Transformers documentation

Hybrid Vision Transformer (ViT Hybrid)

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Hybrid Vision Transformer (ViT Hybrid)

Overview

The hybrid Vision Transformer (ViT) model was proposed in An Image is Worth 16x16 Words: Transformers for Image Recognition at Scale by Alexey Dosovitskiy, Lucas Beyer, Alexander Kolesnikov, Dirk Weissenborn, Xiaohua Zhai, Thomas Unterthiner, Mostafa Dehghani, Matthias Minderer, Georg Heigold, Sylvain Gelly, Jakob Uszkoreit, Neil Houlsby. It’s the first paper that successfully trains a Transformer encoder on ImageNet, attaining very good results compared to familiar convolutional architectures. ViT hybrid is a slight variant of the plain Vision Transformer, by leveraging a convolutional backbone (specifically, BiT) whose features are used as initial “tokens” for the Transformer.

The abstract from the paper is the following:

While the Transformer architecture has become the de-facto standard for natural language processing tasks, its applications to computer vision remain limited. In vision, attention is either applied in conjunction with convolutional networks, or used to replace certain components of convolutional networks while keeping their overall structure in place. We show that this reliance on CNNs is not necessary and a pure transformer applied directly to sequences of image patches can perform very well on image classification tasks. When pre-trained on large amounts of data and transferred to multiple mid-sized or small image recognition benchmarks (ImageNet, CIFAR-100, VTAB, etc.), Vision Transformer (ViT) attains excellent results compared to state-of-the-art convolutional networks while requiring substantially fewer computational resources to train.

This model was contributed by nielsr. The original code (written in JAX) can be found here.

Resources

A list of official Hugging Face and community (indicated by 🌎) resources to help you get started with ViT Hybrid.

Image Classification

If you’re interested in submitting a resource to be included here, please feel free to open a Pull Request and we’ll review it! The resource should ideally demonstrate something new instead of duplicating an existing resource.

ViTHybridConfig

class transformers.ViTHybridConfig

< >

( backbone_config = None hidden_size = 768 num_hidden_layers = 12 num_attention_heads = 12 intermediate_size = 3072 hidden_act = 'gelu' hidden_dropout_prob = 0.0 attention_probs_dropout_prob = 0.0 initializer_range = 0.02 layer_norm_eps = 1e-12 image_size = 224 patch_size = 1 num_channels = 3 backbone_featmap_shape = [1, 1024, 24, 24] qkv_bias = True **kwargs )

Parameters

  • hidden_size (int, optional, defaults to 768) — Dimensionality of the encoder layers and the pooler layer.
  • num_hidden_layers (int, optional, defaults to 12) — Number of hidden layers in the Transformer encoder.
  • num_attention_heads (int, optional, defaults to 12) — Number of attention heads for each attention layer in the Transformer encoder.
  • intermediate_size (int, optional, defaults to 3072) — Dimensionality of the “intermediate” (i.e., feed-forward) layer in the Transformer encoder.
  • hidden_act (str or function, optional, defaults to "gelu") — The non-linear activation function (function or string) in the encoder and pooler. If string, "gelu", "relu", "selu" and "gelu_new" are supported.
  • hidden_dropout_prob (float, optional, defaults to 0.1) — The dropout probability for all fully connected layers in the embeddings, encoder, and pooler.
  • attention_probs_dropout_prob (float, optional, defaults to 0.1) — The dropout ratio for the attention probabilities.
  • initializer_range (float, optional, defaults to 0.02) — The standard deviation of the truncated_normal_initializer for initializing all weight matrices.
  • layer_norm_eps (float, optional, defaults to 1e-12) — The epsilon used by the layer normalization layers.
  • image_size (int, optional, defaults to 224) — The size (resolution) of each image.
  • patch_size (int, optional, defaults to 1) — The size (resolution) of each patch.
  • num_channels (int, optional, defaults to 3) — The number of input channels.
  • qkv_bias (bool, optional, defaults to True) — Whether to add a bias to the queries, keys and values.
  • backbone_config (Union[Dict[str, Any], PretrainedConfig], optional, defaults to None) — The configuration of the backbone in a dictionary or the config object of the backbone.
  • backbone_featmap_shape (List[int], optional, defaults to [1, 1024, 24, 24]) — Used only for the hybrid embedding type. The shape of the feature maps of the backbone.

This is the configuration class to store the configuration of a ViTHybridModel. It is used to instantiate a ViT Hybrid model according to the specified arguments, defining the model architecture. Instantiating a configuration with the defaults will yield a similar configuration to that of the ViT Hybrid google/vit-hybrid-base-bit-384 architecture.

Configuration objects inherit from PretrainedConfig and can be used to control the model outputs. Read the documentation from PretrainedConfig for more information.

Example:

>>> from transformers import ViTHybridConfig, ViTHybridModel

>>> # Initializing a ViT Hybrid vit-hybrid-base-bit-384 style configuration
>>> configuration = ViTHybridConfig()

>>> # Initializing a model (with random weights) from the vit-hybrid-base-bit-384 style configuration
>>> model = ViTHybridModel(configuration)

>>> # Accessing the model configuration
>>> configuration = model.config

to_dict

< >

( )

Serializes this instance to a Python dictionary. Override the default to_dict(). Returns: Dict[str, any]: Dictionary of all the attributes that make up this configuration instance,

ViTHybridImageProcessor

class transformers.ViTHybridImageProcessor

< >

( do_resize: bool = True size: typing.Dict[str, int] = None resample: Resampling = <Resampling.BICUBIC: 3> do_center_crop: bool = True crop_size: typing.Dict[str, int] = None do_rescale: bool = True rescale_factor: typing.Union[int, float] = 0.00392156862745098 do_normalize: bool = True image_mean: typing.Union[float, typing.List[float], NoneType] = None image_std: typing.Union[float, typing.List[float], NoneType] = None do_convert_rgb: bool = True **kwargs )

Parameters

  • do_resize (bool, optional, defaults to True) — Whether to resize the image’s (height, width) dimensions to the specified size. Can be overridden by do_resize in the preprocess method.
  • size (Dict[str, int] optional, defaults to {"shortest_edge" -- 224}): Size of the image after resizing. The shortest edge of the image is resized to size[“shortest_edge”], with the longest edge resized to keep the input aspect ratio. Can be overridden by size in the preprocess method.
  • resample (PILImageResampling, optional, defaults to PILImageResampling.BICUBIC) — Resampling filter to use if resizing the image. Can be overridden by resample in the preprocess method.
  • do_center_crop (bool, optional, defaults to True) — Whether to center crop the image to the specified crop_size. Can be overridden by do_center_crop in the preprocess method.
  • crop_size (Dict[str, int] optional, defaults to 224) — Size of the output image after applying center_crop. Can be overridden by crop_size in the preprocess method.
  • do_rescale (bool, optional, defaults to True) — Whether to rescale the image by the specified scale rescale_factor. Can be overridden by do_rescale in the preprocess method.
  • rescale_factor (int or float, optional, defaults to 1/255) — Scale factor to use if rescaling the image. Can be overridden by rescale_factor in the preprocess method. do_normalize — Whether to normalize the image. Can be overridden by do_normalize in the preprocess method.
  • image_mean (float or List[float], optional, defaults to IMAGENET_STANDARD_MEAN) — Mean to use if normalizing the image. This is a float or list of floats the length of the number of channels in the image. Can be overridden by the image_mean parameter in the preprocess method.
  • image_std (float or List[float], optional, defaults to IMAGENET_STANDARD_STD) — Image standard deviation.
  • do_convert_rgb (bool, optional, defaults to True) — Standard deviation to use if normalizing the image. This is a float or list of floats the length of the number of channels in the image. Can be overridden by the image_std parameter in the preprocess method.

Constructs a ViT Hybrid image processor.

preprocess

< >

( images: typing.Union[ForwardRef('PIL.Image.Image'), numpy.ndarray, ForwardRef('torch.Tensor'), typing.List[ForwardRef('PIL.Image.Image')], typing.List[numpy.ndarray], typing.List[ForwardRef('torch.Tensor')]] do_resize: bool = None size: typing.Dict[str, int] = None resample: Resampling = None do_center_crop: bool = None crop_size: int = None do_rescale: bool = None rescale_factor: float = None do_normalize: bool = None image_mean: typing.Union[float, typing.List[float], NoneType] = None image_std: typing.Union[float, typing.List[float], NoneType] = None do_convert_rgb: bool = None return_tensors: typing.Union[str, transformers.utils.generic.TensorType, NoneType] = None data_format: typing.Optional[transformers.image_utils.ChannelDimension] = <ChannelDimension.FIRST: 'channels_first'> **kwargs )

Parameters

  • images (ImageInput) — Image to preprocess.
  • do_resize (bool, optional, defaults to self.do_resize) — Whether to resize the image.
  • size (Dict[str, int], optional, defaults to self.size) — Size of the image after resizing. Shortest edge of the image is resized to size[“shortest_edge”], with the longest edge resized to keep the input aspect ratio.
  • resample (int, optional, defaults to self.resample) — Resampling filter to use if resizing the image. This can be one of the enum PILImageResampling. Only has an effect if do_resize is set to True.
  • do_center_crop (bool, optional, defaults to self.do_center_crop) — Whether to center crop the image.
  • crop_size (Dict[str, int], optional, defaults to self.crop_size) — Size of the center crop. Only has an effect if do_center_crop is set to True.
  • do_rescale (bool, optional, defaults to self.do_rescale) — Whether to rescale the image.
  • rescale_factor (float, optional, defaults to self.rescale_factor) — Rescale factor to rescale the image by if do_rescale is set to True.
  • do_normalize (bool, optional, defaults to self.do_normalize) — Whether to normalize the image.
  • image_mean (float or List[float], optional, defaults to self.image_mean) — Image mean to use for normalization. Only has an effect if do_normalize is set to True.
  • image_std (float or List[float], optional, defaults to self.image_std) — Image standard deviation to use for normalization. Only has an effect if do_normalize is set to True.
  • do_convert_rgb (bool, optional, defaults to self.do_convert_rgb) — Whether to convert the image to RGB.
  • return_tensors (str or TensorType, optional) — The type of tensors to return. Can be one of:
    • Unset: Return a list of np.ndarray.
    • TensorType.TENSORFLOW or 'tf': Return a batch of type tf.Tensor.
    • TensorType.PYTORCH or 'pt': Return a batch of type torch.Tensor.
    • TensorType.NUMPY or 'np': Return a batch of type np.ndarray.
    • TensorType.JAX or 'jax': Return a batch of type jax.numpy.ndarray.
  • data_format (ChannelDimension or str, optional, defaults to ChannelDimension.FIRST) — The channel dimension format for the output image. Can be one of:
    • ChannelDimension.FIRST: image in (num_channels, height, width) format.
    • ChannelDimension.LAST: image in (height, width, num_channels) format.
    • Unset: defaults to the channel dimension format of the input image.

Preprocess an image or batch of images.

ViTHybridModel

class transformers.ViTHybridModel

< >

( config: ViTHybridConfig add_pooling_layer: bool = True use_mask_token: bool = False )

Parameters

  • config (ViTHybridConfig) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

The bare ViT Hybrid Model transformer outputting raw hidden-states without any specific head on top. This model is a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

forward

< >

( pixel_values: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None bool_masked_pos: typing.Optional[torch.BoolTensor] = None head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None output_attentions: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_hidden_states: typing.Optional[bool] = None interpolate_pos_encoding: typing.Optional[bool] = None return_dict: typing.Optional[bool] = None ) → transformers.modeling_outputs.BaseModelOutputWithPooling or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Parameters

  • pixel_values (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, num_channels, height, width)) — Pixel values. Pixel values can be obtained using AutoImageProcessor. See ViTHybridImageProcessor.call() for details.
  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,
    • 0 indicates the head is masked.
  • output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
  • return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

A transformers.modeling_outputs.BaseModelOutputWithPooling or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (ViTHybridConfig) and inputs.

  • last_hidden_state (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size)) — Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the model.

  • pooler_output (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, hidden_size)) — Last layer hidden-state of the first token of the sequence (classification token) after further processing through the layers used for the auxiliary pretraining task. E.g. for BERT-family of models, this returns the classification token after processing through a linear layer and a tanh activation function. The linear layer weights are trained from the next sentence prediction (classification) objective during pretraining.

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings, if the model has an embedding layer, + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the optional initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

The ViTHybridModel forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example:

>>> from transformers import AutoImageProcessor, ViTHybridModel
>>> import torch
>>> from datasets import load_dataset

>>> dataset = load_dataset("huggingface/cats-image")
>>> image = dataset["test"]["image"][0]

>>> image_processor = AutoImageProcessor.from_pretrained("google/vit-hybrid-base-bit-384")
>>> model = ViTHybridModel.from_pretrained("google/vit-hybrid-base-bit-384")

>>> inputs = image_processor(image, return_tensors="pt")

>>> with torch.no_grad():
...     outputs = model(**inputs)

>>> last_hidden_states = outputs.last_hidden_state
>>> list(last_hidden_states.shape)
[1, 197, 768]

ViTHybridForImageClassification

class transformers.ViTHybridForImageClassification

< >

( config: ViTHybridConfig )

Parameters

  • config (ViTHybridConfig) — Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

ViT Hybrid Model transformer with an image classification head on top (a linear layer on top of the final hidden state of the [CLS] token) e.g. for ImageNet.

This model is a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

forward

< >

( pixel_values: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None head_mask: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None labels: typing.Optional[torch.Tensor] = None output_attentions: typing.Optional[bool] = None output_hidden_states: typing.Optional[bool] = None interpolate_pos_encoding: typing.Optional[bool] = None return_dict: typing.Optional[bool] = None ) → transformers.modeling_outputs.ImageClassifierOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Parameters

  • pixel_values (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, num_channels, height, width)) — Pixel values. Pixel values can be obtained using AutoImageProcessor. See ViTHybridImageProcessor.call() for details.
  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) — Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,
    • 0 indicates the head is masked.
  • output_attentions (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.
  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.
  • return_dict (bool, optional) — Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.
  • labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size,), optional) — Labels for computing the image classification/regression loss. Indices should be in [0, ..., config.num_labels - 1]. If config.num_labels == 1 a regression loss is computed (Mean-Square loss), If config.num_labels > 1 a classification loss is computed (Cross-Entropy).

Returns

transformers.modeling_outputs.ImageClassifierOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

A transformers.modeling_outputs.ImageClassifierOutput or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor (if return_dict=False is passed or when config.return_dict=False) comprising various elements depending on the configuration (ViTHybridConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) — Classification (or regression if config.num_labels==1) loss.

  • logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, config.num_labels)) — Classification (or regression if config.num_labels==1) scores (before SoftMax).

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings, if the model has an embedding layer, + one for the output of each stage) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size). Hidden-states (also called feature maps) of the model at the output of each stage.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) — Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, patch_size, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

The ViTHybridForImageClassification forward method, overrides the __call__ special method.

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Example:

>>> from transformers import AutoImageProcessor, ViTHybridForImageClassification
>>> import torch
>>> from datasets import load_dataset

>>> dataset = load_dataset("huggingface/cats-image")
>>> image = dataset["test"]["image"][0]

>>> image_processor = AutoImageProcessor.from_pretrained("google/vit-hybrid-base-bit-384")
>>> model = ViTHybridForImageClassification.from_pretrained("google/vit-hybrid-base-bit-384")

>>> inputs = image_processor(image, return_tensors="pt")

>>> with torch.no_grad():
...     logits = model(**inputs).logits

>>> # model predicts one of the 1000 ImageNet classes
>>> predicted_label = logits.argmax(-1).item()
>>> print(model.config.id2label[predicted_label])
tabby, tabby cat