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This repository provides large language models developed by LLM-jp, a collaborative project launched in Japan.

Pre-trained models
Checkpoints format: Hugging Face Transformers (Megatron-DeepSpeed format models are available here)

Required Libraries and Their Versions

  • torch>=2.0.0
  • transformers>=4.34.0
  • tokenizers>=0.14.0
  • accelerate==0.23.0


import torch
from transformers import AutoTokenizer, AutoModelForCausalLM
tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained("llm-jp/llm-jp-13b-v1.0")
model = AutoModelForCausalLM.from_pretrained("llm-jp/llm-jp-13b-v1.0", device_map="auto", torch_dtype=torch.float16)
text = "自然言語処理とは何か"
tokenized_input = tokenizer.encode(text, add_special_tokens=False, return_tensors="pt").to(model.device)
with torch.no_grad():
    output = model.generate(

Model Details

  • Model type: Transformer-based Language Model
  • Total seen tokens: 300B
Model Params Layers Hidden size Heads Context length
13b model 13b 40 5120 40 2048
1.3b model 1.3b 24 2048 16 2048



The tokenizer of this model is based on huggingface/tokenizers Unigram byte-fallback model. The vocabulary entries were converted from llm-jp-tokenizer v2.1 (50k). Please refer to README.md of llm-ja-tokenizer for details on the vocabulary construction procedure.

  • Model: Hugging Face Fast Tokenizer using Unigram byte-fallback model which requires tokenizers>=0.14.0
  • Training algorithm: SentencePiece Unigram byte-fallback
  • Training data: A subset of the datasets for model pre-training
  • Vocabulary size: 50,570 (mixed vocabulary of Japanese, English, and source code)



The models have been pre-trained using a blend of the following datasets.

Language Dataset Tokens
Japanese Wikipedia 1.5B
mC4 136B
English Wikipedia 5B
The Pile 135B
Codes The Stack 10B

The pre-training was continuously conducted using a total of 10 folds of non-overlapping data, each consisting of approximately 27-28B tokens. We finalized the pre-training with additional (potentially) high-quality 27B tokens data obtained from the identical source datasets listed above used for the 10-fold data.

Instruction tuning

The models have been fine-tuned on the following datasets.

Language Dataset description
Japanese jaster An automatically transformed data from the existing Japanese NLP datasets
databricks-dolly-15k A translated one by DeepL in LLM-jp
OpenAssistant Conversations Dataset A translated one by DeepL in LLM-jp


You can view the evaluation results of several LLMs on this leaderboard. We used llm-jp-eval for the evaluation.

Risks and Limitations

The models released here are still in the early stages of our research and development and have not been tuned to ensure outputs align with human intent and safety considerations.

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Apache License, Version 2.0

Model Card Authors

The names are listed in alphabetical order.

Hirokazu Kiyomaru, Hiroshi Matsuda, Jun Suzuki, Namgi Han, Saku Sugawara, Shota Sasaki, Shuhei Kurita, Taishi Nakamura, Takumi Okamoto.

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