() and PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() for details.

• past (List[tf.Tensor] of length config.n_layers) — Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) as computed by the model (see past output below). Can be used to speed up sequential decoding. The token ids which have their past given to this model should not be passed as input ids as they have already been computed.
• attention_mask (tf.Tensor or Numpy array of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.
• token_type_ids (tf.Tensor or Numpy array of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

• 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,
• 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.
• position_ids (tf.Tensor or Numpy array of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

• head_mask (Numpy array or tf.Tensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• inputs_embeds (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.
• output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail. This argument can be used only in eager mode, in graph mode the value in the config will be used instead.
• output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail. This argument can be used only in eager mode, in graph mode the value in the config will be used instead.
• return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple. This argument can be used in eager mode, in graph mode the value will always be set to True.
• training (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to use the model in training mode (some modules like dropout modules have different behaviors between training and evaluation).
• mc_token_ids (tf.Tensor or Numpy array of shape (batch_size, num_choices), optional, default to index of the last token of the input) — Index of the classification token in each input sequence. Selected in the range [0, input_ids.size(-1) - 1[.

A transformers.models.gpt2.modeling_tf_gpt2.TFGPT2DoubleHeadsModelOutput or a tuple of tf.Tensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (GPT2Config) and inputs.

• logits (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, num_choices, sequence_length, config.vocab_size)) — Prediction scores of the language modeling head (scores for each vocabulary token before SoftMax).

• mc_logits (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, num_choices)) — Prediction scores of the multiple choice classification head (scores for each choice before SoftMax).

• past_key_values (List[tf.Tensor], optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — List of tf.Tensor of length config.n_layers, with each tensor of shape (2, batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)).

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

• hidden_states (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

• attentions (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

The TFGPT2DoubleHeadsModel forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Examples:

>>> import tensorflow as tf
>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, TFGPT2DoubleHeadsModel

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("gpt2")

>>> # Add a [CLS] to the vocabulary (we should train it also!)

>>> embedding_layer = model.resize_token_embeddings(
...     len(tokenizer)
>>> )  # Update the model embeddings with the new vocabulary size

>>> choices = ["Hello, my dog is cute [CLS]", "Hello, my cat is cute [CLS]"]
>>> encoded_choices = [tokenizer.encode(s) for s in choices]
>>> cls_token_location = [tokens.index(tokenizer.cls_token_id) for tokens in encoded_choices]

>>> input_ids = tf.constant(encoded_choices)[None, :]  # Batch size: 1, number of choices: 2
>>> mc_token_ids = tf.constant([cls_token_location])  # Batch size: 1

>>> outputs = model(input_ids, mc_token_ids=mc_token_ids)
>>> lm_prediction_scores, mc_prediction_scores = outputs[:2]

## TFGPT2ForSequenceClassification

class transformers.TFGPT2ForSequenceClassification < >

( *args **kwargs )

Parameters

• config (GPT2Config) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

The GPT2 Model transformer with a sequence classification head on top (linear layer).

TFGPT2ForSequenceClassification uses the last token in order to do the classification, as other causal models (e.g. GPT-1) do.

Since it does classification on the last token, it requires to know the position of the last token. If a pad_token_id is defined in the configuration, it finds the last token that is not a padding token in each row. If no pad_token_id is defined, it simply takes the last value in each row of the batch. Since it cannot guess the padding tokens when inputs_embeds are passed instead of input_ids, it does the same (take the last value in each row of the batch).

This model inherits from TFPreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a tf.keras.Model subclass. Use it as a regular TF 2.0 Keras Model and refer to the TF 2.0 documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

TF 2.0 models accepts two formats as inputs:

• having all inputs as keyword arguments (like PyTorch models), or
• having all inputs as a list, tuple or dict in the first positional arguments.

This second option is useful when using tf.keras.Model.fit method which currently requires having all the tensors in the first argument of the model call function: model(inputs).

If you choose this second option, there are three possibilities you can use to gather all the input Tensors in the first positional argument :

• a single Tensor with input_ids only and nothing else: model(inputs_ids)
• a list of varying length with one or several input Tensors IN THE ORDER given in the docstring: model([input_ids, attention_mask]) or model([input_ids, attention_mask, token_type_ids])
• a dictionary with one or several input Tensors associated to the input names given in the docstring: model({"input_ids": input_ids, "token_type_ids": token_type_ids})
call < >

( input_ids = None past = None attention_mask = None token_type_ids = None position_ids = None head_mask = None inputs_embeds = None use_cache = None output_attentions = None output_hidden_states = None return_dict = None labels = None training = False **kwargs ) transformers.modeling_tf_outputs.TFSequenceClassifierOutputWithPast or tuple(tf.Tensor)

Parameters

• input_ids (Numpy array or tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, input_ids_length)) — input_ids_length = sequence_length if past is None else past[0].shape[-2] (sequence_length of input past key value states). Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

If past is used, only input IDs that do not have their past calculated should be passed as input_ids.

Indices can be obtained using GPT2Tokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.call() and PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() for details.

• past (List[tf.Tensor] of length config.n_layers) — Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) as computed by the model (see past output below). Can be used to speed up sequential decoding. The token ids which have their past given to this model should not be passed as input ids as they have already been computed.
• attention_mask (tf.Tensor or Numpy array of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.
• token_type_ids (tf.Tensor or Numpy array of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

• 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,
• 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.
• position_ids (tf.Tensor or Numpy array of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

• head_mask (Numpy array or tf.Tensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• inputs_embeds (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.
• output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail. This argument can be used only in eager mode, in graph mode the value in the config will be used instead.
• output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail. This argument can be used only in eager mode, in graph mode the value in the config will be used instead.
• return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple. This argument can be used in eager mode, in graph mode the value will always be set to True.
• training (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to use the model in training mode (some modules like dropout modules have different behaviors between training and evaluation).
• labels (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Labels for computing the cross entropy classification loss. Indices should be in [0, ..., config.vocab_size - 1].

A transformers.modeling_tf_outputs.TFSequenceClassifierOutputWithPast or a tuple of tf.Tensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (GPT2Config) and inputs.

• loss (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, ), optional, returned when labels is provided) — Classification (or regression if config.num_labels==1) loss.

• logits (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, config.num_labels)) — Classification (or regression if config.num_labels==1) scores (before SoftMax).

• past_key_values (List[tf.Tensor], optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — List of tf.Tensor of length config.n_layers, with each tensor of shape (2, batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)).

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

• hidden_states (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

• attentions (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

The TFGPT2ForSequenceClassification forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example:

>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, TFGPT2ForSequenceClassification
>>> import tensorflow as tf

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("microsoft/DialogRPT-updown")
>>> model = TFGPT2ForSequenceClassification.from_pretrained("microsoft/DialogRPT-updown")

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="tf")
>>> inputs["labels"] = tf.reshape(tf.constant(1), (-1, 1))  # Batch size 1

>>> outputs = model(inputs)
>>> loss = outputs.loss
>>> logits = outputs.logits

## TFSequenceClassifierOutputWithPast

class transformers.modeling_tf_outputs.TFSequenceClassifierOutputWithPast < >

( loss: typing.Optional[tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor] = None logits: Tensor = None past_key_values: typing.Optional[typing.List[tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor]] = None hidden_states: typing.Optional[typing.Tuple[tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor]] = None attentions: typing.Optional[typing.Tuple[tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor]] = None )

Parameters

• loss (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, ), optional, returned when labels is provided) — Classification (or regression if config.num_labels==1) loss.
• logits (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, config.num_labels)) — Classification (or regression if config.num_labels==1) scores (before SoftMax).
• past_key_values (List[tf.Tensor], optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — List of tf.Tensor of length config.n_layers, with each tensor of shape (2, batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)).

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

• hidden_states (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

• attentions (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Base class for outputs of sentence classification models.

## FlaxGPT2Model

class transformers.FlaxGPT2Model < >

( config: GPT2Config input_shape: typing.Tuple = (1, 1) seed: int = 0 dtype: dtype = <class 'jax._src.numpy.lax_numpy.float32'> **kwargs )

Parameters

• config (GPT2Config) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.
• dtype (jax.numpy.dtype, optional, defaults to jax.numpy.float32) — The data type of the computation. Can be one of jax.numpy.float32, jax.numpy.float16 (on GPUs) and jax.numpy.bfloat16 (on TPUs).

This can be used to enable mixed-precision training or half-precision inference on GPUs or TPUs. If specified all the computation will be performed with the given dtype.

Note that this only specifies the dtype of the computation and does not influence the dtype of model parameters.

If you wish to change the dtype of the model parameters, see to_fp16() and to_bf16().

The bare GPT2 Model transformer outputting raw hidden-states without any specific head on top.

This model inherits from FlaxPreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a Flax Linen flax.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular Flax Module and refer to the Flax documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

Finally, this model supports inherent JAX features such as:

__call__ < >

( input_ids attention_mask = None position_ids = None encoder_hidden_states: typing.Optional[jax._src.numpy.lax_numpy.ndarray] = None encoder_attention_mask: typing.Optional[jax._src.numpy.lax_numpy.ndarray] = None params: dict = None past_key_values: dict = None dropout_rng: PRNGKey = None train: bool = False output_attentions: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_hidden_states: typing.Optional[bool] = None return_dict: typing.Optional[bool] = None ) transformers.modeling_flax_outputs.FlaxBaseModelOutputWithPastAndCrossAttentions or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Parameters

• input_ids (numpy.ndarray of shape (batch_size, input_ids_length)) — input_ids_length = sequence_length. Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

Indices can be obtained using GPT2Tokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

• attention_mask (numpy.ndarray of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.
• position_ids (numpy.ndarray of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].
• past_key_values (Dict[str, np.ndarray], optional, returned by init_cache or when passing previous past_key_values) — Dictionary of pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) that can be used for fast auto-regressive decoding. Pre-computed key and value hidden-states are of shape [batch_size, max_length].
• output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
• output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
• return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

A transformers.modeling_flax_outputs.FlaxBaseModelOutputWithPastAndCrossAttentions or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (GPT2Config) and inputs.

• last_hidden_state (jnp.ndarray of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size)) — Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the model.

If past_key_values is used only the last hidden-state of the sequences of shape (batch_size, 1, hidden_size) is output.

• past_key_values (tuple(tuple(jnp.ndarray)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of tuple(jnp.ndarray) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)) and optionally if config.is_encoder_decoder=True 2 additional tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, encoder_sequence_length, embed_size_per_head).

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks and optionally if config.is_encoder_decoder=True in the cross-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

• hidden_states (tuple(jnp.ndarray), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of jnp.ndarray (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

• attentions (tuple(jnp.ndarray), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of jnp.ndarray (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

• cross_attentions (tuple(jnp.ndarray), optional, returned when output_attentions=True and config.add_cross_attention=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of jnp.ndarray (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights of the decoder’s cross-attention layer, after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the cross-attention heads.

The FlaxGPT2PreTrainedModel forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example:

>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, FlaxGPT2Model

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("gpt2")
>>> model = FlaxGPT2Model.from_pretrained("gpt2")

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="jax")
>>> outputs = model(**inputs)

>>> last_hidden_states = outputs.last_hidden_state

( config: GPT2Config input_shape: typing.Tuple = (1, 1) seed: int = 0 dtype: dtype = <class 'jax._src.numpy.lax_numpy.float32'> **kwargs )

Parameters

• config (GPT2Config) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.
• dtype (jax.numpy.dtype, optional, defaults to jax.numpy.float32) — The data type of the computation. Can be one of jax.numpy.float32, jax.numpy.float16 (on GPUs) and jax.numpy.bfloat16 (on TPUs).

This can be used to enable mixed-precision training or half-precision inference on GPUs or TPUs. If specified all the computation will be performed with the given dtype.

Note that this only specifies the dtype of the computation and does not influence the dtype of model parameters.

If you wish to change the dtype of the model parameters, see to_fp16() and to_bf16().

The GPT2 Model transformer with a language modeling head on top (linear layer with weights tied to the input embeddings).

This model inherits from FlaxPreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a Flax Linen flax.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular Flax Module and refer to the Flax documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

Finally, this model supports inherent JAX features such as:

__call__ < >

( input_ids attention_mask = None position_ids = None encoder_hidden_states: typing.Optional[jax._src.numpy.lax_numpy.ndarray] = None encoder_attention_mask: typing.Optional[jax._src.numpy.lax_numpy.ndarray] = None params: dict = None past_key_values: dict = None dropout_rng: PRNGKey = None train: bool = False output_attentions: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_hidden_states: typing.Optional[bool] = None return_dict: typing.Optional[bool] = None ) transformers.modeling_flax_outputs.FlaxCausalLMOutputWithCrossAttentions or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Parameters

• input_ids (numpy.ndarray of shape (batch_size, input_ids_length)) — input_ids_length = sequence_length. Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

Indices can be obtained using GPT2Tokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

• attention_mask (numpy.ndarray of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

• 1 for tokens that are not masked,
• 0 for tokens that are masked.
• position_ids (numpy.ndarray of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].
• past_key_values (Dict[str, np.ndarray], optional, returned by init_cache or when passing previous past_key_values) — Dictionary of pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) that can be used for fast auto-regressive decoding. Pre-computed key and value hidden-states are of shape [batch_size, max_length].
• output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
• output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
• return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

Returns

transformers.modeling_flax_outputs.FlaxCausalLMOutputWithCrossAttentions or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

A transformers.modeling_flax_outputs.FlaxCausalLMOutputWithCrossAttentions or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (GPT2Config) and inputs.

• logits (jnp.ndarray of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, config.vocab_size)) — Prediction scores of the language modeling head (scores for each vocabulary token before SoftMax).

• hidden_states (tuple(jnp.ndarray), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of jnp.ndarray (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

• attentions (tuple(jnp.ndarray), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of jnp.ndarray (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

• cross_attentions (tuple(jnp.ndarray), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of jnp.ndarray (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

Cross attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the cross-attention heads.

• past_key_values (tuple(tuple(jnp.ndarray)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of jnp.ndarray tuples of length config.n_layers, with each tuple containing the cached key, value states of the self-attention and the cross-attention layers if model is used in encoder-decoder setting. Only relevant if config.is_decoder = True.

Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

The FlaxGPT2PreTrainedModel forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example:

>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, FlaxGPT2LMHeadModel

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("gpt2")
>>> next_token_logits = outputs.logits[:, -1]