Transformers documentation

OPT

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OPT

Overview

The OPT model was proposed in Open Pre-trained Transformer Language Models by Meta AI. OPT is a series of open-sourced large causal language models which perform similar in performance to GPT3.

The abstract from the paper is the following:

Large language models, which are often trained for hundreds of thousands of compute days, have shown remarkable capabilities for zero- and few-shot learning. Given their computational cost, these models are difficult to replicate without significant capital. For the few that are available through APIs, no access is granted to the full model weights, making them difficult to study. We present Open Pre-trained Transformers (OPT), a suite of decoder-only pre-trained transformers ranging from 125M to 175B parameters, which we aim to fully and responsibly share with interested researchers. We show that OPT-175B is comparable to GPT-3, while requiring only 1/7th the carbon footprint to develop. We are also releasing our logbook detailing the infrastructure challenges we faced, along with code for experimenting with all of the released models.

Tips:

  • OPT has the same architecture as BartDecoder.
  • Contrary to GPT2, OPT adds the EOS token </s> to the beginning of every prompt. Note: Make sure to pass use_fast=False when loading OPT’s tokenizer with AutoTokenizer to get the correct tokenizer.

This model was contributed by Arthur Zucker, Younes Belkada, and Patrick Von Platen. The original code can be found here.

OPTConfig

class transformers.OPTConfig

< >

( vocab_size = 50272 hidden_size = 768 num_hidden_layers = 12 ffn_dim = 3072 max_position_embeddings = 2048 do_layer_norm_before = True _remove_final_layer_norm = False word_embed_proj_dim = None dropout = 0.1 attention_dropout = 0.0 num_attention_heads = 12 activation_function = 'relu' layerdrop = 0.0 init_std = 0.02 use_cache = True pad_token_id = 1 bos_token_id = 2 eos_token_id = 2 **kwargs )

Parameters

  • vocab_size (int, optional, defaults to 50272) — Vocabulary size of the OPT model. Defines the number of different tokens that can be represented by the inputs_ids passed when calling OPTModel
  • hidden_size (int, optional, defaults to 768) — Dimensionality of the layers and the pooler layer.
  • num_hidden_layers (int, optional, defaults to 12) — Number of decoder layers.
  • ffn_dim (int, optional, defaults to 3072) — Dimensionality of the “intermediate” (often named feed-forward) layer in decoder.
  • num_attention_heads (int, optional, defaults to 12) — Number of attention heads for each attention layer in the Transformer decoder.
  • activation_function (str or function, optional, defaults to "relu") — The non-linear activation function (function or string) in the encoder and pooler. If string, "gelu", "relu", "silu" and "gelu_new" are supported.
  • max_position_embeddings (int, optional, defaults to 2048) — The maximum sequence length that this model might ever be used with. Typically set this to something large just in case (e.g., 512 or 1024 or 2048).
  • do_layer_norm_before (bool, optional, defaults to True) — Whether to perform layer normalization before the attention block.
  • word_embed_proj_dim (int, optional) — word_embed_proj_dim can be set to down-project word embeddings, e.g. opt-350m. Defaults to hidden_size.
  • dropout (float, optional, defaults to 0.1) — The dropout probability for all fully connected layers in the embeddings, encoder, and pooler.
  • attention_dropout (float, optional, defaults to 0.0) — The dropout ratio for the attention probabilities. layerdrop — (float, optional, defaults to 0.0): The LayerDrop probability. See the [LayerDrop paper](see https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.11556) for more details.
  • init_std (float, optional, defaults to 0.02) — The standard deviation of the truncated_normal_initializer for initializing all weight matrices.
  • use_cache (bool, optional, defaults to True) — Whether or not the model should return the last key/values attentions (not used by all models).

This is the configuration class to store the configuration of a OPTModel. It is used to instantiate a OPT model according to the specified arguments, defining the model architecture. Instantiating a configuration with the defaults will yield a similar configuration to that of the OPT facebook/opt-350m architecture.

Configuration objects inherit from PretrainedConfig and can be used to control the model outputs. Read the documentation from PretrainedConfig for more information.

Example:

>>> from transformers import OPTModel, OPTConfig

>>> # Initializing a OPT facebook/opt-large style configuration
>>> configuration = OPTConfig()

>>> # Initializing a model from the facebook/opt-large style configuration
>>> model = OPTModel(configuration)

>>> # Accessing the model configuration
>>> configuration = model.config

OPTModel

class transformers.OPTModel

< >

( config: OPTConfig )

Parameters

  • config (OPTConfig) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

The bare OPT Model outputting raw hidden-states without any specific head on top. This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

forward

< >

( input_ids: LongTensor = None attention_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None past_key_values: typing.Optional[typing.List[torch.FloatTensor]] = None inputs_embeds: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None use_cache: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_attentions: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_hidden_states: typing.Optional[bool] = None return_dict: typing.Optional[bool] = None ) transformers.modeling_outputs.BaseModelOutputWithPast or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Parameters

  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) — Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary. Padding will be ignored by default should you provide it.

    Indices can be obtained using GPT2Tokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,
    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

    Indices can be obtained using OPTTokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

    If past_key_values is used, optionally only the last decoder_input_ids have to be input (see past_key_values).

    If you want to change padding behavior, you should read modeling_opt._prepare_decoder_attention_mask and modify to your needs. See diagram 1 in the paper for more information on the default strategy.

  • head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (encoder_layers, encoder_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the attention modules in the encoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,
    • 0 indicates the head is masked.
  • past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of tuple(torch.FloatTensor) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)) and 2 additional tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, encoder_sequence_length, embed_size_per_head).

    Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks and in the cross-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

    If past_key_values are used, the user can optionally input only the last decoder_input_ids (those that don’t have their past key value states given to this model) of shape (batch_size, 1) instead of all decoder_input_ids of shape (batch_size, sequence_length).

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.
  • use_cache (bool, optional) — If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past_key_values).
  • output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
  • return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

Returns

transformers.modeling_outputs.BaseModelOutputWithPast or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

A transformers.modeling_outputs.BaseModelOutputWithPast or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (OPTConfig) and inputs.

  • last_hidden_state (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size)) — Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the model.

    If past_key_values is used only the last hidden-state of the sequences of shape (batch_size, 1, hidden_size) is output.

  • past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of tuple(torch.FloatTensor) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)) and optionally if config.is_encoder_decoder=True 2 additional tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, encoder_sequence_length, embed_size_per_head).

    Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks and optionally if config.is_encoder_decoder=True in the cross-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings, if the model has an embedding layer, + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the optional initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

The OPTModel forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example:

>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, OPTModel
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("facebook/opt-350m")
>>> model = OPTModel.from_pretrained("facebook/opt-350m")

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")
>>> outputs = model(**inputs)

>>> last_hidden_states = outputs.last_hidden_state

OPTForCausalLM

class transformers.OPTForCausalLM

< >

( config )

forward

< >

( input_ids: LongTensor = None attention_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None past_key_values: typing.Optional[typing.List[torch.FloatTensor]] = None inputs_embeds: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None labels: typing.Optional[torch.LongTensor] = None use_cache: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_attentions: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_hidden_states: typing.Optional[bool] = None return_dict: typing.Optional[bool] = None ) transformers.modeling_outputs.CausalLMOutputWithPast or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Parameters

  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) — Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary. Padding will be ignored by default should you provide it.

    Indices can be obtained using OPTTokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,
    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (num_hidden_layers, num_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,
    • 0 indicates the head is masked.
  • past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of tuple(torch.FloatTensor) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)) and 2 additional tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, encoder_sequence_length, embed_size_per_head). The two additional tensors are only required when the model is used as a decoder in a Sequence to Sequence model.

    Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks and in the cross-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

    If past_key_values are used, the user can optionally input only the last decoder_input_ids (those that don’t have their past key value states given to this model) of shape (batch_size, 1) instead of all decoder_input_ids of shape (batch_size, sequence_length).

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.
  • labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Labels for computing the masked language modeling loss. Indices should either be in [0, ..., config.vocab_size] or -100 (see input_ids docstring). Tokens with indices set to -100 are ignored (masked), the loss is only computed for the tokens with labels in [0, ..., config.vocab_size].
  • use_cache (bool, optional) — If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past_key_values).
  • output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
  • return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

Returns

transformers.modeling_outputs.CausalLMOutputWithPast or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

A transformers.modeling_outputs.CausalLMOutputWithPast or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (OPTConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) — Language modeling loss (for next-token prediction).

  • logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, config.vocab_size)) — Prediction scores of the language modeling head (scores for each vocabulary token before SoftMax).

  • past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of tuple(torch.FloatTensor) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head))

    Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings, if the model has an embedding layer, + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the optional initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Example:

>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, OPTForCausalLM

>>> model = OPTForCausalLM.from_pretrained("facebook/opt-350m")
>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("facebook/opt-350m")

>>> prompt = "Hey, are you consciours? Can you talk to me?"
>>> inputs = tokenizer(prompt, return_tensors="pt")

>>> # Generate
>>> generate_ids = model.generate(inputs.input_ids, max_length=30)
>>> tokenizer.batch_decode(generate_ids, skip_special_tokens=True, clean_up_tokenization_spaces=False)[0]
"Hey, are you consciours? Can you talk to me?\nI'm not consciours, but I can talk to you."

TFOPTModel

class transformers.TFOPTModel

< >

( *args **kwargs )

Parameters

  • config (OPTConfig) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

The bare TF OPT Model outputting raw hidden-states without any specific head on top. This model inherits from TFPreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a tf.keras.Model subclass. Use it as a regular TF 2.0 Keras Model and refer to the TF 2.0 documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

TensorFlow models and layers in transformers accept two formats as input:

  • having all inputs as keyword arguments (like PyTorch models), or
  • having all inputs as a list, tuple or dict in the first positional argument.

The reason the second format is supported is that Keras methods prefer this format when passing inputs to models and layers. Because of this support, when using methods like model.fit() things should “just work” for you - just pass your inputs and labels in any format that model.fit() supports! If, however, you want to use the second format outside of Keras methods like fit() and predict(), such as when creating your own layers or models with the Keras Functional API, there are three possibilities you can use to gather all the input Tensors in the first positional argument:

  • a single Tensor with input_ids only and nothing else: model(input_ids)
  • a list of varying length with one or several input Tensors IN THE ORDER given in the docstring: model([input_ids, attention_mask]) or model([input_ids, attention_mask, token_type_ids])
  • a dictionary with one or several input Tensors associated to the input names given in the docstring: model({"input_ids": input_ids, "token_type_ids": token_type_ids})

Note that when creating models and layers with subclassing then you don’t need to worry about any of this, as you can just pass inputs like you would to any other Python function!

call

< >

( input_ids: typing.Union[typing.List[tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor], typing.List[numpy.ndarray], typing.List[tensorflow.python.keras.engine.keras_tensor.KerasTensor], typing.Dict[str, tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor], typing.Dict[str, numpy.ndarray], typing.Dict[str, tensorflow.python.keras.engine.keras_tensor.KerasTensor], tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor, numpy.ndarray, tensorflow.python.keras.engine.keras_tensor.KerasTensor, NoneType] = None attention_mask: typing.Union[numpy.ndarray, tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor, NoneType] = None head_mask: typing.Union[numpy.ndarray, tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor, NoneType] = None past_key_values: typing.Union[typing.Tuple[typing.Tuple[typing.Union[numpy.ndarray, tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor]]], NoneType] = None inputs_embeds: typing.Union[numpy.ndarray, tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor, NoneType] = None use_cache: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_attentions: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_hidden_states: typing.Optional[bool] = None return_dict: typing.Optional[bool] = None training: typing.Optional[bool] = False **kwargs ) transformers.modeling_tf_outputs.TFBaseModelOutputWithPast or tuple(tf.Tensor)

Parameters

  • input_ids (tf.Tensor of shape ({0})) — Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using BertTokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (tf.Tensor of shape ({0}), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,
    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • head_mask (tf.Tensor of shape (encoder_layers, encoder_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the attention modules in the encoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,
    • 0 indicates the head is masked.
  • past_key_values (Tuple[Tuple[tf.Tensor]] of length config.n_layers) — contains precomputed key and value hidden states of the attention blocks. Can be used to speed up decoding. If past_key_values are used, the user can optionally input only the last decoder_input_ids (those that don’t have their past key value states given to this model) of shape (batch_size, 1) instead of all decoder_input_ids of shape (batch_size, sequence_length).
  • use_cache (bool, optional, defaults to True) — If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past_key_values). Set to False during training, True during generation
  • output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail. This argument can be used only in eager mode, in graph mode the value in the config will be used instead.
  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail. This argument can be used only in eager mode, in graph mode the value in the config will be used instead.
  • return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple. This argument can be used in eager mode, in graph mode the value will always be set to True.
  • training (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to use the model in training mode (some modules like dropout modules have different behaviors between training and evaluation).

A transformers.modeling_tf_outputs.TFBaseModelOutputWithPast or a tuple of tf.Tensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (OPTConfig) and inputs.

  • last_hidden_state (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size)) — Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the model.

    If past_key_values is used only the last hidden-state of the sequences of shape (batch_size, 1, hidden_size) is output.

  • past_key_values (List[tf.Tensor], optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — List of tf.Tensor of length config.n_layers, with each tensor of shape (2, batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)).

    Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

  • hidden_states (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

The TFOPTModel forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example:

>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, TFOPTModel
>>> import tensorflow as tf

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("facebook/opt-350m")
>>> model = TFOPTModel.from_pretrained("facebook/opt-350m")

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="tf")
>>> outputs = model(inputs)

>>> last_hidden_states = outputs.last_hidden_state

TFOPTForCausalLM

class transformers.TFOPTForCausalLM

< >

( *args **kwargs )

Parameters

  • config (OPTConfig) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

The OPT Model transformer with a language modeling head on top.

This model inherits from TFPreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a tf.keras.Model subclass. Use it as a regular TF 2.0 Keras Model and refer to the TF 2.0 documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

TensorFlow models and layers in transformers accept two formats as input:

  • having all inputs as keyword arguments (like PyTorch models), or
  • having all inputs as a list, tuple or dict in the first positional argument.

The reason the second format is supported is that Keras methods prefer this format when passing inputs to models and layers. Because of this support, when using methods like model.fit() things should “just work” for you - just pass your inputs and labels in any format that model.fit() supports! If, however, you want to use the second format outside of Keras methods like fit() and predict(), such as when creating your own layers or models with the Keras Functional API, there are three possibilities you can use to gather all the input Tensors in the first positional argument:

  • a single Tensor with input_ids only and nothing else: model(input_ids)
  • a list of varying length with one or several input Tensors IN THE ORDER given in the docstring: model([input_ids, attention_mask]) or model([input_ids, attention_mask, token_type_ids])
  • a dictionary with one or several input Tensors associated to the input names given in the docstring: model({"input_ids": input_ids, "token_type_ids": token_type_ids})

Note that when creating models and layers with subclassing then you don’t need to worry about any of this, as you can just pass inputs like you would to any other Python function!

call

< >

( input_ids: typing.Union[typing.List[tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor], typing.List[numpy.ndarray], typing.List[tensorflow.python.keras.engine.keras_tensor.KerasTensor], typing.Dict[str, tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor], typing.Dict[str, numpy.ndarray], typing.Dict[str, tensorflow.python.keras.engine.keras_tensor.KerasTensor], tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor, numpy.ndarray, tensorflow.python.keras.engine.keras_tensor.KerasTensor, NoneType] = None past_key_values: typing.Union[typing.Tuple[typing.Tuple[typing.Union[numpy.ndarray, tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor]]], NoneType] = None attention_mask: typing.Union[numpy.ndarray, tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor, NoneType] = None position_ids: typing.Union[numpy.ndarray, tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor, NoneType] = None head_mask: typing.Union[numpy.ndarray, tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor, NoneType] = None inputs_embeds: typing.Union[numpy.ndarray, tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor, NoneType] = None labels: typing.Union[numpy.ndarray, tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor, NoneType] = None use_cache: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_attentions: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_hidden_states: typing.Optional[bool] = None return_dict: typing.Optional[bool] = None training: typing.Optional[bool] = False **kwargs ) transformers.modeling_tf_outputs.TFCausalLMOutputWithPast or tuple(tf.Tensor)

Parameters

  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) — Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary. Padding will be ignored by default should you provide it.

    Indices can be obtained using OPTTokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,
    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (num_hidden_layers, num_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,
    • 0 indicates the head is masked.
  • past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of tuple(torch.FloatTensor) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)) and 2 additional tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, encoder_sequence_length, embed_size_per_head). The two additional tensors are only required when the model is used as a decoder in a Sequence to Sequence model.

    Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks and in the cross-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

    If past_key_values are used, the user can optionally input only the last input_ids (those that don’t have their past key value states given to this model) of shape (batch_size, 1) instead of all decoder_input_ids of shape (batch_size, sequence_length).

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.
  • labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Labels for computing the masked language modeling loss. Indices should either be in [0, ..., config.vocab_size] or -100 (see input_ids docstring). Tokens with indices set to -100 are ignored (masked), the loss is only computed for the tokens with labels in [0, ..., config.vocab_size].
  • use_cache (bool, optional) — If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past_key_values).
  • output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
  • return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

A transformers.modeling_tf_outputs.TFCausalLMOutputWithPast or a tuple of tf.Tensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (OPTConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (tf.Tensor of shape (n,), optional, where n is the number of non-masked labels, returned when labels is provided) — Language modeling loss (for next-token prediction).

  • logits (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, config.vocab_size)) — Prediction scores of the language modeling head (scores for each vocabulary token before SoftMax).

  • past_key_values (List[tf.Tensor], optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — List of tf.Tensor of length config.n_layers, with each tensor of shape (2, batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)).

    Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

  • hidden_states (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

transformers.modeling_tf_outputs.TFCausalLMOutputWithPast or tuple(tf.Tensor): A transformers.modeling_tf_outputs.TFCausalLMOutputWithPast or a tuple of tf.Tensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (OPTConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (tf.Tensor of shape (n,), optional, where n is the number of non-masked labels, returned when labels is provided) — Language modeling loss (for next-token prediction).

  • logits (tf.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, config.vocab_size)) — Prediction scores of the language modeling head (scores for each vocabulary token before SoftMax).

  • past_key_values (List[tf.Tensor], optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — List of tf.Tensor of length config.n_layers, with each tensor of shape (2, batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)).

    Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

  • hidden_states (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(tf.Tensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of tf.Tensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Example:

>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, TFOPTForCausalLM
>>> import tensorflow as tf

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("facebook/opt-350m")
>>> model = TFOPTForCausalLM.from_pretrained("facebook/opt-350m")

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="tf")
>>> outputs = model(inputs)
>>> logits = outputs.logits

OPTForSequenceClassification

class transformers.OPTForSequenceClassification

< >

( config: OPTConfig )

Parameters

  • config (OPTConfig) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

The OPT Model transformer with a sequence classification head on top (linear layer).

OPTForSequenceClassification uses the last token in order to do the classification, as other causal models (e.g. GPT-2) do.

Since it does classification on the last token, it requires to know the position of the last token. If a pad_token_id is defined in the configuration, it finds the last token that is not a padding token in each row. If no pad_token_id is defined, it simply takes the last value in each row of the batch. Since it cannot guess the padding tokens when inputs_embeds are passed instead of input_ids, it does the same (take the last value in each row of the batch).

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

forward

< >

( input_ids: typing.Optional[torch.LongTensor] = None attention_mask: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None past_key_values: typing.Optional[typing.Tuple[typing.Tuple[torch.Tensor]]] = None inputs_embeds: typing.Optional[torch.FloatTensor] = None labels: typing.Optional[torch.LongTensor] = None use_cache: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_attentions: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_hidden_states: typing.Optional[bool] = None return_dict: typing.Optional[bool] = None ) transformers.modeling_outputs.SequenceClassifierOutputWithPast or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Parameters

  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) — Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary. Padding will be ignored by default should you provide it.

    Indices can be obtained using GPT2Tokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) — Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,
    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

    Indices can be obtained using OPTTokenizer. See PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and PreTrainedTokenizer.call() for details.

    If past_key_values is used, optionally only the last decoder_input_ids have to be input (see past_key_values).

    If you want to change padding behavior, you should read modeling_opt._prepare_decoder_attention_mask and modify to your needs. See diagram 1 in the paper for more information on the default strategy.

  • head_mask (torch.Tensor of shape (encoder_layers, encoder_attention_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the attention modules in the encoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,
    • 0 indicates the head is masked.
  • past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of tuple(torch.FloatTensor) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head)) and 2 additional tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, encoder_sequence_length, embed_size_per_head).

    Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks and in the cross-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

    If past_key_values are used, the user can optionally input only the last decoder_input_ids (those that don’t have their past key value states given to this model) of shape (batch_size, 1) instead of all decoder_input_ids of shape (batch_size, sequence_length).

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) — Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.
  • use_cache (bool, optional) — If set to True, past_key_values key value states are returned and can be used to speed up decoding (see past_key_values).
  • output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
  • return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.
  • labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size,), optional) — Labels for computing the sequence classification/regression loss. Indices should be in [0, ..., config.num_labels - 1]. If config.num_labels == 1 a regression loss is computed (Mean-Square loss), If config.num_labels > 1 a classification loss is computed (Cross-Entropy).

Returns

transformers.modeling_outputs.SequenceClassifierOutputWithPast or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

A transformers.modeling_outputs.SequenceClassifierOutputWithPast or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (OPTConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) — Classification (or regression if config.num_labels==1) loss.

  • logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, config.num_labels)) — Classification (or regression if config.num_labels==1) scores (before SoftMax).

  • past_key_values (tuple(tuple(torch.FloatTensor)), optional, returned when use_cache=True is passed or when config.use_cache=True) — Tuple of tuple(torch.FloatTensor) of length config.n_layers, with each tuple having 2 tensors of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, embed_size_per_head))

    Contains pre-computed hidden-states (key and values in the self-attention blocks) that can be used (see past_key_values input) to speed up sequential decoding.

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings, if the model has an embedding layer, + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the optional initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

The OPTForSequenceClassification forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example of single-label classification:

>>> import torch
>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, OPTForSequenceClassification

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("ArthurZ/opt-350m-dummy-sc")
>>> model = OPTForSequenceClassification.from_pretrained("ArthurZ/opt-350m-dummy-sc")

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")

>>> with torch.no_grad():
...     logits = model(**inputs).logits

>>> predicted_class_id = logits.argmax().item()
>>> model.config.id2label[predicted_class_id]
'LABEL_0'
>>> # To train a model on `num_labels` classes, you can pass `num_labels=num_labels` to `.from_pretrained(...)`
>>> num_labels = len(model.config.id2label)
>>> model = OPTForSequenceClassification.from_pretrained("ArthurZ/opt-350m-dummy-sc", num_labels=num_labels)

>>> labels = torch.tensor([1])
>>> loss = model(**inputs, labels=labels).loss
>>> round(loss.item(), 2)
1.71

Example of multi-label classification:

>>> import torch
>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, OPTForSequenceClassification

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("ArthurZ/opt-350m-dummy-sc")
>>> model = OPTForSequenceClassification.from_pretrained("ArthurZ/opt-350m-dummy-sc", problem_type="multi_label_classification")

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")

>>> with torch.no_grad():
...     logits = model(**inputs).logits

>>> predicted_class_id = logits.argmax().item()
>>> model.config.id2label[predicted_class_id]
'LABEL_0'
>>> # To train a model on `num_labels` classes, you can pass `num_labels=num_labels` to `.from_pretrained(...)`
>>> num_labels = len(model.config.id2label)
>>> model = OPTForSequenceClassification.from_pretrained(
...     "ArthurZ/opt-350m-dummy-sc", num_labels=num_labels, problem_type="multi_label_classification"
... )

>>> labels = torch.nn.functional.one_hot(torch.tensor([predicted_class_id]), num_classes=num_labels).to(
...     torch.float
... )
>>> loss = model(**inputs, labels=labels).loss
>>> loss.backward()

FlaxOPTModel

class transformers.FlaxOPTModel

< >

( config: OPTConfig input_shape: typing.Tuple[int] = (1, 1) seed: int = 0 dtype: dtype = <class 'jax.numpy.float32'> _do_init: bool = True **kwargs )

__call__

< >

( input_ids: ndarray attention_mask: typing.Optional[jax._src.numpy.ndarray.ndarray] = None position_ids: typing.Optional[jax._src.numpy.ndarray.ndarray] = None params: dict = None past_key_values: dict = None output_attentions: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_hidden_states: typing.Optional[bool] = None return_dict: typing.Optional[bool] = None dropout_rng: PRNGKey = None deterministic: bool = True ) transformers.modeling_flax_outputs.FlaxBaseModelOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Returns

transformers.modeling_flax_outputs.FlaxBaseModelOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

A transformers.modeling_flax_outputs.FlaxBaseModelOutput or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (OPTConfig) and inputs.

  • last_hidden_state (jnp.ndarray of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size)) — Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the model.

  • hidden_states (tuple(jnp.ndarray), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of jnp.ndarray (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(jnp.ndarray), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of jnp.ndarray (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Example:

>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, FlaxOPTModel

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("facebook/opt-350m")
>>> model = FlaxOPTModel.from_pretrained("facebook/opt-350m")

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="jax")
>>> outputs = model(**inputs)

>>> last_hidden_states = outputs.last_hidden_state

FlaxOPTForCausalLM

class transformers.FlaxOPTForCausalLM

< >

( config: OPTConfig input_shape: typing.Tuple[int] = (1, 1) seed: int = 0 dtype: dtype = <class 'jax.numpy.float32'> _do_init: bool = True **kwargs )

Parameters

  • config (OPTConfig) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.
  • dtype (jax.numpy.dtype, optional, defaults to jax.numpy.float32) — The data type of the computation. Can be one of jax.numpy.float32, jax.numpy.float16 (on GPUs) and jax.numpy.bfloat16 (on TPUs).

    This can be used to enable mixed-precision training or half-precision inference on GPUs or TPUs. If specified all the computation will be performed with the given dtype.

    Note that this only specifies the dtype of the computation and does not influence the dtype of model parameters.

    If you wish to change the dtype of the model parameters, see to_fp16() and to_bf16().

OPT Model with a language modeling head on top (linear layer with weights tied to the input embeddings) e.g for autoregressive tasks.

This model inherits from FlaxPreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a Flax Linen flax.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular Flax Module and refer to the Flax documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

Finally, this model supports inherent JAX features such as:

__call__

< >

( input_ids: ndarray attention_mask: typing.Optional[jax._src.numpy.ndarray.ndarray] = None position_ids: typing.Optional[jax._src.numpy.ndarray.ndarray] = None params: dict = None past_key_values: dict = None output_attentions: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_hidden_states: typing.Optional[bool] = None return_dict: typing.Optional[bool] = None dropout_rng: PRNGKey = None deterministic: bool = True ) transformers.modeling_flax_outputs.FlaxBaseModelOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Returns

transformers.modeling_flax_outputs.FlaxBaseModelOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

A transformers.modeling_flax_outputs.FlaxBaseModelOutput or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (OPTConfig) and inputs.

  • last_hidden_state (jnp.ndarray of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size)) — Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the model.

  • hidden_states (tuple(jnp.ndarray), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of jnp.ndarray (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(jnp.ndarray), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of jnp.ndarray (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Example:

>>> from transformers import GPT2Tokenizer, FlaxOPTForCausalLM

>>> tokenizer = GPT2Tokenizer.from_pretrained("facebook/opt-350m")
>>> model = FlaxOPTForCausalLM.from_pretrained("facebook/opt-350m")

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="np")
>>> outputs = model(**inputs)

>>> # retrieve logts for next token
>>> next_token_logits = outputs.logits[:, -1]