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anchors (dict)categories (string)image (string)kilt_id (string)text (dict)url (string)wikidata_info (dict)wikipedia_id (string)wikipedia_title (string)
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"Vanderbilt University faculty,Mathematical analysts,Institute for Advanced Study visiting scholars,1947 births,Foreign associates of the National Academy of Sciences,Members of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters,21st-century mathematicians,Members of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters,École Normale Supérieure alumni,Differential geometers,Collège de France faculty,Foreign Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences,Members of the French Academy of Sciences,Clay Research Award recipients,Fields Medalists,Living people,20th-century French mathematicians"
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{ "paragraph": [ "Alain Connes\n", "Alain Connes (; born 1 April 1947) is a French mathematician, currently Professor at the Collège de France, IHÉS, Ohio State University and Vanderbilt University. He was an Invited Professor at the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (2000).\n", "Section::::Work.\n", "Alain Connes studies operator algebras. In his early work on von Neumann algebras in the 1970s, he succeeded in obtaining the almost complete classification of injective factors. He also formulated the Connes embedding problem. Following this, he made contributions in operator K-theory and index theory, which culminated in the Baum–Connes conjecture. He also introduced cyclic cohomology in the early 1980s as a first step in the study of noncommutative differential geometry. He was a member of Bourbaki.\n", "Connes has applied his work in areas of mathematics and theoretical physics, including number theory, differential geometry and particle physics.\n", "Section::::Awards and honours.\n", "Connes was awarded the Fields Medal in 1982, the Crafoord Prize in 2001\n", "Section::::Books.\n", "BULLET::::- Alain Connes and Matilde Marcolli, \"Noncommutative Geometry, Quantum Fields and Motives\", Colloquium Publications, American Mathematical Society, 2007, \n", "BULLET::::- Alain Connes, Andre Lichnerowicz, and Marcel Paul Schutzenberger, \"Triangle of Thought\", translated by Jennifer Gage, American Mathematical Society, 2001,\n", "BULLET::::- Jean-Pierre Changeux, and Alain Connes, \"Conversations on Mind, Matter, and Mathematics\", translated by M. B. DeBevoise, Princeton University Press, 1998,\n", "BULLET::::- Alain Connes, \"Noncommutative Geometry\", Academic Press, 1994,\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- Bost–Connes system\n", "BULLET::::- Cyclic homology\n", "BULLET::::- Factor (functional analysis)\n", "BULLET::::- Higgs boson\n", "BULLET::::- C*-algebra\n", "BULLET::::- M-theory\n", "BULLET::::- Groupoid\n", "BULLET::::- Criticism of non-standard analysis\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Alain Connes Official Web Site containing downloadable papers, and his book \"Non-commutative geometry\", .\n", "BULLET::::- Alain Connes' Standard Model\n", "BULLET::::- An interview with Alain Connes and a discussion about it\n" ] }
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{ "aliases": { "alias": [] }, "description": "French mathematician", "enwikiquote_title": "Alain Connes", "wikidata_id": "Q313590", "wikidata_label": "Alain Connes", "wikipedia_title": "Alain Connes" }
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"Alain Connes"
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Annie", "Driftwood (1947 film)", "Calendar Girl (1947 film)", "Northwest Outpost", "The Inside Story (film)", "Angel in Exile", "Philip Ford (film director)", "Sands of Iwo Jima", "Surrender (1950 film)", "Belle Le Grand", "The Wild Blue Yonder (1951 film)", "I Dream of Jeanie (film)", "Montana Belle", "Woman They Almost Lynched", "Sweethearts on Parade", "Silver Lode (film)", "Passion (1954 film)", "Cattle Queen of Montana", "Tennessee's Partner", "Pearl of the South Pacific", "Escape to Burma", "Slightly Scarlet (1956 film)", "Hold Back the Night", "The Restless Breed", "The River's Edge", "Enchanted Island (film)", "Most Dangerous Man Alive", "Canadian pioneers in early Hollywood", "Kevin Brownlow", "Peter Bogdanovich", "Charles Foster (writer)" ] }
"1885 births,American male screenwriters,Writers from Toronto,American film directors,1981 deaths,Disease-related deaths in California,Canadian emigrants to the United States,American film producers,Film directors from Toronto,Western (genre) film directors"
"512px-Allan_Dwan_-_Sep_1920_EH.jpg"
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{ "paragraph": [ "Allan Dwan\n", "Allan Dwan (3 April 1885 – 28 December 1981) was a pioneering Canadian-born American motion picture director, producer, and screenwriter.\n", "Section::::Early life.\n", "Born Joseph Aloysius Dwan in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Dwan, was the younger son of commercial traveler of woolen clothing Joseph Michael Dwan (1857–1917) and his wife Mary Jane Dwan, née Hunt. The family moved to the United States when he was seven years old on 4 December 1892 by ferry from Windsor to Detroit, according to his naturalization petition of August 1939. His elder brother, Leo Garnet Dwan (1883–1964), became a physician.\n", "Allan Dwan studied engineering at the University of Notre Dame and then worked for a lighting company in Chicago. He had a strong interest in the fledgling motion picture industry, and when Essanay Studios offered him the opportunity to become a scriptwriter, he took the job. At that time, some of the East Coast movie makers began to spend winters in California where the climate allowed them to continue productions requiring warm weather. Soon, a number of movie companies worked there year-round, and in 1911, Dwan began working part-time in Hollywood. While still in New York, in 1917 he was the founding president of the East Coast chapter of the Motion Picture Directors Association.\n", "Section::::Career.\n", "Dwan operated Flying A Studios in La Mesa, California from August 1911 to July 1912. Flying A was one of the first motion pictures studios in California history. On 12 August 2011, a plaque was unveiled on the Wolff building at Third Avenue and La Mesa Boulevard commemorating Dwan and the Flying A Studios origins in La Mesa, California.\n", "After making a series of westerns and comedies, Dwan directed fellow Canadian-American Mary Pickford in several very successful movies as well as her husband, Douglas Fairbanks, notably in the acclaimed 1922 \"Robin Hood\". Dwan directed Gloria Swanson in eight feature films, and one short film made in the short-lived sound-on-film process Phonofilm. This short, also featuring Thomas Meighan and Henri de la Falaise, was produced as a joke, for the 26 April 1925 \"Lambs' Gambol\" for The Lambs, with the film showing Swanson crashing the all-male club.\n", "Following the introduction of the talkies, Dwan directed child-star Shirley Temple in \"Heidi\" (1937) and \"Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm\" (1938).\n", "Dwan helped launch the career of two other successful Hollywood directors, Victor Fleming, who went on to direct \"The Wizard of Oz\" and \"Gone With the Wind\", and Marshall Neilan, who became an actor, director, writer and producer. Over a long career spanning almost 50 years, Dwan directed 125 motion pictures, some of which were highly acclaimed, such as the 1949 box office hit, \"Sands of Iwo Jima\". He directed his last movie in 1961.\n", "He died in Los Angeles at the age of ninety-six, and is interred in the San Fernando Mission Cemetery, Mission Hills, California.\n", "Dwan has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6263 Hollywood Boulevard.\n", "Daniel Eagan of \"Film Journal International\" described Dwan as one of the early pioneers of cinema, stating that his style \"is so basic as to seem invisible, but he treats his characters with uncommon sympathy and compassion.\"\n", "Section::::Partial filmography as director.\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Gold Lust\" (1911)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Picket Guard\" (1913)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Restless Spirit\" (1913)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Back to Life\" (1913)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Bloodhounds of the North\" (1913)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Lie\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Honor of the Mounted\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Unwelcome Mrs. Hatch\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Remember Mary Magdalen\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Discord and Harmony\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Embezzler\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Lamb, the Woman, the Wolf\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The End of the Feud\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Tragedy of Whispering Creek\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Unlawful Trade\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Forbidden Room\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Hopes of Blind Alley\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Richelieu\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Wildflower\" (1914)\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Small Town Girl\" (1915)\n", "BULLET::::- \"David Harum\" (1915)\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Girl of Yesterday\" (1915)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Pretty Sister of Jose\" (1915)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Jordan Is a Hard Road\" (1915)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Betty of Graystone\" (1916)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Habit of Happiness\" (1916)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Good Bad Man\" (1916)\n", "BULLET::::- \"An Innocent Magdalene\" (1916)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Half-Breed\" (1916)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Manhattan Madness\" (1916)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Accusing Evidence\" (1916)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Panthea\" (1917)\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Modern Musketeer\" (1917)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Bound in Morocco\" (1918)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Headin' South\" (1918)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Mr. Fix-It\" (1918)\n", "BULLET::::- \"He Comes Up Smiling\" (1918)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Cheating Cheaters\" (1919)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Dark Star\" (1919)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Getting Mary Married\" (1919)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Soldiers of Fortune\" (1919)\n", "BULLET::::- \"In The Heart of a Fool\" (1920) also producer\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Forbidden Thing\" (1920) also producer\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Splendid Hazard\" (1920)\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Perfect Crime\" (1921)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Sin of Martha Queed\" (1921)\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Broken Doll\" (1921)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Robin Hood\" (1922)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Zaza\" (1923)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Big Brother\" (1923)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Manhandled\" (1924)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Argentine Love\" (1924)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Coast of Folly\" (1925)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Night Life of New York\" (1925)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Stage Struck\" (1925)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Gloria Swanson Dialogue\" (1925) short film made in Phonofilm for The Lambs annual \"Gambol\" held at Metropolitan Opera House\n", "BULLET::::- \"Padlocked\" (1926)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Sea Horses\" (1926)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Summer Bachelors\" (1926)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Tin Gods\" (1926)\n", "BULLET::::- \"French Dressing\" (1927)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Joy Girl\" (1927)\n", "BULLET::::- \"East Side, West Side\" (1927)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Big Noise\" (1928)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Frozen Justice\" (1929)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Iron Mask\" (1929)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Tide of Empire\" (1929)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Far Call\" (1929)\n", "BULLET::::- \"What a Widow!\" (1930)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Man to Man\" (1930)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Chances\" (1931)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Wicked\" (1931)\n", "BULLET::::- \"While Paris Sleeps\" (1932)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Counsel's Opinion\" (1933)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Black Sheep\" (1935)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Navy Wife\" (1935)\n", "BULLET::::- \"High Tension\" (1936)\n", "BULLET::::- \"15 Maiden Lane\" (1936)\n", "BULLET::::- \"One Mile from Heaven\" (1937)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Heidi\" (1937)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm\" (1938)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Suez\" (1938)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Josette\" (1938)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Three Musketeers\" (1939)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Gorilla\" (1939)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Frontier Marshal\" (1939)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Sailor's Lady\" (1940)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Young People\" (1940)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Trail of the Vigilantes\" (1940)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Look Who's Laughing\" (1941) also producer\n", "BULLET::::- \"Rise and Shine\" (1941)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Friendly Enemies\" (1942)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Around the World\" (1943) also producer\n", "BULLET::::- \"Up in Mabel's Room\" (1944)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Abroad with Two Yanks\" (1944)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Getting Gertie's Garter\" (1945) also screenwriter\n", "BULLET::::- \"Brewster's Millions\" (1945)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Rendezvous with Annie\" (1946)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Driftwood\" (1947)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Calendar Girl\" (1947)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Northwest Outpost\" (1947) also associate producer\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Inside Story\" (1948)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Angel in Exile\" (1948) (with Philip Ford)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Sands of Iwo Jima\" (1949)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Surrender\" (1950)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Belle Le Grand\" (1951)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Wild Blue Yonder\" (1951)\n", "BULLET::::- \"I Dream of Jeanie\" (1952)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Montana Belle\" (1952)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Woman They Almost Lynched\" (1953)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Sweethearts on Parade\" (1953)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Silver Lode\" (1954)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Passion\" (1954)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Cattle Queen of Montana\" (1954)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Tennessee's Partner\" (1955)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Pearl of the South Pacific\" (1955)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Escape to Burma\" (1955)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Slightly Scarlet\" (1956)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Hold Back the Night\" (1956)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Restless Breed\" (1957)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The River's Edge\" (1957)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Enchanted Island\" (1958)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Most Dangerous Man Alive\" (1961)\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- Canadian pioneers in early Hollywood\n", "Section::::Further reading.\n", "BULLET::::- Brownlow, Kevin, \"The Parade's Gone By...\" (1968)\n", "BULLET::::- Bogdanovich, Peter, \"Allan Dwan: The Last Pioneer\" (1971)\n", "BULLET::::- Foster, Charles, \"Stardust and Shadows: Canadians in Early Hollywood\" (2000)\n", "BULLET::::- Lombardi, Frederic, \"Allan Dwan and the Rise and Decline of the Hollywood Studios\" (2013)\n", "Print E-book \n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Allan Dwan profile, virtual-history.com; accessed 16 June 2014\n" ] }
"http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FilePath/Allan_Dwan_-_Sep_1920_EH.jpg"
{ "aliases": { "alias": [] }, "description": "film director, film producer, screenwriter", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q959677", "wikidata_label": "Allan Dwan", "wikipedia_title": "Allan Dwan" }
"344"
"Allan Dwan"
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"Roman Catholic monarchs,Deaths by arrow wounds,Dukes of Lower Lorraine,French Roman Catholics,Christians of the First Crusade,Margraves of Antwerp,1100 deaths,Lords of Bouillon,1060s births,11th-century French people,Medieval French nobility,House of Boulogne"
"512px-Godfroy.jpg"
"157639"
{ "paragraph": [ "Godfrey of Bouillon\n", "Godfrey of Bouillon (, , , ; 18 September 1060 – 18 July 1100) was a Frankish knight and one of the leaders of the First Crusade from 1096 until its conclusion in 1099. He was the Lord of Bouillon, from which he took his byname, from 1076 and the Duke of Lower Lorraine from 1087. After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He refused the title of King, however, as he believed that the true King of Jerusalem was Jesus Christ, preferring the title of Advocate (i.e., protector or defender) of the Holy Sepulchre (Latin: \"Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri\"). He is also known as the \"Baron of the Holy Sepulchre\" and the \"Crusader King\".\n", "Section::::Early life.\n", "Godfrey of Bouillon was born around 1060 as the second son of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne, and Ida, daughter of the Lotharingian duke Godfrey the Bearded by his first wife, Doda.\n", "His birthplace was probably Boulogne-sur-Mer, although one 13th-century chronicler cites Baisy, a town in what is now Walloon Brabant, Belgium.\n", "As second son, he had fewer opportunities than his older brother and seemed destined to become just one more minor knight in service to a rich landed nobleman. However his maternal uncle, Godfrey the Hunchback, died childless and named his nephew, Godfrey of Bouillon, as his heir and next in line to his Duchy of Lower Lorraine. This duchy was an important one at the time, serving as a buffer between the kingdom of France and the German lands.\n", "In fact, Lower Lorraine was so important to the German kingdom and the Holy Roman Empire that Henry IV, the German king and future emperor (reigned 1084–1105), decided in 1076 that he would place it in the hands of his own son and give Godfrey only Bouillon and the Margraviate of Antwerp as a test of Godfrey's abilities and loyalty. Godfrey served Henry IV loyally, supporting him even when Pope Gregory VII was battling the German king in the Investiture Controversy. Godfrey fought alongside Henry and his forces against the rival forces of Rudolf of Swabia and also took part in battles in Italy when Henry IV actually took Rome away from the pope.\n", "A major test of Godfrey’s leadership skills was shown in his battles to defend his inheritance against a significant array of enemies. In 1076 he had succeeded as designated heir to the Lotharingian lands of his uncle, Godfrey the Hunchback, and Godfrey was struggling to maintain control over the lands that Henry IV had not taken away from him. Claims were raised by his aunt Margravine Matilda of Tuscany, cousin Count Albert III of Namur, and Count Theoderic of Veluwe. This coalition was joined by Bishop Theoderic of Verdun, and two minor counts attempting to share in the spoils, Waleran I of Limburg and Arnold I of Chiny.\n", "As these enemies tried to take away portions of his land, Godfrey's brothers, Eustace and Baldwin, both came to his aid. Following these long struggles and proving that he was a loyal subject to Henry IV, Godfrey finally won back his duchy of Lower Lorraine in 1087. Still, Godfrey's influence in the German kingdom would have been minimal if it had not been for his major role in the First Crusade.\n", "Section::::First Crusade.\n", "In 1095 Pope Urban II called for a Crusade to liberate Jerusalem from Muslim forces and also to aid the Byzantine Empire which was under Muslim attack. Godfrey took out loans on most of his lands, or sold them, to the bishop of Liège and the bishop of Verdun. With this money he gathered thousands of knights to fight in the Holy Land as the Army of Godfrey of Bouillon. In this he was joined by his older brother, Eustace, and his younger brother, Baldwin, who had no lands in Europe. He was not the only major nobleman to gather such an army. Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, also known as Raymond of Saint-Gilles, created the largest army. At age 55, Raymond was also the oldest and perhaps the best known of the Crusader nobles. Because of his age and fame, Raymond expected to be the leader of the entire First Crusade. Adhemar, the papal legate and bishop of Le Puy, travelled with him. There was also the fiery Bohemond, a Norman knight from southern Italy, and a fourth group under Robert II, Count of Flanders.\n", "Each of these armies travelled separately: some went southeast across Europe through Hungary and others sailed across the Adriatic Sea from southern Italy. Pope Urban II's call for the crusade had aroused the Catholic populace and spurred antisemitism. In the People's Crusade, beginning in the spring and early summer of 1096, bands of peasants and low-ranking knights set off early for Jerusalem on their own, and persecuted Jews during the Rhineland massacres. Godfrey, along with his two brothers, started in August 1096 at the head of an army from Lorraine (some say 40,000 strong) along \"Charlemagne's road\", as Urban II seems to have called it (according to the chronicler Robert the Monk)—the road to Jerusalem. A Hebrew text known to modern scholars as the Solomon bar Simson Chronicle, which seems to have been written more than 50 years after the events, says apparently of the Duke: \n" ] }
"http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FilePath/Godfroy.jpg"
{ "aliases": { "alias": [ "Godefroy de Bouillon" ] }, "description": "Medieval Frankish knight", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q76721", "wikidata_label": "Godfrey of Bouillon", "wikipedia_title": "Godfrey of Bouillon" }
"157639"
"Godfrey of Bouillon"
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"512px-Drbarnardo.jpg"
"157641"
{ "paragraph": [ "Thomas John Barnardo\n", "Thomas John Barnardo (4 July 184519 September 1905) was an Irish philanthropist and founder and director of homes for poor children. From the foundation of the first Barnardo's home in 1867 to the date of Barnardo's death, nearly 60,000 children had been taken in.\n", "Although Barnardo never finished his studies at the London Hospital, he used the title of ‘doctor’ and later secured a licentiate.\n", "Section::::Early life.\n", "Barnardo was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1845. He was the fourth of five children (one died in childbirth) of John Michaelis Barnardo, a furrier who was of Sephardic Jewish descent, and his second wife, Abigail, an Englishwoman and member of the Plymouth Brethren.\n", "In the early 1840s, John emigrated from Hamburg to Dublin, where he established a business; he married twice and fathered seven children. The Barnardo family \"traced its origin to Venice, followed by conversion to the Lutheran Church in the sixteenth century\".\n", "As a young child, Barnardo thought that everything that was not his should belong to him. However, as he grew older, he abandoned this mindset in favour of helping the poor.\n", "Barnardo moved to London in 1866. At that time he was interested in becoming a missionary.\n", "Section::::Philanthropy.\n", "In the 1860s, Barnardo opened a school in the East End of London to care for and educate children of the area left orphaned and destitute by a recent cholera outbreak. In 1870 he founded a boys' orphanage at 18 Stepney Causeway and later opened a girls' home. By the time of his death in 1905, Barnardo's institutions cared for over 8,500 children in 96 locations.\n", "Barnardo's work was carried on by his many supporters under the name \"Dr Barnardo's Homes\". Following societal changes in the mid-20th century, the charity changed its focus from the direct care of children to fostering and adoption, renaming itself \"Dr Barnardo's\". Following the closure of its last traditional orphanage in 1989, it took the still simpler name of \"Barnardo's\".\n", "Section::::Philanthropy.:Controversies.\n", "There was controversy early on with Barnardo's work. Specifically, he was accused of kidnapping children without parents' permission and of falsifying photographs of children to make the distinction between the period before they were rescued by Barnardo's and afterwards seem more dramatic. He openly confessed to the former of these charges, describing it as 'philanthropic abduction' and basing his defence on the idea that the end justified the means. In all, he was taken to court on 88 occasions, largely on the charge of kidnapping. However, being a charismatic speaker and popular figure, he rode through these scandals unscathed. Other charges brought against him included presenting staged images of children for Barnardo's 'before and after' cards and neglecting basic hygiene for the children under his care.\n", "Barnardo's was implicated in the scandal of forced child migration], in which children from poor social backgrounds were taken to the former colonies (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa) by churches and charities, without their parents' consent and even under false claims of death. Although this was a legal scheme, favoured by Government and society, in many cases the children suffered harsh life conditions and many also suffered abuse. This practice went on until the 70's. This merited an apology by PM Gordon Brown in 2010.\n", "Section::::Philanthropy.:The charity today.\n", "The official mascot of Barnardo's is a bear called Barney. H.M. Queen Elizabeth II is the current patron of Barnardo's. Its chief executive is Javed Khan.\n", "Section::::Personal life.\n", "Section::::Personal life.:Marriage and family.\n", "In June 1873, Barnardo married Sara Louise Elmslie (1842–1944), known as Syrie, the daughter of an underwriter for Lloyd's of London. Syrie shared her husband's interests in evangelism and social work. The couple settled at Mossford Lodge, Essex, where they had seven children, three of whom died in early childhood. Another child, Marjorie, had Down syndrome.\n", "Another daughter, Gwendolyn Maud Syrie (1879–1955), known as Syrie like her mother, was married to wealthy businessman Henry Wellcome, and later to the writer Somerset Maugham, and became a socially prominent London interior designer.\n", "Section::::Personal life.:Death.\n", "Barnardo died of angina pectoris in London on 19 September 1905, and was buried in front of Cairns House, Barkingside, Essex. The house is now the head office of the children's charity he founded, Barnardo's. A memorial stands outside Cairn's House.\n", "Section::::Personal life.:Legacy.\n", "After Barnardo's death, a national memorial was instituted to form a fund of £250,000 to relieve the various institutions of all financial liability and to place the entire work on a permanent basis. William Baker, formerly the chairman of the council, was selected to succeed the founder of the homes as Honorary Director.Thomas Barnardo was the author of 192 books dealing with the charitable work to which he devoted his life.\n", "From the foundation of the homes in 1867 to the date of Barnardo's death, nearly 60,000 children had been taken-in, most being trained and placed out in life. At the time of his death, his charity was caring for over 8,500 children in 96 homes.\n", "Section::::Personal life.:Not a Jack the Ripper suspect.\n", "At the time of the Whitechapel murders, due to the supposed medical expertise of the Ripper, various doctors in the area were suspected. Barnardo was named a possible suspect long after his death. Ripperologist Gary Rowlands theorized that due to Barnardo's lonely childhood he had anger which led him to murder prostitutes. However, there is no evidence that he committed the murders. Critics have also pointed out that his age and appearance did not match any of the descriptions of the Ripper.\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Likes of Us\"\n", "BULLET::::- Charitable organization\n", "BULLET::::- Orphanage\n", "BULLET::::- Ragged School Museum\n", "BULLET::::- List of Freemasons\n", "Section::::References.\n", "BULLET::::- Attribution\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- British Home Child Group International - research site\n", "BULLET::::- IllustratedPast.com – photographs of a Barnardo orphanage in 1893\n" ] }
"http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FilePath/Drbarnardo.jpg"
{ "aliases": { "alias": [] }, "description": "Philanthropist, founder and director of homes for poor children", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q692235", "wikidata_label": "Thomas John Barnardo", "wikipedia_title": "Thomas John Barnardo" }
"157641"
"Thomas John Barnardo"
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"12th-century Princes of Antioch,1149 deaths,Roman Catholic monarchs,Christians of the Second Crusade,Princes of Antioch,Occitan people,1099 births,Monarchs killed in action"
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"157660"
{ "paragraph": [ "Raymond of Poitiers\n", "Raymond of Poitiers (c. 1099- 29 June 1149) was Prince of Antioch from 1136 to 1149. He was the younger son of William IX, Duke of Aquitaine and his wife Philippa, Countess of Toulouse, born in the very year that his father the Duke began his infamous liaison with Dangereuse de Chatelherault.\n", "Section::::Assuming control.\n", "Following the death of Prince Bohemund II of Antioch in 1130, the principality came under the regency first of King Baldwin II (1130–31), then King Fulk (1131–35), and finally Princess Alice (1135–36), Bohemond's widow. The reigning princess was Bohemond II's daughter, Constance (born 1127). Against the wishes of Alice, a marriage was arranged for Constance with Raymond, at the time staying in England, which he left only after the death of Henry I on 1 December 1135.\n", "Upon hearing word that Raymond was going to pass through his lands in order to marry the princess of Antioch, King Roger II of Sicily ordered him arrested. By a series of subterfuges, Raymond passed through southern Italy and only arrived at Antioch after 19 April 1136. Patriarch Ralph of Domfront then convinced Alice that Raymond was there to marry her, whereupon she allowed him to enter Antioch (whose loyal garrison had refused him entry) and the patriarch married him to Constance. Alice then left the city, now under the control of Raymond and Ralph.\n", "The first years of their joint rule were spent in conflicts with the Byzantine Emperor John II Comnenus, who had come south partly to recover Cilicia from Leo of Armenia, and to reassert his rights over Antioch. Raymond was forced to pay homage, and even to promise to cede his principality as soon as he was recompensed by a new fief, which John promised to carve out for him in the Muslim territory to the east of Antioch. The expedition of 1138, in which Raymond joined with John, and which was to conquer this territory, proved a failure. The expedition culminated in the unsuccessful Siege of Shaizar. Raymond was not anxious to help the emperor to acquire new territories, when their acquisition only meant for him the loss of Antioch. John Comnenus returned unsuccessful to Constantinople, after demanding from Raymond, without response, the surrender of the citadel of Antioch.\n", "Section::::Struggles.\n", "There followed a struggle between Raymond and the patriarch. Raymond was annoyed by the homage which he had been forced to pay to the patriarch in 1135 and the dubious validity of the patriarch's election offered a handle for opposition. Eventually Raymond triumphed, and the patriarch was deposed (1139). In 1142 John Comnenus returned to the attack, but Raymond refused to recognize or renew his previous submission, and John, though he ravaged the neighborhood of Antioch, was unable to effect anything against him. When, however Raymond demanded from Manuel, who had succeeded John in 1143, the cession of some of the Cilician towns, he found that he had met his match. Manuel forced him to a humiliating visit to Constantinople, during which he renewed his oath of homage and promised to acknowledge a Greek patriarch.\n", "In the last year of Raymond's life Louis VII and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine (Raymond's niece) visited Antioch during the Second Crusade. Raymond sought to prevent Louis from going south to Jerusalem and to induce him to stay in Antioch and help in the conquest of Aleppo and Caesarea. Raymond was also suspected of having an incestuous affair with his beautiful niece Eleanor. According to John of Salisbury, Louis became suspicious of the attention Raymond lavished on Eleanor, and the long conversations they enjoyed. William of Tyre claims that Raymond seduced Eleanor to get revenge on her husband, who refused to aid him in his wars against the Saracens, and that \"\"contrary to [Eleanor's] royal dignity, she disregarded her marriage vows and was unfaithful to her husband.\"\" Most modern historians dismiss such rumours, however, pointing out the closeness of Raymond and his niece during her early childhood, and the effulgent Aquitainian manner of behaviour. Also, as the pious Louis continued to have relations with his wife, it is doubtful that he believed his charge of incest.\n", "Louis hastily left Antioch and Raymond was balked in his plans. In 1149 he was killed in the Battle of Inab during an expedition against Nur ad-Din Zangi. He was beheaded by Shirkuh, the uncle of Saladin, and his head was placed in a silver box and sent to the Caliph of Baghdad as a gift.\n", "Section::::Personality and family.\n", "Raymond is described by William of Tyre (the main authority for his career) as \"\"a lord of noble descent, of tall and elegant figure, the handsomest of the princes of the earth, a man of charming affability and conversation, open-handed and magnificent beyond measure\"\"; pre-eminent in the use of arms and military experience; \"litteratorum, licet ipse esset, cultor\" (\"although he was himself illiterate, he was a cultivator of literature\" – he caused the \"Chanson des chétifs\" to be composed); a regular churchman and faithful husband; but headstrong, irascible and unreasonable, with too great a passion for gambling (bk. xiv. c. xxi.). For his career see Rey, in the \"Revue de l'orient latin\", vol. iv.\n", "With Constance he had the following children: \n", "BULLET::::- Bohemond III\n", "BULLET::::- Maria, married emperor Manuel I Komnenos\n", "BULLET::::- Philippa\n", "BULLET::::- Baldwin\n" ] }
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{ "aliases": { "alias": [ "Raymond of Antioch" ] }, "description": "Prince of Antioch", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q437271", "wikidata_label": "Raymond of Poitiers", "wikipedia_title": "Raymond of Poitiers" }
"157660"
"Raymond of Poitiers"
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"American heavy metal singers,American male singers,People from Toms River, New Jersey,1966 births,American male bass guitarists,American heavy metal bass guitarists,20th-century American bass guitarists,Skid Row (American band) members,People from Point Pleasant, New Jersey,Living people"
"512px-Rachel_Bolan.jpg"
"157659"
{ "paragraph": [ "Rachel Bolan\n", "Rachel Bolan (born February 9, 1966), born James Richard Southworth, is the bass guitar player and main songwriter of the metal band Skid Row. His stage name 'Rachel' is a hybrid of his brother's name, Richard, and his grandfather's name, Manuel. 'Bolan' is a tribute to one of his childhood idols, T. Rex frontman, Marc Bolan. He is the youngest of four children.\n", "Section::::Career.\n", "Bolan, who grew up in Toms River, New Jersey, founded Skid Row in 1986 with guitarist Dave \"The Snake\" Sabo. Bolan has appeared as a vocalist on two of Kiss guitarist Ace Frehley's solo albums and back-up vocals on Mötley Crüe's \"Dr. Feelgood\" album. He has produced numerous bands including Rockets to Ruin , the Luchagors in 2007 with former WWE wrestler Amy \"Lita\" Dumas and Atlantic Records stoner metal band Godspeed. He formed the band Prunella Scales with Solace guitarist Tommy Southard and L. Wood. Prunella Scales released \"Dressing up the Idiot\" on Mutiny Records in 1997. Jack Roberts (guitar) and Ray Kubian (drums), both from the New Jersey-based band Mars Needs Women, joined Prunella Scales for touring. Recently, he played the bass guitar for Stone Sour on the band's new records House of Gold & Bones - Part 1 and House of Gold & Bones – Part 2 as a replacement for the departed bassist Shawn Economaki. He also can be seen playing bass in TRUSTcompany music video for the single \"Heart in My Hands\".\n", "Bolan has another side project called The Quazimotors. He did this project with Skid Row drummer Rob Affuso, Jonathan Callicutt and Evil Jim Wright (guitarist for Spectremen, BigFoot, Road Hawgs).\n", "Section::::Personal life.\n", "He married longtime girlfriend Donna \"Roxxi\" Feldman on June 10, 1994 but later divorced. He has no children.\n", "He drives racecars in his free time. He competes in high performance go-karts, Legends Cars, Thunder Roadster and Pro-Challenge series cars.\n" ] }
"http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FilePath/Rachel_Bolan.jpg"
{ "aliases": { "alias": [] }, "description": "Musician, Song writer/Composer, Producer", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q1080476", "wikidata_label": "Rachel Bolan", "wikipedia_title": "Rachel Bolan" }
"157659"
"Rachel Bolan"
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"Neoplatonism", "History of Christianity", "Scholasticism", "Catholic Church", "Thomas Aquinas", "Virtue ethics", "Alasdair MacIntyre", "Philippa Foot", "Stagira (ancient city)", "Chalkidiki", "Thessaloniki", "Nicomachus (father of Aristotle)", "Amyntas III of Macedon", "Proxenus of Atarneus", "Macedonia (ancient kingdom)", "Platonic Academy", "Eleusinian Mysteries", "Speusippus", "Xenocrates", "Hermias of Atarneus", "Anatolia", "Theophrastus", "Lesbos", "Botany", "Pythias", "Philip II of Macedon", "Alexander the Great", "Macedonia (ancient kingdom)", "Ptolemy I Soter", "Cassander", "Iran", "Ethnocentrism", "Lyceum (Classical)", "Herpyllis", "Nicomachus (son of Aristotle)", "Suda", "Pederasty in ancient Greece", "Palaephatus", "Treatise", "Physics (Aristotle)", "Metaphysics (Aristotle)", "Nicomachean Ethics", "Politics (Aristotle)", "On the Soul", "Poetics (Aristotle)", "Hagnothemis", "Eurymedon the Hierophant", "Chalcis", "Trial of Socrates", "Antipater", "Executor", "Will and 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"Four causes", "Four causes", "Four causes", "Developmental biology", "Physiology", "Four causes", "Adaptation", "Optics", "Camera obscura", "Problems (Aristotle)", "Aperture", "Accident (philosophy)", "Astronomy", "Democritus", "Milky Way", "Geology", "Uniformitarianism", "Charles Lyell", "Nile Delta", "Homer", "Aeolian Islands", "Types of volcanic eruptions", "Lesbos", "History of Animals", "Generation of Animals", "Movement of Animals", "Parts of Animals", "Botany", "Catfish", "Electric ray", "Frogfish", "Cephalopod", "Octopus", "Argonaut (animal)", "Hectocotylus", "Ruminant", "Ovoviviparity", "Houndshark", "Heron", "Duck", "Charles Darwin", "Evolution", "Hybrid (biology)", "Common descent", "Speciation", "Extinction", "Genomics", "Biological rules", "Life expectancy", "Pregnancy (mammals)", "Fecundity", "Animal", "Great chain of being", "Viviparity", "Plant", "Vertebrate", "Invertebrate", "Mammal", "Bird", "Reptile", "Fish", "Crustacean", "Mollusca", "Bivalvia", "Gastropoda", "Placenta", "Convergent evolution", "Teleology", "Psychology", "On the Soul", "Soul", "Nous", "Hylomorphism", "Alcmaeon of Croton", "Stimulus (psychology)", "Common sense", "Contiguity (psychology)", "Laws of association", "Just war theory", "Natural slavery", "Freedom", "Virtue", "Nicomachean Ethics", "On the Soul", "Logos", "Eudaimonia", "Arete", "Phronesis", "Nous", "Politics (Aristotle)", "Polis", "Social contract", "State of nature", "Protrepticus (Aristotle)", "Economics", "Politics (Aristotle)", "Property", "Trade", "Private property", "Lionel Robbins", "Utility", "Human nature", "Money", "Silver", "Retail", "Interest", "Profit (economics)", "Ethos", "Pathos", "Logos", "Epideictic", "Forensic rhetoric", "Deliberative rhetoric", "Proof (truth)", "Enthymeme", "Syllogism", "Paradeigma", "Epic poetry", "Dithyramb", "Mimesis", "Stephen Halliwell (academic)", "Catharsis", "Pythia", "Aesop", "Feminist metaphysics", "Misogyny", "Sexism", "Bryan Magee", "Mathematical logic", "Zoology", "Jonathan Barnes", "Theophrastus", "Historia Plantarum (Theophrastus)", "Gynoecium", "Fruit anatomy", "Peripatetic school", "Aristoxenus", "Dicaearchus", "Demetrius of Phalerum", "Eudemus of Rhodes", "Harpalus", "Hephaestion", "Mnason of Phocis", "Nicomachus (son of Aristotle)", "Alexandria", "Ptolemaic Kingdom", "Herophilos", "Vein", "Artery", "Pulse", "Atomism", "Lucretius", "Teleology", "Natural theology", "Ernst Mayr", "Stephanus of Alexandria", "John Philoponus", "Theory of impetus", "Michael of Ephesus", "Anna Komnene", "Schools of Islamic theology", "Averroes", "Avicenna", "Al-Farabi", "Thomas Aquinas", "Al-Kindi", "Dante Alighieri", "Islamic philosophy", "Middle Ages", "Boethius", "Gerard of Cremona", "James of Venice", "William of Moerbeke", "Scholasticism", "Summa Theologica", "Greek language", "Renaissance", "Peter Abelard", "Jean Buridan", "Geoffrey Chaucer", "Tale of Phyllis and Aristotle", "Hans Baldung", "Divine Comedy", "Early modern period", "William Harvey", "Galileo Galilei", "Galen", "Circulatory system", "Friedrich Nietzsche", "Martin Heidegger", "George Boole", "Boolean algebra", "The Laws of Thought", "Validity (logic)", "Bertrand Russell", "Eduard Jan Dijksterhuis", "Peter Medawar", "Ayn Rand", "Alasdair MacIntyre", "Alexander (2004 film)", "Cinema of the United States", "Armand Marie Leroi", "Tinbergen's four questions", "Ethology", "Function (biology)", "Phylogenetic tree", "Mechanism (biology)", "Ontogeny", "August Immanuel Bekker", "Exoteric", "Western esotericism", "Lyceum (Classical)", "Cicero", "Lucas Cranach the Elder", "Justus van Gent", "Raphael", "Paolo Veronese", "Jusepe de Ribera", "Rembrandt", "Francesco Hayez", "Fresco", "The School of Athens", "Apostolic Palace", "Vanishing point", "Aristotle with a Bust of Homer", "Jonathan Jones (journalist)", "Aristotle Mountains", "Antarctica", "Meteorology (Aristotle)", "Aristoteles (crater)", "Aristotelian Society", "Conimbricenses", "J. L. Ackrill", "Myles Burnyeat", "Eugene Gendlin", "Terence Irwin", "Alberto Jori", "International Academy of the History of Science", "Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy", "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy", "Tufts University" ] }
"Ancient Greek metaphysicians,Ancient literary critics,Ancient Greek mathematicians,Peripatetic philosophers,Ancient Greek political philosophers,Natural philosophers,Philosophers of culture,Social critics,Ancient Greek biologists,Greek male writers,Ancient Greek philosophers of mind,Aristotelianism,Metic philosophers in Classical Athens,Social commentators,Western philosophy,Political philosophers,Irony theorists,Philosophers of law,Ancient Greek ethicists,Ethicists,Metaphysicians,Epistemologists,Philosophy writers,Logicians,Philosophers of education,Virtue ethics,Philosophers of logic,Ancient Greek physicists,Ancient Greek philosophers of language,Philosophy academics,Founders of philosophical traditions,Critical thinking,Social philosophers,Moral philosophers,Virtue ethicists,Western culture,4th-century BC philosophers,Aristotle,Philosophers of ethics and morality,322 BC deaths,Humor researchers,Logic,Trope theorists,Academic philosophers,Ancient Stagirites,Philosophers and tutors of Alexander the Great,Attic Greek writers,Ancient Greek metaphilosophers,Cultural critics,Greek meteorologists,Philosophers of literature,Ancient Greek logicians,Philosophers of art,Ancient Greeks in Macedon,Philosophers of technology,Philosophers of science,4th-century BC writers,Cosmologists,Philosophers of love,384 BC births,Rhetoric theorists,Acting theorists,Virtue,Philosophical logic,Philosophers of ancient Chalcidice,Philosophers of mind,Aristotelian philosophers,Ancient Greek epistemologists,Metaphilosophers"
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{ "paragraph": [ "Aristotle\n", "Aristotle (; \"Aristotélēs\", ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition. Along with his teacher Plato, he has been called the \"Father of Western Philosophy\". His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theatre, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, economics, politics and government. Aristotle provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him, and it was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry. As a result, his philosophy has exerted a unique influence on almost every form of knowledge in the West and it continues to be a subject of contemporary philosophical discussion.\n", "Little is known about his life. Aristotle was born in the city of Stagira in Northern Greece. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle was a child, and he was brought up by a guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC). Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip II of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great beginning in 343 BC. He established a library in the Lyceum which helped him to produce many of his hundreds of books on papyrus scrolls. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues for publication, only around a third of his original output has survived, none of it intended for publication.\n", "Aristotle's views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship. Their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, and were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics. Some of Aristotle's zoological observations found in his biology, such as on the hectocotyl (reproductive) arm of the octopus, were disbelieved until the 19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, studied by medieval scholars such as Peter Abelard and John Buridan. Aristotle's influence on logic also continued well into the 19th century.\n", "He influenced Islamic thought during the Middle Ages, as well as Christian theology, especially the Neoplatonism of the Early Church and the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle was revered among medieval Muslim scholars as \"The First Teacher\" and among medieval Christians like Thomas Aquinas as simply \"The Philosopher\". His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics, such as in the thinking of Alasdair MacIntyre and Philippa Foot.\n", "Section::::Life.\n", "In general, the details of Aristotle's life are not well-established. The biographies written in ancient times are often speculative and historians only agree on a few salient points.\n", "Aristotle, whose name means \"the best purpose\" in Ancient Greek, was born in 384 BC in Stagira, Chalcidice, about 55 km (34 miles) east of modern-day Thessaloniki. His father Nicomachus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Both of Aristotle's parents died when he was about thirteen, and Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. Although little information about Aristotle's childhood has survived, he probably spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his first connections with the Macedonian monarchy.\n", "At the age of seventeen or eighteen, Aristotle moved to Athens to continue his education at Plato's Academy. He probably experienced the Eleusinian Mysteries as he wrote when describing the sights one viewed at the Eleusinian Mysteries, “to experience is to learn” [παθείν μαθεĩν]. Aristotle remained in Athens for nearly twenty years before leaving in 348/47 BC. The traditional story about his departure records that he was disappointed with the Academy's direction after control passed to Plato's nephew Speusippus, although it is possible that he feared the anti-Macedonian sentiments in Athens at that time and left before Plato died. Aristotle then accompanied Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. After the death of Hermias, Aristotle travelled with his pupil Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island and its sheltered lagoon. While in Lesbos, Aristotle married Pythias, either Hermias's adoptive daughter or niece. She bore him a daughter, whom they also named Pythias. In 343 BC, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander.\n", "Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During Aristotle's time in the Macedonian court, he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander. Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest, and Aristotle's own attitude towards Persia was unabashedly ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be \"a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, and to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants\". By 335 BC, Aristotle had returned to Athens, establishing his own school there known as the Lyceum. Aristotle conducted courses at the school for the next twelve years. While in Athens, his wife Pythias died and Aristotle became involved with Herpyllis of Stagira, who bore him a son whom he named after his father, Nicomachus. According to the \"Suda\", he also had an \"erômenos\", Palaephatus of Abydus.\n", "This period in Athens, between 335 and 323 BC, is when Aristotle is believed to have composed many of his works. He wrote many dialogues, of which only fragments have survived. Those works that have survived are in treatise form and were not, for the most part, intended for widespread publication; they are generally thought to be lecture aids for his students. His most important treatises include \"Physics\", \"Metaphysics\", \"Nicomachean Ethics\", \"Politics\", \"On the Soul\" and \"Poetics\". Aristotle studied and made significant contributions to \"logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theatre.\"\n", "Near the end of his life, Alexander and Aristotle became estranged over Alexander's relationship with Persia and Persians. A widespread tradition in antiquity suspected Aristotle of playing a role in Alexander's death, but the only evidence of this is an unlikely claim made some six years after the death. Following Alexander's death, anti-Macedonian sentiment in Athens was rekindled. In 322 BC, Demophilus and Eurymedon the Hierophant reportedly denounced Aristotle for impiety, prompting him to flee to his mother's family estate in Chalcis, on Euboea, at which occasion he was said to have stated: \"I will not allow the Athenians to sin twice against philosophy\" – a reference to Athens's trial and execution of Socrates. He died on Euboea of natural causes later that same year, having named his student Antipater as his chief executor and leaving a will in which he asked to be buried next to his wife.\n", "Section::::Speculative philosophy.\n", "Section::::Speculative philosophy.:Logic.\n", "With the \"Prior Analytics\", Aristotle is credited with the earliest study of formal logic, and his conception of it was the dominant form of Western logic until 19th-century advances in mathematical logic. Kant stated in the \"Critique of Pure Reason\" that with Aristotle logic reached its completion.\n", "Section::::Speculative philosophy.:Logic.:\"Organon\".\n", "What we today call \"Aristotelian logic\" with its types of syllogism (methods of logical argument), Aristotle himself would have labelled \"analytics\". The term \"logic\" he reserved to mean \"dialectics\". Most of Aristotle's work is probably not in its original form, because it was most likely edited by students and later lecturers. The logical works of Aristotle were compiled into a set of six books called the \"Organon\" around 40 BC by Andronicus of Rhodes or others among his followers. The books are:\n", "BULLET::::1. \"Categories\"\n", "BULLET::::2. \"On Interpretation\"\n", "BULLET::::3. \"Prior Analytics\"\n", "BULLET::::4. \"Posterior Analytics\"\n", "BULLET::::5. \"Topics\"\n", "BULLET::::6. \"On Sophistical Refutations\"\n", "The order of the books (or the teachings from which they are composed) is not certain, but this list was derived from analysis of Aristotle's writings. It goes from the basics, the analysis of simple terms in the \"Categories,\" the analysis of propositions and their elementary relations in \"On Interpretation\", to the study of more complex forms, namely, syllogisms (in the \"Analytics\") and dialectics (in the \"Topics\" and \"Sophistical Refutations\"). The first three treatises form the core of the logical theory \"stricto sensu\": the grammar of the language of logic and the correct rules of reasoning. The \"Rhetoric\" is not conventionally included, but it states that it relies on the \"Topics\".\n", "Section::::Speculative philosophy.:Metaphysics.\n", "The word \"metaphysics\" appears to have been coined by the first century AD editor who assembled various small selections of Aristotle's works to the treatise we know by the name \"Metaphysics\". Aristotle called it \"first philosophy\", and distinguished it from mathematics and natural science (physics) as the contemplative (\"theoretikē\") philosophy which is \"theological\" and studies the divine. He wrote in his \"Metaphysics\" (1026a16):\n", "Section::::Speculative philosophy.:Metaphysics.:Substance.\n", "Aristotle examines the concepts of substance (\"ousia\") and essence (\"to ti ên einai\", \"the what it was to be\") in his \"Metaphysics\" (Book VII), and he concludes that a particular substance is a combination of both matter and form, a philosophical theory called hylomorphism. In Book VIII, he distinguishes the matter of the substance as the substratum, or the stuff of which it is composed. For example, the matter of a house is the bricks, stones, timbers etc., or whatever constitutes the \"potential\" house, while the form of the substance is the \"actual\" house, namely 'covering for bodies and chattels' or any other differentia that let us define something as a house. The formula that gives the components is the account of the matter, and the formula that gives the differentia is the account of the form.\n", "Section::::Speculative philosophy.:Metaphysics.:Substance.:Immanent realism.\n", "Like his teacher Plato, Aristotle's philosophy aims at the universal. Aristotle's ontology places the universal (\"katholou\") in particulars (\"kath' hekaston\"), things in the world, whereas for Plato the universal is a separately existing form which actual things imitate. For Aristotle, \"form\" is still what phenomena are based on, but is \"instantiated\" in a particular substance. \n", "Plato argued that all things have a universal form, which could be either a property or a relation to other things. When we look at an apple, for example, we see an apple, and we can also analyse a form of an apple. In this distinction, there is a particular apple and a universal form of an apple. Moreover, we can place an apple next to a book, so that we can speak of both the book and apple as being next to each other. Plato argued that there are some universal forms that are not a part of particular things. For example, it is possible that there is no particular good in existence, but \"good\" is still a proper universal form. Aristotle disagreed with Plato on this point, arguing that all universals are instantiated at some period of time, and that there are no universals that are unattached to existing things. In addition, Aristotle disagreed with Plato about the location of universals. Where Plato spoke of the world of forms, a place where all universal forms subsist, Aristotle maintained that universals exist within each thing on which each universal is predicated. So, according to Aristotle, the form of apple exists within each apple, rather than in the world of the forms.\n", "Section::::Speculative philosophy.:Metaphysics.:Substance.:Potentiality and actuality.\n", "With regard to the change (\"kinesis\") and its causes now, as he defines in his \"Physics\" and \"On Generation and Corruption\" 319b–320a, he distinguishes the coming to be from:\n", "BULLET::::1. growth and diminution, which is change in quantity;\n", "BULLET::::2. locomotion, which is change in space; and\n", "BULLET::::3. alteration, which is change in quality.\n", "The coming to be is a change where nothing persists of which the resultant is a property. In that particular change he introduces the concept of potentiality (\"dynamis\") and actuality (\"entelecheia\") in association with the matter and the form. Referring to potentiality, this is what a thing is capable of doing, or being acted upon, if the conditions are right and it is not prevented by something else. For example, the seed of a plant in the soil is potentially (\"dynamei\") plant, and if it is not prevented by something, it will become a plant. Potentially beings can either 'act' (\"poiein\") or 'be acted upon' (\"paschein\"), which can be either innate or learned. For example, the eyes possess the potentiality of sight (innate – being acted upon), while the capability of playing the flute can be possessed by learning (exercise – acting). Actuality is the fulfilment of the end of the potentiality. Because the end (\"telos\") is the principle of every change, and for the sake of the end exists potentiality, therefore actuality is the end. Referring then to our previous example, we could say that an actuality is when a plant does one of the activities that plants do.\n", "In summary, the matter used to make a house has potentiality to be a house and both the activity of building and the form of the final house are actualities, which is also a final cause or end. Then Aristotle proceeds and concludes that the actuality is prior to potentiality in formula, in time and in substantiality. With this definition of the particular substance (i.e., matter and form), Aristotle tries to solve the problem of the unity of the beings, for example, \"what is it that makes a man one\"? Since, according to Plato there are two Ideas: animal and biped, how then is man a unity? However, according to Aristotle, the potential being (matter) and the actual one (form) are one and the same.\n", "Section::::Speculative philosophy.:Epistemology.\n", "Aristotle's immanent realism means his epistemology is based on the study of things that exist or happen in the world, and rises to knowledge of the universal, whereas for Plato epistemology begins with knowledge of universal Forms (or ideas) and descends to knowledge of particular imitations of these. Aristotle uses induction from examples alongside deduction, whereas Plato relies on deduction from \"a priori\" principles.\n", "Section::::Natural philosophy.\n", "Aristotle's \"natural philosophy\" spans a wide range of natural phenomena including those now covered by physics, biology and other natural sciences. In Aristotle's terminology, \"natural philosophy\" is a branch of philosophy examining the phenomena of the natural world, and includes fields that would be regarded today as physics, biology and other natural sciences. Aristotle's work encompassed virtually all facets of intellectual inquiry. Aristotle makes philosophy in the broad sense coextensive with reasoning, which he also would describe as \"science\". Note, however, that his use of the term \"science\" carries a different meaning than that covered by the term \"scientific method\". For Aristotle, \"all science (\"dianoia\") is either practical, poetical or theoretical\" (\"Metaphysics\" 1025b25). His practical science includes ethics and politics; his poetical science means the study of fine arts including poetry; his theoretical science covers physics, mathematics and metaphysics.\n", "Section::::Natural philosophy.:Physics.\n", "Section::::Natural philosophy.:Physics.:Five elements.\n", "In his \"On Generation and Corruption\", Aristotle related each of the four elements proposed earlier by Empedocles, Earth, Water, Air, and Fire, to two of the four sensible qualities, hot, cold, wet, and dry. In the Empedoclean scheme, all matter was made of the four elements, in differing proportions. Aristotle's scheme added the heavenly Aether, the divine substance of the heavenly spheres, stars and planets.\n", "Section::::Natural philosophy.:Physics.:Motion.\n", "Aristotle describes two kinds of motion: \"violent\" or \"unnatural motion\", such as that of a thrown stone, in the \"Physics\" (254b10), and \"natural motion\", such as of a falling object, in \"On the Heavens\" (300a20). In violent motion, as soon as the agent stops causing it, the motion stops also; in other words, the natural state of an object is to be at rest, since Aristotle does not address friction. With this understanding, it can be observed that, as Aristotle stated, heavy objects (on the ground, say) require more force to make them move; and objects pushed with greater force move faster. This would imply the equation\n", "incorrect in modern physics.\n", "Natural motion depends on the element concerned: the aether naturally moves in a circle around the heavens, while the 4 Empedoclean elements move vertically up (like fire, as is observed) or down (like earth) towards their natural resting places.\n", "In the \"Physics\" (215a25), Aristotle effectively states a quantitative law, that the speed, v, of a falling body is proportional (say, with constant c) to its weight, W, and inversely proportional to the density, ρ, of the fluid in which it is falling:\n", "Aristotle implies that in a vacuum the speed of fall would become infinite, and concludes from this apparent absurdity that a vacuum is not possible. Opinions have varied on whether Aristotle intended to state quantitative laws. Henri Carteron held the \"extreme view\" that Aristotle's concept of force was basically qualitative, but other authors reject this.\n", "Archimedes corrected Aristotle's theory that bodies move towards their natural resting places; metal boats can float if they displace enough water; floating depends in Archimedes' scheme on the mass and volume of the object, not as Aristotle thought its elementary composition.\n", "Aristotle's writings on motion remained influential until the Early Modern period. John Philoponus (in the Middle Ages) and Galileo are said to have shown by experiment that Aristotle's claim that a heavier object falls faster than a lighter object is incorrect. A contrary opinion is given by Carlo Rovelli, who argues that Aristotle's physics of motion is correct within its domain of validity, that of objects in the Earth's gravitational field immersed in a fluid such as air. In this system, heavy bodies in steady fall indeed travel faster than light ones (whether friction is ignored, or not), and they do fall more slowly in a denser medium.\n", "Newton's \"forced\" motion corresponds to Aristotle's \"violent\" motion with its external agent, but Aristotle's assumption that the agent's effect stops immediately it stops acting (e.g., the ball leaves the thrower's hand) has awkward consequences: he has to suppose that surrounding fluid helps to push the ball along to make it continue to rise even though the hand is no longer acting on it, resulting in the Medieval theory of impetus.\n", "Section::::Natural philosophy.:Physics.:Four causes.\n", "Aristotle suggested that the reason for anything coming about can be attributed to four different types of simultaneously active factors. His term \"aitia\" is traditionally translated as \"cause\", but it does not always refer to temporal sequence; it might be better translated as \"explanation\", but the traditional rendering will be employed here.\n", "BULLET::::- Material cause describes the material out of which something is composed. Thus the material cause of a table is wood. It is not about action. It does not mean that one domino knocks over another domino.\n", "BULLET::::- The formal cause is its form, i.e., the arrangement of that matter. It tells us what a thing is, that a thing is determined by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype. It embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws, as the whole (i.e., macrostructure) is the cause of its parts, a relationship known as the whole-part causation. Plainly put, the formal cause is the idea in the mind of the sculptor that brings the sculpture into being. A simple example of the formal cause is the mental image or idea that allows an artist, architect, or engineer to create a drawing.\n", "BULLET::::- The efficient cause is \"the primary source\", or that from which the change under consideration proceeds. It identifies 'what makes of what is made and what causes change of what is changed' and so suggests all sorts of agents, nonliving or living, acting as the sources of change or movement or rest. Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this covers the modern definitions of \"cause\" as either the agent or agency or particular events or states of affairs. In the case of two dominoes, when the first is knocked over it causes the second also to fall over. In the case of animals, this agency is a combination of how it develops from the egg, and how its body functions.\n", "BULLET::::- The final cause (\"telos\") is its purpose, the reason why a thing exists or is done, including both purposeful and instrumental actions and activities. The final cause is the purpose or function that something is supposed to serve. This covers modern ideas of motivating causes, such as volition. In the case of living things, it implies adaptation to a particular way of life.\n", "Section::::Natural philosophy.:Physics.:Optics.\n", "Aristotle describes experiments in optics using a camera obscura in \"Problems\", book 15. The apparatus consisted of a dark chamber with a small aperture that let light in. With it, he saw that whatever shape he made the hole, the sun's image always remained circular. He also noted that increasing the distance between the aperture and the image surface magnified the image.\n", "Section::::Natural philosophy.:Physics.:Chance and spontaneity.\n", "According to Aristotle, spontaneity and chance are causes of some things, distinguishable from other types of cause such as simple necessity. Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of accidental things, \"from what is spontaneous\". There is also more a specific kind of chance, which Aristotle names \"luck\", that only applies to people's moral choices.\n", "Section::::Natural philosophy.:Astronomy.\n", "In astronomy, Aristotle refuted Democritus's claim that the Milky Way was made up of \"those stars which are shaded by the earth from the sun's rays,\" pointing out correctly that if \"the size of the sun is greater than that of the earth and the distance of the stars from the earth many times greater than that of the sun, then... the sun shines on all the stars and the earth screens none of them.\"\n", "Section::::Natural philosophy.:Geology.\n", "Aristotle was one of the first people to record any geological observations. He stated that geological change was too slow to be observed in one person's lifetime.\n", "The geologist Charles Lyell noted that Aristotle described such change, including \"lakes that had dried up\" and \"deserts that had become watered by rivers\", giving as examples the growth of the Nile delta since the time of Homer, and \"the upheaving of one of the Aeolian islands, previous to a volcanic eruption.\"'\n", "Section::::Natural philosophy.:Biology.\n", "Section::::Natural philosophy.:Biology.:Empirical research.\n", "Aristotle was the first person to study biology systematically, and biology forms a large part of his writings. He spent two years observing and describing the zoology of Lesbos and the surrounding seas, including in particular the Pyrrha lagoon in the centre of Lesbos. His data in \"History of Animals\", \"Generation of Animals\", \"Movement of Animals\", and \"Parts of Animals\" are assembled from his own observations, statements given by people with specialised knowledge such as beekeepers and fishermen, and less accurate accounts provided by travellers from overseas. His apparent emphasis on animals rather than plants is a historical accident: his works on botany have been lost, but two books on plants by his pupil Theophrastus have survived.\n", "Aristotle reports on the sea-life visible from observation on Lesbos and the catches of fishermen. He describes the catfish, electric ray, and frogfish in detail, as well as cephalopods such as the octopus and paper nautilus. His description of the hectocotyl arm of cephalopods, used in sexual reproduction, was widely disbelieved until the 19th century. He gives accurate descriptions of the four-chambered fore-stomachs of ruminants, and of the ovoviviparous embryological development of the hound shark.\n", "He notes that an animal's structure is well matched to function, so, among birds, the heron, which lives in marshes with soft mud and lives by catching fish, has a long neck and long legs, and a sharp spear-like beak, whereas ducks that swim have short legs and webbed feet. Darwin, too, noted these sorts of differences between similar kinds of animal, but unlike Aristotle used the data to come to the theory of evolution. Aristotle's writings can seem to modern readers close to implying evolution, but while Aristotle was aware that new mutations or hybridisations could occur, he saw these as rare accidents. For Aristotle, accidents, like heat waves in winter, must be considered distinct from natural causes. He was thus critical of Empedocles's materialist theory of a \"survival of the fittest\" origin of living things and their organs, and ridiculed the idea that accidents could lead to orderly results. To put his views into modern terms, he nowhere says that different species can have a common ancestor, or that one kind can change into another, or that kinds can become extinct.\n", "Section::::Natural philosophy.:Biology.:Scientific style.\n", "Aristotle did not do experiments in the modern sense. He used the ancient Greek term \"pepeiramenoi\" to mean observations, or at most investigative procedures like dissection. In \"Generation of Animals\", he finds a fertilised hen's egg of a suitable stage and opens it to see the embryo's heart beating inside.\n", "Instead, he practised a different style of science: systematically gathering data, discovering patterns common to whole groups of animals, and inferring possible causal explanations from these. This style is common in modern biology when large amounts of data become available in a new field, such as genomics. It does not result in the same certainty as experimental science, but it sets out testable hypotheses and constructs a narrative explanation of what is observed. In this sense, Aristotle's biology is scientific.\n", "From the data he collected and documented, Aristotle inferred quite a number of rules relating the life-history features of the live-bearing tetrapods (terrestrial placental mammals) that he studied. Among these correct predictions are the following. Brood size decreases with (adult) body mass, so that an elephant has fewer young (usually just one) per brood than a mouse. Lifespan increases with gestation period, and also with body mass, so that elephants live longer than mice, have a longer period of gestation, and are heavier. As a final example, fecundity decreases with lifespan, so long-lived kinds like elephants have fewer young in total than short-lived kinds like mice.\n", "Section::::Natural philosophy.:Biology.:Classification of living things.\n", "Aristotle distinguished about 500 species of animals, arranging these in the \"History of Animals\" in a graded scale of perfection, a \"scala naturae\", with man at the top. His system had eleven grades of animal, from highest potential to lowest, expressed in their form at birth: the highest gave live birth to hot and wet creatures, the lowest laid cold, dry mineral-like eggs. Animals came above plants, and these in turn were above minerals. see also: He grouped what the modern zoologist would call vertebrates as the hotter \"animals with blood\", and below them the colder invertebrates as \"animals without blood\". Those with blood were divided into the live-bearing (mammals), and the egg-laying (birds, reptiles, fish). Those without blood were insects, crustacea (non-shelled – cephalopods, and shelled) and the hard-shelled molluscs (bivalves and gastropods). He recognised that animals did not exactly fit into a linear scale, and noted various exceptions, such as that sharks had a placenta like the tetrapods. To a modern biologist, the explanation, not available to Aristotle, is convergent evolution. He believed that purposive final causes guided all natural processes; this teleological view justified his observed data as an expression of formal design.\n", "Section::::Natural philosophy.:Psychology.\n", "Section::::Natural philosophy.:Psychology.:Soul.\n", "Aristotle's psychology, given in his treatise \"On the Soul\" (\"peri psychēs\"), posits three kinds of soul (\"psyches\"): the vegetative soul, the sensitive soul, and the rational soul. Humans have a rational soul. The human soul incorporates the powers of the other kinds: Like the vegetative soul it can grow and nourish itself; like the sensitive soul it can experience sensations and move locally. The unique part of the human, rational soul is its ability to receive forms of other things and to compare them using the \"nous\" (intellect) and \"logos\" (reason).\n", "For Aristotle, the soul is the form of a living being. Because all beings are composites of form and matter, the form of living beings is that which endows them with what is specific to living beings, e.g. the ability to initiate movement (or in the case of plants, growth and chemical transformations, which Aristotle considers types of movement). In contrast to earlier philosophers, but in accordance with the Egyptians, he placed the rational soul in the heart, rather than the brain. Notable is Aristotle's division of sensation and thought, which generally differed from the concepts of previous philosophers, with the exception of Alcmaeon.\n", "Section::::Natural philosophy.:Psychology.:Memory.\n", "According to Aristotle in \"On the Soul\", memory is the ability to hold a perceived experience in the mind and to distinguish between the internal \"appearance\" and an occurrence in the past. In other words, a memory is a mental picture (phantasm) that can be recovered. Aristotle believed an impression is left on a semi-fluid bodily organ that undergoes several changes in order to make a memory. A memory occurs when stimuli such as sights or sounds are so complex that the nervous system cannot receive all the impressions at once. These changes are the same as those involved in the operations of sensation, Aristotelian 'common sense', and thinking.\n", "Aristotle uses the term 'memory' for the actual retaining of an experience in the impression that can develop from sensation, and for the intellectual anxiety that comes with the impression because it is formed at a particular time and processing specific contents. Memory is of the past, prediction is of the future, and sensation is of the present. Retrieval of impressions cannot be performed suddenly. A transitional channel is needed and located in our past experiences, both for our previous experience and present experience.\n", "Because Aristotle believes people receive all kinds of sense perceptions and perceive them as impressions, people are continually weaving together new impressions of experiences. To search for these impressions, people search the memory itself. Within the memory, if one experience is offered instead of a specific memory, that person will reject this experience until they find what they are looking for. Recollection occurs when one retrieved experience naturally follows another. If the chain of \"images\" is needed, one memory will stimulate the next. When people recall experiences, they stimulate certain previous experiences until they reach the one that is needed. Recollection is thus the self-directed activity of retrieving the information stored in a memory impression. Only humans can remember impressions of intellectual activity, such as numbers and words. Animals that have perception of time can retrieve memories of their past observations. Remembering involves only perception of the things remembered and of the time passed.\n", "Aristotle believed the chain of thought, which ends in recollection of certain impressions, was connected systematically in relationships such as similarity, contrast, and contiguity, described in his Laws of Association. Aristotle believed that past experiences are hidden within the mind. A force operates to awaken the hidden material to bring up the actual experience. According to Aristotle, association is the power innate in a mental state, which operates upon the unexpressed remains of former experiences, allowing them to rise and be recalled.\n", "Section::::Natural philosophy.:Psychology.:Dreams.\n", "Aristotle describes sleep in \"On Sleep and Wakefulness\". Sleep takes place as a result of overuse of the senses or of digestion, so it is vital to the body. While a person is asleep, the critical activities, which include thinking, sensing, recalling and remembering, do not function as they do during wakefulness. Since a person cannot sense during sleep they can not have desire, which is the result of sensation. However, the senses are able to work during sleep, albeit differently, unless they are weary.\n", "Dreams do not involve actually sensing a stimulus. In dreams, sensation is still involved, but in an altered manner. Aristotle explains that when a person stares at a moving stimulus such as the waves in a body of water, and then look away, the next thing they look at appears to have a wavelike motion. When a person perceives a stimulus and the stimulus is no longer the focus of their attention, it leaves an impression. When the body is awake and the senses are functioning properly, a person constantly encounters new stimuli to sense and so the impressions of previously perceived stimuli are ignored. However, during sleep the impressions made throughout the day are noticed as there are no new distracting sensory experiences. So, dreams result from these lasting impressions. Since impressions are all that are left and not the exact stimuli, dreams do not resemble the actual waking experience. During sleep, a person is in an altered state of mind. Aristotle compares a sleeping person to a person who is overtaken by strong feelings toward a stimulus. For example, a person who has a strong infatuation with someone may begin to think they see that person everywhere because they are so overtaken by their feelings. Since a person sleeping is in a suggestible state and unable to make judgements, they become easily deceived by what appears in their dreams, like the infatuated person. This leads the person to believe the dream is real, even when the dreams are absurd in nature.\n", "One component of Aristotle's theory of dreams disagrees with previously held beliefs. He claimed that dreams are not foretelling and not sent by a divine being. Aristotle reasoned naturalistically that instances in which dreams do resemble future events are simply coincidences. Aristotle claimed that a dream is first established by the fact that the person is asleep when they experience it. If a person had an image appear for a moment after waking up or if they see something in the dark it is not considered a dream because they were awake when it occurred. Secondly, any sensory experience that is perceived while a person is asleep does not qualify as part of a dream. For example, if, while a person is sleeping, a door shuts and in their dream they hear a door is shut, this sensory experience is not part of the dream. Lastly, the images of dreams must be a result of lasting impressions of waking sensory experiences.\n", "Section::::Practical philosophy.\n", "Aristotle's practical philosophy covers areas such as ethics, politics, economics, and rhetoric.\n", "Section::::Practical philosophy.:Just war theory.\n", "Aristotelian just war theory is not well regarded in the present day, especially his view that warfare was justified to enslave \"natural slaves\". In Aristotelian philosophy, the abolition of what he considers \"natural slavery\" would undermine civic freedom. The pursuit of freedom is inseparable from pursuing mastery over \"those who deserve to be slaves\". According to \"The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle's Politics\" the targets of this aggressive warfare were non-Greeks, noting Aristotle's view that \"our poets say 'it is proper for Greeks to rule non-Greeks'\".\n", "Aristotle generally has a favorable opinion of war, extolling it as a chance for virtue and writing that \"the leisure that accompanies peace\" tends to make people \"arrogant\". War to \"avoid becoming enslaved to others\" is justified as self-defense. He writes that war \"compels people to be just and temperate\", however, in order to be just \"war must be chosen for the sake of peace\" (with the exception of wars of aggression discussed above).\n", "Section::::Practical philosophy.:Ethics.\n", "Aristotle considered ethics to be a practical rather than theoretical study, i.e., one aimed at becoming good and doing good rather than knowing for its own sake. He wrote several treatises on ethics, including most notably, the \"Nicomachean Ethics\".\n", "Aristotle taught that virtue has to do with the proper function (\"ergon\") of a thing. An eye is only a good eye in so much as it can see, because the proper function of an eye is sight. Aristotle reasoned that humans must have a function specific to humans, and that this function must be an activity of the \"psuchē\" (\"soul\") in accordance with reason (\"logos\"). Aristotle identified such an optimum activity (the virtuous mean, between the accompanying vices of excess or deficiency) of the soul as the aim of all human deliberate action, \"eudaimonia\", generally translated as \"happiness\" or sometimes \"well being\". To have the potential of ever being happy in this way necessarily requires a good character (\"ēthikē\" \"aretē\"), often translated as moral or ethical virtue or excellence.\n", "Aristotle taught that to achieve a virtuous and potentially happy character requires a first stage of having the fortune to be habituated not deliberately, but by teachers, and experience, leading to a later stage in which one consciously chooses to do the best things. When the best people come to live life this way their practical wisdom (\"phronesis\") and their intellect (\"nous\") can develop with each other towards the highest possible human virtue, the wisdom of an accomplished theoretical or speculative thinker, or in other words, a philosopher.\n", "Section::::Practical philosophy.:Politics.\n", "In addition to his works on ethics, which address the individual, Aristotle addressed the city in his work titled \"Politics\". Aristotle considered the city to be a natural community. Moreover, he considered the city to be prior in importance to the family which in turn is prior to the individual, \"for the whole must of necessity be prior to the part\". He also famously stated that \"man is by nature a political animal\" and also arguing that humanity's defining factor among others in the animal kingdom is its rationality. Aristotle conceived of politics as being like an organism rather than like a machine, and as a collection of parts none of which can exist without the others. Aristotle's conception of the city is organic, and he is considered one of the first to conceive of the city in this manner.\n", "The common modern understanding of a political community as a modern state is quite different from Aristotle's understanding. Although he was aware of the existence and potential of larger empires, the natural community according to Aristotle was the city (\"polis\") which functions as a political \"community\" or \"partnership\" (\"koinōnia\"). The aim of the city is not just to avoid injustice or for economic stability, but rather to allow at least some citizens the possibility to live a good life, and to perform beautiful acts: \"The political partnership must be regarded, therefore, as being for the sake of noble actions, not for the sake of living together.\" This is distinguished from modern approaches, beginning with social contract theory, according to which individuals leave the state of nature because of \"fear of violent death\" or its \"inconveniences.\"\n", "In \"Protrepticus\", the character 'Aristotle' states:\n", "Section::::Practical philosophy.:Economics.\n", "Aristotle made substantial contributions to economic thought, especially to thought in the Middle Ages. In \"Politics\", Aristotle addresses the city, property, and trade. His response to criticisms of private property, in Lionel Robbins's view, anticipated later proponents of private property among philosophers and economists, as it related to the overall utility of social arrangements. Aristotle believed that although communal arrangements may seem beneficial to society, and that although private property is often blamed for social strife, such evils in fact come from human nature. In \"Politics\", Aristotle offers one of the earliest accounts of the origin of money. Money came into use because people became dependent on one another, importing what they needed and exporting the surplus. For the sake of convenience, people then agreed to deal in something that is intrinsically useful and easily applicable, such as iron or silver.\n", "Aristotle's discussions on retail and interest was a major influence on economic thought in the Middle Ages. He had a low opinion of retail, believing that contrary to using money to procure things one needs in managing the household, retail trade seeks to make a profit. It thus uses goods as a means to an end, rather than as an end unto itself. He believed that retail trade was in this way unnatural. Similarly, Aristotle considered making a profit through interest unnatural, as it makes a gain out of the money itself, and not from its use.\n", "Aristotle gave a summary of the function of money that was perhaps remarkably precocious for his time. He wrote that because it is impossible to determine the value of every good through a count of the number of other goods it is worth, the necessity arises of a single universal standard of measurement. Money thus allows for the association of different goods and makes them \"commensurable\". He goes to on state that money is also useful for future exchange, making it a sort of security. That is, \"if we do not want a thing now, we shall be able to get it when we do want it\".\n", "Section::::Practical philosophy.:Rhetoric and poetics.\n", "Aristotle's \"Rhetoric\" proposes that a speaker can use three basic kinds of appeals to persuade his audience: \"ethos\" (an appeal to the speaker's character), \"pathos\" (an appeal to the audience's emotion), and \"logos\" (an appeal to logical reasoning). He also categorises rhetoric into three genres: epideictic (ceremonial speeches dealing with praise or blame), forensic (judicial speeches over guilt or innocence), and deliberative (speeches calling on an audience to make a decision on an issue). Aristotle also outlines two kinds of rhetorical proofs: \"enthymeme\" (proof by syllogism) and \"paradeigma\" (proof by example).\n", "Aristotle writes in his \"Poetics\" that epic poetry, tragedy, comedy, dithyrambic poetry, painting, sculpture, music, and dance are all fundamentally acts of \"mimesis\" (\"imitation\"), each varying in imitation by medium, object, and manner. He applies the term \"mimesis\" both as a property of a work of art and also as the product of the artist's intention and contends that the audience's realisation of the \"mimesis\" is vital to understanding the work itself. Aristotle states that \"mimesis\" is a natural instinct of humanity that separates humans from animals and that all human artistry \"follows the pattern of nature\". Because of this, Aristotle believed that each of the mimetic arts possesses what Stephen Halliwell calls \"highly structured procedures for the achievement of their purposes.\" For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, and poetry with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation – through narrative or character, through change or no change, and through drama or no drama.\n", "While it is believed that Aristotle's \"Poetics\" originally comprised two books – one on comedy and one on tragedy – only the portion that focuses on tragedy has survived. Aristotle taught that tragedy is composed of six elements: plot-structure, character, style, thought, spectacle, and lyric poetry. The characters in a tragedy are merely a means of driving the story; and the plot, not the characters, is the chief focus of tragedy. Tragedy is the imitation of action arousing pity and fear, and is meant to effect the catharsis of those same emotions. Aristotle concludes \"Poetics\" with a discussion on which, if either, is superior: epic or tragic mimesis. He suggests that because tragedy possesses all the attributes of an epic, possibly possesses additional attributes such as spectacle and music, is more unified, and achieves the aim of its mimesis in shorter scope, it can be considered superior to epic. Aristotle was a keen systematic collector of riddles, folklore, and proverbs; he and his school had a special interest in the riddles of the Delphic Oracle and studied the fables of Aesop.\n", "Section::::Practical philosophy.:Views on women.\n", "Aristotle's analysis of procreation describes an active, ensouling masculine element bringing life to an inert, passive female element. On this ground, proponents of feminist metaphysics have accused Aristotle of misogyny and sexism. However, Aristotle gave equal weight to women's happiness as he did to men's, and commented in his \"Rhetoric\" that the things that lead to happiness need to be in women as well as men.\n", "Section::::Influence.\n", "More than 2300 years after his death, Aristotle remains one of the most influential people who ever lived. He contributed to almost every field of human knowledge then in existence, and he was the founder of many new fields. According to the philosopher Bryan Magee, \"it is doubtful whether any human being has ever known as much as he did\". Among countless other achievements, Aristotle was the founder of formal logic, pioneered the study of zoology, and left every future scientist and philosopher in his debt through his contributions to the scientific method. Taneli Kukkonen, writing in \"The Classical Tradition\", observes that his achievement in founding two sciences is unmatched, and his reach in influencing \"every branch of intellectual enterprise\" including Western ethical and political theory, theology, rhetoric and literary analysis is equally long. As a result, Kukkonen argues, any analysis of reality today \"will almost certainly carry Aristotelian overtones ... evidence of an exceptionally forceful mind.\" Jonathan Barnes wrote that \"an account of Aristotle's intellectual afterlife would be little less than a history of European thought\".\n", "Section::::Influence.:On his successor, Theophrastus.\n", "Aristotle's pupil and successor, Theophrastus, wrote the \"History of Plants\", a pioneering work in botany. Some of his technical terms remain in use, such as carpel from \"carpos\", fruit, and pericarp, from \"pericarpion\", seed chamber.\n", "Theophrastus was much less concerned with formal causes than Aristotle was, instead pragmatically describing how plants functioned.\n", "Section::::Influence.:On later Greek philosophers.\n", "The immediate influence of Aristotle's work was felt as the Lyceum grew into the Peripatetic school. Aristotle's notable students included Aristoxenus, Dicaearchus, Demetrius of Phalerum, Eudemos of Rhodes, Harpalus, Hephaestion, Mnason of Phocis, Nicomachus, and Theophrastus. Aristotle's influence over Alexander the Great is seen in the latter's bringing with him on his expedition a host of zoologists, botanists, and researchers. He had also learned a great deal about Persian customs and traditions from his teacher. Although his respect for Aristotle was diminished as his travels made it clear that much of Aristotle's geography was clearly wrong, when the old philosopher released his works to the public, Alexander complained \"Thou hast not done well to publish thy acroamatic doctrines; for in what shall I surpass other men if those doctrines wherein I have been trained are to be all men's common property?\"\n", "Section::::Influence.:On Hellenistic science.\n", "After Theophrastus, the Lyceum failed to produce any original work. Though interest in Aristotle's ideas survived, they were generally taken unquestioningly. It is not until the age of Alexandria under the Ptolemies that advances in biology can be again found.\n", "The first medical teacher at Alexandria, Herophilus of Chalcedon, corrected Aristotle, placing intelligence in the brain, and connected the nervous system to motion and sensation. Herophilus also distinguished between veins and arteries, noting that the latter pulse while the former do not. Though a few ancient atomists such as Lucretius challenged the teleological viewpoint of Aristotelian ideas about life, teleology (and after the rise of Christianity, natural theology) would remain central to biological thought essentially until the 18th and 19th centuries. Ernst Mayr states that there was \"nothing of any real consequence in biology after Lucretius and Galen until the Renaissance.\"\n", "Section::::Influence.:On Byzantine scholars.\n", "Greek Christian scribes played a crucial role in the preservation of Aristotle by copying all the extant Greek language manuscripts of the corpus. The first Greek Christians to comment extensively on Aristotle were Philoponus, Elias, and David in the sixth century, and Stephen of Alexandria in the early seventh century. John Philoponus stands out for having attempted a fundamental critique of Aristotle's views on the eternity of the world, movement, and other elements of Aristotelian thought. Philoponus questioned Aristotle's teaching of physics, noting its flaws and introducing the theory of impetus to explain his observations.\n", "After a hiatus of several centuries, formal commentary by Eustratius and Michael of Ephesus reappeared in the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries, apparently sponsored by Anna Comnena.\n", "Section::::Influence.:On the medieval Islamic world.\n", "Aristotle was one of the most revered Western thinkers in early Islamic theology. Most of the still extant works of Aristotle, as well as a number of the original Greek commentaries, were translated into Arabic and studied by Muslim philosophers, scientists and scholars. Averroes, Avicenna and Alpharabius, who wrote on Aristotle in great depth, also influenced Thomas Aquinas and other Western Christian scholastic philosophers. Alkindus greatly admired Aristotle's philosophy, and Averroes spoke of Aristotle as the \"exemplar\" for all future philosophers. Medieval Muslim scholars regularly described Aristotle as the \"First Teacher\". The title \"teacher\" was first given to Aristotle by Muslim scholars, and was later used by Western philosophers (as in the famous poem of Dante) who were influenced by the tradition of Islamic philosophy.\n", "Section::::Influence.:On medieval Europe.\n", "With the loss of the study of ancient Greek in the early medieval Latin West, Aristotle was practically unknown there from c. AD 600 to c. 1100 except through the Latin translation of the \"Organon\" made by Boethius. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, interest in Aristotle revived and Latin Christians had translations made, both from Arabic translations, such as those by Gerard of Cremona, and from the original Greek, such as those by James of Venice and William of Moerbeke. After the Scholastic Thomas Aquinas wrote his \"Summa Theologica\", working from Moerbeke's translations and calling Aristotle \"The Philosopher\", the demand for Aristotle's writings grew, and the Greek manuscripts returned to the West, stimulating a revival of Aristotelianism in Europe that continued into the Renaissance. These thinkers blended Aristotelian philosophy with Christianity, bringing the thought of Ancient Greece into the Middle Ages. Scholars such as Boethius, Peter Abelard, and John Buridan worked on Aristotelian logic.\n", "The medieval English poet Chaucer describes his student as being happy by having\n", "A cautionary medieval tale held that Aristotle advised his pupil Alexander to avoid the king's seductive mistress, Phyllis, but was himself captivated by her, and allowed her to ride him. Phyllis had secretly told Alexander what to expect, and he witnessed Phyllis proving that a woman's charms could overcome even the greatest philosopher's male intellect. Artists such as Hans Baldung produced a series of illustrations of the popular theme.\n", "The Italian poet Dante says of Aristotle in \"The Divine Comedy\":\n", "Section::::Influence.:On Early Modern scientists.\n", "In the Early Modern period, scientists such as William Harvey in England and Galileo Galilei in Italy reacted against the theories of Aristotle and other classical era thinkers like Galen, establishing new theories based to some degree on observation and experiment. Harvey demonstrated the circulation of the blood, establishing that the heart functioned as a pump rather than being the seat of the soul and the controller of the body's heat, as Aristotle thought. Galileo used more doubtful arguments to displace Aristotle's physics, proposing that bodies all fall at the same speed whatever their weight.\n", "Section::::Influence.:On 19th-century thinkers.\n", "The 19th-century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche has been said to have taken nearly all of his political philosophy from Aristotle. Aristotle rigidly separated action from production, and argued for the deserved subservience of some people (\"natural slaves\"), and the natural superiority (virtue, \"arete\") of others. It was Martin Heidegger, not Nietzsche, who elaborated a new interpretation of Aristotle, intended to warrant his deconstruction of scholastic and philosophical tradition.\n", "The English mathematician George Boole fully accepted Aristotle's logic, but decided \"to go under, over, and beyond\" it with his system of algebraic logic in his 1854 book \"The Laws of Thought\". This gives logic a mathematical foundation with equations, enables it to solve equations as well as check validity, and allows it to handle a wider class of problems by expanding propositions of any number of terms, not just two.\n", "Section::::Influence.:Modern rejection and rehabilitation.\n", "During the 20th century, Aristotle's work was widely criticised. The philosopher Bertrand Russell\n", "argued that \"almost every serious intellectual advance has had to begin with an attack on some Aristotelian doctrine\". Russell called Aristotle's ethics \"repulsive\", and labelled his logic \"as definitely antiquated as Ptolemaic astronomy\". Russell stated that these errors made it difficult to do historical justice to Aristotle, until one remembered what an advance he made upon all of his predecessors.\n", "The Dutch historian of science Eduard Jan Dijksterhuis wrote that Aristotle and his predecessors showed the difficulty of science by \"proceed[ing] so readily to frame a theory of such a general character\" on limited evidence from their senses. In 1985, the biologist Peter Medawar could still state in \"pure seventeenth century\" tones that Aristotle had assembled \"a strange and generally speaking rather tiresome farrago of hearsay, imperfect observation, wishful thinking and credulity amounting to downright gullibility\".\n", "By the start of the 21st century, however, Aristotle was taken more seriously: Kukkonen noted that \"In the best 20th-century scholarship Aristotle comes alive as a thinker wrestling with the full weight of the Greek philosophical tradition.\" Ayn Rand accredited Aristotle as \"the greatest philosopher in history\" and cited him as a major influence on her thinking. More recently, Alasdair MacIntyre has attempted to reform what he calls the Aristotelian tradition in a way that is anti-elitist and capable of disputing the claims of both liberals and Nietzscheans. Kukkonen observed, too, that \"that most enduring of romantic images, Aristotle tutoring the future conqueror Alexander\" remained current, as in the 2004 film \"Alexander\", while the \"firm rules\" of Aristotle's theory of drama have ensured a role for the \"Poetics\" in Hollywood.\n", "Biologists continue to be interested in Aristotle's thinking. Armand Marie Leroi has reconstructed Aristotle's biology, while Niko Tinbergen's four questions, based on Aristotle's four causes, are used to analyse animal behaviour; they examine function, phylogeny, mechanism, and ontogeny.\n", "Section::::Surviving works.\n", "Section::::Surviving works.:Corpus Aristotelicum.\n", "The works of Aristotle that have survived from antiquity through medieval manuscript transmission are collected in the Corpus Aristotelicum. These texts, as opposed to Aristotle's lost works, are technical philosophical treatises from within Aristotle's school. Reference to them is made according to the organisation of Immanuel Bekker's Royal Prussian Academy edition (\"Aristotelis Opera edidit Academia Regia Borussica\", Berlin, 1831–1870), which in turn is based on ancient classifications of these works.\n", "Section::::Surviving works.:Loss and preservation.\n", "Aristotle wrote his works on papyrus scrolls, the common writing medium of that era. His writings are divisible into two groups: the \"exoteric\", intended for the public, and the \"esoteric\", for use within the Lyceum school. Aristotle's \"lost\" works stray considerably in characterisation from the surviving Aristotelian corpus. Whereas the lost works appear to have been originally written with a view to subsequent publication, the surviving works mostly resemble lecture notes not intended for publication. Cicero's description of Aristotle's literary style as \"a river of gold\" must have applied to the published works, not the surviving notes. A major question in the history of Aristotle's works is how the exoteric writings were all lost, and how the ones we now possess came to us. The consensus is that Andronicus of Rhodes collected the esoteric works of Aristotle's school which existed in the form of smaller, separate works, distinguished them from those of Theophrastus and other Peripatetics, edited them, and finally compiled them into the more cohesive, larger works as they are known today.\n", "Section::::Legacy.\n", "Section::::Legacy.:Depictions.\n", "Aristotle has been depicted by major artists including Lucas Cranach the Elder, Justus van Gent, Raphael, Paolo Veronese, Jusepe de Ribera, Rembrandt, and Francesco Hayez over the centuries. Among the best-known is Raphael's fresco \"The School of Athens\", in the Vatican's Apostolic Palace, where the figures of Plato and Aristotle are central to the image, at the architectural vanishing point, reflecting their importance. Rembrandt's \"Aristotle with a Bust of Homer\", too, is a celebrated work, showing the knowing philosopher and the blind Homer from an earlier age: as the art critic Jonathan Jones writes, \"this painting will remain one of the greatest and most mysterious in the world, ensnaring us in its musty, glowing, pitch-black, terrible knowledge of time.\"\n", "Section::::Legacy.:Eponyms.\n", "The Aristotle Mountains in Antarctica are named after Aristotle. He was the first person known to conjecture, in his book \"Meteorology\", the existence of a landmass in the southern high-latitude region and called it \"Antarctica\". Aristoteles is a crater on the Moon bearing the classical form of Aristotle's name.\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- Aristotelian Society\n", "BULLET::::- Conimbricenses\n", "Section::::Further reading.\n", "The secondary literature on Aristotle is vast. The following is only a small selection.\n", "BULLET::::- Ackrill, J. L. (1997). \"Essays on Plato and Aristotle\", Oxford University Press.\n", "BULLET::::- These translations are available in several places online; see External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Bakalis, Nikolaos. (2005). \"Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments\", Trafford Publishing\n", "BULLET::::- Bolotin, David (1998). \"An Approach to Aristotle's Physics: With Particular Attention to the Role of His Manner of Writing.\" Albany: SUNY Press. A contribution to our understanding of how to read Aristotle's scientific works.\n", "BULLET::::- Burnyeat, Myles F. \"et al.\" (1979). \"Notes on Book Zeta of Aristotle's Metaphysics\". Oxford: Sub-faculty of Philosophy.\n", "BULLET::::- Code, Alan (1995). Potentiality in Aristotle's Science and Metaphysics, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 76.\n", "BULLET::::- De Groot, Jean (2014). \"Aristotle's Empiricism: Experience and Mechanics in the 4th Century BC\", Parmenides Publishing,\n", "BULLET::::- Frede, Michael (1987). \"Essays in Ancient Philosophy\". Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.\n", "BULLET::::- Gendlin, Eugene T. (2012). \"Line by Line Commentary on Aristotle's De Anima\", Volume 1: Books I & II; Volume 2: Book III. The Focusing Institute.\n", "BULLET::::- Gill, Mary Louise (1989). \"Aristotle on Substance: The Paradox of Unity\". Princeton University Press.\n", "BULLET::::- Halper, Edward C. (2009). \"One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics, Volume 1: Books Alpha – Delta\", Parmenides Publishing.\n", "BULLET::::- Halper, Edward C. (2005). \"One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics, Volume 2: The Central Books\", Parmenides Publishing.\n", "BULLET::::- Irwin, Terence H. (1988). \"Aristotle's First Principles\". Oxford: Clarendon Press.\n", "BULLET::::- Jori, Alberto (2003). \"Aristotele\", Bruno Mondadori (Prize 2003 of the \"International Academy of the History of Science\").\n", "BULLET::::- Knight, Kelvin (2007). \"Aristotelian Philosophy: Ethics and Politics from Aristotle to MacIntyre\", Polity Press.\n", "BULLET::::- Lewis, Frank A. (1991). \"Substance and Predication in Aristotle\". Cambridge University Press.\n", "BULLET::::- Lord, Carnes (1984). \"Introduction to \"The Politics\", by Aristotle\". Chicago University Press.\n", "BULLET::::- Loux, Michael J. (1991). Primary Ousia: An Essay on Aristotle's Metaphysics Ζ and Η. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.\n", "BULLET::::- Maso, Stefano (Ed.), Natali, Carlo (Ed.), Seel, Gerhard (Ed.) (2012) \"Reading Aristotle: Physics\" VII. 3: \"What is Alteration?\" \"Proceedings of the International ESAP-HYELE Conference\", Parmenides Publishing.\n", "BULLET::::- [Reprinted in J. Barnes, M. Schofield, and R.R.K. Sorabji, eds.(1975). \"Articles on Aristotle\" Vol 1. Science. London: Duckworth 14–34.]\n", "BULLET::::- Pangle, Lorraine Smith (2003). \"Aristotle and the Philosophy of Friendship\". Cambridge University Press.\n", "BULLET::::- Reeve, C. D. C. (2000). \"Substantial Knowledge: Aristotle's Metaphysics\". Hackett.\n", "BULLET::::- Scaltsas, T. (1994). \"Substances and Universals in Aristotle's Metaphysics\". Cornell University Press.\n", "BULLET::::- Strauss, Leo (1964). \"On Aristotle's \"Politics\"\", in \"The City and Man\", Rand McNally.\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- At the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:\n", "BULLET::::- From the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:\n", "BULLET::::- Collections of works\n", "BULLET::::- At Massachusetts Institute of Technology\n", "BULLET::::- Perseus Project at Tufts University\n", "BULLET::::- At the University of Adelaide\n", "BULLET::::- P. Remacle\n", "BULLET::::- The 11-volume 1837 Bekker edition of \"Aristotle's Works\" in Greek (PDFDJVU)\n" ] }
"http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FilePath/Aristotle_Altemps_Inv8575.jpg"
{ "aliases": { "alias": [ "Aristoteles", "Aristo", "Aristoételes", "Aristotelés", "Aristotel'", "Aristotile", "Aristotel", "Yalisiduode", "Aristóteles", "Aristóteles de Estagira", "Ya-li-ssu-to-te", "Yalishiduode", "Ya-li-shih-to-te", "Arisutoteresu", "Aristoteles Stagirites", "Aristotele", "Arestoteles", "Aristote", "Arystoteles", "Aristòtil", "Aristoeteles", "Aristoteles de Estagira", "Aristotil", "Aristotile.", "Aristotle.", "Aristotele.", "Aristote.", "Aristoteles Stagirites." ] }, "description": "Classical Greek philosopher, student of Plato and founder of Western philosophy", "enwikiquote_title": "Aristotle", "wikidata_id": "Q868", "wikidata_label": "Aristotle", "wikipedia_title": "Aristotle" }
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"Aristotle"
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{ "paragraph": [ "Prunella Scales\n", "Prunella Margaret Scales (\"née\" Illingworth; born 22 June 1932) is an English actress best known for her role as Basil Fawlty's wife Sybil in the BBC comedy \"Fawlty Towers\" and her BAFTA award-nominated role as Queen Elizabeth II in \"A Question of Attribution\" (\"Screen One\", BBC 1991) by Alan Bennett.\n", "Section::::Early life.\n", "Scales was born in Sutton Abinger, Surrey, the daughter of Catherine (\"née\" Scales), an actress, and John Richardson Illingworth, a cotton salesman. She attended Moira House Girls School, Eastbourne. She had a younger brother, Timothy (\"Timmo\") Illingworth (1934–2017).\n", "Scales' parents moved their family to Bucks Mill near Bideford in Devon in 1939 at the start of the Second World War. Scales herself (and her brother) were evacuated to Near Sawrey (then in Lancashire, now in Cumbria).\n", "Section::::Career.\n", "Scales started her career in 1951 as an assistant stage manager at the Bristol Old Vic. Throughout her career she has often been cast in comic roles. Her early work included the second UK adaptation of \"Pride and Prejudice\" (1952), \"Hobson's Choice\" (1954), \"Room at the Top\" (1959) and \"Waltz of the Toreadors\" (1962).\n", "Her career break came with the early 1960s sitcom \"Marriage Lines\" starring opposite Richard Briers. In addition to \"Fawlty Towers\", she has had roles in BBC Radio 4 sitcoms, and comedy series including \"After Henry\", \"Smelling of Roses\" and \"Ladies of Letters\"; on television she starred in the London Weekend Television/Channel 4 series \"Mapp & Lucia\" based on the novels by E. F. Benson. She played Queen Elizabeth II in Alan Bennett's \"A Question of Attribution\".\n", "In 1973, Scales was cast with Ronnie Barker in \"One Man's Meat\" which formed part of Barker's \"Seven of One\" series, also for the BBC. Her later film appearances include \"Escape from the Dark\" (1976), \"The Hound of the Baskervilles\" (1978), \"The Boys From Brazil\" (1978), \"The Wicked Lady\" (1983), \"The Lonely Passion of Judith Hearne\" (1987), \"Stiff Upper Lips\" (1997), \"Howards End\" (1992) and \"Wolf\" (1994). For the BBC Television Shakespeare production of \"The Merry Wives of Windsor\" (1982) she played Mistress Page and the \"Theatre Night\" series (BBC) she appeared with her husband Timothy West in the Joe Orton farce \"What the Butler Saw\" (1987) playing Mrs Prentice.\n", "For ten years, Prunella appeared with Jane Horrocks in advertisements for UK supermarket chain Tesco. In 1996, Scales starred in the television film, \"Lord of Misrule\", alongside Richard Wilson, Emily Mortimer and Stephen Moyer. The film was directed by Guy Jenkins and filming took place in Fowey in Cornwall. Also in 1996, she appeared as Miss Bates in Jane Austen’s Emma. In 1997, Scales starred in Chris Barfoot's science-fiction film short \"Phoenix\" which was first aired in 1999 by NBC Universal's Sci Fi Channel. Scales played 'The Client', an evil government minister funding inter-genetic time travel experiments. The same year she played Dr. Minny Stinkler in the comedy film \"Mad Cows\", directed by Sara Sugarman. In 1993 Scales voiced Mrs Tiggy-Winkle in The World of Peter Rabbit and Friends.\n", "In 2000 she appeared in the film \"The Ghost of Greville Lodge\" as Sarah. The same year she appeared as Eleanor Dunsall in Midsomer Murders Beyond the Grave. In 2001 she appeared in 2 episodes of Silent Witness, “Faith” as Mrs Parker. In 2003, she appeared as Hilda, \"she who must be obeyed\", wife of Horace Rumpole in four BBC Radio 4 plays, with Timothy West playing her fictional husband. Scales and West toured Australia at the same time in different productions. Scales appeared in a one-woman show called \"\"An Evening with Queen Victoria\"\", which also featured the tenor Ian Partridge singing songs written by Prince Albert.\n", "Also in 2003, she voiced the speaking (\"cawing\") role of Magpie, the eponymous thief in a recording of Gioachino Rossini's opera \"La gazza ladra\" (The Thieving Magpie).\n", "In 2006, she appeared alongside Academy Award winners Vanessa Redgrave and Maximilian Schell in the mini-series \"The Shell Seekers\".\n", "On 16 November 2007, Scales appeared in \"Children in Need\", reprising her role as Sybil Fawlty, the new manager who wants to take over Hotel Babylon. She appeared in the audio play \"The Youth of Old Age\", produced in 2008 by the Wireless Theatre Company, and available to download free of charge on their website. She appeared in a production of \"Carrie's War\", the Nina Bawden novel, at the Apollo Theatre in 2009. In 2008, she appeared in Agatha Christie's, \"A Pocket Full of Rye\", as Mrs. Mackenzie.\n", "John Cleese said in an interview on 8 May 2009 that the role of Sybil Fawlty was originally offered to Bridget Turner, who turned down the part, claiming \"it wasn't right for her\".\n", "She starred in the 2011 British live-action 3D family comedy film \"\" as the titular character's Great Aunt Greta.\n", "Scales appeared in a short audio story, \"Dandruff Hits the Turtleneck\", written by John Mayfield, and available for download.\n", "She starred in a Virgin Short \"Stranger Danger\" alongside Roderick Cowie in 2012. In 2013 she made a guest appearance in the popular BBC radio comedy \"Cabin Pressure\" as Wendy Crieff, the mother of Captain Martin Crieff.\n", "Alongside husband Timothy West she has appeared in \"Great Canal Journeys\" for Channel 4 every year since 2014. Stuart Heritage, writing for \"The Guardian\" in November 2016, commented that it \"is ultimately a work about a devoted couple facing something huge together. It’s a beautiful, meditative programme\". \"An emotional but unrooted glimpse of life with dementia\" was Christopher Howse's characterization in October 2018, writing for \"The Telegraph\".\n", "Section::::Personal life.\n", "Scales is married to the actor Timothy West, with whom she has two sons; the elder is actor and director Samuel West. Their younger son Joseph participated in two episodes of \"Great Canal Journeys\" filmed in France. Scales also has a step-daughter, Juliet, by West's first marriage.\n", "Her biography, \"Prunella\", written by Teresa Ransom, was published by UK publishing imprint John Murray in 2005.\n", "She was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1992 Birthday Honours List. Her husband received the same honour in the 1984 Birthday Honours List.\n", "Section::::Personal life.:Other activities.\n", "Scales is an ambassador of SOS Children's Villages charity. an international orphan charity providing homes and mothers for orphaned and abandoned children. She supports the charity's annual World Orphan Week campaign, which takes place each February.\n", "Scales is a patron of the Lace Market Theatre in Nottingham.\n", "In 2005, she named the P&O cruise ship, \"Artemis\".\n", "Section::::Personal life.:Later life.\n", "In March 2014, her husband told \"The Guardian\" that Scales was living with Alzheimer's disease. The couple discussed practical measures in a radio programme about age and dementia on BBC Radio 4 in December 2014. In June 2018, her husband characterized her short-term memory as \"no good at all\", and admitted her condition \"slowed them down\", but \"not so it closes up opportunities.\"\n" ] }
"http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FilePath/Prunella_Scales_in_2010.JPG"
{ "aliases": { "alias": [ "Prunella Margaret Rumney Illingworth" ] }, "description": "British actress", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q271348", "wikidata_label": "Prunella Scales", "wikipedia_title": "Prunella Scales" }
"157655"
"Prunella Scales"
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"American women novelists,American abortion-rights activists,1905 births,Atheism activists,Critics of religions,Critics of Marxism,Objectivists,Russian women writers,Jewish philosophers,American writers of Russian descent,Jewish American novelists,Imperial Russian Jews,American anti-socialists,Activists from New York (state),Aristotelian philosophers,Atheist philosophers,Imperial Russian emigrants to the United States,Political philosophers,20th-century Russian philosophers,American secularists,Imperial Russian atheists,Old Right (United States),American women dramatists and playwrights,Russian science fiction writers,Jewish American dramatists and playwrights,20th-century American writers,Writers from Saint Petersburg,Prometheus Award winners,Lung cancer survivors,Atheist writers,People with acquired American citizenship,American science fiction writers,Pseudonymous writers,1982 deaths,Russian atheism activists,American Zionists,Russian women essayists,American essayists,Russian women philosophers,20th-century atheists,Soviet emigrants to the United States,Screenwriters from New York (state),20th-century American dramatists and playwrights,People of the New Deal arts projects,Russian screenwriters,Exophonic writers,Russian dramatists and playwrights,American women philosophers,Jewish atheists,Russian women novelists,American political activists,Jewish activists,Writers from New York City,Saint Petersburg State University alumni,American atheists,20th-century American philosophers,Ayn Rand,Metaphysicians,American anti-communists,Epistemologists,American women essayists,Female critics of feminism,American women activists,American women screenwriters,Women science fiction and fantasy writers,Russian anti-communists,American anti-fascists,American ethicists,Jewish women writers,Pseudonymous women writers,20th-century American novelists,Philosophers from New York (state),20th-century American women writers,Jewish anti-communists,American people of Russian-Jewish descent,20th-century essayists,Novelists from New York (state),Burials at Kensico Cemetery,American political theorists"
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{ "paragraph": [ "Ayn Rand\n", "Ayn Rand (; born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum;  – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher. She is known for her two best-selling novels, \"The Fountainhead\" and \"Atlas Shrugged\", and for developing a philosophical system she named Objectivism. Educated in Russia, she moved to the United States in 1926. She had a play produced on Broadway in 1935 and 1936. After two early novels that were initially unsuccessful, she achieved fame with her 1943 novel, \"The Fountainhead\". In 1957, Rand published her best-known work, the novel \"Atlas Shrugged\". Afterward, she turned to non-fiction to promote her philosophy, publishing her own periodicals and releasing several collections of essays until her death in 1982.\n", "Rand advocated reason as the only means of acquiring knowledge and rejected faith and religion. She supported rational and ethical egoism and rejected altruism. In politics, she condemned the initiation of force as immoral and opposed collectivism and statism as well as anarchism, instead supporting \"laissez-faire\" capitalism, which she defined as the system based on recognizing individual rights, including property rights. In art, Rand promoted romantic realism. She was sharply critical of most philosophers and philosophical traditions known to her, except for Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas and classical liberals.\n", "Literary critics received Rand's fiction with mixed reviews and academia generally ignored or rejected her philosophy, though academic interest has increased in recent decades. The Objectivist movement attempts to spread her ideas, both to the public and in academic settings. She has been a significant influence among libertarians and American conservatives.\n", "Section::::Life.\n", "Section::::Life.:Early life.\n", "Rand was born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum () on February 2, 1905, to a Russian-Jewish bourgeois family living in Saint Petersburg. She was the eldest of three daughters of Zinovy Zakharovich Rosenbaum and his wife, Anna Borisovna (née Kaplan). Her father was upwardly mobile and a pharmacist and her mother was socially ambitious and religiously observant. Rand later said she found school unchallenging and began writing screenplays at the age of eight and novels at the age of ten. At the prestigious , her closest friend was Vladimir Nabokov's younger sister, Olga. The two girls shared an intense interest in politics and would engage in debates at the Nabokov mansion: while Olga defended constitutional monarchy, Alisa supported republican ideals.\n", "She was twelve at the time of the February Revolution of 1917, during which she favored Alexander Kerensky over Tsar Nicholas II. The subsequent October Revolution and the rule of the Bolsheviks under Vladimir Lenin disrupted the life the family had previously enjoyed. Her father's business was confiscated, and the family fled to the Crimean Peninsula, which was initially under control of the White Army during the Russian Civil War. While in high school, she realized that she was an atheist and valued reason above any other human virtue. After graduating from high school in the Crimea in June 1921, she returned with her family to Petrograd (as Saint Petersburg was renamed at that time), where they faced desperate conditions, on occasion nearly starving.\n", "After the Russian Revolution, universities were opened to women, allowing her to be in the first group of women to enroll at Petrograd State University. At the age of 16, she began her studies in the department of social pedagogy, majoring in history. At the university she was introduced to the writings of Aristotle and Plato, who would be her greatest influence and counter-influence, respectively. She also studied the philosophical works of Friedrich Nietzsche. Able to read French, German and Russian, she also discovered the writers Fyodor Dostoevsky, Victor Hugo, Edmond Rostand, and Friedrich Schiller, who became her perennial favorites.\n", "Along with many other bourgeois students, she was purged from the university shortly before graduating. After complaints from a group of visiting foreign scientists, however, many of the purged students were allowed to complete their work and graduate, which she did in October 1924. She then studied for a year at the State Technicum for Screen Arts in Leningrad. For an assignment she wrote an essay about the Polish actress Pola Negri, which became her first published work.\n", "By this time she had decided her professional surname for writing would be \"Rand\", possibly because it is graphically similar to a vowelless excerpt of her birth surname in Cyrillic handwriting, and she adopted the first name \"Ayn\", either from a Finnish name \"Aino\" or from the Hebrew word (\"ayin\", meaning \"eye\").\n", "Section::::Life.:Arrival in the United States.\n", "In late 1925, Rand was granted a visa to visit relatives in Chicago. She departed on January 17, 1926. When she arrived in New York City on February 19, 1926, she was so impressed with the skyline of Manhattan that she cried what she later called \"tears of splendor\". Intent on staying in the United States to become a screenwriter, she lived for a few months with her relatives, one of whom owned a movie theater and allowed her to watch dozens of films free of charge. She then left for Hollywood, California.\n", "In Hollywood, a chance meeting with famed director Cecil B. DeMille led to work as an extra in his film \"The King of Kings\" and a subsequent job as a junior screenwriter. While working on \"The King of Kings\", she met an aspiring young actor, Frank O'Connor; the two were married on April 15, 1929. She became a permanent American resident in July 1929 and an American citizen on March 3, 1931. Taking various jobs during the 1930s to support her writing, she worked for a time as the head of the costume department at RKO Studios. She made several attempts to bring her parents and sisters to the United States, but they were unable to acquire permission to emigrate.\n", "Section::::Life.:Early fiction.\n", "Rand's first literary success came with the sale of her screenplay \"Red Pawn\" to Universal Studios in 1932, although it was never produced. This was followed by the courtroom drama \"Night of January 16th\", first produced by E. E. Clive in Hollywood in 1934 and then successfully reopened on Broadway in 1935. Each night a jury was selected from members of the audience; based on the jury's vote, one of two different endings would be performed. In 1941, Paramount Pictures produced a movie loosely based on the play. Rand did not participate in the production and was highly critical of the result. \"Ideal\" is a novel and play written in 1934 which were first published in 2015 by her estate. The heroine is an actress who embodies Randian ideals.\n", "Rand's first published novel, the semi-autobiographical \"We the Living\", was published in 1936. Set in Soviet Russia, it focused on the struggle between the individual and the state. In a 1959 foreword to the novel, Rand stated that \"We the Living\" \"is as near to an autobiography as I will ever write. It is not an autobiography in the literal, but only in the intellectual sense. The plot is invented, the background is not ...\" Initial sales were slow and the American publisher let it go out of print, although European editions continued to sell. After the success of her later novels, Rand was able to release a revised version in 1959 that has since sold over three million copies. In 1942, without Rand's knowledge or permission, the novel was made into a pair of Italian films, \"Noi vivi\" and \"Addio, Kira\". Rediscovered in the 1960s, these films were re-edited into a new version which was approved by Rand and re-released as \"We the Living\" in 1986.\n", "Her novella \"Anthem\" was written during a break from the writing of her next major novel, \"The Fountainhead\". It presents a vision of a dystopian future world in which totalitarian collectivism has triumphed to such an extent that even the word 'I' has been forgotten and replaced with 'we'. It was published in England in 1938, but Rand initially could not find an American publisher. As with \"We the Living\", Rand's later success allowed her to get a revised version published in 1946, which has sold more than 3.5 million copies.\n", "Section::::Life.:\"The Fountainhead\" and political activism.\n", "During the 1940s, Rand became politically active. She and her husband worked as full-time volunteers for the 1940 presidential campaign of Republican Wendell Willkie. This work led to Rand's first public speaking experiences; she enjoyed fielding sometimes hostile questions from New York City audiences who had viewed pro-Willkie newsreels. This activity brought her into contact with other intellectuals sympathetic to free-market capitalism. She became friends with journalist Henry Hazlitt and his wife, and Hazlitt introduced her to the Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises. Despite her philosophical differences with them, Rand strongly endorsed the writings of both men throughout her career, and both of them expressed admiration for her. Mises once referred to Rand as \"the most courageous man in America\", a compliment that particularly pleased her because he said \"man\" instead of \"woman\". Rand also became friends with libertarian writer Isabel Paterson. Rand questioned Paterson about American history and politics long into the night during their many meetings and gave Paterson ideas for her only non-fiction book, \"The God of the Machine\".\n", "Rand's first major success as a writer came in 1943 with \"The Fountainhead\", a romantic and philosophical novel that she wrote over a period of seven years. The novel centers on an uncompromising young architect named Howard Roark and his struggle against what Rand described as \"second-handers\"—those who attempt to live through others, placing others above themselves. It was rejected by twelve publishers before finally being accepted by the Bobbs-Merrill Company on the insistence of editor Archibald Ogden, who threatened to quit if his employer did not publish it. While completing the novel, Rand was prescribed the amphetamine Benzedrine to fight fatigue. The drug helped her to work long hours to meet her deadline for delivering the novel, but afterwards she was so exhausted that her doctor ordered two weeks' rest. Her use of the drug for approximately three decades may have contributed to what some of her later associates described as volatile mood swings.\n", "\"The Fountainhead\" became a worldwide success, bringing Rand fame and financial security. In 1943, Rand sold the rights for a film version to Warner Bros. and she returned to Hollywood to write the screenplay. Finishing her work on that screenplay, she was hired by producer Hal B. Wallis as a screenwriter and script-doctor. Her work for Wallis included the screenplays for the Oscar-nominated \"Love Letters\" and \"You Came Along\". Rand also worked on other projects, including a planned nonfiction treatment of her philosophy to be called \"The Moral Basis of Individualism\". Although the planned book was never completed, a condensed version was published as an essay titled \"The Only Path to Tomorrow\" in the January 1944 edition of \"Reader's Digest\" magazine.\n", "Rand extended her involvement with free-market and anti-communist activism while working in Hollywood. She became involved with the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, a Hollywood anti-Communist group, and wrote articles on the group's behalf. She also joined the anti-Communist American Writers Association. A visit by Isabel Paterson to meet with Rand's California associates led to a final falling out between the two when Paterson made comments, which Rand considered rude, to valued political allies. In 1947, during the Second Red Scare, Rand testified as a \"friendly witness\" before the United States House Un-American Activities Committee. Her testimony described the disparity between her personal experiences in the Soviet Union and the portrayal of it in the 1944 film \"Song of Russia\". Rand argued that the film grossly misrepresented conditions in the Soviet Union, portraying life there as much better and happier than it actually was. She wanted to also criticize the lauded 1946 film \"The Best Years of Our Lives\" for what she interpreted as its negative presentation of the business world, but she was not allowed to testify about it. When asked after the hearings about her feelings on the effectiveness of the investigations, Rand described the process as \"futile\".\n", "After several delays, the film version of \"The Fountainhead\" was released in 1949. Although it used Rand's screenplay with minimal alterations, she \"disliked the movie from beginning to end\", and complained about its editing, acting, and other elements.\n", "Section::::Life.:\"Atlas Shrugged\" and Objectivism.\n", "In the years following the publication of \"The Fountainhead\", Rand received numerous letters from readers, some of whom the book profoundly influenced. In 1951, Rand moved from Los Angeles to New York City, where she gathered a group of these admirers around her. This group (jokingly designated \"The Collective\") included future Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan, a young psychology student named Nathan Blumenthal (later Nathaniel Branden) and his wife Barbara and Barbara's cousin Leonard Peikoff. Initially the group was an informal gathering of friends who met with Rand on weekends at her apartment to discuss philosophy. She later began allowing them to read the drafts of her new novel, \"Atlas Shrugged\", as the manuscript pages were written. In 1954 Rand's close relationship with the younger Nathaniel Branden turned into a romantic affair, with the consent of their spouses.\n", "\"Atlas Shrugged\", published in 1957, was considered Rand's \"magnum opus\". Rand described the theme of the novel as \"the role of the mind in man's existence—and, as a corollary, the demonstration of a new moral philosophy: the morality of rational self-interest\". It advocates the core tenets of Rand's philosophy of Objectivism and expresses her concept of human achievement. The plot involves a dystopian United States in which the most creative industrialists, scientists, and artists respond to a welfare state government by going on strike and retreating to a mountainous hideaway where they build an independent free economy. The novel's hero and leader of the strike, John Galt, describes the strike as \"stopping the motor of the world\" by withdrawing the minds of the individuals most contributing to the nation's wealth and achievement. With this fictional strike, Rand intended to illustrate that without the efforts of the rational and productive, the economy would collapse and society would fall apart. The novel includes elements of mystery, romance, and science fiction, and it contains an extended exposition of Objectivism in the form of a lengthy monologue delivered by Galt.\n", "Despite many negative reviews, \"Atlas Shrugged\" became an international bestseller. In an interview with Mike Wallace, Rand declared herself \"the most creative thinker alive\". However, Rand was discouraged and depressed by the reaction of intellectuals to the novel. \"Atlas Shrugged\" was Rand's last completed work of fiction; it marked the end of her career as a novelist and the beginning of her role as a popular philosopher.\n", "In 1958, Nathaniel Branden established Nathaniel Branden Lectures, later incorporated as the Nathaniel Branden Institute (NBI), to promote Rand's philosophy. Collective members gave lectures for NBI and wrote articles for Objectivist periodicals that she edited. Rand later published some of these articles in book form. Critics, including some former NBI students and Branden himself, later described the culture of NBI as one of intellectual conformity and excessive reverence for Rand, with some describing NBI or the Objectivist movement itself as a cult or religion. Rand expressed opinions on a wide range of topics, from literature and music to sexuality and facial hair, and some of her followers mimicked her preferences, wearing clothes to match characters from her novels and buying furniture like hers. However, some former NBI students believed the extent of these behaviors was exaggerated, and the problem was concentrated among Rand's closest followers in New York. Rand was unimpressed with many of the NBI students and held them to strict standards, sometimes reacting coldly or angrily to those who disagreed with her.\n", "Section::::Life.:Later years.\n", "Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Rand developed and promoted her Objectivist philosophy through her nonfiction works and by giving talks to students at institutions such as Yale, Princeton, Columbia, Harvard, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She received an honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Lewis & Clark College on 2 October 1963. She also began delivering annual lectures at the Ford Hall Forum, responding afterward to questions from the audience. During these speeches and Q&A sessions, she often took controversial stances on political and social issues of the day. These included supporting abortion rights, opposing the Vietnam War and the military draft (but condemning many draft dodgers as \"bums\"), supporting Israel in the Yom Kippur War of 1973 against a coalition of Arab nations as \"civilized men fighting savages\", saying European colonists had the right to develop land taken from American Indians, and calling homosexuality \"immoral\" and \"disgusting\", while also advocating the repeal of all laws about it. She also endorsed several Republican candidates for President of the United States, most strongly Barry Goldwater in 1964, whose candidacy she promoted in several articles for \"The Objectivist Newsletter\".\n", "In 1964, Nathaniel Branden began an affair with the young actress Patrecia Scott, whom he later married. Nathaniel and Barbara Branden kept the affair hidden from Rand. When she learned of it in 1968, though her romantic relationship with Branden had already ended, Rand terminated her relationship with both Brandens, which led to the closure of NBI. Rand published an article in \"The Objectivist\" repudiating Nathaniel Branden for dishonesty and other \"irrational behavior in his private life\". In subsequent years, Rand and several more of her closest associates parted company.\n", "Rand underwent surgery for lung cancer in 1974 after decades of heavy smoking. In 1976, she retired from writing her newsletter and, after her initial objections, she allowed social worker Evva Pryor, an employee of her attorney, to enroll her in Social Security and Medicare. During the late 1970s her activities within the Objectivist movement declined, especially after the death of her husband on November 9, 1979. One of her final projects was work on a never-completed television adaptation of \"Atlas Shrugged\".\n", "Rand died of heart failure on March 6, 1982, at her home in New York City, and was interred in the Kensico Cemetery, Valhalla, New York. Rand's funeral was attended by some of her prominent followers, including Alan Greenspan. A floral arrangement in the shape of a dollar sign was placed near her casket. In her will, Rand named Leonard Peikoff to inherit her estate.\n", "Section::::Philosophy.\n", "Rand called her philosophy \"Objectivism\", describing its essence as \"the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute\". She considered Objectivism a systematic philosophy and laid out positions on metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics.\n", "In metaphysics, Rand supported philosophical realism, and opposed anything she regarded as mysticism or supernaturalism, including all forms of religion.\n", "In epistemology, she considered all knowledge to be based on sense perception, the validity of which she considered axiomatic, and reason, which she described as \"the faculty that identifies and integrates the material provided by man's senses\". She rejected all claims of non-perceptual or \"a priori\" knowledge, including instinct,' 'intuition,' 'revelation,' or any form of 'just knowing. In her \"Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology\", Rand presented a theory of concept formation and rejected the analytic–synthetic dichotomy.\n", "In ethics, Rand argued for rational and ethical egoism (rational self-interest), as the guiding moral principle. She said the individual should \"exist for his own sake, neither sacrificing himself to others nor sacrificing others to himself\". She referred to egoism as \"the virtue of selfishness\" in her book of that title, in which she presented her solution to the is-ought problem by describing a meta-ethical theory that based morality in the needs of \"man's survival \"qua\" man\". She condemned ethical altruism as incompatible with the requirements of human life and happiness, and held that the initiation of force was evil and irrational, writing in \"Atlas Shrugged\" that \"Force and mind are opposites.\"\n", "Rand's political philosophy emphasized individual rights (including property rights), and she considered \"laissez-faire\" capitalism the only moral social system because in her view it was the only system based on the protection of those rights. She opposed statism, which she understood to include theocracy, absolute monarchy, Nazism, fascism, communism, democratic socialism, and dictatorship. Rand believed that natural rights should be enforced by a constitutionally limited government. Although her political views are often classified as conservative or libertarian, she preferred the term \"radical for capitalism\". She worked with conservatives on political projects, but disagreed with them over issues such as religion and ethics. She denounced libertarianism, which she associated with anarchism. She rejected anarchism as a naïve theory based in subjectivism that could only lead to collectivism in practice.\n", "In aesthetics, Rand defined art as a \"selective re-creation of reality according to an artist's metaphysical value-judgments\". According to her, art allows philosophical concepts to be presented in a concrete form that can be easily grasped, thereby fulfilling a need of human consciousness. As a writer, the art form Rand focused on most closely was literature, where she considered romanticism to be the approach that most accurately reflected the existence of human free will. She described her own approach to literature as \"romantic realism\".\n", "Rand acknowledged Aristotle as her greatest influence and remarked that in the history of philosophy she could only recommend \"three A's\"—Aristotle, Aquinas, and Ayn Rand. In a 1959 interview with Mike Wallace, when asked where her philosophy came from she responded: \"Out of my own mind, with the sole acknowledgement of a debt to Aristotle, the only philosopher who ever influenced me. I devised the rest of my philosophy myself.\" However, she also found early inspiration in Friedrich Nietzsche, and scholars have found indications of his influence in early notes from Rand's journals, in passages from the first edition of \"We the Living\" (which Rand later revised), and in her overall writing style. However, by the time she wrote \"The Fountainhead\", Rand had turned against Nietzsche's ideas, and the extent of his influence on her even during her early years is disputed. Rational egoism was embodied by Russian author Nikolay Chernyshevsky in the 1863 novel \"What Is to Be Done?\" and several critics claim that \"What Is to Be Done?\" is one of the sources of inspiration for Rand's thought. For example, the book's main character Lopuhov says \"I am not a man to make sacrifices. And indeed there are no such things. One acts in the way that one finds most pleasant.\" Among the philosophers Rand held in particular disdain was Immanuel Kant, whom she referred to as a \"monster\", although philosophers George Walsh and Fred Seddon have argued that she misinterpreted Kant and exaggerated their differences.\n", "Rand said her most important contributions to philosophy were her \"theory of concepts, [her] ethics, and [her] discovery in politics that evil—the violation of rights—consists of the initiation of force\". She believed epistemology was a foundational branch of philosophy and considered the advocacy of reason to be the single most significant aspect of her philosophy, stating: \"I am not \"primarily\" an advocate of capitalism, but of egoism; and I am not \"primarily\" an advocate of egoism, but of reason. If one recognizes the supremacy of reason and applies it consistently, all the rest follows.\"\n", "Section::::Reception and legacy.\n", "Section::::Reception and legacy.:Critical reception.\n", "During Rand's lifetime, her work evoked both extreme praise and condemnation. Rand's first novel, \"We the Living\", was admired by the literary critic H. L. Mencken, her Broadway play \"Night of January 16th\" was both a critical and popular success, and \"The Fountainhead\" was hailed by \"The New York Times\" reviewer Lorine Pruette as \"masterful\". Rand's novels were derided by some critics when they were first published as being long and melodramatic. However, they became bestsellers largely through word of mouth.\n", "The first reviews Rand received were for \"Night of January 16th\". Reviews of the production were largely positive, but Rand considered even positive reviews to be embarrassing because of significant changes made to her script by the producer. Rand believed that her first novel, \"We the Living\", was not widely reviewed, but Rand scholar Michael S. Berliner writes \"it was the most reviewed of any of her works\", with approximately 125 different reviews being published in more than 200 publications. Overall these reviews were more positive than the reviews she received for her later work. Her 1938 novella \"Anthem\" received little attention from reviewers, both for its first publication in England and for subsequent re-issues.\n", "Rand's first bestseller, \"The Fountainhead\", received far fewer reviews than \"We the Living\", and reviewers' opinions were mixed. Lorine Pruette's positive review in \"The New York Times\" was one that Rand greatly appreciated. Pruette called Rand \"a writer of great power\" who wrote \"brilliantly, beautifully and bitterly\", and stated that \"you will not be able to read this masterful book without thinking through some of the basic concepts of our time\". There were other positive reviews, but Rand dismissed most of them as either not understanding her message or as being from unimportant publications. Some negative reviews focused on the length of the novel, such as one that called it \"a whale of a book\" and another that said \"anyone who is taken in by it deserves a stern lecture on paper-rationing\". Other negative reviews called the characters unsympathetic and Rand's style \"offensively pedestrian\".\n", "Rand's 1957 novel \"Atlas Shrugged\" was widely reviewed and many of the reviews were strongly negative. In \"National Review\", conservative author Whittaker Chambers called the book \"sophomoric\" and \"remarkably silly\". He described the tone of the book as \"shrillness without reprieve\" and accused Rand of supporting a godless system (which he related to that of the Soviets), claiming \"From almost any page of \"Atlas Shrugged\", a voice can be heard, from painful necessity, commanding: 'To a gas chamber—go!. \"Atlas Shrugged\" received positive reviews from a few publications, including praise from the noted book reviewer John Chamberlain, but Rand scholar Mimi Reisel Gladstein later wrote that \"reviewers seemed to vie with each other in a contest to devise the cleverest put-downs\", calling it \"execrable claptrap\" and \"a nightmare\"—they also said it was \"written out of hate\" and showed \"remorseless hectoring and prolixity\".\n", "Rand's nonfiction received far fewer reviews than her novels had. The tenor of the criticism for her first nonfiction book, \"For the New Intellectual\", was similar to that for \"Atlas Shrugged\", with philosopher Sidney Hook likening her certainty to \"the way philosophy is written in the Soviet Union\", and author Gore Vidal calling her viewpoint \"nearly perfect in its immorality\". Her subsequent books got progressively less attention from reviewers.\n", "On the 100th anniversary of Rand's birth in 2005, Edward Rothstein, writing for \"The New York Times\", referred to her fictional writing as quaint utopian \"retro fantasy\" and programmatic neo-Romanticism of the misunderstood artist while criticizing her characters' \"isolated rejection of democratic society\". In 2007, book critic Leslie Clark described her fiction as \"romance novels with a patina of pseudo-philosophy\". In 2009, \"GQ\"s critic columnist Tom Carson described her books as \"capitalism's version of middlebrow religious novels\" such as \"\" and the \"Left Behind\" series.\n", "Section::::Reception and legacy.:Popular interest.\n", "In 1991, a survey conducted for the Library of Congress and the Book-of-the-Month Club asked club members what the most influential book in the respondent's life was. Rand's \"Atlas Shrugged\" was the second most popular choice, after the Bible. Rand's books continue to be widely sold and read, with over 29 million copies sold (with about 10% of that total purchased for free distribution to schools by the Ayn Rand Institute). In 1998, Modern Library readers voted \"Atlas Shrugged\" the 20th century's finest work of fiction, followed by \"The Fountainhead\" in second place, \"Anthem\" in seventh, and \"We the Living\" eighth; none of the four appeared on the critics' list. Although Rand's influence has been greatest in the United States, there has been international interest in her work.\n", "Rand's contemporary admirers included fellow novelists, such as Ira Levin, Kay Nolte Smith and L. Neil Smith; and later writers such as Erika Holzer and Terry Goodkind have been influenced by her. Other artists who have cited Rand as an important influence on their lives and thought include comic book artist Steve Ditko and musician Neil Peart of Rush. Rand provided a positive view of business and subsequently many business executives and entrepreneurs have admired and promoted her work. John Allison of BB&T and Ed Snider of Comcast Spectacor have funded the promotion of Rand's ideas, while Mark Cuban (owner of the Dallas Mavericks) as well as John P. Mackey (CEO of Whole Foods) among others have said they consider Rand crucial to their success.\n", "Rand and her works have been referred to in a variety of media: on television shows including animated sitcoms, live-action comedies, dramas, and game shows, as well as in movies and video games. She, or a character based on her, figures prominently (in positive and negative lights) in literary and science fiction novels by prominent American authors. Nick Gillespie, editor in chief of \"Reason\", has remarked that \"Rand's is a tortured immortality, one in which she's as likely to be a punch line as a protagonist...\" and that \"jibes at Rand as cold and inhuman, run through the popular culture\". Two movies have been made about Rand's life. A 1997 documentary film, \"\", was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature. \"The Passion of Ayn Rand\", a 1999 television adaptation of the book of the same name, won several awards. Rand's image also appears on a 1999 U.S. postage stamp illustrated by artist Nick Gaetano.\n", "Section::::Reception and legacy.:Political influence.\n", "Although she rejected the labels \"conservative\" and \"libertarian\", Rand has had continuing influence on right-wing politics and libertarianism. Jim Powell, a senior fellow at the Cato Institute, considers Rand one of the three most important women (along with Rose Wilder Lane and Isabel Paterson) of modern American libertarianism, and David Nolan, one of the founders of the Libertarian Party, stated that \"without Ayn Rand, the libertarian movement would not exist\". In his history of the libertarian movement, journalist Brian Doherty described her as \"the most influential libertarian of the twentieth century to the public at large\" and biographer Jennifer Burns referred to her as \"the ultimate gateway drug to life on the right\". Economist and Ayn Rand student George Reisman wrote: \"Ayn Rand...in particular, must be cited as providing a philosophical foundation for the case of capitalism, and as being responsible probably more than anyone else for the current spread of pro-capitalist ideas.\"\n", "She faced intense opposition from William F. Buckley, Jr. and other contributors for the \"National Review\" magazine. They published numerous criticisms in the 1950s and 1960s by Whittaker Chambers, Garry Wills, and M. Stanton Evans. Nevertheless, her influence among conservatives forced Buckley and other \"National Review\" contributors to reconsider how traditional notions of virtue and Christianity could be integrated with support for capitalism.\n", "The political figures who cite Rand as an influence are usually conservatives (often members of the Republican Party), despite Rand taking some positions that are atypical for conservatives, such as being pro-choice and an atheist. A 1987 article in \"The New York Times\" referred to her as the Reagan administration's \"novelist laureate\". Republican Congressmen and conservative pundits have acknowledged her influence on their lives and have recommended her novels.\n", "The financial crisis of 2007–2008 spurred renewed interest in her works, especially \"Atlas Shrugged\", which some saw as foreshadowing the crisis. Opinion articles compared real-world events with the plot of the novel. During this time, signs mentioning Rand and her fictional hero John Galt appeared at Tea Party protests. There was also increased criticism of her ideas, especially from the political left, with critics blaming the economic crisis on her support of selfishness and free markets, particularly through her influence on Alan Greenspan. For example, \"Mother Jones\" remarked that \"Rand's particular genius has always been her ability to turn upside down traditional hierarchies and recast the wealthy, the talented, and the powerful as the oppressed\" while equating Randian individual well-being with that of the \"Volk\" according to Goebbels. Corey Robin of \"The Nation\" alleged similarities between the \"moral syntax of Randianism\" and fascism.\n", "Section::::Reception and legacy.:Academic reaction.\n", "Section::::Reception and legacy.:Academic reaction.:Scholarly reception during Rand's lifetime.\n", "During Rand's lifetime, her work received little attention from academic scholars. When the first academic book about Rand's philosophy appeared in 1971, its author declared writing about Rand \"a treacherous undertaking\" that could lead to \"guilt by association\" for taking her seriously. A few articles about Rand's ideas appeared in academic journals before her death in 1982, many of them in \"The Personalist\". One of these was \"On the Randian Argument\" by libertarian philosopher Robert Nozick, who argued that her meta-ethical argument is unsound and fails to solve the is–ought problem posed by David Hume. Other philosophers, writing in the same publication, argued that Nozick misstated Rand's case. Academic consideration of Rand as a literary figure during her life was even more limited. Academic Mimi Gladstein was unable to find any scholarly articles about Rand's novels when she began researching her in 1973, and only three such articles appeared during the rest of the 1970s.\n", "Section::::Reception and legacy.:Academic reaction.:Posthumous overall assessments.\n", "Since Rand's death, interest in her work has gradually increased. In 2009, historian Jennifer Burns identified \"three overlapping waves\" of scholarly interest in Rand, including \"an explosion of scholarship\" since the year 2000. However, as of that same year, few universities included Rand or Objectivism as a philosophical specialty or research area, with many literature and philosophy departments dismissing her as a pop culture phenomenon rather than a subject for serious study.\n", "Writing in the 1998 edition of the \"Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy\", political theorist Chandran Kukathas summarizes the mainstream philosophical reception to her work in two parts. Her ethical argument, he says, is viewed by most commentators as an unconvincing variant of Aristotle's ethics. Her political theory, he says, \"is of little interest\", marred by an \"ill-thought out and unsystematic\" effort to reconcile her hostility to the state with her rejection of anarchism. Libertarian philosopher Michael Huemer argues that very few people find Rand's ideas convincing, especially her ethics, which he believes are difficult to interpret and may lack logical coherence. He attributes the attention she receives to her being a \"compelling writer\", especially as a novelist, noting that \"Atlas Shrugged\" outsells Rand's non-fiction works as well as the works of other philosophers of classical liberalism such as Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich Hayek, or Frederic Bastiat.\n", "Political scientist Charles Murray, while praising Rand's literary accomplishments, criticizes her claim that her only \"philosophical debt\" was to Aristotle, instead asserting that her ideas were derivative of previous thinkers such as John Locke and Friedrich Nietzsche. Although Rand maintained that Objectivism was an integrated philosophical system, philosopher Robert H. Bass argues that her central ethical ideas are inconsistent and contradictory to her central political ideas.\n", "In the \"Literary Encyclopedia\" entry for Rand written in 2001, John David Lewis declared that \"Rand wrote the most intellectually challenging fiction of her generation\".\n", "Section::::Reception and legacy.:Academic reaction.:Rand-specific scholarship.\n", "Some scholars focus specifically on Rand's work. In 1987 Allan Gotthelf, George Walsh and David Kelley co-founded the Ayn Rand Society, a group affiliated with the American Philosophical Association. Gladstein, Harry Binswanger, Allan Gotthelf, John Hospers, Edwin A. Locke, Wallace Matson, Leonard Peikoff, Chris Matthew Sciabarra, and Tara Smith have taught her work in academic institutions. Sciabarra co-edits the \"Journal of Ayn Rand Studies\", a nonpartisan peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the study of Rand's philosophical and literary work. In a 1999 interview in the \"Chronicle of Higher Education\", Sciabarra commented, \"I know they laugh at Rand\", while forecasting a growth of interest in her work in the academic community.\n", "In 2012, the University of Pittsburgh Press launched an \"Ayn Rand Society Philosophical Studies\" series based on the proceedings of the Society. Smith has written several academic books and papers on Rand's ideas, including \"Ayn Rand's Normative Ethics: The Virtuous Egoist\", a volume on Rand's ethical theory published by Cambridge University Press. Rand's ideas have also been made subjects of study at Clemson and Duke universities. Scholars of English and American literature have largely ignored her work, although attention to her literary work has increased since the 1990s.\n", "Rand scholars Douglas Den Uyl and Douglas B. Rasmussen, while stressing the importance and originality of her thought, describe her style as \"literary, hyperbolic and emotional\". Political writer and Rand scholar Jack Wheeler writes that despite \"the incessant bombast and continuous venting of Randian rage\", Rand's ethics are \"a most immense achievement, the study of which is vastly more fruitful than any other in contemporary thought\". \n", "Section::::Reception and legacy.:Objectivist movement.\n", "In 1985, Rand's intellectual heir Leonard Peikoff established the Ayn Rand Institute, a nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting Rand's ideas and works. In 1990, after an ideological disagreement with Peikoff, philosopher David Kelley founded the Institute for Objectivist Studies, now known as The Atlas Society. In 2001, historian John McCaskey organized the Anthem Foundation for Objectivist Scholarship, which provides grants for scholarly work on Objectivism in academia. The charitable foundation of BB&T Corporation has also given grants for teaching Rand's ideas or works. The University of Texas at Austin, the University of Pittsburgh, and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill are among the schools that have received grants. In some cases, these grants have been controversial due to their requiring research or teaching related to Rand.\n", "Section::::Selected works.\n", "Novels:\n", "BULLET::::- 1936 \"We the Living\"\n", "BULLET::::- 1943 \"The Fountainhead\"\n", "BULLET::::- 1957 \"Atlas Shrugged\"\n", "Other fiction:\n", "BULLET::::- 1934 \"Night of January 16th\"\n", "BULLET::::- 1938 \"Anthem\"\n", "BULLET::::- 2015 \"Ideal\"\n", "Non-fiction:\n", "BULLET::::- 1961 \"For the New Intellectual\"\n", "BULLET::::- 1964 \"The Virtue of Selfishness\"\n", "BULLET::::- 1966 \"\"\n", "BULLET::::- 1969 \"The Romantic Manifesto\"\n", "BULLET::::- 1971 \"\"\n", "BULLET::::- 1979 \"Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology\"\n", "BULLET::::- 1982 \"\"\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- List of people influenced by Ayn Rand\n", "BULLET::::- \"Letters of Ayn Rand\"\n", "BULLET::::- \"Journals of Ayn Rand\"\n", "BULLET::::- Murder of Marion Parker\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Frequently Asked Questions About Ayn Rand from the Ayn Rand Institute\n", "BULLET::::- Rand's papers at The Library of Congress\n", "BULLET::::- Ayn Rand Lexicon – searchable database\n", "BULLET::::- \"Writings of Ayn Rand\" – from C-SPAN's \"\"\n" ] }
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legate", "Durrës", "Constantinople", "Bohemond I of Antioch", "List of Byzantine emperors", "Alexios I Komnenos", "Siege of Nicaea", "Battle of Dorylaeum (1097)", "Siege of Antioch", "Antioch", "Seljuq dynasty", "Kerbogha", "Holy Lance", "Monk", "Peter Bartholomew", "Jerusalem", "Tripoli, Lebanon", "March from Antioch to Jerusalem during the First Crusade", "Principality of Antioch", "Krak des Chevaliers", "Jerusalem", "Siege of Jerusalem (1099)", "Kingdom of Jerusalem", "Jesus", "Siege of Tripoli", "Tower of David", "Godfrey of Bouillon", "Battle of Ascalon", "Egypt", "Latakia", "Constantinople", "Byzantine Empire", "Crusade of 1101", "Merzifon", "Anatolia", "Tancred, Prince of Galilee", "Acre, Israel", "Tartus", "Citadel of Raymond de Saint-Gilles", "Tripoli, Lebanon", "Alexios I Komnenos", "Consanguinity", "Geoffrey I of Provence", "Roger I of Sicily", "Elvira of Castile, Countess of Toulouse", "Alfonso VI of León and Castile", "Alfonso Jordan", "William II Jordan", "Baldwin I of Jerusalem", "County of Tripoli", "Raymond of Aguilers" ] }
"Occitan nobility,People excommunicated by the Catholic Church,Margraves of Provence,Christians of the Crusade of 1101,Counts of Tripoli,1040s births,French Roman Catholics,French people with disabilities,Christians of the First Crusade,Royalty and nobility with disabilities,Counts of Toulouse,1105 deaths,Dukes of Narbonne"
"512px-Raymond_IV_of_Toulouse.jpg"
"157667"
{ "paragraph": [ "Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse\n", "Raymond IV ( 1041 – 28 February 1105), sometimes called Raymond of Saint-Gilles or Raymond I of Tripoli, was a powerful noble in southern France and one of the leaders of the First Crusade (1096–99). He was the Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne and Margrave of Provence from 1094, and he spent the last five years of his life establishing the County of Tripoli in the Near East.\n", "Section::::Early years.\n", "Raymond was a son of Pons of Toulouse and Almodis de La Marche. He received Saint-Gilles with the title of \"count\" from his father and displaced his niece Philippa, Duchess of Aquitaine, his brother William IV's daughter, in 1094 from inheriting Toulouse.\n", "In 1094, William Bertrand of Provence died and his margravial title to Provence passed to Raymond. A bull of Urban's dated 22 July 1096 names Raymond \"comes Nimirum Tholosanorum ac Ruthenensium et marchio Provintie Raimundus\" (\"Raymond, count of Nîmes, Toulouse and Rouergue and margrave of Provence\").\n", "Section::::The First Crusade.\n", "Raymond was deeply religious, and wished to die in the Holy Land, and so when the call was raised for the First Crusade, he was one of the first to take the cross. He is sometimes called \"the one-eyed\" (\"monoculus\" in Latin) after a rumour that he had lost an eye in a scuffle with the doorkeeper of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre during an earlier pilgrimage to Jerusalem. The oldest and the richest of the crusaders, Raymond left Toulouse at the end of October 1096, with a large company that included his wife Elvira, his infant son (who would die on the journey) and Adhemar, bishop of Le Puy, the papal legate. He ignored requests by his niece, Philippa (the rightful heiress to Toulouse) to grant the rule of Toulouse to her in his stead; instead, he left Bertrand, his eldest son, to govern. He marched to Dyrrhachium, and then east to Constantinople along the same route used by Bohemond of Taranto. At the end of April 1097, he was the only crusade leader not to swear an oath of fealty to Byzantine emperor Alexius I. Instead, Raymond swore an oath of friendship, and offered his support against Bohemond, mutual enemy of both Raymond and Alexius.\n", "He was present at the siege of Nicaea and the Battle of Dorylaeum in 1097, but his first major role came in October 1097 at the siege of Antioch. The crusaders heard a rumour that Antioch had been deserted by the Seljuk Turks, so Raymond sent his army ahead to occupy it, offending Bohemond of Taranto who wanted the city for himself. The city was, however, still occupied, and was taken by the crusaders only after a difficult siege in June 1098. Raymond took the \"palatium Cassiani\" (the palace of the emir, Yaghi-Siyan) and the tower over the Bridge Gate. He was ill during the second siege of Antioch by Kerbogha which culminated in a controversial rediscovery of the Holy Lance by a monk named Peter Bartholomew.\n", "The \"miracle\" raised the morale of the crusaders, and to their surprise they were able to rout Kerbogha outside Antioch. The Lance itself became a valuable relic among Raymond's followers, despite Adhemar of Le Puy's skepticism and Bohemond's disbelief and occasional mockery. Raymond also refused to relinquish his control of the city to Bohemond, reminding Bohemond that he was obligated to return Antioch to the court of Emperor Alexius, as he had sworn to do. A struggle then arose between Raymond's supporters and the supporters of Bohemond, partly over the genuineness of the Lance, but mostly over the possession of Antioch.\n", "Section::::Extending his territorial reach.\n", "Many of the minor knights and foot soldiers preferred to continue their march to Jerusalem, and they convinced Raymond to lead them there in the autumn of 1098. Raymond led them out to besiege Ma'arrat al-Numan, although he left a small detachment of his troops in Antioch, where Bohemond also remained. As Adhemar had died in Antioch, Raymond, along with the prestige given to him by the Holy Lance, became the new leader of the crusade. Bohemond however, expelled Raymond's detachment from Antioch in January 1099. Raymond then began to search for a city of his own. He marched from Ma'arrat, which had been captured in December 1098, into the emirate of Tripoli, and began the siege of Arqa on 14 February 1099, apparently with the intent of founding an independent territory in Tripoli that could limit the power of Bohemond to expand the Principality of Antioch to the south.\n", "The siege of Arqa, a town outside Tripoli, lasted longer than Raymond had hoped. Although he successfully captured Hisn al-Akrad, a fortress that would later become the important Krak des Chevaliers, his insistence on taking Tripoli delayed the march to Jerusalem, and he lost much of the support he had gained after Antioch. Raymond finally agreed to continue the march to Jerusalem on 13 May, and after months of siege the city was captured on 15 July. Raymond was offered the crown of the new Kingdom of Jerusalem, but refused, as he was reluctant to rule in the city in which Jesus had suffered. He said that he shuddered to think of being called \"King of Jerusalem\". It is also likely that he wished to continue the siege of Tripoli rather than remain in Jerusalem. However, he was also reluctant to give up the Tower of David in Jerusalem, which he had taken after the fall of the city, and it was only with difficulty that Godfrey of Bouillon was able to take it from him.\n", "Raymond participated in the battle of Ascalon soon after the capture of Jerusalem, during which an invading army from Egypt was defeated. However, Raymond wanted to occupy Ascalon himself rather than give it to Godfrey, and in the resulting dispute Ascalon remained unoccupied. It was not taken by the crusaders until 1153. Godfrey also blamed him for the failure of his army to capture Arsuf. When Raymond went north, in the winter of 1099–1100, his first act was one of hostility against Bohemond, capturing Laodicea from (Bohemond had himself recently taken it from Alexius). From Laodicea he went to Constantinople, where he allied with Alexius I, Bohemond's most powerful enemy. Bohemond was at the time attempting to expand Antioch into Byzantine territory, and blatantly refused to fulfill his oath to the Byzantine Empire.\n", "Section::::Crusade of 1101, siege of Tripoli, and death.\n", "Raymond was part of the doomed Crusade of 1101, where he was defeated at Mersivan in Anatolia. He escaped and returned to Constantinople. In 1102 he traveled by sea from Constantinople to Antioch, where he was imprisoned by Tancred, regent of Antioch during the captivity of Bohemond, and was only dismissed after promising not to attempt any conquests in the country between Antioch and Acre. He immediately broke his promise, attacking and capturing Tartus, and began to build a castle on the Mons Peregrinus (\"Pilgrim's Mountain\") which would help in his siege of Tripoli. He was aided by Alexius I, who preferred a friendly state in Tripoli to balance the hostile state in Antioch. Raymond died on February 28, 1105, before Tripoli was captured.\n", "Section::::Spouses and progeny.\n", "Raymond IV of Toulouse was married three times, and twice excommunicated for marrying within forbidden degrees of consanguinity. \n", "BULLET::::- His first wife was his cousin, daughter of Geoffrey I of Provence and the mother of his son Bertrand.\n", "BULLET::::- His second wife was Matilda (Mafalda), the daughter of Count Roger I of Sicily.\n", "BULLET::::- Raymond's third wife was Elvira, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of León, the Spanish king who also campaigned furiously against the Moors. Their son was Alfonso Jordan.\n", "Following Raymond's death, his nephew William-Jordan in 1109, with the aid of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem, finally captured Tripoli and established the County of Tripoli. William was deposed in the same year by Raymond's eldest son Bertrand, and the county remained in the possession of the counts of Toulouse throughout the 12th century.\n", "Raymond of Toulouse seems to have been driven both by religious and material motives. On the one hand he accepted the discovery of the Holy Lance and rejected the kingship of Jerusalem, but on the other hand he could not resist the temptation of a new territory. Raymond of Aguilers, a clerk in Raymond's army, wrote an account of the crusade from Raymond's point of view.\n" ] }
"http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FilePath/Raymond_IV_of_Toulouse.jpg"
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"Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse"
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{ "paragraph": [ "Abraham Lincoln\n", "Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis. He preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the U.S. economy.\n", "Born in Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in a poor family. Self-educated, he became a lawyer, Whig Party leader, Illinois state legislator and Congressman. In 1849, he left government to resume his law practice, but angered by the success of Democrats in opening the prairie lands to slavery, reentered politics in 1854. He became a leader in the new Republican Party and gained national attention in 1858 for debating national Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas in the 1858 Illinois Senate campaign. He then ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North and winning. Southern pro-slavery elements took his win as proof that the North was rejecting the constitutional rights of Southern states to practice slavery. They began the process of seceding from the union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America fired on Fort Sumter, one of the few U.S. forts in the South. Lincoln called up volunteers and militia to suppress the rebellion and restore the Union.\n", "As the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln confronted Radical Republicans, who demanded harsher treatment of the South; War Democrats, who rallied a large faction of former opponents into his camp; anti-war Democrats (called Copperheads), who despised him; and irreconcilable secessionists, who plotted his assassination. Lincoln fought the factions by pitting them against each other, by carefully distributing political patronage, and by appealing to the American people. His Gettysburg Address became an iconic call for nationalism, republicanism, equal rights, liberty, and democracy. He suspended \"habeas corpus\", and he averted British intervention by defusing the \"Trent\" Affair. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade that shut down the South's trade. As the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863; ordering the Army to protect escaped slaves, encouraging border states to outlaw slavery, and pushing through Congress the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which outlawed slavery across the country.\n", "Lincoln managed his own re-election campaign. He sought to reconcile his damaged nation by avoiding retribution against the secessionists. A few days after the Battle of Appomattox Court House, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, on April 14, 1865, and died the following day. Abraham Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero. He is consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U.S. presidents.\n", "Section::::Family and childhood.\n", "Section::::Family and childhood.:Early life.\n", "Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, as the second child of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville, Kentucky. He was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk, to its namesake Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638. Samuel's grandson and great-grandson began the family's westward migration, passing through New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Kentucky, in the 1780s. Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786. His children, including eight-year-old Thomas, Abraham's father, witnessed the attack. Thomas then worked at odd jobs in Kentucky and in Tennessee, before settling with members of his family in Hardin County, Kentucky, in the early 1800s.\n", "Lincoln's mother, Nancy, is widely assumed to have been the daughter of Lucy Hanks, although no record documents this. Thomas and Nancy married on June 12, 1806, in Washington County, and moved to Elizabethtown, Kentucky. They produced three children: Sarah, born on February 10, 1807; Abraham, on February 12, 1809; and Thomas, who died in infancy.\n", "Thomas Lincoln bought or leased farms in Kentucky. Thomas became embroiled in legal disputes, and lost all but of his land in court disputes over property titles. In 1816, the family moved to Indiana, where the survey process was more reliable and land titles were more secure. Indiana was a \"free\" (non-slaveholding) territory, and they settled in an \"unbroken forest\" in Hurricane Township, Perry County. (Their land became part of Spencer County, Indiana, when the county was established in 1818.) In 1860, Lincoln noted that the family's move to Indiana was \"partly on account of slavery\", but mainly due to land title difficulties.\n", "In Kentucky and Indiana, Thomas worked as a farmer, cabinetmaker, and carpenter. He owned farms, town lots and livestock, paid taxes, sat on juries, appraised estates, served on country slave patrols, and guarded prisoners. Thomas and Nancy were members of a Separate Baptists church, which forbade alcohol, dancing, and slavery.\n", "Overcoming financial challenges, Thomas eventually obtained clear title to of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek Community.\n", "Section::::Family and childhood.:Mother's death.\n", "On October 5, 1818, Nancy Lincoln died of milk sickness, leaving 11-year-old Sarah in charge of a household that included her father, 9-year-old Abraham, and Dennis Hanks, Nancy's 19-year-old orphaned cousin. Those who knew Lincoln later recalled that he was distraught over his sister's death; she died on January 20, 1828, while giving birth to a stillborn son.\n", "On December 2, 1819, Thomas married Sarah \"Sally\" Bush Johnston, a widow from Elizabethtown, Kentucky, with three children of her own. Abraham became close to his stepmother, whom he referred to as \"Mother\". Lincoln disliked the hard labor associated with farm life. He was called lazy for all his \"reading, scribbling, writing, ciphering, writing Poetry, etc.\". His stepmother acknowledged he did not enjoy \"physical labor\", but loved to read.\n", "Section::::Family and childhood.:Education.\n", "Lincoln was largely self-educated. His formal schooling (from travelling teachers) was intermittent, totaling less than 12 months; however, he was an avid reader and retained a lifelong interest in learning. Family, neighbors, and schoolmates recalled that he read and reread the King James Bible, Aesop's Fables, John Bunyan's \"The Pilgrim's Progress\", Daniel Defoe's \"Robinson Crusoe\", Mason Locke Weems's \"The Life of Washington\", and \"The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin\", among others.\n", "Teenaged Lincoln took responsibility for chores. He accepted the customary practice that a son give his father all earnings from work outside the home until age 21. Lincoln became adept at using an axe. Tall for his age, Lincoln was strong and athletic. He became known for his strength and audacity after winning a wrestling match with the renowned leader of a group of ruffians known as \"the Clary's Grove boys\".\n", "Section::::Family and childhood.:Illinois.\n", "In early March 1830, partly out of fear of a milk sickness outbreak, several members of the extended Lincoln family moved west to Illinois, a free state, and settled in Macon County, west of Decatur. Historians disagree on who initiated the move; Thomas Lincoln had no obvious reason to do so. One possibility is that other members of the family, including Dennis Hanks, might not have matched Thomas's stability and steady income.\n", "After the family relocated to Illinois, Abraham became increasingly distant from Thomas, in part because of his father's lack of education, although occasionally lending him money. In 1831, as Thomas and other family prepared to move to a new homestead in Coles County, Illinois, Abraham left home. He lived in New Salem for six years. Lincoln and some friends took goods by flatboat to New Orleans, where he witnessed slavery firsthand.\n", "Section::::Family and childhood.:Marriage and children.\n", "According to some sources, Lincoln's first romantic interest was Ann Rutledge, whom he met when he first moved to New Salem; these sources indicate that by 1835, they were in a relationship but not formally engaged. She died on August 25, 1835, most likely of typhoid fever. In the early 1830s, he met Mary Owens from Kentucky.\n", "Late in 1836, Lincoln agreed to a match with Mary if she returned to New Salem. Mary arrived in November 1836, and Lincoln courted her for a time; however, they both had second thoughts. On August 16, 1837, Lincoln wrote Mary a letter suggesting he would not blame her if she ended the relationship. She never replied.\n", "In 1840, Lincoln became engaged to Mary Todd, a daughter of Robert Smith Todd, a wealthy slave-owner in Lexington, Kentucky. They met in Springfield, Illinois in December 1839 and were engaged a year later. A wedding set for January 1, 1841, was canceled at Lincoln's initiative. They reconciled and married on November 4, 1842, in the Springfield mansion of Mary's married sister. While anxiously preparing for the nuptials, Lincoln was asked where he was going and replied, \"To hell, I suppose.\" In 1844, the couple bought a house in Springfield near Lincoln's law office. Mary kept house, often with the help of a relative or hired servant.\n", "He was an affectionate, though often absent, husband and father of four children. Robert Todd Lincoln was born in 1843 and Edward Baker Lincoln (Eddie) in 1846. Edward died on February 1, 1850, in Springfield, probably of tuberculosis. \"Willie\" Lincoln was born on December 21, 1850, and died of a fever on February 20, 1862. The Lincolns' fourth son, Thomas \"Tad\" Lincoln, was born on April 4, 1853, and died of heart failure at the age of 18 on July 16, 1871. Robert reached adulthood and produced children. The Lincolns' last descendant, great-grandson Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith, died in 1985. Lincoln \"was remarkably fond of children\", and the Lincolns were not considered to be strict with their own. In fact, Lincoln's law partner William H. Herndon would grow irritated when Lincoln would bring his children to the law office. Their father, it seemed, was often too absorbed in his own work to notice his children's behaviour. Herndon recounted, \"I have felt many and many a time that I wanted to wring their little necks, and yet out of respect for Lincoln I kept my mouth shut. Lincoln did not note what his children were doing or had done.\"\n", "The deaths of their sons had profound effects on both parents. Abraham suffered from \"melancholy\", a condition later referred to as clinical depression. Later in life, Mary struggled with the stresses of losing her husband and sons, and Robert committed her temporarily to a mental health asylum in 1875.\n", "Lincoln's father-in-law and others of the Todd family were either slave owners or slave traders. Lincoln was close to the Todds, and he and his family occasionally visited them.\n", "Mary cooked for Lincoln often during his presidency. Raised by a wealthy family, her cooking was simple, but satisfied Lincoln's tastes, which included imported oysters.\n", "Section::::Early career and militia service.\n", "In 1832, Lincoln and partner Denton Offutt bought a general store on credit in New Salem, Illinois. Although the economy was booming, the business struggled and Lincoln eventually sold his share. That March he entered politics, running for the Illinois General Assembly, advocating navigational improvements on the Sangamon River. He could draw crowds as a raconteur, but he lacked an education, powerful friends, and money and lost the election.\n", "Lincoln interrupted his campaign to briefly serve as a captain in the Illinois Militia (during the Black Hawk War). He then returned to his campaign. At his first speech, he observed a supporter in the crowd under attack, grabbed the assailant by his \"neck and the seat of his trousers\" and tossed him. Lincoln finished eighth out of 13 candidates (the top four were elected), though he received 277 of the 300 votes cast in the New Salem precinct.\n", "Lincoln served as New Salem's postmaster and later as county surveyor, all the while reading voraciously. He decided to become a lawyer and began teaching himself law by reading Blackstone's \"Commentaries on the Laws of England\" and other law books. Of his learning method, Lincoln stated: \"I studied with nobody\".\n", "Section::::Illinois state legislature.\n", "His second state legislature campaign in 1834 was successful. Although he ran as a Whig, many Democrats favored him over a more powerful Whig opponent. Lincoln served four successive terms in the Illinois House of Representatives as a Whig from Sangamon County. He supported the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, later serving as a Canal Commissioner. In the 1835–36 legislative session, he voted to expand suffrage beyond white landowners to all white males. He was known for his \"free soil\" stance of opposing both slavery and abolitionism. He first articulated this in 1837, saying, \"[The] Institution of slavery is founded on both injustice and bad policy, but the promulgation of abolition doctrines tends rather to increase than abate its evils.\" He followed Henry Clay in supporting the American Colonization Society program of advocating abolition and helping freed slaves to settle in Liberia.\n", "Admitted to the Illinois bar in 1836, he moved to Springfield, Illinois, and began to practice law under John T. Stuart, Mary Todd's cousin. Lincoln developed a reputation as a formidable adversary during cross-examinations and closing arguments. He partnered with Stephen T. Logan from 1841 until 1844. Then Lincoln began his practice with William Herndon, whom Lincoln thought \"a studious young man\".\n", "Section::::U.S. House of Representatives, 1847–1849.\n", "From the early 1830s, Lincoln was a steadfast Whig and professed to friends in 1861 to be \"an old line Whig, a disciple of Henry Clay\". The party, including Lincoln, favored economic modernization in banking, tariffs to fund internal improvements including railroads, and urbanization.\n", "Lincoln ran for the Whig nomination for Illinois's 7th district of the U.S. House of Representatives in 1843, but was defeated by John J. Hardin. However, Lincoln won support for the principle of rotation, whereby Hardin would retire after only one term. Lincoln hoped that this arrangement would lead to his nomination in 1846. Lincoln was indeed elected to the House of Representatives in 1846, where he served one two-year term. He was the only Whig in the Illinois delegation, showing party loyalty by participating in almost all votes and making speeches that echoed the party line. Lincoln, in collaboration with abolitionist Congressman Joshua R. Giddings, wrote a bill to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia with compensation for the owners, enforcement to capture fugitive slaves, and a popular vote on the matter. He abandoned the bill when it failed to garner sufficient Whig supporters.\n", "Section::::U.S. House of Representatives, 1847–1849.:Committee assignments.\n", "BULLET::::- Committee on Post Office and Post Roads\n", "BULLET::::- Committee on Expenditures in the War Department\n", "Section::::U.S. House of Representatives, 1847–1849.:Political views.\n", "On foreign and military policy, Lincoln spoke out against the Mexican–American War, which he attributed to President James K. Polk's desire for \"military glory—that attractive rainbow, that rises in showers of blood\". Lincoln supported the Wilmot Proviso, which if passed would have banned slavery in any U.S. territory won from Mexico.\n", "Lincoln emphasized his opposition to Polk by drafting and introducing his Spot Resolutions. The war had begun with a Mexican slaughter of American soldiers in territory disputed by Mexico, and Polk insisted that Mexican soldiers had \"invaded our territory and shed the blood of our fellow-citizens on our own soil\". Lincoln demanded that Polk show Congress the exact spot on which blood had been shed and prove that the spot was on American soil.\n", "Congress neither debated nor enacted the resolution, the national papers ignored it, and it cost Lincoln political support in his district. One Illinois newspaper derisively nicknamed him \"spotty Lincoln\". Lincoln later regretted some of his statements, especially his attack on presidential war-making powers.\n", "Realizing Clay was unlikely to win the presidency, Lincoln, who had pledged in 1846 to serve only one term in the House, supported General Zachary Taylor for the Whig nomination in the 1848 presidential election. Taylor won and Lincoln hoped to be appointed Commissioner of the General Land Office, but lost out. The administration offered him the consolation prize of secretary or governor of the Oregon Territory. This distant territory was a Democratic stronghold, and acceptance of the post would have effectively ended his legal and political career in Illinois, so he declined and resumed his law practice.\n", "Section::::Prairie lawyer.\n", "Lincoln practiced law in Springfield, handling \"every kind of business that could come before a prairie lawyer\". Twice a year for 16 years, 10 weeks at a time, he appeared in county seats in the midstate region when the county courts were in session. Lincoln handled transportation cases in the midst of the nation's western expansion, particularly river barge conflicts under the many new railroad bridges. As a riverboat man, Lincoln initially favored those interests, but ultimately represented whoever hired him. He later represented a bridge company against a riverboat company in a landmark case involving a canal boat that sank after hitting a bridge. In 1849, he received a patent for a flotation device for the movement of boats in shallow water. The idea was never commercialized, but Lincoln is the only president to hold a patent.\n", "In 1851, he represented the Alton & Sangamon Railroad in a dispute with shareholder James A. Barret, who had refused to pay the balance on his pledge to buy shares on the grounds that the company had changed its original train route. Lincoln successfully argued that the railroad company was not bound by its original charter; the charter was amended in the public interest to provide a newer, superior, and less expensive route, and the corporation retained the right to demand Barret's payment. The decision by the Illinois Supreme Court was cited by many other courts. Lincoln appeared before the Illinois Supreme Court in 175 cases, in 51 as sole counsel, of which 31 were decided in his favor. From 1853 to 1860, another of Lincoln's largest clients was the Illinois Central Railroad. Lincoln's legal reputation gave rise to his nickname \"Honest Abe\".\n", "Lincoln's most notable criminal trial occurred in 1858 when he defended William \"Duff\" Armstrong, who was on trial for the murder of James Preston Metzker. The case is famous for Lincoln's use of a fact established by judicial notice in order to challenge the credibility of an eyewitness. After an opposing witness testified to seeing the crime in the moonlight, Lincoln produced a \"Farmers' Almanac\" showing the moon was at a low angle, drastically reducing visibility. Armstrong was acquitted.\n", "Lincoln rarely raised objections; but in an 1859 case, where he defended a cousin, Peachy Harrison, who was accused of killing a man, Lincoln angrily protested the judge's decision to exclude evidence favorable to his client. Instead of holding Lincoln in contempt of court as was expected, the judge, a Democrat, reversed his ruling, allowing the evidence and acquitting Harrison.\n", "Section::::Republican politics 1854–1860.\n", "Section::::Republican politics 1854–1860.:Emergence as Republican leader.\n", "The debate over the status of slavery in the territories exacerbated sectional tensions between the slave-holding South and the free North. The Compromise of 1850 failed to defuse the issue. In the early 1850s, Lincoln supported sectional mediation, and his 1852 eulogy for Clay focused on the latter's support for gradual emancipation and opposition to \"both extremes\" on the slavery issue. As the 1850s progressed, the debate over slavery in the Nebraska Territory and Kansas Territory became particularly acrimonious, and Senator Douglas proposed popular sovereignty as a compromise measure; the proposal would allow the electorate of each territory to decide the status of slavery. The proposal alarmed many Northerners, who hoped to prevent the spread of slavery into the territories. Despite this Northern opposition, Douglas's Kansas–Nebraska Act narrowly passed Congress in May 1854.\n", "For months after its passage, Lincoln did not publicly comment, but he came to strongly oppose it. On October 16, 1854, in his \"Peoria Speech\", Lincoln declared his opposition to slavery, which he repeated en route to the presidency. Speaking in his Kentucky accent, with a powerful voice, he said the Kansas Act had a \"\"declared\" indifference, but as I must think, a covert \"real\" zeal for the spread of slavery. I cannot but hate it. I hate it because of the monstrous injustice of slavery itself. I hate it because it deprives our republican example of its just influence in the world ...\" Lincoln's attacks on the Kansas–Nebraska Act marked his return to political life.\n", "Nationally, the Whigs were irreparably split by the Kansas–Nebraska Act and other efforts to compromise on the slavery issue. Reflecting the demise of his party, Lincoln wrote in 1855, \"I think I am a Whig, but others say there are no Whigs, and that I am an abolitionist [...] I do no more than oppose the \"extension\" of slavery.\" Drawing on the antislavery portion of the Whig Party, and combining Free Soil, Liberty, and antislavery Democratic Party members, the new Republican Party formed as a northern party dedicated to antislavery. Lincoln resisted early recruiting attempts, fearing that it would serve as a platform for extreme abolitionists. Lincoln hoped to rejuvenate the Whigs, though he lamented his party's growing closeness with the nativist Know Nothing movement.\n", "In the 1854 elections, Lincoln was elected to the Illinois legislature but declined to take his seat. In the elections' aftermath, which showed the power and popularity of the movement opposed to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, Lincoln instead sought election to the United States Senate. At that time, senators were elected by the state legislature. After leading in the first six rounds of voting, he was unable to obtain a majority. Lincoln instructed his backers to vote for Lyman Trumbull. Trumbull was an antislavery Democrat, and had received few votes in the earlier ballots; his supporters, also antislavery Democrats, had vowed not to support any Whig. Lincoln's decision to withdraw enabled his Whig supporters and Trumbull's antislavery Democrats to combine and defeat the mainstream Democratic candidate, Joel Aldrich Matteson.\n", "Section::::Republican politics 1854–1860.:Emergence as Republican leader.:1856 campaign.\n", "In part due to the ongoing violent political confrontations in Kansas, opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act remained strong throughout the North. As the 1856 elections approached, Lincoln joined the Republicans. He attended the May 1856 Bloomington Convention, which formally established the Illinois Republican Party. The convention platform asserted that Congress had the right to regulate slavery in the territories and called for the immediate admission of Kansas as a free state. Lincoln gave the final speech of the convention, in which he endorsed the party platform and called for the preservation of the Union. At the June 1856 Republican National Convention, Lincoln received significant support to run for vice president, though the party nominated William Dayton to run with John C. Frémont. Lincoln supported the Republican ticket, campaigning throughout Illinois. The Democrats nominated former Ambassador James Buchanan, who had been out of the country since 1853 and thus had avoided the slavery debate, while the Know Nothings nominated former Whig President Millard Fillmore. Buchanan defeated both his challengers. Republican William Henry Bissell won election as Governor of Illinois. Lincoln's vigorous campaigning had made him the leading Republican in Illinois.\n", "Section::::Republican politics 1854–1860.:Emergence as Republican leader.:Principles.\n", "Eric Foner (2010) contrasts the abolitionists and anti-slavery Radical Republicans of the Northeast, who saw slavery as a sin, with the conservative Republicans, who thought it was bad because it hurt white people and blocked progress. Foner argues that Lincoln was a moderate in the middle, opposing slavery primarily because it violated the republicanism principles of the Founding Fathers, especially the equality of all men and democratic self-government as expressed in the Declaration of Independence.\n", "Section::::Republican politics 1854–1860.:Emergence as Republican leader.:\"Dred Scott\".\n", "In March 1857, in \"Dred Scott v. Sandford,\" Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger B. Taney wrote that blacks were not citizens and derived no rights from the Constitution. While many Democrats hoped that \"Dred Scott\" would end the dispute over slavery in the territories, the decision sparked further outrage in the North. Lincoln denounced it, alleging it was the product of a conspiracy of Democrats to support the Slave Power. Lincoln argued, \"The authors of the Declaration of Independence never intended 'to say all were equal in color, size, intellect, moral developments, or social capacity', but they 'did consider all men created equal—equal in certain inalienable rights, among which are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness'.\"\n", "Section::::Republican politics 1854–1860.:Lincoln–Douglas debates and Cooper Union speech.\n", "Douglas was up for re-election in 1858, and Lincoln hoped to defeat him. With the former Democrat Trumbull now serving as a Republican senator, many in the party felt that a former Whig should be nominated in 1858, and Lincoln's 1856 campaigning and willingness to support Trumbull in 1854 had earned him favor. Some eastern Republicans favored Douglas's re-election in 1858, since he had led the opposition to the Lecompton Constitution, which would have admitted Kansas as a slave state. Many Illinois Republicans resented this eastern interference. For the first time, Illinois Republicans held a convention to agree upon a Senate candidate, and Lincoln won the nomination with little opposition.\n", "Accepting the nomination, Lincoln delivered his House Divided Speech, drawing on , \"A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved—I do not expect the house to fall—but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other.\" The speech created an evocative image of the danger of disunion. The stage was then set for the campaign for statewide election of the Illinois legislature which would, in turn, select Lincoln or Douglas. When informed of Lincoln's nomination, Douglas stated, \"[Lincoln] is the strong man of the party ... and if I beat him, my victory will be hardly won.\"\n", "The Senate campaign featured seven debates, the most famous political debates in American history. The principals stood in stark contrast both physically and politically. Lincoln warned that \"The Slave Power\" was threatening the values of republicanism, and accused Douglas of distorting the values of the Founding Fathers that all men are created equal, while Douglas emphasized his Freeport Doctrine, that local settlers were free to choose whether to allow slavery, and accused Lincoln of having joined the abolitionists. The debates had an atmosphere of a prize fight and drew crowds in the thousands. Lincoln's argument was rooted in morality. He claimed that Douglas represented a conspiracy to extend slavery to free states. Douglas's argument was legal, claiming that Lincoln was defying the authority of the U.S. Supreme Court and the \"Dred Scott\" decision.\n", "Though the Republican legislative candidates won more popular votes, the Democrats won more seats, and the legislature re-elected Douglas. Lincoln's articulation of the issues gave him a national political presence. In May 1859, Lincoln purchased the \"Illinois Staats-Anzeiger\", a German-language newspaper that was consistently supportive; most of the state's 130,000 German Americans voted Democratic but the German-language paper mobilized Republican support. In the aftermath of the 1858 election, newspapers frequently mentioned Lincoln as a potential Republican presidential candidate, rivaled by William H. Seward, Salmon P. Chase, Edward Bates, and Simon Cameron. While Lincoln was popular in the Midwest, he lacked support in the Northeast, and was unsure whether to seek the office. In January 1860, Lincoln told a group of political allies that he would accept the nomination if offered, and in the following months several local papers endorsed his candidacy.\n", "On February 27, 1860, New York party leaders invited Lincoln to give a speech at Cooper Union to a group of powerful Republicans. Lincoln argued that the Founding Fathers had little use for popular sovereignty and had repeatedly sought to restrict slavery. Lincoln insisted that morality required opposition to slavery, and rejected any \"groping for some middle ground between the right and the wrong\". Despite his inelegant appearance—many in the audience thought him awkward and even ugly—Lincoln demonstrated intellectual leadership that brought him into contention. Journalist Noah Brooks reported, \"No man ever before made such an impression on his first appeal to a New York audience.\"\n", "Historian David Herbert Donald described the speech as a \"superb political move for an unannounced candidate, to appear in one rival's (Seward) own state at an event sponsored by the second rival's (Chase) loyalists, while not mentioning either by name during its delivery\". In response to an inquiry about his ambitions, Lincoln said, \"The taste \"is\" in my mouth a little.\"\n", "Section::::Republican politics 1854–1860.:1860 presidential election.\n", "On May 9–10, 1860, the Illinois Republican State Convention was held in Decatur. Lincoln's followers organized a campaign team led by David Davis, Norman Judd, Leonard Swett, and Jesse DuBois, and Lincoln received his first endorsement. Exploiting his embellished frontier legend (clearing land and splitting fence rails), Lincoln's supporters adopted the label of \"The Rail Candidate\". In 1860, Lincoln described himself: \"I am in height, six feet, four inches, nearly; lean in flesh, weighing, on an average, one hundred and eighty pounds; dark complexion, with coarse black hair, and gray eyes.\"\n", "On May 18, at the Republican National Convention in Chicago, Lincoln won the nomination on the third ballot, beating candidates such as Seward and Chase. A former Democrat, Hannibal Hamlin of Maine, was nominated for Vice President to balance the ticket. Lincoln's success depended on his campaign team, his reputation as a moderate on the slavery issue, and his strong support for Whiggish programs of internal improvements and the tariff.\n", "Pennsylvania put him over the top, led by Pennsylvania iron interests who were reassured by his tariff support. Lincoln's managers had focused on this delegation, while following Lincoln's dictate to \"Make no contracts that bind me\".\n", "Most Republicans agreed with Lincoln that the North was the aggrieved party, as the Slave Power tightened its grasp on the national government. Throughout the 1850s, Lincoln doubted the prospects of civil war, and his supporters rejected claims that his election would incite secession. Douglas was selected as the candidate of the Northern Democrats. Delegates from eleven slave states walked out of the Democratic convention, disagreeing with Douglas's position on popular sovereignty, and ultimately selected incumbent Vice President John C. Breckinridge as their candidate. A group of former Whigs and Know Nothings formed the Constitutional Union Party and nominated John Bell of Tennessee. Lincoln and Douglas competed for votes in the North, while Bell and Breckinridge primarily found support in the South.\n", "Lincoln's campaign team carefully projected his image as an ideal candidate. Michael Martinez wrote:\n", "Prior to the Republican convention, the Lincoln campaign began cultivating a nationwide youth organization, the Wide Awakes, which it used to generate popular support throughout the country to spearhead voter registration drives, thinking that new voters and young voters tended to embrace new parties. Lincoln's ideas of abolishing slavery grew, drawing more supporters. People of the Northern states knew the Southern states would vote against Lincoln and rallied supporters for Lincoln.\n", "As Douglas and the other candidates campaigned, Lincoln was the only one to give no speeches. Instead, he relied on the enthusiasm of the Republican Party. The party did the leg work that produced majorities across the North, and produced an abundance of campaign posters, leaflets, and newspaper editorials. Thousands of Republican speakers focused first on the party platform, and second on Lincoln's life story, emphasizing his childhood poverty. The goal was to demonstrate the superior power of \"free labor\", whereby a common farm boy could work his way to the top by his own efforts. The Republican Party's production of campaign literature dwarfed the combined opposition; a \"Chicago Tribune\" writer produced a pamphlet that detailed Lincoln's life, and sold 100,000–200,000 copies.\n", "On November 6, Lincoln was elected the 16th president of the United States. He was the first Republican president and his victory was entirely due to his support in the North and West; no ballots were cast for him in 10 of the 15 Southern slave states, and he won only two of 996 counties in all the Southern states. Lincoln received 1,866,452 votes, or 39.8% of the total in a four-way race. He won the free Northern states, as well as California and Oregon.\n", "Lincoln's victory in the electoral college was decisive: Lincoln had 180 and his opponents added together had only 123.\n", "Section::::Presidency.\n", "Section::::Presidency.:Secession and inauguration.\n", "After the November election, secessionists planned to leave the Union before he took office in March. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina took the lead by adopting an ordinance of secession; by February 1, 1861, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas had followed. Six of these states declared themselves to be a sovereign nation, the Confederate States of America and adopted a constitution. The upper South and border states (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, and Arkansas) listened to, but initially rejected, the secessionist appeal. President Buchanan and President-elect Lincoln refused to recognize the Confederacy, declaring secession illegal. The Confederacy selected Jefferson Davis as its provisional President on February 9, 1861.\n", "Attempts at compromise followed. Lincoln and the Republicans rejected the proposed Crittenden Compromise as contrary to the Party's free-soil in the territories platform. Lincoln rejected the idea, saying, \"I will suffer death before I consent ... to any concession or compromise which looks like buying the privilege to take possession of this government to which we have a constitutional right.\"\n", "Lincoln did tacitly support the proposed Corwin Amendment to the Constitution, which passed Congress before Lincoln came into office and was then awaiting ratification by the states. That proposed amendment would have protected slavery in states where it already existed. A few weeks before the war, Lincoln sent a letter to every governor informing them Congress had passed a joint resolution to amend the Constitution. Lincoln was open to the possibility of a constitutional convention to make further amendments to the Constitution.\n", "En route to his inauguration, Lincoln addressed crowds and legislatures across the North. The president-elect evaded possible assassins in Baltimore. On February 23, 1861, he arrived in disguise in Washington, D.C., which was placed under substantial military guard. Lincoln directed his inaugural address to the South, proclaiming once again that he had no intention, or inclination, to abolish slavery in the Southern states:\n", "Lincoln cited his plans for banning the expansion of slavery as the key source of conflict between North and South, stating \"One section of our country believes slavery is right and ought to be extended, while the other believes it is wrong and ought not to be extended. This is the only substantial dispute.\" The President ended his address with an appeal to the people of the South: \"We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies ... The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield, and patriot grave, to every living heart and hearthstone, all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.\" The failure of the Peace Conference of 1861 signaled that legislative compromise was impossible. By March 1861, no leaders of the insurrection had proposed rejoining the Union on any terms. Meanwhile, Lincoln and the Republican leadership agreed that the dismantling of the Union could not be tolerated. Lincoln said in his second inaugural address:\n", "Section::::Presidency.:The Civil War.\n", "Fort Sumter's commander, Major Robert Anderson, sent a request for provisions to Washington, and the execution of Lincoln's order to meet that request was seen by the secessionists as an act of war. On April 12, 1861, Confederate forces fired on Union troops at Fort Sumter and began the fight. Historian Allan Nevins argued that the newly inaugurated Lincoln made three miscalculations: underestimating the gravity of the crisis, exaggerating the strength of Unionist sentiment in the South, and not realizing the Southern Unionists were insisting there be no invasion.\n", "William Tecumseh Sherman talked to Lincoln during inauguration week and was \"sadly disappointed\" at his failure to realize that \"the country was sleeping on a volcano\" and that the South was preparing for war. Donald concludes that, \"His repeated efforts to avoid collision in the months between inauguration and the firing on Ft. Sumter showed he adhered to his vow not to be the first to shed fraternal blood. But he also vowed not to surrender the forts. The only resolution of these contradictory positions was for the confederates to fire the first shot; they did just that.\"\n", "On April 15, Lincoln called on the states to send detachments totaling 75,000 troops to recapture forts, protect Washington, and \"preserve the Union\", which, in his view, remained intact despite the seceding states. This call forced states to choose sides. Virginia seceded and was rewarded with the Confederate capital, despite the exposed position of Richmond close to Union lines. North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas followed over the following two months. Secession sentiment was strong in Missouri and Maryland, but did not prevail; Kentucky remained neutral. The Fort Sumter attack rallied Americans north of the Mason-Dixon line to defend the nation.\n", "States sent Union regiments south. On April 19, mobs in Baltimore, which controlled rail links, attacked Union troops who were changing trains. Local leaders' groups later burned critical rail bridges to the capital. The Army responded by arresting local Maryland officials. Lincoln suspended the writ of \"habeas corpus\" in areas the army felt it needed to secure for troops to reach Washington. John Merryman, a Maryland official involved in hindering the U.S. troop movements, petitioned Supreme Court Chief Justice and Marylander, Roger B. Taney, author of the \"Dred Scott\" opinion, to issue a writ of \"habeas corpus.\" In June Taney, acting as a circuit judge and not speaking for the Supreme Court, issued the writ, because in his opinion only Congress could suspend the writ. Lincoln continued the army policy that the writ was suspended in limited areas despite the ex parte Merryman ruling.\n", "Section::::Presidency.:The Civil War.:Union military strategy.\n", "After the Battle of Fort Sumter, Lincoln took executive control of the war and formed an overall Union military strategy. Lincoln responded to this unprecedented political and military crisis as commander-in-chief, using unprecedented powers. He expanded his war powers, imposed a blockade on Confederate ports, disbursed funds before appropriation by Congress, suspended \"habeas corpus\", and arrested and imprisoned thousands of suspected Confederate sympathizers. Lincoln was supported by Congress and the northern public for these actions. In addition, Lincoln had to reinforce Union sympathies in the border slave states and keep the war from becoming an international conflict.\n", "The war dominated Lincoln's time and attention. From the start, it was clear that bipartisan support would be essential to success, and that any compromise would alienate factions on both sides of the aisle, such as the appointment of Republicans and Democrats to command positions. Copperheads criticized Lincoln for refusing to compromise on slavery. The Radical Republicans criticized him for moving too slowly in abolishing slavery. On August 6, 1861, Lincoln signed the Confiscation Act that authorized judicial proceedings to confiscate and free slaves who were used to support the Confederates. In practice, the law had little effect, but it did signal political support for abolishing slavery.\n", "In late August 1861, General John C. Frémont, the 1856 Republican presidential nominee, without consulting his superiors in Washington, proclaimed a very harsh martial law in Missouri. Lincoln cancelled the proclamation, saying its emancipation plan was political, lacking military necessity and a legal basis. After Lincoln acted, Union enlistments from Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri increased by over 40,000.\n", "In foreign policy, Lincoln's main goal was to stop military aid to the Confederacy. Lincoln left most diplomatic matters to his Secretary of State, William Seward. At times Seward was too bellicose, so for balance Lincoln maintained a close working relationship with Senate Foreign Relations Committee chairman Charles Sumner. The Trent Affair of late 1861 threatened war with Great Britain. The U.S. Navy had illegally intercepted a British mail ship, the \"Trent\", on the high seas and seized two Confederate envoys; Britain protested vehemently while the U.S. cheered. Lincoln ended the crisis by releasing the two diplomats. Biographer James G. Randall dissected Lincoln's successful techniques:\n", "Lincoln painstakingly monitored the telegraph reports coming into War Department. He tracked all phases of the effort, consulted with governors, and selected generals based on their success (as well as their state and party). In January 1862, after many complaints of inefficiency and profiteering in the War Department, Lincoln replaced Simon Cameron with Edwin Stanton as War Secretary. Stanton centralized the War Department's activities, auditing and cancelling contracts, saving the federal government $17,000,000. Stanton was a staunchly Unionist, pro-business, conservative Democrat who moved toward the Radical Republican faction. He worked more often and more closely with Lincoln than any other senior official. \"Stanton and Lincoln virtually conducted the war together,\" say Thomas and Hyman.\n", "In terms of war strategy, Lincoln articulated two priorities: to ensure that Washington was well-defended, and to conduct an aggressive war effort leading to prompt, decisive victory. However major Northern newspapers demanded more—they expected victory within 90 days. Twice a week, Lincoln met with his cabinet in the afternoon. Occasionally Mary would force him to take a carriage ride, concerned that he was working too hard. Lincoln learned from reading his chief of staff General Henry Halleck's book, a disciple of the European strategist Jomini; he began to appreciate the critical need to control strategic points, such as the Mississippi River. Lincoln saw the importance of Vicksburg and understood the necessity of defeating the enemy's army, rather than simply capturing territory.\n", "Section::::Presidency.:The Civil War.:General McClellan.\n", "After the Union rout at Bull Run and Winfield Scott's retirement, Lincoln appointed Major General George B. McClellan general-in-chief. McClellan then took months to plan his Peninsula Campaign. McClellan's slow progress frustrated Lincoln, as did his position that no troops were needed to defend Washington. McClellan blamed Lincoln's holding troops back for his campaign's subsequent failure. Lincoln went as far as meeting with General McClellan in his home to discuss matters privately. Once McClellan heard Lincoln was in his home, McClellan stay hidden away until Lincoln left.\n", "Lincoln removed McClellan in March 1862, after McClellan offered unsolicited political advice. In July Lincoln elevated Henry Halleck. Lincoln appointed John Pope as head of the new Army of Virginia. Pope complied with Lincoln's desire to advance on Richmond from the north, thus protecting Washington from counterattack.\n", "Pope was then soundly defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run in the summer of 1862, forcing the Army of the Potomac back to defend Washington.\n", "Despite his dissatisfaction with McClellan's failure to reinforce Pope, Lincoln restored him to command of all forces around Washington. Two days after McClellan's return to command, General Robert E. Lee's forces crossed the Potomac River into Maryland, leading to the Battle of Antietam in September. The ensuing Union victory was among the bloodiest in American history, but it enabled Lincoln to announce that he would issue an Emancipation Proclamation in January. Lincoln had waited for a military victory so that the Proclamation would not be perceived as the product of desperation.\n", "McClellan then resisted the president's demand that he pursue Lee's army, while General Don Carlos Buell likewise refused orders to move the Army of the Ohio against rebel forces in eastern Tennessee. Lincoln replaced Buell with William Rosecrans; and, after the 1862 midterm elections, replaced McClellan with Ambrose Burnside. Both were presumably more supportive of the commander-in-chief.\n", "Burnside, against presidential advice, launched an offensive across the Rappahannock River and was defeated by Lee at Fredericksburg in December. Desertions during 1863 came in the thousands and increased after Fredericksburg. Lincoln promoted Joseph Hooker.\n", "The midterm elections in 1862 cost the Republicans severe losses due to rising inflation, high taxes, rumors of corruption, suspension of \"habeas corpus\", military draft law, and fears that freed slaves would come North and undermine the labor market. The Emancipation Proclamation gained votes for Republicans in rural New England and the upper Midwest, but cost votes in the Irish and German strongholds and in the lower Midwest, where many Southerners had lived for generations.\n", "In the spring of 1863, Lincoln became optimistic about upcoming military campaigns to the point of thinking the end of the war could be near if a string of victories could be put together; these plans included attacks by Hooker on Lee north of Richmond, Rosecrans on Chattanooga, Grant on Vicksburg, and a naval assault on Charleston.\n", "Hooker was routed by Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville in May. He then resigned and was replaced by George Meade as Lee moved north. Meade followed Lee into Pennsylvania and beat him in the Gettysburg Campaign, but then failed to follow up despite Lincoln's demands. At the same time, Grant captured Vicksburg and gained control of the Mississippi River, splitting off the far western rebel states.\n", "Section::::Presidency.:The Civil War.:Emancipation Proclamation.\n", "The Federal government's power to end slavery was limited by the Constitution, which before 1865, committed the issue to individual states. Lincoln argued that slavery would end by preventing its expansion into new territories. He sought to persuade the states to accept compensated emancipation in return for their prohibition of slavery. Lincoln believed that curtailing slavery would make it obsolete. Lincoln rejected Fremont's two emancipation attempts in August 1861 and one by Major General David Hunter in May 1862, on the grounds that it was not within their power, and would upset loyal border states.\n", "On June 19, 1862, endorsed by Lincoln, Congress passed an act banning slavery on all federal territory. In July, the Confiscation Act of 1862 was enacted, which set up court procedures to free the slaves of those convicted of aiding the rebellion. Although Lincoln believed this was not within Congress's power, he approved the bill in deference to the legislature. He felt such action could be taken only by the Commander-in-Chief, using Constitutional war powers, which he planned to do. Lincoln discussed a draft of the Emancipation Proclamation with his cabinet.\n", "Privately, Lincoln concluded that the Confederacy's slave base had to be eliminated. However, Copperheads argued that emancipation was a stumbling block to peace and reunification. Republican editor Horace Greeley of the \"New York Tribune\" agreed. Lincoln rejected this argument directly in his letter of August 22, 1862. Although he said he personally wished all men could be free, Lincoln stated that the primary goal of his actions as president (he used the first person pronoun and explicitly refers to his \"official duty\") was that of preserving the Union:\n", "The Emancipation Proclamation, issued on September 22, 1862, with effect on January 1, 1863, declared free the slaves in 10 states not then under Union control, with exemptions specified for areas under Union control in two states. Lincoln spent the next 100 days preparing the army and the nation for emancipation, while Democrats rallied their voters by warning of the threat that freed slaves posed to northern whites.\n", "Once the abolition of slavery in the rebel states became a military objective, Union armies advancing south liberated three million slaves. Lincoln's comment on the signing of the Proclamation was: \"I never, in my life, felt more certain that I was doing right, than I do in signing this paper.\" Lincoln continued earlier plans to set up colonies for the newly freed slaves. He supported this in the Proclamation, but the undertaking failed.\n", "Enlisting former slaves became official policy. By the spring of 1863, Lincoln was ready to recruit black troops in more than token numbers. In a letter to Tennessee military governor Andrew Johnson encouraging him to lead the way in raising black troops, Lincoln wrote, \"The bare sight of 50,000 armed and drilled black soldiers on the banks of the Mississippi would end the rebellion at once\". By the end of 1863, at Lincoln's direction, General Lorenzo Thomas had recruited 20 regiments of blacks from the Mississippi Valley.\n", "Section::::Presidency.:The Civil War.:Gettysburg Address (1863).\n", "Lincoln spoke at the Gettysburg battlefield cemetery on November 19, 1863. Defying his prediction that \"the world will little note, nor long remember what we say here\", the Address became the most quoted speech in American history.\n", "In 272 words, and three minutes, Lincoln asserted that the nation was born not in 1789, but in 1776, \"conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal\". He defined the war as dedicated to the principles of liberty and equality for all. He declared that the deaths of so many brave soldiers would not be in vain, that slavery would end, and the future of democracy would be assured, that \"government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth\".\n", "Section::::Presidency.:The Civil War.:General Grant.\n", "Grant's victories at the Battle of Shiloh and in the Vicksburg campaign impressed Lincoln. Responding to criticism of Grant after Shiloh, Lincoln had said, \"I can't spare this man. He fights.\" With Grant in command, Lincoln felt the Union Army could advance in multiple theaters, and incorporate black troops. Meade's failure to capture Lee's army after Gettysburg and the continued passivity of the Army of the Potomac persuaded Lincoln to promote Grant to supreme commander. Grant stayed with Meade's army and told Meade what to do.\n", "Lincoln was concerned that Grant might be considering a presidential candidacy in 1864, as was McClellan. Lincoln arranged for an intermediary to inquire into Grant's political intentions. Assured that he had none, Lincoln submitted Grant's appointment to the Senate. He obtained Congress's consent to make him Lieutenant General, a rank that had remained unoccupied since George Washington.\n", "Grant waged his bloody Overland Campaign in 1864, with heavy losses on both sides. Despite this, when Lincoln asked what Grant's plans were, the general replied, \"I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer.\"\n", "Grant's army moved steadily south. Lincoln traveled to Grant's headquarters at City Point, Virginia to confer with Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman. Lincoln replaced the Union losses by mobilizing support throughout the North.\n", "Lincoln authorized Grant to target infrastructure—plantations, railroads, and bridges—hoping to destroy the South's morale and weaken its fighting ability. Lincoln emphasized defeat of the Confederate armies rather than destruction (which was considerable) for its own sake.\n", "In 1864 Confederate general Jubal Early raided Washington, D.C., while Lincoln watched from an exposed position; Captain Oliver Wendell Holmes shouted at him, \"Get down, you damn fool, before you get shot!\"\n", "As Grant continued to attrit Lee's forces, efforts to discuss peace began. Confederate Vice President Stephens led a group to meet with Lincoln, Seward, and others at Hampton Roads. Lincoln refused to allow any negotiation with the Confederacy as a coequal; his sole objective was an agreement to end the fighting and the meetings produced no results. On April 1, 1865, Grant nearly encircled Petersburg. The Confederate government evacuated and the city fell. Lincoln visited the conquered capital. On April 9, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox officially ending the war.\n", "Section::::Presidency.:Re-election.\n", "Lincoln ran again in 1864. He united the main Republican factions, along with War Democrats such as Edwin M. Stanton and Andrew Johnson. Lincoln used conversation and his patronage powers—greatly expanded from peacetime—to build support and fend off the Radicals' efforts to replace him. At its convention, the Republicans selected Johnson as his running mate. To broaden his coalition to include War Democrats as well as Republicans, Lincoln ran under the label of the new Union Party.\n", "Grant's bloody stalemates damaged Lincoln's re-election prospects, and many Republicans feared defeat. Lincoln confidentially pledged in writing that if he should lose the election, he would still defeat the Confederacy before turning over the White House: Lincoln did not show the pledge to his cabinet, but asked them to sign the sealed envelope.\n", "While the Democratic platform followed the \"Peace wing\" of the party and called the war a \"failure\", their candidate, McClellan, supported the war and repudiated the platform. Lincoln provided Grant with more troops and led his party to renew its support for Grant. Sherman's capture of Atlanta in September and David Farragut's capture of Mobile ended defeatism. The Democratic Party was deeply split, with some leaders and most soldiers openly for Lincoln. The National Union Party was united by Lincoln's support for emancipation. State Republican parties stressed the perfidy of the Copperheads. On November 8, Lincoln carried all but three states, including 78 percent of Union soldiers.\n", "On March 4, 1865, Lincoln delivered his second inaugural address. In it, he deemed the endless casualties to be God's will. Historian Mark Noll claims this speech to rank \"among the small handful of semi-sacred texts by which Americans conceive their place in the world\". Lincoln said:\n", "Section::::Presidency.:Reconstruction.\n", "Reconstruction began during the war, as Lincoln and his associates considered how to reintegrate the nation, and the fates of Confederate leaders and freed slaves. Shortly after Lee's surrender, a general asked Lincoln how to treat defeated Confederates. Lincoln replied, \"Let 'em up easy.\" Lincoln was determined to find meaning in the war even when it had passed, and did not want to continue to outcast the southern states. His main goal was to keep the union together. He planned to go forward not by focusing on who to blame, but on how to rebuild the nation as one. Lincoln led the moderates regarding Reconstruction policy, and was opposed by the Radicals, under Rep. Thaddeus Stevens, Sen. Charles Sumner and Sen. Benjamin Wade, who otherwise remained Lincoln's allies. Determined to reunite the nation and not alienate the South, Lincoln urged that speedy elections under generous terms be held. His Amnesty Proclamation of December 8, 1863, offered pardons to those who had not held a Confederate civil office, had not mistreated Union prisoners, and would sign an oath of allegiance.\n", "As Southern states fell, they needed leaders while their administrations re-formed. In Tennessee and Arkansas, Lincoln appointed Johnson and Frederick Steele as military governors, respectively. In Louisiana, Lincoln ordered General Nathaniel P. Banks to promote a plan that would restore statehood when 10 percent of the voters agreed. Democratic opponents accused Lincoln of using the military to ensure his and the Republicans' political aspirations. The Radicals denounced his policy as too lenient, and passed their own plan, the Wade-Davis Bill, in 1864, which Lincoln vetoed. The Radicals retaliated by refusing to seat elected representatives from Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee.\n", "Lincoln's appointments were designed to harness both moderates and Radicals. To fill Chief Justice Taney's seat on the Supreme Court, he named the Radicals' choice, Salmon P. Chase, who Lincoln believed would uphold his emancipation and paper money policies.\n", "After implementing the Emancipation Proclamation, Lincoln increased pressure on Congress to outlaw slavery throughout the nation with a constitutional amendment. He declared that such an amendment would \"clinch the whole matter\". By December 1863, an amendment was brought to Congress. This first attempt failed, falling short of the required two-thirds majority on June 15, 1864, in the House of Representatives. Passage became part of the Republican/Unionist platform. After a House debate, the second attempt passed on January 31, 1865. With ratification, it became the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution on December 6, 1865.\n", "Lincoln believed the federal government had limited responsibility to the millions of freedmen. He signed Senator Charles Sumner's Freedmen's Bureau bill that set up a temporary federal agency designed to meet the immediate needs of former slaves. The law opened land for a lease of three years with the ability to purchase title for the freedmen. Lincoln announced a Reconstruction plan that involved short-term military control, pending readmission under the control of southern Unionists.\n", "Historians agree that it is impossible to predict exactly how Reconstruction would have proceeded had Lincoln lived. Biographers James G. Randall and Richard Current, according to David Lincove, argue that:\n", "Eric Foner argues that:\n", "Section::::Presidency.:Other enactments.\n", "Lincoln adhered to the Whig theory of the presidency, giving Congress primary responsibility for lawmaking while the Executive enforced them. Lincoln vetoed only four bills; the only important one was the Wade-Davis Bill with its harsh Reconstruction program. The 1862 Homestead Act made millions of acres of Western government-held land available for purchase at low cost. The 1862 Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act provided government grants for agricultural colleges in each state. The Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864 granted federal support for the construction of the United States' First Transcontinental Railroad, which was completed in 1869. The passage of the Homestead Act and the Pacific Railway Acts was enabled by the absence of Southern congressmen and senators who had opposed the measures in the 1850s.\n", "In July 1861, the US issued paper currency for the first time. The currency became known greenbacks, because it was printed in green on the reverse side.\n", "Other important legislation involved two measures to raise revenues for the Federal government: tariffs (a policy with long precedent), and a Federal income tax. In 1861, Lincoln signed the second and third Morrill Tariffs, following the first enacted by Buchanan. Also in 1861, Lincoln signed the Revenue Act of 1861, creating the first U.S. income tax. This created a flat tax of 3 percent on incomes above $800 ($ in current dollar terms). The Revenue Act of 1862 adopted rates that increased with income.\n", "Lincoln presided over the expansion of the federal government's economic influence in other areas. The National Banking Act created the system of national banks. It also established a national currency. In 1862, Congress created the Department of Agriculture. In 1862, Lincoln sent a senior general, John Pope to put down the \"Sioux Uprising\" in Minnesota. Presented with 303 execution warrants for Santee Dakota who were convicted of killing innocent farmers, Lincoln conducted his own personal review of each warrant, eventually approving 39 for execution (one was later reprieved).\n", "In response to rumors of a renewed draft, the editors of the \"New York World\" and the \"Journal of Commerce\" published a false draft proclamation that created an opportunity for the editors and others employed at the publications to corner the gold market. Lincoln attacked the media about such behavior, ordering the military to seize the two papers. The seizure lasted for two days.\n", "Lincoln is largely responsible for the Thanksgiving holiday. Thanksgiving had became a regional holiday in New England in the 17th century. It had been sporadically proclaimed by the federal government on irregular dates. The prior proclamation had been during James Madison's presidency 50 years earlier. In 1863, Lincoln declared the final Thursday in November of that year to be a day of Thanksgiving.\n", "In June 1864, Lincoln approved the Yosemite Grant enacted by Congress, which provided unprecedented federal protection for the area now known as Yosemite National Park.\n", "Section::::Presidency.:Judicial appointments.\n", "Section::::Presidency.:Judicial appointments.:Supreme Court appointments.\n", "Lincoln's declared philosophy on court nominations was that \"we cannot ask a man what he will do, and if we should, and he should answer us, we should despise him for it. Therefore we must take a man whose opinions are known.\" Lincoln made five appointments to the United States Supreme Court. Noah Haynes Swayne was chosen as an anti-slavery lawyer who was committed to the Union. Samuel Freeman Miller, supported Lincoln in the 1860 election and was an avowed abolitionist. David Davis was Lincoln's campaign manager in 1860 and had served as a judge in Lincoln's Illinois court circuit. Democrat Stephen Johnson Field, a previous California Supreme Court justice, provided geographic and political balance. Finally, Lincoln's Treasury Secretary, Salmon P. Chase, became Chief Justice. Lincoln believed Chase was an able jurist, would support Reconstruction legislation, and that his appointment united the Republican Party.\n", "Section::::Presidency.:Judicial appointments.:Other judicial appointments.\n", "Lincoln appointed 32 federal judges, including four Associate Justices and one Chief Justice to the Supreme Court of the United States, and 27 judges to the United States district courts. Lincoln appointed no judges to the United States circuit courts during his time in office.\n", "Section::::Presidency.:States admitted to the Union.\n", "West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863. Nevada, which became the third State in the far-west of the continent, was admitted as a free state on October 31, 1864.\n", "Section::::Presidency.:Assassination.\n", "Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on Good Friday, April 14, 1865, while attending a play at Ford's Theatre, five days after Lee's surrender. Booth was a well-known actor and a Confederate spy from Maryland; though he never joined the Confederate army, he had contacts with the Confederate secret service. After attending an April 11, 1865, speech in which Lincoln promoted voting rights for blacks, Booth decided to assassinate the President. Learning of Lincoln's intent to attend the play with Grant, Booth and his co-conspirators planned to assassinate Lincoln and Grant at the theater and to kill Vice President Johnson and Secretary of State Seward at their respective homes. Lincoln left to attend the play \"Our American Cousin\" on April 14. At the last minute, Grant decided to go to New Jersey to visit his children instead of attending the play.\n", "Booth crept up from behind and at about 10:13 pm, fired at the back of Lincoln's head, mortally wounding him. Lincoln's guest Major Henry Rathbone momentarily grappled with Booth, but Booth stabbed him and escaped.\n", "Lincoln was taken across the street to Petersen House. After remaining in a coma for nine hours, Lincoln died at 7:22 am on April 15. After death his face relaxed into a smile. Stanton saluted and said, \"Now he belongs to the ages.\"\n", "Lincoln's flag-enfolded body was then escorted in the rain to the White House by bareheaded Union officers, while the city's church bells rang. President Johnson was sworn in at 10:00 am, less than 3 hours after Lincoln's death.\n", "Booth was tracked to a farm in Virginia. Refusing to surrender, he was shot on April 26.\n", "Section::::Presidency.:Funeral and burial.\n", "The late President lay in state, first in the East Room, and then in the Capitol Rotunda from April 19 through April 21. The caskets containing Lincoln's body and the body of his son Willie traveled for three weeks on the \"Lincoln Special\" funeral train. The train followed a circuitous route from Washington D.C. to Springfield, Illinois, stopping at many cities for memorials attended by hundreds of thousands. Many others gathered along the tracks as the train passed with bands, bonfires, and hymn singing or in silent grief. Poet Walt Whitman composed \"When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd\" to eulogize him, one of four poems he wrote about Lincoln. African-Americans were especially moved; they had lost 'their Moses'. In a larger sense, the reaction was in response to the deaths of so many men in the war. Historians emphasized the widespread shock and sorrow, but noted that some Lincoln haters celebrated his death.\n", "Section::::Religious and philosophical beliefs.\n", "As a young man, Lincoln was a religious skeptic. Later in life, Lincoln's frequent use of religious imagery and language might have reflected his own personal beliefs or might have been a device to reach his audiences, who were mostly evangelical Protestants. He never joined a church, although he frequently attended with his wife. He was deeply familiar with the Bible, and he both quoted and praised it. He was private about his beliefs and respected the beliefs of others. Lincoln never made a clear profession of Christian beliefs. However, he did believe in an all-powerful God that shaped events and by 1865 was expressing those beliefs in major speeches.\n", "In the 1840s, Lincoln subscribed to the Doctrine of Necessity, a belief that asserted the human mind was controlled by some higher power. In the 1850s, Lincoln asserted his belief in \"providence\" in a general way, and rarely used the language or imagery of the evangelicals; he regarded the republicanism of the Founding Fathers with an almost religious reverence. With the death of his son Edward, Lincoln more frequently expressed a need to depend on God. The death of son Willie in February 1862 may have caused Lincoln to look toward religion for solace. After Willie's death, Lincoln considered why, from a divine standpoint, the severity of the war was necessary. He wrote at this time that God \"could have either saved or destroyed the Union without a human contest. Yet the contest began. And having begun, He could give the final victory to either side any day. Yet the contest proceeds.\" On the day Lincoln was assassinated, he reportedly told his wife he desired to visit the Holy Land.\n", "Section::::Health.\n", "Several claims have been made that Lincoln's health was declining before the assassination. These are often based on photographs appearing to show weight loss and muscle wasting. One such claim is that he suffered from a rare genetic disorder, MEN2b, which manifests with a medullary thyroid carcinoma, mucosal neuromas and a Marfanoid appearance. Others simply claim he had Marfan syndrome, based on his tall appearance with spindly fingers, and the association of possible aortic regurgitation, which can cause bobbing of the head (DeMusset's sign) – based on blurring of Lincoln's head in photographs, which required long exposure times. Confirmation of this and other diseases could possibly be obtained via DNA analysis of a pillow case stained with Lincoln's blood, currently in possession of the Grand Army of the Republic Museum & Library in Philadelphia, but as of 2009, the museum refused to provide a sample for testing.\n", "Section::::Legacy.\n", "The successful reunification of the states had consequences for the name of the country. The term \"the United States\" has historically been used, sometimes in the plural (\"these United States\"), and other times in the singular, without any particular grammatical consistency. The Civil War was a significant force in the eventual dominance of the singular usage by the end of the 19th century.\n", "Historians such as Harry Jaffa, Herman Belz, John Diggins, Vernon Burton, and Eric Foner stress Lincoln's redefinition of \"republican values\". As early as the 1850s, a time when most political rhetoric focused on the Constitution, Lincoln redirected emphasis to the Declaration of Independence as the foundation of American political values—what he called the \"sheet anchor\" of republicanism. The Declaration's emphasis on equality and freedom for all, in contrast to the Constitution's tolerance of slavery, shifted the debate. Regarding the 1860 Cooper Union speech, Diggins notes, \"Lincoln presented Americans a theory of history that offers a profound contribution to the theory and destiny of republicanism itself.\" He highlights the moral basis of republicanism, rather than its legalisms. Nevertheless, Lincoln justified the war via legalisms (the Constitution was a contract, and for one party to get out of a contract all the other parties had to agree), and then in terms of the national duty to guarantee a republican form of government in every state. Burton argues that Lincoln's republicanism was taken up by the emancipated Freedmen.\n", "In Lincoln's first inaugural address, he explored the nature of democracy. He denounced secession as anarchy, and explained that majority rule had to be balanced by constitutional restraints. He said \"A majority held in restraint by constitutional checks and limitations, and always changing easily with deliberate changes of popular opinions and sentiments, is the only true sovereign of a free people.\"\n", "Section::::Legacy.:Historical reputation.\n", "In surveys of U.S. scholars ranking presidents conducted since the 1940s, Lincoln is consistently ranked in the top three, often as number one. A 2004 study found that scholars in the fields of history and politics ranked Lincoln number one, while legal scholars placed him second after George Washington. In presidential ranking polls conducted in the United States since 1948, Lincoln has been rated at the top in the majority of polls. Generally, the top three presidents are rated as 1. Lincoln; 2. Washington; and 3. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, although the order varies.\n", "President Lincoln's assassination left him a national martyr. He was viewed by abolitionists as a champion for human liberty. Republicans linked Lincoln's name to their party. Many, though not all, in the South considered Lincoln as a man of outstanding ability. Historians have said he was \"a classical liberal\" in the 19th century sense. Allen C. Guelzo states that Lincoln was a\n", "Lincoln became a favorite exemplar for liberal intellectuals across the world.\n", "Schwartz argues that Lincoln's American reputation grew slowly from the late 19th century until the Progressive Era (1900–1920s) when he emerged as one of America's most venerated heroes, even among white Southerners. The high point came in 1922 with the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. In the New Deal era, liberals honored Lincoln not so much as the self-made man or the great war president, but as the advocate of the common man who they claimed would have supported the welfare state. In the Cold War years, Lincoln's image shifted to a symbol of freedom who brought hope to those oppressed by Communist regimes.\n", "By the 1970s, Lincoln had become a hero to political conservatives for his intense nationalism, support for business, his insistence on stopping the spread of human bondage, his acting in terms of Lockean and Burkean principles on behalf of both liberty and tradition, and his devotion to the principles of the Founding Fathers. As a Whig activist, Lincoln was a spokesman for business interests, favoring high tariffs, banks, infrastructure improvements, and railroads, in opposition to the agrarian Democrats. William C. Harris found that Lincoln's \"reverence for the Founding Fathers, the Constitution, the laws under it, and the preservation of the Republic and its institutions strengthened his conservatism\". James G. Randall emphasizes his tolerance and moderation \"in his preference for orderly progress, his distrust of dangerous agitation, and his reluctance toward ill digested schemes of reform\". Randall concludes that, \"he was conservative in his complete avoidance of that type of so-called 'radicalism' which involved abuse of the South, hatred for the slaveholder, thirst for vengeance, partisan plotting, and ungenerous demands that Southern institutions be transformed overnight by outsiders.\"\n", "By the late 1960s, some African American intellectuals, led by Lerone Bennett Jr., rejected Lincoln's role as the Great Emancipator. Bennett won wide attention when he called Lincoln a white supremacist in 1968. He noted that Lincoln used ethnic slurs and told jokes that ridiculed blacks. Bennett argued that Lincoln opposed social equality, and proposed sending freed slaves to another country. Defenders, such as authors Dirck and Cashin, retorted that he was not as bad as most politicians of his day; and that he was a \"moral visionary\" who deftly advanced the abolitionist cause, as fast as politically possible. The emphasis shifted away from Lincoln the emancipator to an argument that blacks had freed themselves from slavery, or at least were responsible for pressuring the government on emancipation. Historian Barry Schwartz wrote in 2009 that Lincoln's image suffered \"erosion, fading prestige, benign ridicule\" in the late 20th century. On the other hand, Donald opined in his 1996 biography that Lincoln was distinctly endowed with the personality trait of negative capability, defined by the poet John Keats and attributed to extraordinary leaders who were \"content in the midst of uncertainties and doubts, and not compelled toward fact or reason\". In the 21st century, President Barack Obama named Lincoln his favorite president and insisted on using Lincoln's Bible for his inaugural ceremonies.\n", "Lincoln has often been portrayed by Hollywood, almost always in a flattering light.\n", "Union nationalism, as envisioned by Lincoln, \"helped lead America to the nationalism of Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt.\"\n", "Section::::Legacy.:Memory and memorials.\n", "Lincoln's portrait appears on two denominations of United States currency, the penny and the $5 bill. His likeness also appears on many postage stamps and he has been memorialized in many town, city, and county names, including the capital of Nebraska. While he is usually portrayed bearded, he first grew a beard in 1860 at the suggestion of 11-year-old Grace Bedell.\n", "The most famous and most visited memorials are Lincoln's sculpture on Mount Rushmore; Lincoln Memorial, Ford's Theatre, and Petersen House (where he died) in Washington, D.C.; and the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield, Illinois, not far from Lincoln's home, as well as his tomb.\n", "Sociologist Barry Schwartz argues that in the 1930s and 1940s, the memory of Abraham Lincoln was practically sacred and provided the nation with \"a moral symbol inspiring and guiding American life\". During the Great Depression, he argues, Lincoln served \"as a means for seeing the world's disappointments, for making its sufferings not so much explicable as meaningful\". Franklin D. Roosevelt, preparing America for war, used the words of the Civil War president to clarify the threat posed by Germany and Japan. Americans asked, \"What would Lincoln do?\" However, Schwartz also finds that since World War II, Lincoln's symbolic power has lost relevance, and this \"fading hero is symptomatic of fading confidence in national greatness\". He suggested that postmodernism and multiculturalism have diluted greatness as a concept.\n", "The United States Navy is named after Lincoln, the second Navy ship to bear his name.\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- Outline of Abraham Lincoln\n", "BULLET::::- Sexuality of Abraham Lincoln\n", "BULLET::::- Dakota War of 1862\n", "BULLET::::- Grace Bedell\n", "BULLET::::- Lincoln Tower\n", "BULLET::::- List of photographs of Abraham Lincoln\n", "BULLET::::- List of civil rights leaders\n", "Section::::References.\n", "Section::::References.:Citations.\n", "Section::::References.:Citations.:Historiography.\n", "BULLET::::- Barr, John M. \"Holding Up a Flawed Mirror to the American Soul: Abraham Lincoln in the Writings of Lerone Bennett Jr.,\" Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 35 (Winter 2014), 43–65.\n", "BULLET::::- Barr, John M. \"Loathing Lincoln: An American Tradition from the Civil War to the Present\" (LSU Press, 2014).\n", "BULLET::::- Holzer, Harold and Craig L. Symonds, eds. \"Exploring Lincoln: Great Historians Reappraise Our Greatest President\" (2015), essays by 16 scholars\n", "BULLET::::- Manning, Chandra, \"The Shifting Terrain of Attitudes toward Abraham Lincoln and Emancipation\", \"Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association\", 34 (Winter 2013), 18–39.\n", "BULLET::::- Smith, Adam I.P. \"The 'Cult' of Abraham Lincoln and the Strange Survival of Liberal England in the Era of the World Wars\", \"Twentieth Century British History\", (December 2010) 21#4 pp. 486–509\n", "BULLET::::- Spielberg, Steven; Goodwin, Doris Kearns; Kushner, Tony. \"Mr. Lincoln Goes to Hollywood\", \"Smithsonian\" (2012) 43#7 pp. 46–53.\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "Section::::External links.:Official.\n", "BULLET::::- Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum\n", "BULLET::::- ALPLM's ongoing digitization of all Lincoln papers\n", "BULLET::::- White House biography\n", "Section::::External links.:Organizations.\n", "BULLET::::- Abraham Lincoln Association\n", "BULLET::::- Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Foundation\n", "Section::::External links.:Other.\n", "BULLET::::- Abraham Lincoln: A Resource Guide from the Library of Congress\n", "BULLET::::- \"Life Portrait of Abraham Lincoln\", from C-SPAN's \"American presidents: Life Portraits\", June 28, 1999\n", "BULLET::::- \"Writings of Abraham Lincoln\" from C-SPAN's \"\"\n", "BULLET::::- Abraham Lincoln: Original Letters and Manuscripts – Shapell Manuscript Foundation\n", "BULLET::::- Lincoln/Net: Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project – Northern Illinois University Libraries\n", "BULLET::::- Teaching Abraham Lincoln – National Endowment for the Humanities\n", "BULLET::::- In Popular Song:Our Noble Chief Has Passed Away by Cooper/Thomas\n", "BULLET::::- Abraham Lincoln Recollections and Newspaper Articles Collection, McLean County Museum of History\n", "BULLET::::- Digitized items in the Alfred Whital Stern Collection of Lincolniana in the Rare Book and Special Collections Division in the Library of Congress\n" ] }
"http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FilePath/Abraham_Lincoln_O-77_matte_collodion_print.jpg"
{ "aliases": { "alias": [ "Honest Abe", "A. Lincoln", "President Lincoln", "Abe Lincoln", "Lincoln" ] }, "description": "16th President of the United States", "enwikiquote_title": "Abraham Lincoln", "wikidata_id": "Q91", "wikidata_label": "Abraham Lincoln", "wikipedia_title": "Abraham Lincoln" }
"307"
"Abraham Lincoln"
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Van Wyck Mason", "The Road of Azrael", "Robert E. Howard", "Russell Hoban", "David Donachie" ] }
"12th-century Princes of Antioch,Princes of Taranto,Roman Catholic monarchs,Hauteville family,Christians of the First Crusade,Place of death missing,Italo-Normans,People of the Byzantine–Norman wars,Norman warriors,Princes of Antioch,1111 deaths,Place of birth missing,11th-century Princes of Antioch,1050s births,People from the Province of Cosenza"
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{ "paragraph": [ "Bohemond I of Antioch\n", "Bohemond I (3 March 1111) was the Prince of Taranto from 1089 to 1111 and the Prince of Antioch from 1098 to 1111. He was a leader of the First Crusade, which was governed by a committee of nobles. The Norman monarchy he founded in Antioch arguably outlasted those of England and of Sicily.\n", "Section::::Early life.\n", "Section::::Early life.:Childhood and youth.\n", "Bohemond was the son of Robert Guiscard, Count of Apulia and Calabria, and his first wife, Alberada of Buonalbergo. He was born between 1050 and 1058—in 1054 according to historian John Julius Norwich. He was baptised Mark, possibly because he was born at his father's castle at San Marco Argentano in Calabria. He was nicknamed Bohemond after a legendary giant.\n", "His parents were related within the degree of kinship that made their marriage invalid under canon law. In 1058, Pope Nicholas II strengthened existing canon law against consanguinity and, on that basis, Guiscard repudiated Alberada in favour of a then more advantageous marriage to Sikelgaita, the sister of Gisulf, the Lombard Prince of Salerno. With the annulment of his parents' marriage, Bohemond became a bastard. Before long, Alberada married Robert Guiscard's nephew, Richard of Hauteville. She arranged for a knightly education for Bohemond.\n", "Robert Guiscard was taken seriously ill in early 1073. Fearing that he was dying, Sikelgaita held an assembly in Bari. She persuaded Robert's vassals who were present to proclaim her eldest son, the thirteen-year-old Roger Borsa, Robert's heir, claiming that the half-Lombard Roger would be the ruler most acceptable to the Lombard nobles in Southern Italy. Robert's nephew, Abelard of Hauteville, was the only baron to protest, because he regarded himself Robert's lawful heir.\n", "Section::::Early life.:Byzantine wars.\n", "Bohemond fought in his father's army during the rebellion of Jordan I of Capua, Geoffrey of Conversano and other Norman barons in 1079. His father dispatched him at the head of an advance guard against the Byzantine Empire in early 1081 and he captured Valona (now Vlorë in Albania). He sailed to Corfu, but did not invade the island since the local garrison outnumbered his army. He withdrew to Butrinto to await the arrival of his father's forces. After Robert Guiscard arrived in the latter half of May, they laid siege to Durazzo (present-day Durrës). The Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos came to the rescue of the town but, on 18 October, his army suffered a crushing defeat. Bohemond commanded the left flank, which defeated the Emperor's largely Anglo-Saxon \"Varangian Guard\".\n", "The Normans captured Durazzo on 21 February 1082. They marched along the Via Egnatia as far as Kastoria, but Alexios's agents stirred up a rebellion in Southern Italy, forcing Robert Guiscard to return to his realm in April. He charged Bohemond with the command of his army in the Balkans. Bohemond defeated the Byzantines at Ioannina and at Arta, taking control of most of Macedonia and Thessaly; however, the six-month siege of Larissa was unsuccessful. Supply and pay problems (and the gifts promised to deserters by the Byzantines) undermined the morale of the Norman army, so Bohemond returned to Italy for financial support. During his absence, most of the Norman commanders deserted to the Byzantines and a Venetian fleet recaptured Durazzo and Corfu.\n", "Bohemond accompanied his father to the Byzantine Empire again in 1084, when they defeated the Venetian fleet and captured Corfu. An epidemic decimated the Normans and Bohemond, who was taken seriously ill, was forced to return to Italy in December 1084.\n", "Section::::Early life.:Succession crisis.\n", "Robert Guiscard died at Cephalonia on 17 July 1085. Orderic Vitalis, William of Malmesbury and other contemporaneous writers accused his widow, Sikelgaita, of having poisoned Robert to secure Apulia for her son, Roger Borsa, but failed to establish her guilt. She persuaded the army to acclaim Roger Borsa his father's successor and they hurried back to Southern Italy. Two months later, the assembly of the Norman barons confirmed the succession, but Bohemond regarded himself his father's lawful heir. He made an alliance with Jordan of Capua, and captured Oria and Otranto. Bohemond and Roger Borsa met at their father's tomb at Venosa to reach a compromise. Under the terms of their agreement, Bohemond received Taranto, Oria, Otranto, Brindisi and Gallipoli, but acknowledged Roger Borsa's suzerainty.\n", "Bohemond renewed the war against his brother in the autumn of 1087. The ensuing civil war prevented the Normans from supporting Pope Urban II, and enabled the brothers' uncle, Roger I of Sicily, to increase his power. Bohemond captured Bari in 1090 and before long, took control of most lands to the south of Melfi.\n", "Section::::First Crusade.\n", "In 1097, Bohemond and his uncle Roger I of Sicily were attacking Amalfi, which had revolted against Duke Roger, when bands of crusaders began to pass on their way through Italy to Constantinople. It is possible that Bohemond had religious reasons for joining the First Crusade. It is equally likely that he saw in the First Crusade the chance to gain a lordship in the Middle East. Lilie details that Bohemond's \"father's second marriage deprived him of future prospects,\" in Norman Italy. While he was well known as a warrior, Bohemond's lordship in Italy was small. Geoffrey Malaterra bluntly states that Bohemond took the Cross with the intention of plundering and conquering Greek lands. Another reason to suspect Bohemond's religious zeal is the supposed embassy Bohemond sent to Godfrey, a powerful Crusade leader, asking him to join forces to sack Constantinople. While Godfrey declined his offer taking Constantinople was never far from Bohemond's mind, as seen in his later attempt to take over the Byzantine Empire. \n", "He gathered a Norman army, which would have been one of the smaller crusade forces with 500 knights and about 2500-3500 infantry soldiers, alongside his nephew Tancred's force of 2000 men. What contributed to the Norman army's reputation as a great fighting force was their experience fighting in the East. Many Normans had been employed as mercenaries by the Byzantine Empire. Others like Bohemond had experience fighting the Byzantines and other Muslim groups in the East fifteen years prior with Robert Guiscard.Bohemond crossed the Adriatic Sea to Constantinople along the route he had tried to follow in 1082–1084 when attacking the Byzantine Empire. He was careful to observe the correct attitude towards Alexius along this route, which was mainly keeping his soldiers from plundering Byzantine villages en route to Constantinople. \n", "When he arrived at Constantinople in April 1097, he took an oath of homage to Emperor Alexios, which he demanded from all crusade leaders. It's not clear what exact negotiations Bohemond and Alexios made concerning Bohemond governing part of the Eastern Byzantine Empire Alexios hoped the crusaders would reclaim. Alexios had no reason to trust Bohemond enough to give him a position at the time, but hinted that he could get a position by proving his loyalty. Bohemond's best chance at gaining a favorable position was to be loyal to Alexios, which he attempted to prove while the crusaders were camped around Constantinople. Bohemond, proficient in Greek, was able to be a conduit between Alexios and the crusade leaders. Bohemond also attempted to prove his loyalty by convincing other crusade leaders to take the oath of homage to Alexios.\n", "From Constantinople to Antioch, Bohemond was a stand out among the leaders of the First Crusade. Bohemond's reputation as an effective strategist and leader came from his fighting experience in the Balkans when he took charge of his father's army against Emperor Alexios (1082-1085). There Bohemond became familiar with various Byzantine and Muslim strategies, including an encircling strategy used by Turkish Forces at the siege of Nicaea. Mounted archers would encircle the crusader force, who would be unable to retaliate using close combat weaponry. Bohemond's familiarity with this Eastern strategy allowed him to adapt quickly leading to crusader victories through Antioch. \n", "The Emperor's daughter, Anna Comnena, leaves a portrait of him in her Alexiad. She met him for the first time when she was fourteen and was seemingly fascinated by him, leaving no similar portrait of any other Crusader prince. Of Bohemond, she wrote:\n", "Now the man was such as, to put it briefly, had never before been seen in the land of the Romans, be he either of the barbarians or of the Greeks (for he was a marvel for the eyes to behold, and his reputation was terrifying). Let me describe the barbarian's appearance more particularly – he was so tall in stature that he overtopped the tallest by nearly one cubit, narrow in the waist and loins, with broad shoulders and a deep chest and powerful arms. And in the whole build of the body he was neither too slender nor overweighted with flesh, but perfectly proportioned and, one might say, built in conformity with the canon of Polycleitus... His skin all over his body was very white, and in his face the white was tempered with red. His hair was yellowish, but did not hang down to his waist like that of the other barbarians; for the man was not inordinately vain of his hair, but had it cut short to the ears. Whether his beard was reddish, or any other colour I cannot say, for the razor had passed over it very closely and left a surface smoother than chalk... His blue eyes indicated both a high spirit and dignity; and his nose and nostrils breathed in the air freely; his chest corresponded to his nostrils and by his nostrils...the breadth of his chest. For by his nostrils nature had given free passage for the high spirit which bubbled up from his heart. A certain charm hung about this man but was partly marred by a general air of the horrible... He was so made in mind and body that both courage and passion reared their crests within him and both inclined to war. His wit was manifold and crafty and able to find a way of escape in every emergency. In conversation he was well informed, and the answers he gave were quite irrefutable. This man who was of such a size and such a character was inferior to the Emperor alone in fortune and eloquence and in other gifts of nature.\n", "Bohemond saw the opportunity to use the crusade for his own ends at the siege of Antioch. When his nephew Tancred left the main army at Heraclea Cybistra and attempted to establish a footing in Cilicia, the movement may have been already intended as a preparation for Bohemond's eastern principality. Bohemond was the first to take up a position before Antioch (October 1097) and he played a considerable part in the siege, in gathering supplies, beating off Ridwan of Allepo's attempt to relieve the city from the east, and connecting the besiegers on the west with the Genoese ships which lay in the port of St Simeon. Due to his successful efforts Bohemond was seen as the actual leader of the siege of Antioch, rather than the elected leader Stephen of Blois who would soon leave the siege, claiming illness. \n", "Bohemond was able to make a deal with Firouz, one of the commanders of the city wall to end the siege of Antioch. However, he did not press to end the siege until May 1098 when learning of the approach of Kerbogha with a relief army to aid Antioch. He then proposed to the other crusade leaders that the leader to take Antioch should be put in charge of the city as Alexios' representative Tetigus had left in February 1098. Firouz led Bohemond's force up the walls of Antioch, allowing the Norman troops to infiltrate and ultimately capture the city. \n", "The Crusaders' troubles were not over, however, as Kerbogha started his own siege on the newly crusader held Antioch. Bohemond was credited as the general and creator of the battle plan used to defeat Kerbogha by Raymond of Aguilers. Running very low on food and supplies Bohemond took the initiative in his strategy to leave the city and attack Kerbogha's forces, leading to a victory for the crusaders. \n", "Bohemond then wanted to take control of Antioch for himself, but there were some problems he had to face first. Raymond of Toulouse, a prominent crusade leader, did not want to hand Antioch over to Bohemond. Raymond claimed that Bohemond and other leaders would be breaking their oath to Alexios, which was to give any conquered lands to the Byzantine Empire. Bohemond argued that because Alexios had failed to come to the crusader's aid at Antioch that the oath was no longer valid. Bohemond set himself up as the Prince of Antioch, and no Latin crusader or Byzantine force came to take it from him. Raymond of Toulouse decided to give up Antioch to Bohemond in January 1099, as he other crusaders moved south to the capture of Jerusalem.\n", "After the fall of Jerusalem to the crusaders, Bohemond went to Jerusalem at Christmas 1099 to fulfill his crusade vows. While there he took part in the installation of Dagobert of Pisa as Patriarch of Jerusalem, perhaps in order to check the growth of Lotharingian power in the city. By submitting to the patriarch Bohemond made connections to Jerusalem, who could be an ally against future attacks on Antioch, and to keep in the good graces of the Pope. While Bohemond had the fine territory, strategic position, and army necessary to found a principality in Antioch, he had to face two great forces—the Byzantine Empire, which claimed the whole of his territories, and the strong Muslim principalities in the north-east of Syria. Against these two forces he would ultimately fail.\n", "Section::::Wars between Antioch and the Byzantine Empire.\n", "By 1100, the town of Malatia, which guarded one of the Cilician Gates through the Taurus Mountains, had been captured by an Armenian soldier of fortune. He received reports that the Malik Ghazi Danishmend (Danishmend Emir), Ghazi Gümüştekin of Sivas, was preparing an expedition to capture Malatia. The Armenians sought help from Bohemond.\n", "Afraid to weaken his forces at Antioch, but not wishing to avoid the chance to extend his domain northwards, in August 1100 Bohemond marched north with only 300 knights and a small force of foot soldiers. Failing to send scouting parties, they were ambushed by the Turks and completely encircled at the Battle of Melitene. Bohemond managed to send one soldier to seek help from Baldwin of Edessa but was captured. He was laden with chains and imprisoned in Neo-Caesarea (modern Niksar) until 1103.\n", "Alexius I was incensed that Bohemond had broken his oath made in Constantinople and kept Antioch for himself. When he heard of Bohemond's capture, he offered to redeem the Norman commander for 260,000 dinars, if Ghazi Gumushtakin would hand the prisoner over to Byzantium. When Kilij Arslan I, the Seljuk overlord of the Emir, heard of the proposed payment, he threatened to attack unless given half the ransom. Bohemond proposed instead a ransom of 130,000 dinars paid just to the Emir. The bargain was concluded, and Ghazi and Bohemond exchanged oaths of friendship. Ransomed by Baldwin of Edessa, he returned in triumph to Antioch in August 1103.\n", "His nephew Tancred had taken his uncle's place for three years. During that time, he had attacked the Byzantines, and had added Tarsus, Adana and Massissa in Cilicia to his uncle's territory; he was now deprived of his lordship by Bohemond's return. During the summer of 1103, the northern Franks attacked Ridwan of Aleppo to gain supplies and compelled him to pay tribute. Meanwhile, Raymond had established himself in Tripoli with the aid of Alexius, and was able to check the expansion of Antioch to the south. Early in 1104, Baldwin and Bohemond passed Aleppo to move eastward and attack Harran.\n", "Whilst leading the campaign against Harran, Bohemond was defeated at Balak, near Raqqa on the Euphrates (see Battle of Harran). The defeat was decisive, making impossible the great eastern principality which Bohemond had contemplated. It was followed by a Greek attack on Cilicia and, despairing of his own resources, Bohemond returned to Europe for reinforcements in late 1104. It is a matter of historical debate whether his \"crusade\" against the Byzantine empire was to gain the backing and indulgences of Pope Paschal II. Either way, he enthralled audiences across France with gifts of relics from the Holy Land and tales of heroism while fighting the infidel, gathering a large army in the process. Henry I of England famously prevented him from landing on English shores, since the king anticipated Bohemond's great attraction to the English nobility. His newfound status won him the hand of Constance, daughter of the French king, Philip I. Of this marriage wrote Abbot Suger:\n", "Bohemond came to France to seek by any means he could the hand of the Lord Louis' sister Constance, a young lady of excellent breeding, elegant appearance and beautiful face. So great was the reputation for valour of the French kingdom and of the Lord Louis that even the Saracens were terrified by the prospect of that marriage. She was not engaged since she had broken off her agreement to wed Hugh, count of Troyes, and wished to avoid another unsuitable match. The prince of Antioch was experienced and rich both in gifts and promises; he fully deserved the marriage, which was celebrated with great pomp by the bishop of Chartres in the presence of the king, the Lord Louis, and many archbishops, bishops and noblemen of the realm.\n", "Bohemond and Constance produced a son, Bohemond II of Antioch.\n", "Bohemond saw the root of his problems in Alexios and Constantinople when it came to preserving the Principality of Antioch. He thought that defending Antioch against Alexios would not be enough, since he was greatly outnumbered by the Byzantine army. Instead, Bohemond decided to go on the offensive and attack the Byzantine Empire at its core in Constantinople.\n", "Bohemond was then resolved to use his newly recruited army of 34,000 men not to defend Antioch against the Greeks, but to attack Alexius. Bohemond took a similar route that was successful for his father in Ilyria and Greece. Alexius, aided by the Venetians, proved to be much stronger than when he faced Bohemond and Robert Guiscard in 1082-1084. Alexios was used to Norman battle tactics and their strength, and decided on a war of attrition rather than face them head on. While the Normans laid siege to Dyrrhachium, Alexios blockaded the Norman camp until Bohemond was forced to negotiate.\n", "Bohemond had to submit to a humiliating peace, all his ambitions destroyed. Under the Treaty of Devol in 1108, he became the vassal of Alexius with the title of \"sebastos\", consented to receive Alexius' pay, and promised to cede disputed territories and to admit a Greek patriarch into Antioch. Henceforth, Bohemond was a broken man. He died six months later without returning to Antioch. With one last jab at Alexios, by not returning to Antioch the Treaty of Devol became null and void as it only applied to Bohemond himself. Antioch was left in Norman hands with Bohemond's nephew Tancred.\n", "Bohemond was buried at Canosa in Apulia, in 1111.\n", "Section::::Bohemond I in literature and media.\n", "The anonymous \"Gesta Francorum\" was written by one of Bohemond's followers. \"The Alexiad\" of Anna Comnena is a primary authority for the whole of his life. A 1924 biography exists by Yewdale. See also the Gesta Tancredi by Ralph of Caen, which is a panegyric of Bohemond's second-in-command, Tancred. His career is discussed by B von Kügler, \"Bohemund und Tancred\" (1862); while L von Heinemann, \"Geschichte der Normannen in Sicilien und Unteritalien\" (1894), and R. Röhricht's \"Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges\" (1901) and \"Geschichte das Königreichs Jerusalem\" (1898) may also be consulted for his history. The only major biography that exists in English is \"Tancred : a study of his career and work in their relation to the First Crusade and the establishment of the Latin states in Syria and Palestine\" by Robert Lawrence Nicholson. Details of his pre-crusade career can found in Geoffrey Malaterra's \"Deeds of Count Roger...\".\n", "\"Count Bohemund\" by Alfred Duggan (1964) is an historical novel concerning the life of Bohemund and its events up to the fall of Jerusalem to the crusaders. Bohemond also appears in the historical novel \"Silver Leopard\" by F. Van Wyck Mason (1955), the short story \"The Track of Bohemond\" in the collection \"The Road of Azrael\" by Robert E. Howard (1979) and in the fantastical novel \"Pilgermann\" by Russell Hoban (1983).\n", "The historical fiction novel \"Wine of Satan\" (1949) written by Laverne Gay gives an embellished accounting of the life of Bohemond.\n", "The Crusades Series by David Donachie (writing as Jack Ludlow) casts Bohemund as its main protagonist.\n", "Section::::Further reading.\n", "BULLET::::- Ghisalberti, Albert M. (ed) \"Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani\". Rome.\n" ] }
"http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FilePath/Bohemond_I_of_Antioch.jpg"
{ "aliases": { "alias": [ "Boamund", "Bohemund I" ] }, "description": "Prince of Taranto and Prince of Antioch", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q220806", "wikidata_label": "Bohemond I of Antioch", "wikipedia_title": "Bohemond I of Antioch" }
"157674"
"Bohemond I of Antioch"
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"12th-century French people,Roman Catholic monarchs,Counts of Anjou,Deaths by horse-riding accident,11th-century births,1143 deaths,People from Angers,Jure uxoris kings,Kings of Jerusalem"
"512px-Melisende_and_Fulk_of_Jerusalem.jpg"
"157702"
{ "paragraph": [ "Fulk, King of Jerusalem\n", "Fulk (, or \"Foulques\"; c. 1089/92 – 13 November 1143), also known as Fulk the Younger, was the Count of Anjou (as Fulk V) from 1109 to 1129 and the King of Jerusalem from 1131 to his death. During his reign, the Kingdom of Jerusalem reached its largest territorial extent.\n", "Section::::Biography.\n", "Section::::Biography.:Count of Anjou.\n", "Fulk was born at Angers, between 1089 and 1092, the son of Count Fulk IV of Anjou and Bertrade de Montfort. In 1092, Bertrade deserted her husband and bigamously married King Philip I of France.\n", "He became count of Anjou upon his father's death in 1109. In the next year, he married Ermengarde of Maine, cementing Angevin control over the County of Maine.\n", "He was originally an opponent of King Henry I of England and a supporter of King Louis VI of France, but in 1118 or 1119 he had allied with Henry when he arranged for his daughter Matilda to marry Henry's son and heir, William Adelin. Fulk went on crusade in 1119 or 1120, and became attached to the Knights Templar (Orderic Vitalis). He returned, late in 1121, after which he began to subsidize the Templars, maintaining two knights in the Holy Land for a year. Much later, Henry arranged for his daughter Matilda to marry Fulk's son Geoffrey of Anjou, which she did in 1127 or 1128.\n", "Section::::Biography.:Crusader and King.\n", "By 1127 Fulk was preparing to return to Anjou when he received an embassy from King Baldwin II of Jerusalem. Baldwin II had no male heirs but had already designated his daughter Melisende to succeed him. Baldwin II wanted to safeguard his daughter's inheritance by marrying her to a powerful lord. Fulk was a wealthy crusader and experienced military commander, and a widower. His experience in the field would prove invaluable in a frontier state always in the grip of war.\n", "However, Fulk held out for better terms than mere consort of the Queen; he wanted to be king alongside Melisende. Baldwin II, reflecting on Fulk's fortune and military exploits, acquiesced. Fulk abdicated his county seat of Anjou to his son Geoffrey and left for Jerusalem, where he married Melisende on 2 June 1129. Later Baldwin II bolstered Melisende's position in the kingdom by making her sole guardian of her son by Fulk, Baldwin III, born in 1130.\n", "Fulk and Melisende became joint rulers of Jerusalem in 1131 with Baldwin II's death. From the start Fulk assumed sole control of the government, excluding Melisende altogether. He favored fellow countrymen from Anjou to the native nobility. The other crusader states to the north feared that Fulk would attempt to impose the suzerainty of Jerusalem over them, as Baldwin II had done; but as Fulk was far less powerful than his deceased father-in-law, the northern states rejected his authority. Melisende's sister Alice of Antioch, exiled from the Principality by Baldwin II, took control of Antioch once more after the death of her father. She allied with Pons of Tripoli and Joscelin II of Edessa to prevent Fulk from marching north in 1132; Fulk and Pons fought a brief battle before peace was made and Alice was exiled again.\n", "In Jerusalem as well, Fulk was resented by the second generation of Jerusalem Christians who had grown up there since the First Crusade. These \"natives\" focused on Melisende's cousin, the popular Hugh II of Le Puiset, count of Jaffa, who was devotedly loyal to the Queen. Fulk saw Hugh as a rival, and it did not help matters when Hugh's own stepson accused him of disloyalty. In 1134, in order to expose Hugh, Fulk accused him of infidelity with Melisende. Hugh rebelled in protest. Hugh secured himself to Jaffa, and allied himself with the Muslims of Ascalon. He was able to defeat the army set against him by Fulk, but this situation could not hold. The Patriarch interceded in the conflict, perhaps at the behest of Melisende. Fulk agreed to peace and Hugh was exiled from the kingdom for three years, a lenient sentence.\n", "However, an assassination attempt was made against Hugh. Fulk, or his supporters, were commonly believed responsible, though direct proof never surfaced. The scandal was all that was needed for the queen's party to take over the government in what amounted to a palace coup. Author and historian wrote that Fulk's supporters \"went in terror of their lives\" in the palace. Contemporary author and historian William of Tyre wrote of Fulk \"he never attempted to take the initiative, even in trivial matters, without (Melisende's) consent\". The result was that Melisende held direct and unquestioned control over the government from 1136 onwards. Sometime before 1136 Fulk reconciled with his wife, and a second son, Amalric was born.\n", "Section::::Biography.:Securing the borders.\n", "Jerusalem's northern border was of great concern. Fulk had been appointed regent of the Principality of Antioch by Baldwin II. As regent he had Raymond of Poitou marry the infant Constance of Antioch, daughter of Bohemund II and Alice of Antioch, and niece to Melisende. However, the greatest concern during Fulk's reign was the rise of Atabeg Zengi of Mosul.\n", "In 1137 Fulk was defeated in battle near Baarin but allied with Mu'in ad-Din Unur, the vizier of Damascus. Damascus was also threatened by Zengi. Fulk captured the fort of Banias, to the north of Lake Tiberias and thus secured the northern frontier.\n", "Fulk also strengthened the kingdom's southern border. His butler Paganus built the fortress of Kerak to the east of the Dead Sea, and to help give the kingdom access to the Red Sea, Fulk had Blanchegarde, Ibelin, and other forts built in the south-west to overpower the Egyptian fortress at Ascalon. This city was a base from which the Egyptian Fatimids launched frequent raids on the Kingdom of Jerusalem and Fulk sought to neutralise this threat.\n", "In 1137 and 1142, Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus arrived in Syria attempting to impose Byzantine control over the crusader states. John's intention of making a pilgrimage, accompanied by his impressive army, to Jerusalem alarmed Fulk, who wrote to John pointing out that his kingdom was poor and could not support the passage of a large army. This lukewarm response dissuaded John from carrying through his intention, and he postponed his pilgrimage. John died before he could make good his proposed journey to Jerusalem.\n", "Section::::Biography.:Death.\n", "In 1143, while the king and queen were in Acre, Fulk was killed in a hunting accident. His horse stumbled, fell, and Fulk's skull was crushed by the saddle, \"and his brains gushed forth from both ears and nostrils\", as William of Tyre describes. He was carried back to Acre, where he lay unconscious for three days before he died. He was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Though their marriage started in conflict, Melisende mourned for him privately as well as publicly. Fulk was survived by his son Geoffrey of Anjou by his first wife, and Baldwin III and Amalric I by Melisende.\n", "Section::::Legacy.\n", "Section::::Legacy.:Depictions.\n", "According to William, Fulk was \"\"a ruddy man, like David... faithful and gentle, affable and kind... an experienced warrior full of patience and wisdom in military affairs\".\" His chief fault was an inability to remember names and faces.\n", "William of Tyre described Fulk as a capable soldier and able politician, but observed that Fulk did not adequately attend to the defense of the crusader states to the north. Ibn al-Qalanisi (who calls him \"al-Kund Anjur\", an Arabic rendering of \"Count of Anjou\") says that \"he was not sound in his judgment nor was he successful in his administration.\" The Zengids continued their march on the crusader states, culminating in the fall of the County of Edessa in 1144, which led to the Second Crusade (see Siege of Edessa).\n", "Section::::Legacy.:Family.\n", "In 1110, Fulk married Ermengarde of Maine (died 1126), the daughter of Elias I of Maine. Their four children were:\n", "BULLET::::1. Geoffrey V of Anjou (1113–1151, father of Henry II of England.\n", "BULLET::::2. Sibylla of Anjou (1112–1165, Bethlehem), married in 1123 William Clito (div. 1124), married in 1134 Thierry, Count of Flanders.\n", "BULLET::::3. Matilda of Anjou (1106–1154, Fontevrault), married William Adelin; after his death in the White Ship disaster of 1120, she became a nun and later Abbess of Fontevrault.\n", "BULLET::::4. Elias II of Maine (died 1151)\n", "His second wife was Melisende, Queen of Jerusalem\n", "BULLET::::1. Baldwin III of Jerusalem\n", "BULLET::::2. Amalric I of Jerusalem\n", "Section::::Sources.\n", "BULLET::::- Orderic Vitalis\n", "BULLET::::- Robert of Torigny\n", "BULLET::::- William of Tyre\n", "BULLET::::- Runciman, Steven (1952) \"A History of the Crusades, Vol. II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem,\" Cambridge University Press.\n", "BULLET::::- Medieval Women, edited by Derek Baker, the Ecclesiastical History Society, 1978\n", "BULLET::::- Payne, Robert. \"The Dream and the Tomb\", 1984\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Damascus Chronicle of Crusades\", trans. H.A.R. Gibb, 1932.\n" ] }
"http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FilePath/Melisende_and_Fulk_of_Jerusalem.jpg"
{ "aliases": { "alias": [] }, "description": "King of Jerusalem", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q312904", "wikidata_label": "Fulk, King of Jerusalem", "wikipedia_title": "Fulk, King of Jerusalem" }
"157702"
"Fulk, King of Jerusalem"
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"Kingdom%20of%20Heaven%20%28film%29", "Horrible%20Histories%20%282015%20TV%20series%29%23Series%206%20.282015.29" ], "paragraph_id": [ 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 9, 9, 9, 11, 11, 11, 11, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 13, 13, 14, 14, 14, 14, 14, 14, 15, 16, 16, 18, 18, 18, 18, 19, 20, 20, 20, 20, 23, 23, 23, 23, 23, 23, 23, 23, 24, 25, 25, 25, 26, 26, 26, 26, 26, 26, 26, 26, 26, 28, 28, 28, 28, 28, 28, 28, 28, 29, 29, 29, 30, 30, 30, 30, 30, 32, 33, 33, 36, 36, 37, 37, 37, 39, 39, 39, 39, 40, 40, 40, 40, 40, 40, 40, 41, 41, 41, 43, 43, 45, 46, 46, 46 ], "start": [ 97, 146, 241, 314, 356, 16, 165, 184, 302, 367, 386, 535, 548, 650, 155, 219, 256, 411, 489, 504, 806, 53, 79, 565, 154, 261, 315, 42, 181, 275, 351, 362, 451, 0, 9, 70, 209, 482, 522, 93, 173, 391, 187, 363, 391, 693, 130, 143, 321, 347, 388, 149, 505, 36, 233, 324, 363, 403, 764, 131, 58, 71, 353, 611, 687, 713, 95, 114, 166, 218, 248, 16, 48, 94, 339, 349, 489, 545, 581, 21, 30, 91, 217, 220, 274, 382, 410, 493, 572, 583, 709, 779, 412, 425, 455, 566, 593, 606, 644, 960, 177, 218, 510, 76, 177, 657, 1071, 1112, 953, 0, 970, 34, 393, 115, 194, 1316, 22, 84, 111, 211, 16, 32, 79, 116, 460, 509, 770, 23, 71, 313, 339, 355, 67, 24, 48, 134 ], "text": [ "Prince of Antioch", "Lord of Oultrejordain", "French noble", "Second Crusade", "Kingdom of Jerusalem", "Constance", "Aimery of Limoges", "Latin Patriarch of Antioch", "Cyprus", "Byzantine Emperor", "Manuel I Komnenos", "Euphrates", "Marash", "Aleppo", "Stephanie of Milly", "Baldwin IV of Jerusalem", "Hebron", "leprosy", "Saladin", "Battle of Montgisard", "Mecca", "Sybilla", "Guy of Lusignan", "Battle of Hattin", "Jean Richard", "Duchy of Burgundy", "Roman senators", "Châtillon-sur-Loire", "Kingdom of Jerusalem", "Baldwin III of Jerusalem", "crusade", "Louis VII of France", "William of Tyre", "Raymond", "Prince of Antioch", "Battle of Inab", "Constance", "John Roger", "Manuel I Komnenos", "Steven Runciman", "Siege of Ascalon", "Malcolm Barber", "William of Tyre", "Latin Patriarch of Antioch", "Aimery of Limoges", "see", "Armenians", "Cilicia", "Alexandretta", "Knights Templar", "Syrian Gates", "Thoros II of Cilicia", "John Doukas Komnenos", "Thierry, Count of Flanders", "Orontes River", "Shaizar", "Assassins", "Munqidhites", "Harem, Syria", "Mamistra", "Euphrates", "Marash", "Bohemond III of Antioch", "Maria of Antioch", "Agnes", "Béla III of Hungary", "Saladin", "Agnes of Courtenay", "Baldwin IV of Jerusalem", "Hugo Etherianis", "Constantinople", "Stephanie of Milly", "Oultrejordain", "Hebron", "Kerak", "Montréal", "William of Montferrat", "Rodrigo Álvarez", "Order of Mountjoy", "Philip I, Count of Flanders", "Ascalon", "Battle of Montgisard", "Baha ad-Din ibn Shaddad", "Guy of Lusignan", "Sybilla", "Isabella", "Balian of Ibelin", "Humphrey IV of Toron", "Heraclius", "Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem", "Roupen III, Lord of Cilician Armenia", "Isabella of Toron", "Aleppo", "As-Salih Ismail al-Malik", "Zengid", "Tabuk", "Damascus", "Mecca", "Farrukh Shah", "Raymond III of Tripoli", "Gulf of Aqaba", "Red Sea", "Al-Adil", "regent", "Baldwin V", "laid siege to Kerak", "Izz al-Din Usama", "Ajloun", "Holy Sepulchre", "Ali ibn al-Athir", "jihad", "Sepphoris", "Battle of Hattin", "rose water", "Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani", "mamluk", "Constance of Antioch", "Bohemond II of Antioch", "Alice of Jerusalem", "Raymond of Poitiers", "Agnes", "Constantinople", "Alexios-Béla", "Stephen III of Hungary", "Azzo VI of Este", "Baldwin", "Battle of Myriokephalon", "Stephanie of Milly", "Philip of Milly", "Miles of Plancy", "Surah CV", "Quran", "Peter of Blois", "Brendan Gleeson", "Kingdom of Heaven", "Horrible Histories" ], "wikipedia_id": [ "1283453", "771035", "2650181", "106130", "16822", "531202", "19034126", "750525", "5593", "4016", "44833", "10221", "2731392", "159244", "768183", "144682", "38577", "44700", "26983", "643071", "21021", "308792", "145432", 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"14998473", "5646", "379358", "4947882", "14847595", "30979806", "245802", "768183", "1042373", "1543495", "1188827", "36922", "231849", "1468272", "357186", "46599626" ], "wikipedia_title": [ "Prince of Antioch", "Oultrejordain", "French nobility", "Second Crusade", "Kingdom of Jerusalem", "Constance of Antioch", "Aimery of Limoges", "Latin Patriarchate of Antioch", "Cyprus", "List of Byzantine emperors", "Manuel I Komnenos", "Euphrates", "Kahramanmaraş", "Aleppo", "Stephanie of Milly", "Baldwin IV of Jerusalem", "Hebron", "Leprosy", "Saladin", "Battle of Montgisard", "Mecca", "Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem", "Guy of Lusignan", "Battle of Hattin", "Jean Richard (historian)", "Duchy of Burgundy", "Roman Senate", "Châtillon-sur-Loire", "Kingdom of Jerusalem", "Baldwin III of Jerusalem", "Second Crusade", "Louis VII of France", "William of Tyre", "Raymond of Poitiers", "Prince of Antioch", "Battle of Inab", "Constance of Antioch", "John Rogerios Dalassenos", "Manuel I Komnenos", "Steven Runciman", "Siege of Ascalon", "Malcolm Barber", "William of Tyre", "Latin Patriarchate of Antioch", "Aimery of Limoges", "Episcopal see", "Armenians", "Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia", "İskenderun", "Knights Templar", "Belen Pass", "Thoros II, Prince of Armenia", "John Doukas Komnenos", "Thierry, Count of Flanders", "Orontes River", "Shaizar", "Order of Assassins", "Banu Munqidh", "Harem, Syria", "Mopsuestia", "Euphrates", "Kahramanmaraş", "Bohemond III of Antioch", "Maria of Antioch", "Agnes of Antioch", "Béla III of Hungary", "Saladin", "Agnes of Courtenay", "Baldwin IV of Jerusalem", "Hugo Etherianis", "Constantinople", "Stephanie of Milly", "Oultrejordain", "Hebron", "Kerak Castle", "Montreal (Crusader castle)", "William of Montferrat, Count of Jaffa and Ascalon", "Rodrigo Álvarez", "Order of Mountjoy", "Philip I, Count of Flanders", "Ashkelon", "Battle of Montgisard", "Baha ad-Din ibn Shaddad", "Guy of Lusignan", "Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem", "Isabella I of Jerusalem", "Balian of Ibelin", "Humphrey IV of Toron", "Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem", "Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem", "Ruben III, Prince of Armenia", "Isabella of Toron", "Aleppo", "As-Salih Ismail al-Malik", "Zengid dynasty", "Tabuk, Saudi Arabia", "Damascus", "Mecca", "Farrukh Shah", "Raymond III, Count of Tripoli", "Gulf of Aqaba", "Red Sea", "Al-Adil I", "Regent", "Baldwin V of Jerusalem", "Siege of Kerak", "Izz al-Din Usama", "Ajloun", "Church of the Holy Sepulchre", "Ali ibn al-Athir", "Jihad", "Sepphoris", "Battle of Hattin", "Rose water", "Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani", "Mamluk", "Constance of Antioch", "Bohemond II of Antioch", "Alice of Antioch", "Raymond of Poitiers", "Agnes of Antioch", "Constantinople", "Béla III of Hungary", "Stephen III of Hungary", "Azzo VI of Este", "Baldwin of Antioch", "Battle of Myriokephalon", "Stephanie of Milly", "Philip of Milly", "Miles of Plancy", "Al-Fil", "Quran", "Peter of Blois", "Brendan Gleeson", "Kingdom of Heaven (film)", "Horrible Histories (2015 TV series)" ] }
"12th-century Princes of Antioch,1120s births,Roman Catholic monarchs,People from Loiret,12th-century French people,Christians executed for refusing to convert to Islam,French Roman Catholics,Christians of the Second Crusade,Medieval French knights,Lords of Oultrejordain,Princes of Antioch,1187 deaths"
"512px-ReynaldofChatillon&PatriarchofAntioch.jpg"
"157696"
{ "paragraph": [ "Raynald of Châtillon\n", "Raynald of Châtillon, also known as Reynald or Reginald of Châtillon (; 1125 – 4 July 1187), was Prince of Antioch from 1153 to 1160 or 1161, and Lord of Oultrejordain from 1175 until his death. He was born as his father's second son into a French noble family. After losing a part of his patrimony, he joined the Second Crusade in 1147. He settled in the Kingdom of Jerusalem and served in the royal army as a mercenary.\n", "Raynald married Constance, the reigning Princess of Antioch, in 1153, in spite of her subjects' opposition. He was always in need of funds. He captured and tortured Aimery of Limoges, Latin Patriarch of Antioch, because Aimery had refused to pay a subsidy to him. Raynald launched a plundering raid in Cyprus in 1155, causing great destruction. Four years later, the Byzantine Emperor, Manuel I Komnenos, came to Antioch at the head of a large army, forcing Raynald to beg for his mercy. Raynald made a raid in the valley of the river Euphrates at Marash to seize booty from the local peasants in 1160 or 1161, but he was captured by the governor of Aleppo.\n", "Raynald was held in prison until 1176. After his release for a large ransom, he did not return to Antioch, because his wife had meanwhile died. He married Stephanie of Milly, the wealthy heiress of Oultrejordain. Since Baldwin IV of Jerusalem also granted Hebron to him, Raynald was one of the wealthiest barons of the realm. He controlled the caravan routes between Egypt and Syria. Baldwin, who suffered from leprosy, made him regent in 1177. Raynald led the crusader army that defeated Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard. He was the only Christian leader to pursue an offensive policy against Saladin, making plundering raids against the caravans travelling near his domains. He built a fleet of five ships which plundered the coast of the Red Sea, threatening the route of the Muslim pilgrims towards Mecca in early 1183. Saladin pledged that he would never forgive Raynald.\n", "Raynald was a firm supporter of Baldwin IV's sister, Sybilla, and her husband, Guy of Lusignan, during conflicts regarding the succession of the king. Sibylla and Guy were able to seize the throne in 1186 due to Raynald's co-operation with her uncle, Joscelin III of Courtenay. Raynald attacked a caravan travelling from Egypt to Syria in late 1186 or early 1187, claiming that the truce between Saladin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem did not bind him. After Raynald refused to pay a compensation, Saladin invaded the kingdom and annihilated the crusader army in the Battle of Hattin. Raynald was captured in the battlefield. Saladin personally beheaded him after he refused to convert to Islam. Most historians have regarded Raynald as an irresponsible adventurer whose lust for booty caused the fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. On the other hand, Bernard Hamilton says that he was the only crusader leader who tried to prevent Saladin from unifying the nearby Muslim states.\n", "Section::::Early years.\n", "Raynald was the younger son of Hervé II, Lord of Donzy. In older historiography, Raynald was described as the son of Geoffrey, Count of Gien, but in 1989 Jean Richard demonstrated Raynald's kinship with the Lords of Donzy. They were influential noblemen in the Duchy of Burgundy, claiming the Palladii (a family of Roman senators) as their ancestors.\n", "Raynald was born around 1123. He received Châtillon-sur-Loire, but a part of his patrimony was \"violently and unjustly confiscated\", according to one of his letters. He came to the Kingdom of Jerusalem before 1153 when he was mentioned as a mercenary fighting in the army of Baldwin III of Jerusalem. According to modern historians, he had joined the crusade of Louis VII of France. Louis departed from France in June 1147. The 12th-century historian William of Tyre, who was Raynald's opponent, claimed that Raynald was \"almost a common soldier\". LouisVII left the Holy Land for France in the summer of 1149, but Raynald stayed behind in Palestine.\n", "Raymond, Prince of Antioch, and thousands of his soldiers fell in the Battle of Inab on 28June 1148, leaving the principality almost undefended. BaldwinIII of Jerusalem (who was the cousin of Raymond's widow, Constance, the ruling Princess of Antioch) came to Antioch at the head of his army at least three times during the following years. To secure the defence of the principality, Baldwin tried to persuade her to remarry, but she did not accept his candidates. She also refused John Roger, whom the Byzantine Emperor, Manuel I Komnenos, proposed for her husband.\n", "Raynald accompanied Baldwin to Antioch in 1151 and settled in the principality, according to Steven Runciman. It is certain that Raynald fought in Baldwin's army during the Siege of Ascalon in early 1153. He may have already been engaged to Constance of Antioch (as Runciman suggests), or their betrothal took place during Raynald's visit to the principality before the end of the siege (as Malcolm Barber proposes). They kept their betrothal a secret until Baldwin gave his permission to their marriage.\n", "Section::::Prince of Antioch.\n", "After Baldwin granted his consent, Constance married Raynald. He was installed prince in or shortly before May 1153. In that month, he confirmed the privileges of the Venetian merchants. William of Tyre recorded that his subjects were astonished that their \"famous, powerful and well-born\" princess condescended to \"marry a kind of mercenary knight\". The wealthy Latin Patriarch of Antioch, Aimery of Limoges, was Raynald's principal opponent. He even refused to pay a subsidy to him. In retaliation, Raynald captured and tortured Aimery, forcing him to sit naked and covered with honey in the sun, before imprisoning him. Aimery was only released on BaldwinIII's demand, but he soon left his see for Jerusalem.\n", "Emperor Manuel sent his envoys to Antioch, proposing to recognize Raynald as the new prince if he launched a campaign against the Armenians of Cilicia, who had risen up against Byzantine rule. Manuel also promised that he would compensate Raynald for the expenses of the campaign. After Raynald defeated the Armenians at Alexandretta in 1155, the Knights Templar seized the region of the Syrian Gates that the Armenians had recently captured. Although the sources are unclear, Runciman and Barber agree that it was Raynald who granted the territory to them.\n", "Always in need of funds, Raynald urged Manuel to send the promised subsidy to him, but Manuel failed to pay the money. Raynald made an alliance with Thoros II of Cilicia. They attacked Cyprus, subjecting the Byzantine island to a three-week orgy of violence in early 1156. They only left Cyprus on the rumour of an imperial fleet approaching the island, but only after they had forced all Cypriots to ransom themselves, with the exception of the wealthiest individuals (including Emperor Manuel's nephew, John Doukas Komnenos), whom they carried off to Antioch. Cyprus would never entirely recover from the devastation that Raynald's and Thoros's marauding raid caused.\n", "Taking advantage of the presence of Thierry, Count of Flanders, and his army in the Holy Land and an earthquake that destroyed most towns of Northern Syria, BaldwinIII of Jerusalem invaded the Muslim territories in the valley of the Orontes River in the autumn of 1157. Raynald joined the royal army, and they laid siege to Shaizar. Shaizar was held by a band of Assassins, but it had been ruled by the Munqidhites who paid an annual tribute to Raynald. Before the capitulation of the garrison, Baldwin decided to grant the fortress to Thierry of Flanders, but Raynald demanded that the count should pay homage to him for the town. After Thierry sharply refused to swear fealty to an upstart, the crusaders abandoned the siege. They marched on Harenc (present-day Harem, Syria), which had been an Antiochene fortress before Nur ad-Din, atabeg of Aleppo, captured it in 1150. After the crusaders captured Harenc in February 1158, Raynald granted it to the Flemish Raynald of Saint-Valery.\n", "Emperor Manuel unexpectedly invaded Cilicia, forcing ThorosII to seek refuge in the mountains in December 1158. Raynald hurried to Mamistra to voluntarily make his submission to the emperor. On Manuel's demand, he and his retainers walked barefoot and bareheaded through the streets of the town to the imperial tent where he prostrated himself, begging for mercy. William of Tyre stated that \"the glory of the Latin world was put to shame\" on this occasion, because envoys from the nearby Muslim and Christian rulers were also present at Raynald's humiliation. Manuel only forgave him after Raynald agreed to accept a Greek Patriarch in Antioch. Raynald also had to promise that he would allow a Byzantine garrison to stay in the citadel whenever it was required and would send a troop to fight in the Byzantine army. Before long, BaldwinIII of Jerusalem persuaded Manuel to consent to the return of the Latin patriarch, Aimery, to Antioch, instead of installing a Greek patriarch. When the emperor entered Antioch with much pomp and ceremony on 12April 1159, Reginald held the bridle of Manuel's horse. Manuel left the town eight days later.\n", "Raynald made a plundering raid in the valley of the river Euphrates at Marash to seize cattle, horses and camels from the local peasants in November 1160 or 1161. Majd al-Din, governor of Aleppo, attacked Raynald and his retinue on the way back to Antioch. Raynald fought bravely, but the Muslim warriors unhorsed and captured him. He was sent to Aleppo where he was put in jail.\n", "Section::::Captivity and release.\n", "Almost nothing is known about Raynald's life while he was kept in jail for fifteen years. He shared his prison with Joscelin III of Courtenay, who had been captured a couple of months before. In Raynald's absence, Constance wanted to rule alone, but BaldwinIII of Jerusalem made Patriarch Aimery regent for her fifteen-year-old son (Raynald's stepson), Bohemond III of Antioch. Constance died around 1163, shortly after her son reached the age of majority. Her death deprived Raynald of his claim to Antioch. However, he had become an important personality, with prominent family connections. His stepdaughter, Maria of Antioch, married ManuelI Komnenos in 1161. Raynald's own daughter, Agnes, became the wife of Béla III of Hungary.\n", "When Gümüshtekin, governor of Aleppo, one of the last independent Muslim rulers in Syria after Saladin, had conquered almost all neighboring states, he released Raynald, along with Joscelin of Courtenay and all other Christians prisoners in 1176. Raynald's ransom, fixed at 120,000 gold dinars, reflected his prestige. It was most probably paid by ManuelI Komnenos, according to Barber and Bernard Hamilton.\n", "Raynald came to Jerusalem with Joscelin before 1September 1176 where he became a close ally of Joscelin's sister, Agnes of Courtenay. She was the mother of the young Baldwin IV of Jerusalem, who suffered from leprosy. Hugo Etherianis, who lived in Constantinople after around 1165, mentioned in the preface of his \"About the Procession of the Holy Spirit\" that he had asked \"Prince Raynald\" to deliver a copy of the work to Aimery of Limoges. According to historian Bernard Hamilton, these words suggest that Raynald led the embassy that BaldwinIV sent to Constantinople to confirm an alliance between Jerusalem and the Byzantine Empire against Egypt.\n", "Section::::Lord of Oultrejordain.\n", "Section::::Lord of Oultrejordain.:First years.\n", "Raynald married Stephanie of Milly, the lady of Oultrejordain, and BaldwinIV also granted him Hebron. The first extant charter styling Raynald as \"Lord of Hebron and Montréal\" was issued in November 1177. He owed service of 60 knights to the Crown, showing that he had become one of the wealthiest barons of the realm. From his castles at Kerak and Montréal, he controlled the routes between the two main parts of Saladin's empire, Syria and Egypt. Raynald and BaldwinIV's brother-in-law, William of Montferrat, jointly granted large estates to Rodrigo Álvarez, the founder of the Order of Mountjoy, to strengthen the defence of the southern and eastern frontier of the kingdom. After William of Montferrat died in June 1177, the king made Raynald regent.\n", "Baldwin IV's cousin, Philip I, Count of Flanders, came to the Holy Land at the head of a crusader army in early August 1177. The king offered him the regency, but Philip refused the offer, saying that he did not want to stay in the kingdom. Philip declared that he was \"willing to take orders\" from anybody, but he protested when Baldwin confirmed Raynald's position as \"regent of the kingdom and of the armies\". Philip left the kingdom a month after his arrival.\n", "Saladin invaded the region of Ascalon, but the royal army launched an attack on him in the Battle of Montgisard on 25November, leading to his defeat. William of Tyre and Ernoul attributed the victory to the king, but Baha ad-Din ibn Shaddad and other Muslim authors recorded that Raynald was the supreme commander. Saladin himself referred to the battle as a \"major defeat which God mended with the famous battle of Hattin\", according to Baha ad-Din.\n", "Raynald was the first among the witnesses to sign most royal charters between 1177 and 1180, showing that he was the king's most influential official during this period. Raynald became one of the principal supporters of Guy of Lusignan, who married the king's elder sister, Sybilla, in early 1180, although many barons of the realm had opposed the marriage. The king's half sister, Isabella (whose stepfather, Balian of Ibelin was Guy of Lusignan's opponent) was engaged to Raynald's stepson, Humphrey IV of Toron, in autumn 1180. BaldwinIV dispatched Raynald, along with Heraclius, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, to mediate a reconciliation between Bohemond III of Antioch and Patriarch Aimery in early 1181. Roupen III, Lord of Cilician Armenia, married Raynald's stepdaughter, Isabella of Toron.\n", "Section::::Lord of Oultrejordain.:Fights against Saladin.\n", "Raynald was the only Christian leader who fought against Saladin in the 1180s. The contemporaneous Ernoul mentioned two raids that Raynald made against caravans travelling between Egypt and Syria, breaking the truce. Modern historians debate whether Raynald's desire for booty inspired these military actions, or were deliberate maneuvers to prevent Saladin from annexing new territories. Saladin tried to seize Aleppo after As-Salih Ismail al-Malik, the Zengid emir of the town, died on 18November 1181. Raynald stormed into Saladin's territory, reaching as far as Tabuk on the route between Damascus and Mecca in late 1181. Saladin's nephew, Farrukh Shah, invaded Oultrejourdain instead of attacking Aleppo to compel Raynald to return from the Arabian desert. Before long, Raynald seized a caravan and imprisoned its members. On Saladin's protest, BaldwinIV ordered Raynald to free them, but Raynald did not obey him. His defiance annoyed the king, enabling Raymond III of Tripoli's partisans to reconcile him with the monarch. Raymond's return to the royal court put an end to his paramount position. He accepted the new situation and cooperated with the king and Raymond during the fights against Saladin in summer 1182.\n", "Saladin revived the Egyptian naval force and tried to capture Beirut, but his ships were forced to retreat. Raynald ordered the building of five ships which were carried to the Gulf of Aqaba at the northern end of the Red Sea in February 1183. Raynald laid siege to the Egyptian fortress on Ile de Graye. Part of his fleet made a plundering raid along the coasts, threatening the security of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Raynald left Ile de Graye, but his fleet continued the siege. Saladin's brother, Al-Adil, the governor of Egypt, dispatched a fleet to the Red Sea. The Egyptians relieved Ile de Graye and destroyed the Christian fleet. Raynald's soldiers were executed, and Saladin took an oath that he would never forgive him. Though Raynald's naval expedition \"showed a remarkable degree of initiative\", according to historian Bernard Hamilton, most modern historians agree that it contributed to the unification of Syria and Egypt under Saladin's rule. Saladin captured Aleppo in June 1183, completing the encirclement of the crusader states.\n", "Baldwin IV, who had become seriously ill, made Guy of Lusignan \"bailli\" (or regent) in October 1183. Within a month, Baldwin dismissed Guy, and had Guy's five-year-old stepson, Baldwin V, crowned king. Raynald was not present at the child's coronation, because he attended the wedding of his stepson, Humphrey, and BaldwinIV's sister, Isabella, in Kerak. Saladin unexpectedly invaded Oultrejordain, forcing the local inhabitants to seek refuge in Kerak. After Saladin broke into the town, Raynald only managed to escape to the fortress because one of his retainers had hindered the attackers from seizing the bridge between the town and the castle. Saladin laid siege to Kerak. According to Ernoul, Raynald's wife sent dishes from the wedding to Saladin, persuading him to stop bombarding the tower where her son and his wife stayed. After envoys from Kerak informed BaldwinIV of the siege, the royal army left Jerusalem for Kerak under the command of the king and RaymondIII of Tripoli. Saladin abandoned the siege before their arrival on 4December. On Saladin's order, Izz al-Din Usama had a fortress built at Ajloun, near the northern border of Raynald's domains.\n", "Section::::Lord of Oultrejordain.:Kingmaker.\n", "Baldwin IV died in early 1185. His successor, the child BaldwinV died in late summer 1186. The High Court of Jerusalem had ruled that neither BaldwinV's mother, Sybilla (who was Guy of Lusignan's wife), nor her sister, Isabella (who was the wife of Raynald's stepson), could be crowned without the decision of the pope, the Holy Roman Emperor, and the kings of France and England about BaldwinV's lawful successor. However, Sybilla's uncle, JoscelinIII of Courtenay, took control of Jerusalem with the support of Raynald and other influential prelates and royal officials. Raynald urged the townspeople to accept Sybilla as the lawful monarch, according to the \"Estoire de Eracles\". The \"bailli\", RaymondIII of Tripoli, and his supporters tried to prevent her coronation and reminded her partisans of the decision of the High Court. Ignoring their protest, Raynald and Gerard of Ridefort, Grand Master of the Knights Templar, accompanied Sybilla to the Holy Sepulchre, where she was crowned. She also arranged the coronation of her husband, although he was unpopular even among her supporters. Her opponents tried to persuade Raynald's stepson, Humphrey, to claim the crown on his wife's behalf, but Humphrey deserted them and swore fealty to Sybilla and Guy. Raynald headed the list of secular witnesses in four royal charters issued between 21October 1186 and 7March 1187, showing that he had become a principal figure in the new king's court.\n", "Ali ibn al-Athir and other Muslim historians recorded that Raynald made a truce with Saladin in 1186. This \"seems unlikely to be true\", according to historian Bernard Hamilton, because the truce between the Kingdom of Jerusalem and Saladin covered Raynald's domains. In late 1186 or early 1187, a rich caravan travelled through Oultrejordain from Egypt to Syria. Ali ibn al-Athir mentioned that a group of armed men accompanied the caravan. Raynald seized the caravan, possibly because he regarded the presence of soldiers as a breach of the truce, according to Hamilton. He took all the merchants and their families prisoner, seized a large amount of booty, and refused to receive envoys from Saladin demanding compensation. Saladin sent his envoys to Guy of Lusignan, who accepted his demands. However, Raynald refused to obey the king, stating that \"he was lord of his land, just as Guy was lord of his, and he had no truces with the Saracens\". Saladin proclaimed a \"jihad\" (or holy war) against the kingdom, taking an oath that he would personally kill Raynald for breaking the truce.\n", "Section::::Capture and execution.\n", "The \"Estoire de Eracles\" wrongly claimed that Saladin's sister was also among the prisoners taken by Raynald when he seized the caravan. Actually, she returned from Mecca to Damascus in a subsequent pilgrim-caravan in March 1187. To protect her against an attack by Raynald, Saladin escorted the pilgrims while they were travelling near Oultrejordain. Saladin stormed into Oultrejordain on 26April and pillaged Raynald's domains for a month. Thereafter, Saladin marched to Ashtara, where the troops coming from all parts of his realm assembled.\n", "The Christian forces assembled at Sepphoris. Raynald and Gerard of Ridefort convinced Guy of Lusignan to take the initiative and attack Saladin's army, although RaymondIII of Tripoli had tried to persuade the king to avoid a direct fight with it. During the debate, Raynald accused Raymond of Tripoli of co-operating with the enemy. Saladin inflicted a crushing defeat on the crusaders in the Battle of Hattin on 4July. Most commanders of the Christian army were captured in the battlefield.\n", "Guy of Lusignan and Raynald were among the prisoners who were brought before Saladin. Saladin handed a cup of iced rose water to Guy. After drinking from the cup, the king handed it to Raynald. Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani (who was present) recorded that Raynald drank from the cup. Since customary law prescribed that a man who gave food or drink to a prisoner could not murder him, Saladin stated that it was Guy who had given the cup to Raynald. Saladin called Raynald to his tent. He accused him of many crimes (including brigandage and blasphemy), offering him to choose between conversion to Islam or death, according to Imad ad-Din and Ibn al-Athir. After Raynald flatly refused to convert, Saladin took a sword and struck Raynald with it. As Raynald fell to the ground, Saladin beheaded him. The reliability of the reports of Saladin's offer to Raynald is subject to a scholarly debate, because the Muslim authors who recorded them may have only wanted to improve Saladin's image. Ernoul's chronicle and the \"Estoire de Eracles\" recounted the events ending with Raynald's execution in almost the same language as the Muslim authors. However, according to Ernoul's chronicle, Raynald refused to drink from the cup that Guy of Lusignan handed to him. According to Ernoul, Raynald's head was struck off by Saladin's mamluks and it was brought to Damascus to be \"dragged along the ground to show the Saracens, whom the prince had wronged, that vengeance had been exacted\". Baha ad-Din also wrote that Raynald's fate shocked Guy of Lusignan, but Saladin soon comforted him, stating that \"A king does not kill a king, but that man's perfidy and insolence went too far\".\n", "Section::::Family.\n", "Raynald's first wife, Constance of Antioch (born in 1128), was the only daughter of Bohemond II of Antioch and Alice of Jerusalem. Constance succeeded her father in Antioch in 1130. She was given in marriage to Raymond of Poitiers in 1136. Years after his death, Raynald married the widowed Constance and seized Antioch.\n", "Their daughter, Agnes, moved to Constantinople in early 1170 to marry \"Kaisar\" Alexios-Béla, the younger brother of Stephen III of Hungary, who lived in the Byzantine Empire. Agnes was renamed Anna in Constantinople. Her husband succeeded his brother as BélaIII of Hungary in 1172. She followed her husband to Hungary, where she gave birth to seven children before she died around 1184. Raynald and Constance's second daughter, Alice, became the third wife of Azzo VI of Este in 1204. Raynald also had a son, Baldwin, from Constance, according to historian Bernard Hamilton, but Runciman says that Baldwin was Constance's son from her first husband. Baldwin moved to Constantinople in the early 1160s. He died fighting at the head of a Byzantine cavalry regiment in the Battle of Myriokephalon on 17September 1176.\n", "Raynald's second wife, Stephanie of Milly, was the younger daughter of Philip of Milly, Lord of Nablus, and Isabella of Oultrejourdain. She was born around 1145. Her first husband, HumphreyIII of Toron, died around 1173. She inherited Oultrejourdain from her niece, Beatrice Brisbarre, shortly before she married Miles of Plancy in early 1174. Miles of Plancy was murdered in October 1174.\n", "Section::::Legacy.\n", "Most information on Raynald's life was recorded by Muslim authors who were hostile to him. Baha ad-Din ibn Shaddad described him as a \"monstrous infidel and terrible oppressor\" in his biography of Saladin. Saladin compared Raynald with the king of Ethiopia, who had tried to destroy Mecca in 570 and was mentioned as the \"Elephant\" in the Surah CV of the Quran.\n", "Most Christian authors who wrote of Raynald in the 12th and 13th centuries were influenced by Raynald's political opponent, William of Tyre. The author of the \"Estoire of Eracles\" stated that Raynald's attack against a caravan at the turn of 1186 and 1187 was the \"reason of the loss of the Kingdom of Jerusalem\". Modern historians have usually also treated Raynald as a \"maverick who did more harm to the Christian than to the [Muslim] cause\". Runciman describes him as a marauder who could not resist the temptation presented by the rich caravans passing through Oultrejordain. Runciman argues that Raynald attacked a caravan during the 1180 truce because he \"could not understand a policy that ran counter to his wishes\". According to Barber, Raynald's behavior during the reign of Guy of Lusignan shows that the kingdom had broken up into \"a collection of semi-autonomous fiefdoms\" by that time.\n", "Some Christian authors regarded Raynald as a martyr for the faith. Peter of Blois dedicated a book (entitled \"Passion of Prince Raynald of Antioch\") to him shortly after his death. Among modern historians, Bernard Hamilton describes Raynald as \"an experienced and responsible crusader leader\" who made several attempts to prevent Saladin from uniting the Muslim realms along the borders of the crusader states.\n", "Raynald is portrayed by Brendan Gleeson in the \"Kingdom of Heaven\" movie. He is also a character in the first episode of season 6 of \"Horrible Histories\".\n", "Section::::Sources.\n", "Section::::Sources.:Primary sources.\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Rare and Excellent History of Saladin or \"al-Nawādir al-Sultaniyya wa'l-Maḥāsin al-Yūsufiyya\" by Bahā' ad-Dīn Yusuf ibn Rafi ibn Shaddād\" (Translated by D. S. Richards) (2001). Ashgate. .\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Chronicle of Ibn Al-Athir for the Crusading Period from\" Al-Kamil Fi'l-Ta'rikh \"(Part 2: The Years 541-582/1146-1193: The Age of Nur ad-Din and Saladin)\" (Translated by D. S. Richards) (2007). Ashgate. .\n", "Section::::Further reading.\n" ] }
"http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FilePath/ReynaldofChatillon&PatriarchofAntioch.jpg"
{ "aliases": { "alias": [ "Raynald of Chatillon" ] }, "description": "French crusader", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q316831", "wikidata_label": "Raynald of Châtillon", "wikipedia_title": "Raynald of Châtillon" }
"157696"
"Raynald of Châtillon"
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for Burning", "Minerva Theatre, Chichester", "Michael Grandage", "Sheffield Theatres", "The Romans in Britain", "As You Like It", "Royal Shakespeare Company", "Complete Works (RSC festival)", "Sheffield", "West End theatre", "Dealer's Choice (play)", "Trafalgar Studios", "Toby Stephens", "Dervla Kirwan", "Betrayal (play)", "Donmar Warehouse", "T. S. Eliot", "Enron (play)", "Lucy Prebble", "Waste (play)", "Almeida Theatre", "The Times", "Uncle Vanya", "Vaudeville Theatre", "Chichester Festival Theatre", "Nina Sosanya", "Anna Chancellor", "James McArdle", "Merchant Ivory Productions", "Howards End (film)", "E. M. Forster", "Howards End", "Emma Thompson", "Helena Bonham Carter", "Anthony Hopkins", "British Academy of Film and Television Arts", "Carrington (film)", "Franco Zeffirelli", "Jane Eyre (1996 film)", "Notting Hill (film)", "Iris (2001 film)", "Van Helsing (film)", "George VI", "Hyde Park on Hudson", "Midsomer Murders", "Waking the Dead (TV series)", "Agatha Christie's Poirot", "Anthony Blunt", "Cambridge Spies", "BBC", "Toby Stephens", "Kim Philby", "Tom Hollander", "Guy Burgess", "Rupert Penry-Jones", "BBC Television", "Random Quest", "John Wyndham", "Edward Heath", "The Long Walk to Finchley", "William Boyd (writer)", "Any Human Heart", "As Time Goes By (TV series)", "Mr Selfridge", "BBC Television", "Laura Wade", "Present Laughter", "Noël Coward", "Len Deighton", "Bomber (novel)", "Life and Fate", "Vasily Grossman", "Michael Frayn", "Here (play)", "The Homecoming", "Harold Pinter", "Money (play)", "Edward Bulwer-Lytton", "BBC Radio 3", "Prunella Scales", "Howards End (film)", "Stiff Upper Lips", "Timothy West", "A Number", "Henry IV, Part 1", "Henry IV, Part 2", "Iris (2001 film)", "Over Here (miniseries)", "Edward the Seventh", "Igor Stravinsky", "L'Histoire du soldat", "St Magnus Festival", "Orkney", "Harold Pinter", "Family Voices", "Sheffield Theatres", "Sheffield Philharmonic Chorus", "Socialist Workers Party (UK)", "Socialist Alliance (England)", "New Labour", "Tony Blair", "Trades Union Congress", "2011 London anti-cuts protest", "Richard II (play)", "Cambridge University Press", "Hamlet", "BBC Radio 3", "Harold Pinter", "Caryl Churchill", "Shipping Forecast", "Forward Prizes for Poetry", "Christmas University Challenge", "Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford", "Royal Shakespeare Company", "National Campaign for the Arts", "Equity (British trade union)", "Birdwatching", "Laura Wade", "The Riot Club", "Posh (play)", "Laurence Rees", "World War II", "War of the Century", "Horror in the East", "Ella Hickson", "Almeida Theatre", "The Browning Version (play)", "Birmingham Repertory Theatre", "Les Parents terribles", "Derek Goldby", "Orange Tree Theatre", "The Bread-Winner (play)", "Kevin Billington", "Theatre Royal, Windsor", "A Life in the Theatre", "Bill Bryden", "Theatre Royal Haymarket", "Novello Theatre", "Simon Gray", "Simon Gray", "Vaudeville Theatre", "The Sea (play)", "Sam Mendes", "Royal National Theatre", "Cain (play)", "Edward Hall (director)", "Minerva Theatre, Chichester", "Mr. Cinders", "King's Head Theatre", "Arcadia (play)", "Trevor Nunn", "Royal National Theatre", "The Importance of Being Earnest", "James Maxwell (actor)", "Royal Exchange, Manchester", "Henry IV, Part 1", "Henry IV, Part 2", "Stephen Unwin (director)", "English Touring Theatre", "Journey's End", "King's Head Theatre", "Antony and Cleopatra", "Sean Mathias", "Royal National Theatre", "Richard II (play)", "Steven Pimlott", "Royal Shakespeare Company", "Hamlet", "Steven Pimlott", "Royal Shakespeare Company", "The Master and Margarita", "Steven Pimlott", "Chichester Festival Theatre", "Doctor Faustus (play)", "Steven Pimlott", "Edward Kemp", "Minerva Theatre, Chichester", "Much Ado About Nothing", "Josie Rourke", "Crucible Theatre", "The Exonerated (play)", "Bob Balaban", "Riverside Studios", "A Number", "Studio Theatre (Sheffield)", "Minerva Theatre, Chichester", "Betrayal (play)", "Roger Michell", "Donmar Warehouse", "Drunk Enough to Say I Love You?", "The Public Theater", "The Family Reunion", "Jeremy Herrin", "Donmar Warehouse", "Enron (play)", "Rupert Goold", "Minerva Theatre, Chichester", "Royal Court Theatre", "Noël Coward Theatre", "A Number", "Menier Chocolate Factory", "Australian Chamber Orchestra", "Sydney Opera House", "A Number", "Cape Town", "Uncle Vanya", "Lindsay Posner", "Vaudeville Theatre", "Ivanov (play)", "The Seagull", "Jonathan Kent (director)", "Chichester Festival Theatre", "The Lady's Not for Burning", "Minerva Theatre, Chichester", "Les Liaisons dangereuses", "Bristol Old Vic", "Così fan tutte", "English National Opera", "Barbican Centre", "Minerva Theatre, Chichester", "Hampstead Theatre", "Lyceum Theatre (Sheffield)", "The Romans in Britain", "Crucible Theatre", "The Clean House", "Studio Theatre (Sheffield)", "As You Like It", "Crucible Theatre", "Swan Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon", "Dealer's Choice (play)", "Menier Chocolate Factory", "Trafalgar Studios", "Waste (play)", "Almeida Theatre", "Northern Stage, Newcastle upon Tyne", "April De Angelis", "Theatre Royal, Plymouth", "Kiln Theatre", "The Watsons", "Money (play)", "Audiobook", "William Shakespeare", "All's Well That Ends Well", "Coriolanus", "Henry V (play)", "The Merchant of Venice", "A Midsummer Night's Dream", "Much Ado About Nothing", "Richard II (play)", "Macbeth", "Steven Berkoff", "Wind on Fire", "William Nicholson (writer)", "The Wind Singer", "Slaves of the Mastery", "Firesong", "Kevin Crossley-Holland", "The Seeing Stone", "Sebastian Faulks", "Charlotte Gray (novel)", "Birdsong (novel)", "The Girl at the Lion d'Or", "Human Traces", "Michael Ridpath", "George Orwell", "Nineteen Eighty-Four", "Homage to Catalonia", "Mary Wesley", "Robert Goddard (novelist)", "John Keats", "Percy Bysshe Shelley", "A Shropshire Lad", "Goethe's Faust", "Bomber (novel)", "Doctor Who", "Empire of the Sun", "Brighton Rock (novel)", "Fair Stood the Wind for France", "James Herbert", "Lady Windermere's Fan", "Peter and Wendy", "The Alchemist (novel)", "The Day of the Triffids", "The Man Who Made Husbands Jealous", "The Solitaire Mystery", "The Velveteen Rabbit", "The Woodlanders", "Under the Net", "Wuthering Heights", "Philip Pullman", "The Book about Moomin, Mymble and Little My", "Tove Jansson", "Brighton Rock (novel)", "The Daily Telegraph", "Orchestre philharmonique de Strasbourg", "Dallas Symphony Orchestra", "National Symphony Orchestra", "L'Histoire du soldat", "Egmont (Beethoven)", "Enoch Arden (Strauss)", "Symphony No. 3 (Bernstein)", "Night Mail", "The Way to the Sea", "Judith Weir", "Howard Goodall", "Royal Albert Hall", "Jonathan Harvey (composer)", "Anne Dudley", "Steven Isserlis", "Edvard Grieg", "Henrik Ibsen", "Peer Gynt", "Southampton Philharmonic Choir", "The Proms", "Nash Ensemble", "Raphael Ensemble", "Ensemble 360", "Lindsay String Quartet", "Endellion Quartet", "Wigmore Hall", "Salad Days (musical)", "BBC Symphony Orchestra", "Leonard Slatkin", "Palestine (region)", "The Magic Flute", "Benjamin Britten", "W. H. Auden", "Night Mail", "Nash Ensemble", "The Way to the Sea", "The King's Stamp", "Aurora Orchestra", "Noye's Fludde", "Hymn to St Cecilia", "Saint Nicolas (Britten)", "Christopher Isherwood", "The Ascent of F6", "Grammy Award", "Billy Bragg", "Johnny Vegas", "BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role", "Howards End (film)", "Canadian Screen Award for Best Actor", "Rupert's Land (film)", "Critics' Circle Theatre Award", "Hamlet", "WhatsOnStage.com", "Hamlet", "WhatsOnStage.com", "Betrayal (play)", "UK Theatre Awards", "Enron (play)", "Enron (play)", "WhatsOnStage.com", "Enron (play)", "Laurence Olivier Award", "Enron (play)", "Charlotte Gray (novel)", "Sebastian Faulks", "The Seeing Stone", "Kevin Crossley-Holland", "Birdsong (novel)", "Sebastian Faulks", "AudioFile (magazine)", "The Day of the Triffids", "John Wyndham", "Peter and Wendy", "J. M. Barrie", "Charlotte Gray (novel)", "Sebastian Faulks", "Rose Tremain", "Alan Hollinghurst", "Goethe's Faust", "Johann Wolfgang von Goethe", "A Shropshire Lad", "A. E. Housman", "Sebastian Faulks", "Philip Pullman", "Laurence Olivier Award", "Così fan tutte", "Laurence Olivier Award", "Dealer's Choice (play)", "WhatsOnStage Awards", "Waste (play)", "Dealer's Choice (play)", "United Agents", "United Agents", "Trades Union Congress" ] }
"English theatre directors,Critics' Circle Theatre Award winners,People educated at Alleyn's School,Royal Shakespeare Company members,1966 births,English socialists,English male stage actors,English male television actors,Male actors from London,English male radio actors,People from Hammersmith,English male film actors,Socialist Workers Party (UK) members,21st-century English male actors,Living people,Alumni of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford"
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{ "paragraph": [ "Samuel West\n", "Samuel Alexander Joseph West (born 19 June 1966) is an English actor, theatre director and voice actor. He has directed on stage and radio, and worked as an actor across theatre, film, television and radio. He often appears as reciter with orchestras and performed at the Last Night of the Proms in 2002. He has narrated several documentary series, including five for the BBC centred on events related to the Second World War.\n", "Section::::Early life and education.\n", "West was born in London, the elder son of actors Prunella Scales and Timothy West, and the grandson of the actor Lockwood West. He has one brother. He was educated at Alleyn's School and Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, where he studied English Literature and was president of the Experimental Theatre Club.\n", "Section::::Career.\n", "Section::::Career.:Stage.\n", "West made his London stage debut in February 1989 at the Orange Tree Theatre, playing Michael in Cocteau's \"Les Parents Terribles\", of which critic John Thaxter wrote: \"He invests the role with a warmth and validity that silences sniggers that could so easily greet a lesser performance of this difficult role, and he lets us share the tumbling emotions of a juvenile torn between romantic first love and filial duty.\" Since then, West has appeared frequently on stage; he played Valentine in the first ever production of Tom Stoppard's \"Arcadia\" at the National Theatre in 1993 and later spent two seasons with the Royal Shakespeare Company playing the title roles in \"Richard II\" and \"Hamlet\", both directed by Steven Pimlott.\n", "In 2002, West made his stage directorial debut with \"The Lady's Not for Burning\" at the Minerva Theatre, Chichester. He succeeded Michael Grandage as artistic director of Sheffield Theatres from 2005-2007. During his time as artistic director West revived the controversial \"The Romans in Britain\" and also directed \"As You Like It\" as part of the RSC's Complete Works Festival. West left Sheffield when the theatre closed for refurbishment in 2007 and made his West End directorial debut with the first major revival of \"Dealer's Choice\" following its transferral to the Trafalgar Studios. He also continued his acting career: in 2007 he appeared alongside Toby Stephens and Dervla Kirwan in \"Betrayal\" at the Donmar Warehouse, in November 2008 he played Harry in the Donmar revival of T. S. Eliot's \"Family Reunion\" and in 2009 he starred as Jeffrey Skilling in \"Enron\" by Lucy Prebble. His 2008 production of \"Waste\" at the Almeida Theatre was chosen by \"The Times\" as one of its \"Productions of the Decade\". From November 2012 to January 2013 he appeared as Astrov in a production of \"Uncle Vanya\" at the Vaudeville Theatre. He played Ivanov and Trigorin in the Chichester Festival Theatre's Young Chekhov Season from September 2015, alongside Nina Sosanya, Anna Chancellor, and James McArdle.\n", "Section::::Career.:Film.\n", "In 1991, West played the lower-middle-class clerk Leonard Bast in the Merchant Ivory film adaptation of E. M. Forster's novel \"Howards End\" (released 1992) opposite Emma Thompson, Helena Bonham Carter and Anthony Hopkins. For this role, he was nominated for best supporting actor at the 1993 BAFTA Film Awards. Two years later he again appeared with Thompson in the film \"Carrington\". His film career has continued with roles in a number of well known films, such as Franco Zeffirelli's \"Jane Eyre\", \"Notting Hill\", \"Iris\" and \"Van Helsing\". In 2004, he appeared in the year's highest rated mini-series on German television, \"Die Nibelungen\", which was released in the United States in 2006 as \"\". In 2012, he played King George VI in \"Hyde Park on Hudson\".\n", "Section::::Career.:Television.\n", "He is a familiar face on television appearing in many long-running series: \"Midsomer Murders\", \"Waking the Dead\" and \"Poirot\" as well as one-off dramas. He played Anthony Blunt in \"Cambridge Spies\", a BBC production about the four British spies, starring alongside Toby Stephens (Philby), Tom Hollander (Burgess) and Rupert Penry-Jones (Maclean). In 2006, he took the lead role in a BBC production of \"Random Quest\" adapted from the short story by John Wyndham and the next year played Edward Heath in \"Margaret Thatcher - The Long Walk to Finchley\", also for the BBC. In 2010 he played Peter Scabius in the televised adaptation of William Boyd's novel \"Any Human Heart\", while in 2011 he starred as Zak Gist in the ITV series \"Eternal Law\". In addition, he appeared in the BBC series \"As Time Goes By\" episode \"We'll Always Have Paris\" (1994) as the character Terry.\n", "He plays Frank Edwards in the ITV drama \"Mr Selfridge\", and Sir Walter Pole in the 2015 BBC adaptation of \"Jonathan Strange and Mr Norrell\".\n", "Section::::Career.:Radio.\n", "West is regularly heard on radio as a reader or reciter and has performed in many radio dramas, including \"Otherkin\" by Laura Wade, \"Present Laughter\" by Noël Coward, Len Deighton's \"Bomber\", \"Life and Fate\" by Vasily Grossman, Michael Frayn's \"Here\" and \"The Homecoming\" as Lenny to Harold Pinter's Max.\n", "In 2011, he made his radio directing debut with a production of \"Money\" by Edward Bulwer-Lytton on BBC Radio 3.\n", "Section::::Personal life.\n", "West has appeared alongside his actor parents on several occasions; with his mother Prunella Scales in \"Howards End\" and \"Stiff Upper Lips\", and with his father Timothy West on stage in \"A Number\", \"Henry IV, Part 1\" and \"Part 2\". In two films (\"Iris\" in 2001 and the 1996 television film \"Over Here\"), Sam and his father have played the same character at different ages. In \"Edward the Seventh\", he and his brother Joseph played young sons of the title character, who was played by their father. In 2002 all three family members performed in Stravinsky's \"The Soldiers Tale\" at the St Magnus Festival on Orkney and in 2006 they gave a rehearsed reading of the Harold Pinter play \"Family Voices\" as part of the Sheffield Theatres Pinter season.\n", "West became the patron of Sheffield Philharmonic Chorus in February 2008, having been the narrator for a concert of theirs in February 2002. He is also a patron of London children's charity Scene & Heard, Eastside Educational Trust and Mousetrap Theatre projects.\n", "While at university, West was a member of the Socialist Workers Party and later briefly the Socialist Alliance. West has been politically active for many years; he was a critic of the New Labour government of Tony Blair and their involvement in the Iraq War. On 26 March 2011, he spoke at the TUC March for the Alternative.\n", "West has written essays on \"Richard II\" for the Cambridge University Press series \"Players of Shakespeare\", on \"Hamlet\" for Michael Dobson's CUP study \"Performing Shakespeare's Tragedies Today\" and on Shakespeare and Love and Voice and Radio for BBC Radio 3.\n", "He has also published articles on Harold Pinter, on Caryl Churchill and on the Shipping Forecast. He frequently writes and speaks in public about arts funding. West has collected stamps since childhood and owns more than 200 Two Shilling Blues.\n", "In 2013, he was one of the judges for the Forward Prizes for Poetry. In December 2014, he appeared on two programmes for \"Christmas University Challenge\", as part of a team of alumni from Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford.\n", "West is an Associate Artist of the Royal Shakespeare Company, Chair of the National Campaign for the Arts, and was a member of the council of the British Actors' Union Equity from 1996–2000 and 2008–2014. He is a keen birdwatcher.\n", "In 2007, West moved in with playwright Laura Wade, but in 2011 the couple temporarily split up. In 2013, West was cast in a minor role in \"The Riot Club\", the film version of Wade’s successful play, \"Posh\" and in 2014 the couple had a daughter. In August 2017, the couple had a second daughter.\n", "Section::::Television.\n", "He also narrated five BBC documentary series for producer Laurence Rees centered on the Second World War:\n", "BULLET::::- \"\" 1997\n", "BULLET::::- \"War of the Century: When Hitler Fought Stalin\" 1999\n", "BULLET::::- \"Horror in the East\" 2001\n", "BULLET::::- \"\" 2005\n", "BULLET::::- \"\" 2008\n", "In addition, he narrated the Yorkshire Television documentary \"The SS in Britain\" for director Julian Hendy in 1999, and considering his role in the ITV drama series \"Mr Selfridge\", he was the voiceover for \"Secrets of Selfridges\" (PBS) in 2014.\n", "Section::::Theatre.\n", "Section::::Theatre.:Acting.\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Writer\" by Ella Hickson, directed by Blanche McIntyre, at the Almeida Theatre, London (April 2018)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Browning Version\" - directed by Clive Perry, (Birmingham Repertory Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Les Parents terribles\": Michael (February 1989) - directed by Derek Goldby, (Orange Tree Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Bread-Winner\" (1989) - directed by Kevin Billington, (Theatre Royal, Windsor and touring)\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Life in the Theatre\" (October 1989-February 1990) - directed by Bill Bryden, (Theatre Royal Haymarket, transferred to Strand Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Hidden Laughter\": Nigel (June 1990) - directed by Simon Gray, (Vaudeville Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Sea\": Willy Carson (1991) - directed by Sam Mendes, (Royal National Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Cain\" (1992) - directed by Edward Hall (Minerva Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Mr. Cinders\" A Musical Comedy: Jim Lancaster (December 1992-February 1993) - directed by Martin Connor (King's Head Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Arcadia\": Valentine (April–November 1993) - directed by Trevor Nunn, (Royal National Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Importance of Being Earnest\": Algernon - directed by James Maxwell, (Royal Exchange Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Henry IV Part 1\" and Part 2: Hal (1996–1997) - directed by Stephen Unwin (English Touring Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Journey's End\": Captain Stanhope (January–February 1998) - directed by David Evans-Rees (King's Head Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Antony and Cleopatra\": Octavius Caesar (1998) - directed by Sean Mathias, (Royal National Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Richard II\": Richard II (2000) - directed by Steven Pimlott, (RSC)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Hamlet\": Hamlet (2001) - directed by Steven Pimlott, (RSC)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Master and Margarita\": The Master (2004) - directed by Steven Pimlott, (Chichester Festival Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Doctor Faustus\": Faustus (2004) - directed by Steven Pimlott, Martin Duncan and Edward Kemp, (Minerva Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Much Ado About Nothing\": Benedick (2005) - directed by Josie Rourke, (Crucible Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Exonerated\": Kerry Max Cook (2006) - directed by Bob Balaban, (Riverside Studios)\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Number\": B1/B2/Michael Black (2006) - directed by Jonathan Munby, (Studio Theatre (Sheffield) and Minerva Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Betrayal\": Robert (2007) - directed by Roger Michell, (Donmar Warehouse)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Drunk Enough to Say I Love You?\": Guy (2008) - directed by James McDonald, (Public Theater, New York)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Family Reunion\": Harry (2008) - directed by Jeremy Herrin, (Donmar Warehouse)\n", "BULLET::::- \"ENRON\": Jeffrey Skilling (2009) - directed by Rupert Goold, (Minerva Theatre, Royal Court Theatre, Noël Coward Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Number\" (revival): B1/B2/Michael Black (2010) - directed by Jonathan Munby, (Menier Chocolate Factory)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Kreutzer vs. Kreutzer\": Man (2010) - directed by Sarah Giles, (Australian Chamber Orchestra - on tour and at the Sydney Opera House)\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Number\" (revival): B1/B2/Michael Black (2011) - directed by Jonathan Munby, (Fugard Theatre, Cape Town)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Uncle Vanya\": Astrov (2012) - directed by Lindsay Posner, (Vaudeville Theatre)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Young Chekhov\": Ivanov in Ivanov and Trigorin in The Seagull (2015) - directed by Jonathan Kent, (Chichester Festival Theatre)\n", "Section::::Theatre.:Directing.\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Lady's Not for Burning\" (2002), Minerva Theatre\n", "BULLET::::- \"Les Liaisons Dangereuses\" (2003), Bristol Old Vic\n", "BULLET::::- \"Cosi Fan Tutte\" (2003), English National Opera at Barbican Theatre\n", "BULLET::::- \"Three Women and a Piano Tuner\" (2004), Minerva Theatre and Hampstead Theatre (2005)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Insignificance\" (2005), Lyceum Theatre (Sheffield)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Romans in Britain\" (2006), Crucible Theatre\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Clean House\" (2006), Studio Theatre (Sheffield)\n", "BULLET::::- \"As You Like It\" (2007), Crucible Theatre and Swan Theatre (Stratford)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Dealer's Choice\" (2007), Menier Chocolate Factory and Trafalgar Studios\n", "BULLET::::- \"Waste\" (2008), Almeida Theatre\n", "BULLET::::- \"Close the Coalhouse Door\" (2012), Northern Stage\n", "BULLET::::- \"After Electra\" (2015), Theatre Royal, Plymouth and Tricycle Theatre\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Watsons\" (2018 Minerva Theatre, Chichester)\n", "Section::::Radio.\n", "Section::::Radio.:Directing.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Money\" (2011), BBC Radio 3\n", "BULLET::::- \"Close the Coalhouse Door\" (2012), BBC Radio 4\n", "Section::::Audiobooks, reciting and work with musicians.\n", "West has recorded over fifty audiobooks, among which are the Shakespeare plays \"All's Well That Ends Well\", \"Coriolanus\", \"Henry V\", \"The Merchant of Venice\", \"A Midsummer Night's Dream,\" \"Much Ado About Nothing\", \"Richard II\" and \"Macbeth\" (directed by Steven Berkoff), the Wind on Fire trilogy by William Nicholson (\"The Wind Singer\", \"Slaves of the Mastery\" and \"Firesong\"), the Arthur trilogy by Kevin Crossley-Holland (\"The Seeing Stone\", \"At the Crossing Places\" and\" King of the Middle March\"), five books by Sebastian Faulks (\"Charlotte Gray\", \"Birdsong\", \"The Girl at the Lion d'Or\", \"Human Traces\" and \"A Possible Life\"), four by Michael Ridpath (\"Trading Reality\", \"Final Venture\", \"Free to Trade\", and \"The Marketmaker\"), two by George Orwell (\"Nineteen Eighty-Four\" and \"Homage to Catalonia\"), two by Mary Wesley (\"An Imaginative Experience\" and \"Part of the Furniture\"), two by Robert Goddard (\"Closed Circle\" and \"In Pale Battalions\") and several compilations of poetry \"(Realms of Gold: Letters and Poems of John Keats\", \"Bright Star\", \"The Collected Works of Shelley\", \"Seven Ages\", \"Great Narrative Poems of the Romantic Age\" and \"A Shropshire Lad)\". Also \"Faust\", \"Bomber\", \"Doctor Who: The Vengeance of Morbius\", \"Empire of the Sun\", \"Brighton Rock\", \"Fair Stood the Wind for France\", \"Fluke\", \"Great Speeches in History\", \"How Proust Can Change Your Life\", \"Lady Windermere's Fan\", \"Peter Pan\", \"The Alchemist\", \"The Day of the Triffids\", \"The Hairy Hands\", \"The Lives of Christopher Chant\", \"The Man Who Made Husbands Jealous\", \"The Queen's Man\", \"The Solitaire Mystery\", \"The Swimming Pool Library\", \"The Two Destinies\", \"The Velveteen Rabbit\", \"The Way I Found Her\", \"The Way to Dusty Death\", \"The Woodlanders\", \"Under the Net\", \"Wuthering Heights\" and Philip Pullman's \"Grimm Tales for Young and Old\".\n", "In June 2012, West recorded an English narration of \"The Book about Moomin, Mymble and Little My\" by Tove Jansson for an interactive audiobook developed by Spinfy and published by Sort of Books.\n", "In May 2015, West's reading of \"Brighton Rock\" was chosen as one of 'The 20 best audiobooks of all time' by Carole Mansur of the Daily Telegraph.\n", "As a reciter West has worked with all the major British orchestras, as well as the Strasbourg Philharmonic Orchestra, Dallas Symphony Orchestra and the National Symphony Orchestra in Washington, D.C.. Works include Stravinsky's \"Oedipus Rex\" and \"The Soldier's Tale\", Prokofiev's \"Eugene Onegin\", Beethoven's \"Egmont\", Schoenburg's \"Ode To Napoleon\", Strauss' \"Enoch Arden\", Saint-Saëns’ \"Carnival of the Animals\", Bernstein's \"Kaddish\", Walton's \"Façade\" and \"Henry V\", \"Night Mail\" and \"The Way to the Sea\" by Britten and Auden, the world premieres of \"Concrete\" by Judith Weir at the Barbican and Howard Goodall’s \"Jason and the Argonauts\" at the Royal Albert Hall and the UK premiere of Jonathan Harvey's final piece \"Weltethos\" at the Symphony Hall, Birmingham. In 2007 West made his New York recital debut in the first performance of \"Little Red Violin\" by Anne Dudley and Steven Isserlis. In November 2010, West performed a new English translation of Grieg's complete incidental music to Ibsen’s play \"Peer Gynt\" with the Southampton Philharmonic Choir at Southampton Guildhall. He has performed at the Proms six times, including the suite version of \"Henry V\" at the 2002 Last Night of the Proms.\n", "He has also appeared with the Nash Ensemble, the Raphael Ensemble, The Hebrides Ensemble, Ensemble 360 and the Lindsay, Dante and Endellion Quartets at the Wigmore Hall, London. Recordings include Prokofief's \"Eugene Onegin\" with Sinfonia 21 and Edward Downes, \"Salad Days\" and Walton's \"Henry V\" with the BBC Symphony Orchestra and Leonard Slatkin.\n", "As a choral singer, West has participated in three Choir of London tours to Palestine: in May 2006, when he also gave poetry readings as part of the concert programme; in April 2007 when he directed \"The Magic Flute\". and in September 2013 (see below).\n", "In 2013, the centenary year of Benjamin Britten, West narrated the Britten/Auden film score \"Night Mail\" with the Nash Ensemble at the Wigmore Hall and later added \"Coal Face, God’s Chillun, The Peace of Britain, The Way to the Sea\" and \"The King's Stamp\" with the Aurora Orchestra at the Queen Elizabeth and Fairfield Halls. In June he played God in Britten’s \"Noye’s Fludde\" in Harrogate. In July he appeared in a Proms Plus broadcast discussing Britten’s setting of poetry. In September he toured Palestine with the Choir of London as staff director of a new opera based on Britten’s \"Hymn to St Cecilia\" and sang in Britten’s \"St Nicolas\". In October, he narrated the concert world premiere of \"Britten in America\" for the Hallé orchestra, which was released on CD together with West’s recordings of speeches to Britten’s incidental music for Auden and Isherwood’s play \"The Ascent of F6\" (the disc, \"Britten to America\", was later nominated for a 2014 Grammy Award for Best Classical Compendium). He also toured a program of Britten cabaret songs and Auden poems across the UK with Ruthie Culver and the UtterJazz Quartet.\n", "In June 2013 he appeared in the video for \"Handyman Blues\" by Billy Bragg, directed by Johnny Vegas.\n", "On 14 July 2017, one month after the tragic fire at Grenfell Tower, BBC's Newshour programme invited West to read out an excerpt from a letter written by an anonymous firefighter giving a personal account of the fire scene and his inner thoughts on duty that night.\n", "Section::::Awards and nominations.\n", "As actor\n", "BULLET::::- 1993 - Nominated BAFTA Award for Best Supporting Actor for \"Howards End\"\n", "BULLET::::- 1999 - Nominated Genie Award for Best Actor for \"Rupert's Land\"\n", "BULLET::::- 2001 - Won London Critics' Circle Theatre Award for Best Shakespearean Performance for \"Hamlet\"\n", "BULLET::::- 2001 - Won Whatsonstage Theatregoers' Choice Award Best Actor for \"Hamlet\"\n", "BULLET::::- 2008 - Nominated Whatsonstage Theatregoers' Choice Award for Best Ensemble Performance for \"Betrayal\"\n", "BULLET::::- 2009 - Nominated TMA Award for Best Performance in a Play for \"ENRON\"\n", "BULLET::::- 2009 - Nominated Evening Standard Award Best Actor for \"ENRON\"\n", "BULLET::::- 2010 - Nominated Whatsonstage Theatregoers' Choice Award for Best Actor for \"ENRON\"\n", "BULLET::::- 2010 - Nominated Olivier Award Best Actor for \"ENRON\"\n", "As reader\n", "BULLET::::- 1999 - Won Talkie award for \"Charlotte Gray\" by Sebastian Faulks\n", "BULLET::::- 2000 - Won Audie award for \"Realms of Gold: Letters and Poems of John Keats\"\n", "BULLET::::- 2001 - Won Spoken Word award (Silver) for \"The Seeing Stone\" by Kevin Crossley-Holland\n", "BULLET::::- 2001 - Won Spoken Word award (Gold) for \"Birdsong\" by Sebastian Faulks\n", "Samuel West has received nine AudioFile Earphones Awards for his narration: \"The Day of the Triffids\" by John Wyndham (1996), \"Peter Pan\" by J.M.Barrie (1997), \"Charlotte Gray\" by Sebastian Faulks (1999), \"The Way I Found Her\" by Rose Tremain (2000), \"The Swimming Pool Library\" by Alan Hollinghurst (2007), \"Faust\" by Goethe (2011), \"A Shropshire Lad\" by A. E. Housman (2011), \"A Possible Life\" by Sebastian Faulks (2012) and Philip Pullman's \"Grimm Tales for Young and Old\" (2013) \n", "As director\n", "BULLET::::- 2004 - Nominated Olivier Award for Best Opera Revival for \"Cosi Fan Tutte\"\n", "BULLET::::- 2008 - Nominated Olivier Award for Best Revival for \"Dealer's Choice\"\n", "BULLET::::- 2009 - Nominated Theatregoers' Choice Award for Best Director for \"Waste\" and \"Dealer's Choice\"\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Samuel West – acting CV at United Agents\n", "BULLET::::- Samuel West – directing CV at United Agents\n", "BULLET::::- Samuel West speeches about arts funding and culture\n", "BULLET::::- Samuel West speech at the TUC \"March for the Alternative\", 26 March 2011 (video)\n" ] }
"http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FilePath/Sam_West_-London,_England-15Jan2010.jpg"
{ "aliases": { "alias": [] }, "description": "English actor and director", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q1389078", "wikidata_label": "Samuel West", "wikipedia_title": "Samuel West" }
"157663"
"Samuel West"
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(director)", "The Government Inspector", "Paul Scofield", "Eric Porter", "Janet Suzman", "Paul Rogers (actor)", "Ian Richardson", "Glenda Jackson", "Peter McEnery", "The Master Builder", "Prospect Theatre Company", "List of Edinburgh festivals", "Dublin", "English Touring Theatre", "The Old Vic", "Bristol Old Vic", "Edward the Seventh", "Edward VII", "Nicholas and Alexandra", "The Day of the Jackal (film)", "The Thirty Nine Steps (1978 film)", "Masada (miniseries)", "Cry Freedom", "Iris (2001 film)", "Samuel West", "ITV (TV network)", "Northern England", "Brass (TV series)", "Miss Marple", "A Pocket Full of Rye", "A Very Peculiar Practice", "King Lear", "Ian Holm", "Bedtime", "Not Going Out", "Geoffrey Whitehead", "John Simm", "Jim Broadbent", "Exile (TV series)", "British Academy of Film and Television Arts", "Danny Brocklehurst", "Coronation Street", "List of Coronation Street characters (2013)", "EastEnders", "Stan Carter", "Billingham", "Joseph Heller", "The National Health (play)", "Peter Nichols", "The Old Vic", "Trelawny of the 'Wells'", "The Merchant of Venice", "University of Western Australia", "Carl Rosa Opera Company", "H.M.S. Pinafore", "Dennis Olsen (actor)", "Perth", "Brisbane", "Prunella Scales", "Samuel West", "The Guardian", "Crossword", "Lace Market Theatre", "Nottingham", "Gloucester", "World Orphan Week", "National Piers Society", "Stratford-upon-Avon", "Tewkesbury", "Cancer Research UK", "Talyllyn Railway", "Inland Waterways Association", "Great Canal Journeys", "London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art", "Benedict Cumberbatch", "Order of the British Empire", "King Lear", "Tom Morris (director)", "Bristol Old Vic", "James Graham (playwright)", "Donmar Warehouse", "More4", "Ronald Harwood", "Uncle Vanya", "Jeremy Herrin", "Chichester Festival Theatre", "The Winslow Boy", "Stephen Unwin (director)", "Rose Theatre, Kingston", "Shropshire", "The Lover (play)", "The Collection (play)", "Jamie Lloyd", "Harold Pinter Theatre", "St Pancras railway station", "William Henry Barlow", "Coriolanus", "Gregory Doran", "Royal Shakespeare Company", "Stratford-upon-Avon", "A Number", "Caryl Churchill", "Samuel West", "Crucible Theatre", "Menier Chocolate Factory", "Cape Town", "Alan Bennett", "Stephen Unwin (director)", "Trafalgar Studios", "King Lear", "Stephen Unwin (director)", "English Touring Theatre", "The Master Builder", "Stephen Unwin (director)", "King Lear", "Richard Eyre", "Royal National Theatre", "Henry IV, Part 2", "Samuel West", "Stephen Unwin (director)", "The Old Vic", "Twelve Angry Men", "Harold Pinter", "Bristol Old Vic", "Harold Pinter Theatre", "Macbeth", "Helena Kaut-Howson", "Theatr Clwyd", "Death of a Salesman", "Janet Suzman", "Theatr Clwyd", "King Lear", "Alan Stanford", "Dublin", "Long Day's Journey into Night", "Prunella Scales", "Howard Davies (director)", "Bristol Old Vic", "Royal National Theatre", "Uncle Vanya", "Paul Unwin (director)", "Bristol Old Vic", "The Master Builder", "Paul Unwin (director)", "Bristol Old Vic", "When We Are Married", "Prunella Scales", "Ronald Eyre", "Trafalgar Studios", "David Pownall", "Joseph Stalin", "The Old Vic", "Uncle Vanya", "Prunella Scales", "Perth", "The Merchant of Venice", "British Council", "The Old Vic", "Caryl Brahms", "Ned Sherrin", "Thomas Beecham", "Apollo Theatre", "The Homecoming", "Hamlet", "Derek Jacobi", "Toby Robertson", "List of Edinburgh festivals", "The Old Vic", "Othello", "Richard Eyre", "Nottingham Playhouse", "Hedda Gabler", "Trevor Nunn", "Glenda Jackson", "Royal Shakespeare Company", "Aldwych Theatre", "Macbeth", "Love's Labour's Lost", "King Lear", "List of Edinburgh festivals", "Exiles (play)", "Harold Pinter", "Mermaid Theatre", "Richard II (play)", "Edward II (play)", "Ian McKellen", "Piccadilly Theatre", "Richard Cottrell", "The Tempest", "Marat/Sade", "Royal Shakespeare Company", "Peter Brook", "Afore Night Come", "Royal Shakespeare Company", "Arts Theatre", "Aldwych Theatre", "Theatre Royal, Brighton", "Sondheim Theatre", "Piccadilly Theatre", "Cabin Pressure (radio series)", "John Finnemore", "BBC Radio 4", "Wireless Theatre Company", "Samuel Johnson", "BBC Radio 4", "Lorna Doone", "Rumpole of the Bailey", "Rumpole and the Primrose Path", "Prunella Scales", "Ned Chaillet", "Euripides", "Ned Chaillet", "Arnold Wesker", "Peter Tinniswood", "Death of a Salesman", "Arthur Miller", "Willy Loman", "The Expedition of Humphry Clinker", "Tobias Smollett", "Classic Serial", "BBC Radio 4", "Alick Rowe", "Saturday Night Theatre", "BBC Radio 4", "I, Claudius", "Robert Graves", "Glyn Dearman", "Wally K. Daly", "Lope de Vega", "Diocletian", "BBC Radio 3", "Lady Windermere's Fan", "Oscar Wilde", "Saturday Night Theatre", "BBC Radio 4", "Alick Rowe", "Saturday Night Theatre", "BBC Radio 4", "Loren D. Estleman", "Dr. Watson", "Glyn Dearman", "Saturday Night Theatre", "BBC Radio 4", "BBC Radio 3", "Tom Stoppard", "Tom Stoppard", "Macbeth", "BBC Third Programme", "BBC Radio 4", "BBC Radio 4 Extra", "Chronicles of Barsetshire", "Palliser novels", "George MacDonald Fraser", "The Flashman Papers", "AudioFile (magazine)", "Prunella Scales" ] }
"Royal Shakespeare Company members,English male radio actors,20th-century English male actors,English male soap opera actors,Male actors from Yorkshire,English male television actors,People from Bradford,English opera singers,Labour Party (UK) people,People associated with Conway Hall Ethical Society,People educated at Bristol Grammar School,London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art,English male film actors,Alumni of the Regent Street Polytechnic,Waterways campaigners of the United Kingdom,Living people,English male stage actors,1934 births,English male singers,Commanders of the Order of the British Empire,English male Shakespearean actors,21st-century English male actors,People educated at The John Lyon School"
"512px-Timothy_West_in_2010.JPG"
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{ "paragraph": [ "Timothy West\n", "Timothy Lancaster West, CBE (born 20 October 1934) is an English film, stage and television actor, with more than fifty years of varied work in the business. As well as many classical theatre performances, he has appeared frequently on television, including spells in both \"Coronation Street\" as Eric Babbage and Stan Carter in \"EastEnders\", and also in \" Not Going Out\", as the original Geoffrey Adams. He is married to the actress Prunella Scales; since 2014 they have been seen travelling together on British and overseas canals in the Channel 4 series \"Great Canal Journeys\".\n", "Section::::Early life and education.\n", "West was born in Bradford, Yorkshire, the only son of Olive (née Carleton-Crowe) and actor Lockwood West (1905-1989). He was educated at the John Lyon School, Harrow on the Hill, at Bristol Grammar School, where he was a classmate of Julian Glover, and at Regent Street Polytechnic (now the University of Westminster). He has a sister named Patricia who is 5 years younger than himself.\n", "Section::::Career.\n", "West worked as an office furniture salesman and as a recording technician, before becoming an assistant stage manager at the Wimbledon Theatre in 1956. In 1959, he wrote and produced a short audio play, \"This Gun That I Have in My Right Hand Is Loaded\", satirising typical mistakes of radio drama, including over-explanatory dialogue and misuse of sound cues.\n", "Section::::Career.:Stage.\n", "West played repertory seasons in Newquay, Hull, Northampton, Worthing and Salisbury before making his London debut at the Piccadilly Theatre in 1959 in the farce \"Caught Napping\". He was a member of the Royal Shakespeare Company for three seasons: the 1962 Arts Theatre Experimental season (\"Nil Carborundum\" and \"Afore Night Come\"), the 1964 'Dirty Plays' season (\"Victor\", the premiere production of \"Marat/Sade\" and the revival of \"Afore Night Come\") and the 1965 season at Stratford and later at the Aldwych Theatre appearing in \"The Comedy of Errors\", \"Timon of Athens\", \"The Jew of Malta\", \"Love's Labour's Lost\" and Peter Hall's production of \"The Government Inspector\", in a company which included Paul Scofield, Eric Porter, Janet Suzman, Paul Rogers, Ian Richardson, Glenda Jackson and Peter McEnery.\n", "West has played Macbeth twice, Uncle Vanya twice, Solness in \"The Master Builder\" twice and King Lear four times: in 1971 (aged 36) for Prospect Theatre Company at the Edinburgh Festival; on a worldwide tour in 1991 in Dublin for Second Age; in 2003 for English Touring Theatre, on tour in the UK and at the Old Vic; and in 2016 at the Bristol Old Vic.\n", "Section::::Career.:Screen.\n", "Having spent years as a familiar face who never quite became a household name, West's big break came with the major television series, \"Edward the Seventh\" (1975), in which he played the title role from the age of twenty-three until the King's death; his real-life sons, Samuel and Joseph, played the sons of King Edward VII as children. Other screen appearances have included \"Nicholas and Alexandra\" (1971), \"The Day of the Jackal\" (1973), \"The Thirty Nine Steps\" (1978), \"Masada\" (1981), \"Cry Freedom\" (1987) and Luc Besson's \"\" (1999). In Richard Eyre's \"Iris\" (2001) he plays Maurice and his son Samuel West plays Maurice as a young man.\n", "West starred as patriarch Bradley Hardacre in Granada TV's satirical Northern super-soap \"Brass\" over three seasons (1982–1990). West appeared in the series Miss Marple in 1985 (in \"A Pocket Full of Rye\" as the notorious Rex Fortescue), and made a memorable appearance as Professor Furie in \"A Very Peculiar Practice\" in 1986. In 1997, he played Gloucester in the BBC television production of \"King Lear\", with Ian Holm as Lear. From 2001 to 2003, he played the grumpy and frequently volatile Andrew in the BBC drama series \"Bedtime\". \n", "At Christmas 2007, he joined \"Not Going Out\" as Geoffrey Adams. He reprised this role in two episodes of series three; Geoffrey Whitehead played the role in later seasons. In 2011, he appeared alongside John Simm and Jim Broadbent in BBC series \"Exile\", written by BAFTA-winning Danny Brocklehurst.\n", "In February 2013, West joined the cast of ITV soap \"Coronation Street\", playing Eric Babbage. He joined the cast of \"EastEnders\" in 2013, playing Stan Carter from January 2014. He filmed his final scenes for \"EastEnders\" in February 2015.\n", "Section::::Career.:Directing.\n", "He was Artistic Director of the Forum Theatre, Billingham in 1973, where he directed \"We Bombed in New Haven\" by Joseph Heller, \"The Oz Obscenity Trial\" by David Livingstone and \"The National Health\" by Peter Nichols. He was co-artistic director of the Old Vic Theatre from 1980–81, where he directed \"Trelawny of the 'Wells'\" and \"The Merchant of Venice\". He was Director-in-Residence at the University of Western Australia in 1982.\n", "In 2004, he toured Australia with the Carl Rosa Opera Company as Director of the production of \"H.M.S. Pinafore\", also singing the role of Sir Joseph Porter. He was replaced in the singing role by Dennis Olsen for the Perth and Brisbane performances.\n", "Section::::Personal life.\n", "West was married to actress Jacqueline Boyer from 1956 to 1961 and has a daughter Juliet. In 1963 he married actress Prunella Scales, with whom he has two sons. One, Samuel West, is an actor of note. Their younger son Joseph (Joe) participated in two episodes of Great Canal Journeys filmed in France, where Joe (a teacher and translator) lives with his French wife and their children. After the broadcast of the French canal episodes, Joe was interviewed in several newspapers. \n", "\"The Guardian\" crossword setter \"Biggles\" referred to West's 50th wedding anniversary in its prize crossword puzzle (number 26,089) on 26 October 2013.\n", "West and Scales are patrons of the Lace Market Theatre in Nottingham, The Kings Theatre in Gloucester and of the Conway Hall Sunday Concerts programme, the longest running series of chamber music concerts in Europe. West is an Ambassador of SOS Children's Villages, an international orphan charity providing homes and mothers for orphaned and abandoned children. He currently supports the charity's annual World Orphan Week campaign which takes place each February.\n", "West is patron of the National Piers Society, a charity dedicated to preserving and promoting seaside piers. He and Prunella Scales are patrons of Avon Navigation Trust, the charity that runs the River Avon from Stratford-upon-Avon to Tewkesbury. They both support ANT by attending the Stratford River Festival every year. West supports Cancer Research UK.\n", "West is a supporter of the Talyllyn Railway, the first preserved railway in the world. He has visited on a number of occasions, the last being the summer of 2015 to attend the Railway's 150th anniversary. He is also a keen supporter of the Inland Waterways Association, and since 2014 has featured together with his wife in the \"Great Canal Journeys\" series for Channel 4.\n", "West was president of the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art (being succeeded by Benedict Cumberbatch in January 2018) and is President of the Society for Theatre Research. He is also patron of London-based drama school, The Associated Studios.\n", "Section::::Honours.\n", "In 1984, he was appointed CBE for his services to drama.\n", "Section::::Selected theatre.\n", "BULLET::::- \"King Lear\", as Lear, Dir Tom Morris, Bristol Old Vic, 2016\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Vote\" by James Graham, Donmar Warehouse and More4, 2015\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Handyman\" by Ronald Harwood, as Romka, Dir Joe Harmston, UK tour, 2012\n", "BULLET::::- \"Uncle Vanya\", as Sererbryakov, Dir Jeremy Herrin, Chichester Festival Theatre, 2012\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Winslow Boy\", as Arthur Winslow, Dir Stephen Unwin, Rose Theatre, Kingston and UK tour, 2009\n", "BULLET::::- \"Romany Wood\", as Narrator, Theatre Severn, Shropshire, 2009\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Lover/The Collection\", Dir Jamie Lloyd, Comedy Theatre, London, 2008\n", "BULLET::::- Opening of St Pancras International, as William Henry Barlow, Tuesday 6 November 2007\n", "BULLET::::- \"Coriolanus\" as Menenius, Dir Gregory Doran, RSC, Stratford-upon-Avon, Newcastle, Spain and USA, 2007\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Number\" by Caryl Churchill as Salter, with Samuel West as B1/B2/Michael Black, Dir Jonathan Munby, Crucible Theatre Studio, 2006. Revived in 2010 at the Chocolate Factory and 2011 at the Fugard Theatre, Cape Town.\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Old Country\" by Alan Bennett, Dir Stephen Unwin, Trafalgar Studios, 2006\n", "BULLET::::- \"King Lear\", as Lear, Dir Stephen Unwin, UK tour with English Touring Theatre, 2002\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Master Builder\", as Solness, Dir Stephen Unwin, UK tour, 1999\n", "BULLET::::- \"King Lear\", as Gloucester, Dir Richard Eyre, Greece, Turkey and the National Theatre, 1997\n", "BULLET::::- \"Henry IV Part One\" and \"Part Two\", as Falstaff, with Samuel West as Hal, Dir Stephen Unwin, UK tour and the Old Vic Theatre, 1996\n", "BULLET::::- \"Twelve Angry Men\", Dir Harold Pinter, Bristol Old Vic and Comedy Theatre, 1996\n", "BULLET::::- \"Macbeth\", as Macbeth, Dir Helena Kaut-Howson, Theatr Clwyd, 1994\n", "BULLET::::- \"Death of a Salesman\", as Willy Loman, Dir Janet Suzman, Theatr Clwyd, 1993\n", "BULLET::::- \"King Lear\" as Lear, Dir Alan Stanford, Tivoli Theatre, Dublin, 1992\n", "BULLET::::- \"Long Day's Journey into Night\", with Prunella Scales, Dir Howard Davies, Bristol Old Vic, UK Tour and the National Theatre, 1991\n", "BULLET::::- \"Uncle Vanya\", as Vanya, Dir Paul Unwin, Bristol Old Vic, 1990\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Master Builder\", as Solness, Dir Paul Unwin, Bristol Old Vic, 1989\n", "BULLET::::- \"When We Are Married\", with Prunella Scales, Dir Ronald Eyre, Whitehall Theatre, 1985\n", "BULLET::::- \"Masterclass\" by David Pownall, as Stalin, Dir Justin Greene, Leicester Haymarket and the Old Vic Theatre, 1984\n", "BULLET::::- \"Uncle Vanya\", as Vanya, Dir Prunella Scales, Playhouse, Perth, Western Australia, 1982\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Merchant of Venice\" as Shylock, International tour in association with the British Council and at the Old Vic Theatre, 1980\n", "BULLET::::- \"Beecham\", by Caryl Brahms and Ned Sherrin, as Thomas Beecham, Apollo Theatre, London, 1980\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Homecoming\", as Max, Garrick Theatre, Dir Kevin Billington, 1978.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Hamlet\", as Claudius, with Derek Jacobi as Hamlet, Dir Toby Robertson, Edinburgh Festival, International tour and the Old Vic Theatre, 1977\n", "BULLET::::- \"Othello\", as Iago, Dir Richard Eyre, Nottingham Playhouse, 1976\n", "BULLET::::- \"Hedda Gabler\", as Judge Brack, Dir Trevor Nunn, with Glenda Jackson, RSC, international tour and Aldwych Theatre, 1975\n", "BULLET::::- \"Macbeth\", as Macbeth, Gardner Centre, Brighton, Dir John David, 1974\n", "BULLET::::- \"Love's Labour's Lost\", as Holofernes, Aldwych Theatre, London, McBain/Archer, Prospect Theatre Company, June 1972\n", "BULLET::::- \"King Lear\" as Lear, Prospect Theatre Company, Dir Toby Robertson, Edinburgh Festival and UK tour, 1971. The production visited Australia in 1972\n", "BULLET::::- \"Exiles\", Dir Harold Pinter. Mermaid Theatre, 1970\n", "BULLET::::- \"Richard II\" and \"Edward II\", as Bolingbroke and Young Mortimer, with Ian McKellen as the kings, Prospect Theatre Company, Edinburgh Festival, International tour and Piccadilly Theatre, Dir Richard Cottrell/Toby Robertson, 1969\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Tempest\", as Prospero, Prospect Productions, Dir Toby Robertson, 1966\n", "BULLET::::- \"\"Madam\", said Dr Johnson\", Prospect Productions, Dir Toby Robertson, 1966\n", "BULLET::::- \"Marat/Sade\", RSC, Dir Peter Brook, 1964\n", "BULLET::::- \"Afore Night Come\", RSC, Arts Theatre, 1962. Revived at the Aldwych Theatre, 1964\n", "BULLET::::- \"Gentle Jack\", Theatre Royal, Brighton and the Queen's Theatre, London, 1963\n", "BULLET::::- \"Caught Napping\", Piccadilly Theatre, 1959\n", "Section::::Selected radio.\n", "Timothy West was a member of the BBC Radio Drama Repertory Company in 1962 and has taken part in over 500 radio broadcasts.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Cabin Pressure\" by John Finnemore, as Gordon Shappey, BBC Radio 4, 2011\n", "BULLET::::- \"Seasons\" by Gareth Parker, as Harold. Independent drama by the Wireless Theatre Company, 2010\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Man on the Heath: Johnson and Boswell Investigate\" by David Noakes, as Doctor Johnson, Saturday Play on BBC Radio 4, 2005\n", "BULLET::::- \"Lorna Doone\" by R.D. Blackmore, as Narrator, 2004\n", "BULLET::::- \"Rumpole of the Bailey\", as Rumpole, in sixteen 45-minute plays, 2003–2012. In this series his wife in real life played his fictional wife.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Hecuba\" by Euripides, as Polymestor, 2001\n", "BULLET::::- \"Groupie\" by Arnold Wesker, 2001\n", "BULLET::::- \"Dorothy, a Manager's Wife\" by Peter Tinniswood, 2000\n", "BULLET::::- \"Death of a Salesman\" by Arthur Miller, as Willy Loman, 1993\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Gibson\" by Bruce Bedford, 1992\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Expedition of Humphry Clinker\" by Tobias Smollett, Classic Serial on BBC Radio 4, 1992\n", "BULLET::::- \"Crisp and Even Brightly\" by Alick Rowe, as 'Generally well-intentioned King Wenceslas', Saturday Night Theatre, BBC Radio 4, 1987\n", "BULLET::::- \"I, Claudius\" and \"Claudius the God\" by Robert Graves, as Claudius, produced by Glyn Dearman, 1985\n", "BULLET::::- \"With a Whimper to the Grave\" by Wally K. Daly, as 642, 1984\n", "BULLET::::- \"Actors, or Playing for Real\" by Lope de Vega, as Emperor Diocletian, BBC Radio 3, 1983\n", "BULLET::::- \"Lady Windermere's Fan\" by Oscar Wilde, Saturday Night Theatre, BBC Radio 4, 1982\n", "BULLET::::- \"Operation Lightning Pegasus\" by Alick Rowe, as Agammemnon, Saturday Night Theatre, BBC Radio 4, 1981\n", "BULLET::::- \"Sherlock Holmes v. Dracula\" by Loren D. Estleman, as Doctor Watson, dramatised and directed by Glyn Dearman, Saturday Night Theatre, BBC Radio 4, 1981\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Monument\" by David Cregan, as Dr. James Short, BBC Radio 3, 1978\n", "BULLET::::- \"Where Are They Now?\" by Tom Stoppard, as an Old Boy, 1971\n", "BULLET::::- \"If You're Glad, I'll be Frank\" by Tom Stoppard, as Frank, 1966\n", "BULLET::::- \"Macbeth\", as the Porter, BBC Third Programme, 1966. Repeated on BBC Radio 4 in 1967 and BBC 7 in 2007\n", "Section::::Audiobooks.\n", "Timothy West has read many unabridged audiobooks, including the complete Barchester Chronicles and the complete Palliser novels by Anthony Trollope, and seven of George MacDonald Fraser's \"The Flashman Papers\" books. He has received four AudioFile Earphones Awards for his narration.\n", "Section::::Books.\n", "BULLET::::- \"I'm Here I Think, Where Are You? Letters from a Touring Actor\", 1994, .\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Moment Towards the End of the Play\" (autobiography), 2001, .\n", "BULLET::::- \"So You Want To Be an Actor\" (with Prunella Scales), 2005, .\n", "BULLET::::- \"Great Canal Journeys: A Lifetime of Memories on Britain's Most Beautiful Waterways\", 2017, .\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- LAMDA Biography\n", "BULLET::::- Timothy West at Gavin Barker Associates (agent)\n" ] }
"http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FilePath/Timothy_West_in_2010.JPG"
{ "aliases": { "alias": [ "Timothy Lancaster West" ] }, "description": "English film, stage, and television actor", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q1362474", "wikidata_label": "Timothy West", "wikipedia_title": "Timothy West" }
"157721"
"Timothy West"
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"512px-1967-09_1967年_姚文元率队访问阿尔巴尼亚.jpg"
"157741"
{ "paragraph": [ "Yao Wenyuan\n", "Yao Wenyuan (January 12, 1931 – December 23, 2005) was a Chinese literary critic, a politician, and a member of the Gang of Four during China's Cultural Revolution.\n", "Section::::Biography.\n", "Yao Wenyuan was born in Zhuji, Zhejiang, to an intellectual family. His father, Yao Pengzi (姚蓬子) was a writer, translator and art critic.\n", "He began his career in Shanghai as a literary critic, where he became known for his sharp attacks against colleagues, such as in June 1957 against the newspaper \"Wenhuibao\". Since that time, he began to closely collaborate with leftist Shanghai politicians, including the head of the city's Propaganda Department, Zhang Chunqiao. His article \"On the New Historical Beijing Opera 'Hai Rui Dismissed from Office'\", published in \"Wenhuibao\" on November 10, 1965, launched the Cultural Revolution.\n", "The article was about a popular opera by Wu Han, who was deputy mayor of Beijing. Zhang Chunqiao and Jiang Qing feared the play could be counter-revolutionary because parallels could be drawn between the characters in the play and officials in the communist government. In the play, Hai Rui, a government official, speaks for the peasants against the imperial government, criticizing officials for hypocritically oppressing the masses while pretending to be virtuous men. Hai Rui is dismissed because of this. Yao claimed it was a coded attack on Mao for dismissing in 1959 then-minister of defense Peng Dehuai, a critic of Mao’s disastrous Great Leap Forward.\n", "Confused by this unexpected attack, Beijing's party leadership tried to protect Wu Han, providing Mao the pretext for a full-scale \"struggle\" against them in the following year. Yao was soon promoted to the Cultural Revolution Group.\n", "Yao Wenyuan was an ideal candidate for the criticism for such an opera because of his consistent socialist background. In April 1969 he joined the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, working on official propaganda. A member of \"Proletarian writers for purity\" he was the editor of \"Liberation Daily\" Shanghai's main newspaper. He joined the state's efforts to rid China's writers union of the famous writer Hu Feng.\n", "In October 1976, he was arrested for his participation in the Cultural Revolution and sentenced to 20 years imprisonment. He was released on October 23, 1996, and spent the remainder of his life writing a book and studying Chinese history. He lived in his hometown of Shanghai and became the last surviving member of the Gang of Four after Zhang Chunqiao died in April 2005. According to China's official Xinhua news agency, he died of diabetes on December 23, 2005, aged 74.\n", "Section::::Publications.\n", "BULLET::::- Yao Wen-yuan: \"On the Social Basis Of The Lin Piao Antiparty Clique.\" Foreign Languages Press, Peking 1975.\n" ] }
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{ "aliases": { "alias": [] }, "description": "Chinese politician", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q382645", "wikidata_label": "Yao Wenyuan", "wikipedia_title": "Yao Wenyuan" }
"157741"
"Yao Wenyuan"
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"157740"
{ "paragraph": [ "Zhang Chunqiao\n", "Zhang Chunqiao (; 1 February 1917 – 21 April 2005) was a prominent Chinese political theorist, writer, and politician. He came to the national spotlight during the late stages of the Cultural Revolution, and was a member of the ultra-Maoist group dubbed the \"Gang of Four\".\n", "Section::::Biography.\n", "Born in Juye County, Shandong, Zhang worked as a writer in Shanghai in the 1930s and became closely associated with the city. After the Yan'an conference in 1938, he joined the Communist Party of China. With the creation of the People's Republic of China, he became a prominent journalist in Shanghai in charge of the \"Liberation Daily\" newspaper. He met Jiang Qing in Shanghai and helped to launch the Cultural Revolution.\n", "Zhang first came to prominence as the result of his October 1958 \"Jiefang\" (\"Liberation\") magazine entitled “Destroy the Ideas of Bourgeois Legal Ownership.” Mao Zedong ordered the reproduction of the article in \"People’s Daily\", and personally wrote an accompanying “Editor’s Note” giving the article his own mild approval. He was seen as one of Mao Zedong's full supporters as Mao became involved in an ideological struggle with rival leader Liu Shaoqi.\n", "In November 1966, at the outset of the Cultural Revolution, Zhang arrived in Shanghai representing the Central Cultural Revolution Group to stop Cao Diqiu's attempt to disperse workers in Anting. He signed the Five-point Petition of workers and then organized the Shanghai Commune along with Wang Hongwen and Yao Wenyuan in February 1967, essentially overthrowing the local government and party organization and becoming chairman of the city's Revolutionary Committee, which combined both the former posts of mayor and party secretary, until the latter post was restored in 1971. Zhang also initially served as one of the leaders of the Cultural Revolution Group, in charge of carrying out the Cultural Revolution around China. He spent much of the Cultural Revolution shuttling between Beijing and Shanghai. \n", "In April 1969 he joined the Politburo of the Communist Party of China and in 1973 he was promoted to the Politburo Standing Committee, a council of top Communist leaders. In January 1975 Zhang became the second-ranked Vice Premier and he wrote \"On Exercising All-Round Dictatorship Over the Bourgeoisie\" to promote the movement of studying the theory of the dictatorship of the proletariat; Deng Xiaoping was the first-ranked Vice Premier at the time, but Deng was out of office again in 1976. \n", "He was arrested along with the other members of the Gang of Four in October 1976, as part of a conspiracy by Ye Jianying, Li Xiannian and newly anointed party leader Hua Guofeng. Zhang was sentenced to death with a two-year reprieve, together with Jiang Qing, in 1984, but his sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment, and in December 1997 the sentence was further reduced to eighteen years.\n", "In 1998, Zhang was released from prison to undergo medical treatment. He then lived in obscurity in Shanghai for the remainder of his life. Zhang died from pancreatic cancer in April 2005.\n", "Section::::References.\n", "BULLET::::- Zhang Chunqiao Reference Archive\n", "BULLET::::- \"On Exercising All-Round Dictatorship over the Bourgeoisie\"\n" ] }
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{ "aliases": { "alias": [] }, "description": "Member of the Gang of Four", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q197170", "wikidata_label": "Zhang Chunqiao", "wikipedia_title": "Zhang Chunqiao" }
"157740"
"Zhang Chunqiao"
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"157742"
{ "paragraph": [ "Wang Hongwen\n", "Wang Hongwen (December, 1935 – August 3, 1992) was a Chinese labour activist and politician who spent most of his career in Shanghai. He was an important political figure during the Cultural Revolution (1966–76). He was the youngest member of the far-left political clique called the \"Gang of Four.\" During the Cultural Revolution, Wang rose from a member of the working class to become one of the foremost members of national leadership of the Communist Party of China.\n", "At the pinnacle of his power he was the second Vice-Chairman of the CCP, and ranked third in the Communist Party's hierarchy. Following Mao's death in 1976, Wang was arrested and charged with \"counterrevolutionary activity,\" then sentenced to life imprisonment in 1981.\n", "Section::::Biography.\n", "Wang was born in a village in the outskirts of Changchun, Jilin province. In the early 1950s he took part in the Korean War. He joined the Communist Party of China in 1953. After the war, he was sent to Shanghai to work in Shanghai No. 17 Cotton Textile Mill as the head of its security guards regiment, where he met Zhang Chunqiao and became involved in a Red Guards group. He organized the Shanghai Commune in January 1967, and was catapulted to national prominence as a daring rebel leader. \n", "At the 9th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Wang was elected a member of the Central Committee. Following the Lin Biao incident, Wang was put in charge of the investigation into the case in the Shanghai area, reporting directly to Mao. At the 10th National Congress of the CCP in 1973, Wang Hongwen was elevated to second ranking Vice Chairman in the Central Committee, and a member of the Politburo Standing Committee, making him the third-highest-ranking member of the CCP, behind Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai. All signs pointed to Wang being trained as Mao's successor.\n", "Wang was rumored to be slated to become Premier after then-Premier Zhou Enlai's death in January 1976. However, Hua Guofeng, a more moderate figure, was chosen to succeed Zhou instead. Wang was an important player during and after the death of Mao, and served as the masters of ceremonies for his funeral service on national radio on September 18, 1976. He was arrested in what was essentially a coup planned by Hua and General Ye Jianying for his participation in the Gang of Four during the Cultural Revolution in October 1976. Wang was tried and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1981. He died of liver cancer in a Beijing hospital on August 3, 1992 at the age of 56.\n", "Wang was one of the youngest members of the Politburo Standing Committee in the post-revolution Communist Party, having joined the body at a mere 37 years of age. In fact, he was the same age as some standing committee members who took office even after the turn of the century, such as Luo Gan (served on the PSC between 2002 and 2007), who was also born in 1935.\n" ] }
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{ "aliases": { "alias": [] }, "description": "Chinese politician", "enwikiquote_title": "", "wikidata_id": "Q455583", "wikidata_label": "Wang Hongwen", "wikipedia_title": "Wang Hongwen" }
"157742"
"Wang Hongwen"
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"Male actors from Surrey,English male voice actors,2013 deaths,20th-century English male actors,Disease-related deaths in England,English male stage actors,1934 births,English male television actors,British male comedy actors,20th-century Royal Air Force personnel,English male radio actors,People from the London Borough of Merton,Deaths from emphysema,Commanders of the Order of the British Empire,English male film actors,Alumni of the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art,English male Shakespearean actors,21st-century English male actors"
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{ "paragraph": [ "Richard Briers\n", "Richard David Briers, (14 January 1934 – 17 February 2013) was an English actor. His fifty-year career encompassed television, stage, film and radio.\n", "Briers first came to prominence as George Starling in \"Marriage Lines\" (1961–66), but it was a decade later, when he narrated \"Roobarb\" and \"Noah and Nelly in... SkylArk\" (1974–76) and when he played Tom Good in the BBC sitcom \"The Good Life\" (1975–78), that he became a household name. Later, he starred as Martin in \"Ever Decreasing Circles\" (1984–89), and he had a leading role as Hector in \"Monarch of the Glen\" (2000–05). From the late 1980s, with Kenneth Branagh as director, he performed Shakespearean roles in \"Henry V\" (1989), \"Much Ado About Nothing\" (1993), \"Hamlet\" (1996), and \"As You Like It\" (2006).\n", "Section::::Early life.\n", "Briers was born in Raynes Park, Surrey, the son of Joseph Benjamin Briers and his second wife Morna Phyllis, daughter of Frederick Richardson, of the Indian Civil Service. He was the first cousin once removed of actor Terry-Thomas (Terry-Thomas was his father's cousin). He spent his childhood at Raynes Park in a flat, Number 2 Pepys Court, behind the now demolished Rialto cinema, and later at Guildford. Joseph Briers was the son of a stockbroker, of a family of Middlesex tenant farmers; a gregarious and popular man, he contended with a nervous disposition, and drifted between jobs, spending most of his life as a bookmaker but also working as, amongst other things, an estate agent's clerk and a factory worker for an air filter manufacturer, as well as a gifted amateur singer who attended classes at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama. Morna Briers was a concert pianist and a drama and music teacher, and a member of Equity, who wished for a showbusiness career, having acted in her youth. The couple had met when Joseph Briers asked Morna to stand in for his regular pianist for a performance; by this time his first marriage had collapsed and six months later they had entered a relationship. The family occasionally received money from a wealthy relation, and Briers's maternal grandparents paid for his education, despite not being particularly well-off, and having lived in slightly reduced circumstances in India before returning to England and coming to live at Wimbledon.\n", "Briers attended Rokeby School in Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, and, having failed the examination for King's College School, the Ridgeway School in Wimbledon, which he left at the age of 16 without any formal qualifications.\n", "Section::::Early career.\n", "Briers' first job was a clerical post with a London cable manufacturer, and for a short time he went to evening classes to qualify in electrical engineering, but soon left and became a filing clerk.\n", "At the age of 18, he was called up for two years national service in the RAF, during which he was a filing clerk at RAF Northwood, where he met future \"George and Mildred\" actor Brian Murphy. Murphy introduced Briers, who had been interested in acting since the age of 14, to the Dramatic Society at the Borough Polytechnic Institute, now London South Bank University, where he performed in several productions.\n", "When he left the RAF he studied at RADA, which he attended from 1954 to 1956. Placed in a class with both Peter O'Toole and Albert Finney, Briers later credited academy director John Fernald with nurturing his talent. Graduating from RADA with a Silver Medal, he won a scholarship with the Liverpool Repertory Company, and after 15 months moved to the Belgrade Theatre in Coventry for 6 months. He made his West End debut in the Duke of York's Theatre 1959 production of \"Gilt And Gingerbread\" by Lionel Hale.\n", "Section::::Television career.\n", "In 1961, Briers was cast in the leading role in \"Marriage Lines\" (1961–66) with Prunella Scales playing his wife. In between the pilot and the series itself, Briers appeared in \"Brothers in Law\" (from the book by Henry Cecil) as callow barrister Roger Thursby in 1962. He was cast in this role by adaptors Frank Muir and Denis Norden, who had seen him in the West End.\n", "His other early appearances included \"The Seven Faces of Jim\" (1961) with Jimmy Edwards, \"Dixon of Dock Green\" (1962), a production of Noël Coward's \"Hay Fever\" (1968) and the storyteller in several episodes of \"Jackanory\" (1969). In 1970, he starred in the Ben Travers Farce \"Rookery Nook\", shown on the BBC. In the 1980s he played several Shakespearean roles, including \"Twelfth Night\". Briers was featured twice on the Thames Television show \"This Is Your Life\" in May 1972 and March 1994.\n", "In a role specifically written for him by John Esmonde and Bob Larbey, Briers was cast in the lead role in \"The Good Life\" (1975–78), playing Tom Good, a draughtsman who decides, on his 40th birthday, to give up his job and try his hand at self-sufficiency, with the support of his wife Barbara, played by Felicity Kendal. Briers persuaded the producers to cast his friend Paul Eddington, a fellow council member of Equity, in the role of Jerry. An enormously successful series, the last episode in 1978 was performed in front of Queen Elizabeth II. In 1977, he starred with his \"The Good Life\" co-star Penelope Keith in the televised version of Alan Ayckbourn's trilogy \"The Norman Conquests\". He also starred as Ralph in 13 episodes of \"The Other One\" (1977–79) with Michael Gambon.\n", "During the 1980s and 1990s, Briers had leading roles in several television shows. including \"Goodbye, Mr Kent\" (1982), a rare failure also featuring Hannah Gordon, the lead role of Martin Bryce in \"Ever Decreasing Circles\" (1984–89), and as Godfrey Spry in the BBC comedy drama \"If You See God, Tell Him\" (1993). He also starred in \"All in Good Faith\" (1985), \"Tales of the Unexpected\" (1988), and \"Mr. Bean\" (1990). In 1987, he appeared as the principal villain in the \"Doctor Who\" serial \"Paradise Towers\", a performance which was described by \"Radio Times\" writer Patrick Mulkern as Briers' \"career-low\". In 1995 he played the character Tony Fairfax in the BBC comedy \"Down to Earth\". In the Inspector Morse episode 'Death is Now My Neighbour', he played the evil master of Lonsdale College, Sir Clixby Bream.\n", "In the 2000s Briers was the curmudgeonly and extravagant father Hector MacDonald in the BBC television programme \"Monarch of the Glen\" (2000–05), appearing in series 1, 2, 3 and 7.\n", "Section::::Stage work.\n", "Briers spent much of his career in the theatre, including appearances in plays by Shakespeare and George Bernard Shaw. In 1967, one of his earliest successes was playing alongside Michael Hordern and Celia Johnson in the London production of Alan Ayckbourn's \"Relatively Speaking\".\n", "After a long career in television sitcom, and looking to expand his career, his daughter Lucy took him to Stratford-upon-Avon to watch Kenneth Branagh in \"Henry V\". After meeting Branagh backstage after the performance, Branagh offered Briers the role of Malvolio in the Renaissance Theatre Company production of \"Twelfth Night\". Briers joined the company, and went on to play title parts in \"King Lear\" and \"Uncle Vanya\". Briers also appeared in many of Branagh's films, including \"Henry V\" (1989, as Bardolph), \"Much Ado About Nothing\" (1993, as Signor Leonato) and \"Hamlet\" (1996, as Polonius). The theatre production of \"Twelfth Night\" (1988) was adapted for television, with Briers reprising his role as Malvolio.\n", "In 2010, Briers played in the Royal National Theatre revival of Dion Boucicault's \"London Assurance\", alongside Simon Russell Beale and Fiona Shaw. A performance of this was broadcast live to cinemas round the world as part of the \"NT Live!\" programme. He also played the character of Captain Bluntschli, in Bernard Shaw's play 'Arms and the Man'\n", "Section::::Film.\n", "Briers made his film debut in the British feature film \"Bottoms Up\" (1960). He then took parts in \"Murder She Said\" (1961), \"The Girl on the Boat\" (1962), \"A Matter of WHO\" (1962), \"The V.I.P.s\" (1963); and Raquel Welch's spy spoof \"Fathom\" (1967).\n", "He latterly appeared in Michael Winner's \"A Chorus of Disapproval\" (1988) and the film \"Unconditional Love\" (2002) as well as the Kenneth Branagh adaptation of \"Much Ado About Nothing\" (1998) in which he played the role of Leonato. His last film was \"Cockneys vs Zombies\" (2012).\n", "Section::::Radio and voice work.\n", "He was a familiar voice actor. Briers narrated the animated children's TV programme \"Roobarb\" (1974). Originally shown on BBC1 just before the evening news, each five-minute cartoon was written by Grange Calveley and produced by Bob Godfrey. He was the original narrator and voice actor for all the characters in the \"Noddy\" (1975) TV series based on the Enid Blyton character, and then another series with Godfrey, \"Noah and Nelly in... SkylArk\" (1976). He also provided the voice of Fiver in the animated film adaptation of \"Watership Down\" (1978). In 1990 Briers provided the narration and voiced all the characters in the five minute animated series \"Coconuts\" about a monkey, a king lion and a parrot who lived on a tropical island. The series ran for thirteen episodes and first aired on ITV on 23 April 1990. In the 1990s, he voiced the part of Mouse, opposite Alan Bennett's Mole in the TV series \"Mouse and Mole\", based on books by Joyce Dunbar and James Mayhew. He latterly starred alongside Neil Morrissey in \"Bob the Builder\" (2005) as Bob's Dad, Robert to his credit. He also recorded the four seasonal \"Percy The Park Keeper\" stories for a home audio release based on the books by Nick Butterworth, creating memorable voices for all of the animal characters as well as Percy the Park Keeper himself. Briers also featured in the television series adaptation of \"Watership Down\" (1999–2001), this time voicing a series exclusive character called Captain Broom, and was one of the very few actors who stayed for all three series.\n", "His work in radio included playing Dr. Simon Sparrow in BBC Radio 4's adaptions of Richard Gordon's \"Doctor in the House\" and \"Doctor at Large\" (1968), and a retired thespian in a series of six plays with Stanley Baxter \"\" (2008), and later the play \"Not Talking\", commissioned for BBC Radio 3 by Mike Bartlett. In 1986 he narrated Radio 4's \"Oh, yes it is!\", a history of pantomime written by Gerald Frow. Between 1973 and 1981, Briers played Bertie Wooster in several adaptations of the P. G. Wodehouse novels with Michael Hordern as Jeeves.\n", "Briers narrated numerous commercials. including adverts for the Midland Bank in which he was the voice of the company's Griffin symbol. Between 1984 and 1986 he made a series of commercials for the Ford Sierra done in a sitcom style portraying the Sierra as \"one of the family\". Briers narrated the public information film \"Frances the Firefly\", about the dangers of playing with matches, firstly in the mid 1990s when first made, and then in the early 2000s when re-made by the Government fire safety campaign Fire Kills. He also recorded the voice of a Sat nav specifically designed for senior citizens in the BBC 2’s TV Show \"Top Gear\", Series 19, episode 5, which aired only a week after his death. Presenter Jeremy Clarkson paid a brief tribute to his memory at the end of the episode.\n", "Section::::Later career.\n", "After 1990, he appeared in \"Lovejoy\", \"Inspector Morse\", \"Midsomer Murders\" (the episode \"Death's Shadow\"), \"Doctors\", \"New Tricks\", \"Kingdom\", and \"If You See God, Tell Him\". Richard Briers starred as Hector in the first three series of \"Monarch of the Glen\" from 2000 to 2002 (and as a guest in series 7 in 2005), a role which saw him return to the limelight. He contributed \"Sonnet 55\" to the 2002 compilation album, \"When Love Speaks\", which features famous actors and musicians interpreting Shakespeare's sonnets and play excerpts. In 2005, he appeared alongside Kevin Whately in \"Dad\", a TV Film made by BBC Wales exploring issues of elder abuse. In 2006, he made an appearance in an episode of \"Extras\", and portrayed the servant Adam in Kenneth Branagh's 2006 Shakespeare adaptation, \"As You Like It\". He made a cameo appearance as a dying recluse in the 2008 \"Torchwood\" episode \"A Day in the Death\".\n", "On 17 December 2000, Briers was the guest on BBC Radio 4’s \"Desert Island Discs\". Among his musical choices were \"Di quella pira\" from \"Il Trovatore\" by Giuseppe Verdi, \"I Feel A Song Coming On\" by Al Jolson and \"On The Sunny Side Of The Street\" by Louis Armstrong. His favourite piece was the Organ Concerto in F major \"The Cuckoo and the Nightingale\" by George Frideric Handel.\n", "Section::::Personal life.\n", "Briers met Ann Davies while both were at Liverpool Rep. Davies was employed as a stage manager, and had acted on television and in films from the mid-1950s. Soon after meeting, he borrowed £5 from his mother, bought an engagement ring and they were married within six months. They had two daughters, one of whom, Lucy, is also an actress; Kate (or Katie) has worked in stage management, and is a primary school teacher.\n", "Briers and his friend Paul Eddington shared a similar sense of humour, and knew each other before being cast in \"The Good Life\". After Eddington was diagnosed with skin cancer, Briers accepted a role opposite him in David Storey's play \"Home\" in 1994, agreeing to take on all of the publicity interviews to allow Eddington time for his treatment. At Eddington's memorial service, Briers read both from \"Cymbeline\" and Wodehouse; he later read chapters from Eddington's autobiography on BBC Radio 4.\n", "In 2014, BBC Radio 4 broadcast \"Memories of a Cad\", an affectionate comedy drama by Roy Smiles about the relationship between Terry-Thomas and Briers, played by Martin Jarvis and Alistair McGowan respectively. Set in 1984 when he had suffered from Parkinson's Disease for many years, Terry-Thomas is delighted by the visit to his home in Ibiza of the much younger Briers, who he recognises from television, and who proves to be his first cousin once removed. Briers cheers him up by recalling the career the film-star has long forgotten. It was re-broadcast in 2016.\n", "As a result of Terry-Thomas's Parkinson's, Briers became President of Parkinson's UK. He also helped to launch a Sense-National Deafblind and Rubella Association campaign. Briers was also a non-medical patron of the TOFS (Tracheo-Oesophageal Fistula Support) charity, which supports children and the families of children born unable to swallow.\n", "Interviewed by \"The Daily Telegraph\" in 2008, Briers admitted that, while on holiday, he enjoyed being recognised, saying, \"I’m gregarious by nature, so I love chatting to people. It really cheers me up.\"\n", "Briers was a keen visitor of Britain's historic churches and visited over one hundred for his book \"English Country Churches\" which was published in 1988. From his national service in the RAF, he was a supporter for a national memorial for RAF Bomber Command.\n", "Briers was appointed OBE in 1989, and CBE in 2003.\n", "Section::::Death.\n", "In an interview with the \"Daily Mail\" on 31 January 2013, Briers stated that he had smoked about half a million cigarettes before he quit. According to Lucy Briers, his daughter, he quit in 2001 immediately after a routine chest X-ray suggested he would otherwise soon be in a wheelchair.\n", "He was diagnosed with emphysema in 2007. He died at his home in Bedford Park, London on 17 February 2013 from the effects of a cardiac arrest. His funeral was held at the local church of St Michael and All Angels on 6 March 2013.\n", "Section::::Tributes.\n", "The BBC referred to him as \"one of Britain's best-loved actors\". Sir Kenneth Branagh paid tribute to him, saying, \"He was a national treasure, a great actor and a wonderful man. He was greatly loved and he will be deeply missed.\" \n", "Briers's agent, Christopher Farrar, said: \"Richard was a wonderful man, a consummate professional and an absolute joy to work alongside. Following his recent discussion of his battle with emphysema, I know he was incredibly touched by the strength of support expressed by friends and the public.\"\n", "Fellow television star Penelope Keith said, \"He was always courteous, always generous and always self-deprecating\" adding, \"He was also such a clever actor that he made you feel secure. You believed he was who he was portraying on the screen or on the stage... I just think of Richard and smile.\"\n", "Writing in \"The Guardian\", critic Michael Coveney described Briers as \"always the most modest and self-deprecating of actors, and the sweetest of men,\" and noted: \"Although he excelled in the plays of Alan Ayckbourn, and became a national figure in his television sitcoms of the 1970s and 80s, notably \"The Good Life\", he could mine hidden depths on stage, giving notable performances in Ibsen, Chekhov and, for Kenneth Branagh's Renaissance company, Shakespeare.\"\n", "On 30 March 2013, BBC Two broadcast an hour long review of Briers' life and career, with tributes from many friends and colleagues.\n", "Section::::Tributes.:Ever Increasing Wonder.\n", "On Christmas Day 2013, BBC Radio 4 Extra broadcast a day of tribute to Briers titled \"Ever Increasing Wonder\", with a variety of his BBC Radio recordings, many of them introduced by those who knew him and worked with him.\n", "Guest speakers included:\n", "BULLET::::- Prunella Scales\n", "BULLET::::- Stephen Fry\n", "BULLET::::- Michael Chaplin\n", "BULLET::::- Alan Bennett\n", "BULLET::::- Michael Ball\n", "BULLET::::- Kenneth Branagh\n", "BULLET::::- Ed Harris\n", "BULLET::::- Briers's widow Ann Davies and their daughters\n", "Programmes included:\n", "BULLET::::- \"Brothers in Law\" (radio adaptation of the TV series)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Doctor in the House\" (radio adaptation of the TV series)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Marriage Lines\" (radio adaptation of the TV series)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Largo desolato\" (by Vaclav Havel)\n", "BULLET::::- \"What Ho! Jeeves: Joy in the Morning\" (radio adaptation of the novel by P. G. Wodehouse)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Wind in the Willows\" (by Kenneth Grahame, dramatized by Alan Bennett)\n", "BULLET::::- Aled Jones's interview of Briers\n", "Section::::Selected filmography.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Girls at Sea\" (1958) - 'Popeye' Lewis\n", "BULLET::::- \"Bottoms Up\" (1960) - Colbourne\n", "BULLET::::- \"Murder, She Said\" (1961) - 'Mrs. Binster'\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Matter of WHO\" (1961) - Jamieson\n", "BULLET::::- \"Marriage Lines\" (1961–1966, TV sitcom) - George Starling\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Girl on the Boat\" (1962) - Eustace Hignett\n", "BULLET::::- \"The V.I.P.s\" (1963) - Met. Official (uncredited)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Doctor in Distress\" (1963) - Medical Student (uncredited)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Bargee\" (1964) - Tomkins\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Home of Your Own\" (1965) - The Husband\n", "BULLET::::- \"Fathom\" (1967) - Timothy\n", "BULLET::::- \"Rookery Nook\" (1970, TV drama) - Gerald Popkiss\n", "BULLET::::- \"All the Way Up\" (1970) - Nigel Hadfield\n", "BULLET::::- \"Rentadick\" (1972) - Miles Gannet\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Three Musketeers\" (1973) - King Louis XIII (voice, uncredited)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Roobarb\" (1974) - Louis XIII (voice, uncredited)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Good Life\" (1975–1978, TV sitcom) - Tom Good\n", "BULLET::::- \"Watership Down\" (1978) - Fiver (voice)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Other One\" (1977–1979, TV sitcom) - Ralph Tanner\n", "BULLET::::- \"Goodbye, Mr Kent\" (1982, TV sitcom) - Travis Kent\n", "BULLET::::- \"Ever Decreasing Circles\" (1984–1989, TV sitcom) - Martin Bryce\n", "BULLET::::- \"All in Good Faith\" (1985–1988, TV sitcom) - Reverend Philip Lambe\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Chorus of Disapproval\" (1989) - Ted Washbrook\n", "BULLET::::- \"Henry V\" (1989) - Lieutenant Bardolph\n", "BULLET::::- \"Peter's Friends\" (1992) - Lord Morton\n", "BULLET::::- \"Much Ado About Nothing\" (1993) - Leonato\n", "BULLET::::- \"If You See God, Tell Him\" (1993, TV sitcom) - Godfrey Spry\n", "BULLET::::- \"Frankenstein\" (1994) - Grandfather\n", "BULLET::::- \"A Midwinter's Tale\" (1995) - Henry Wakefield (Claudius, the Ghost, and the Player King)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Hamlet\" (1996) - Polonius\n", "BULLET::::- \"Spice World\" (1997) - Bishop\n", "BULLET::::- \"Love's Labour's Lost\" (2000) - Sir Nathaniel\n", "BULLET::::- \"Monarch of the Glen\" (2000–2005) - Hector MacDonald\n", "BULLET::::- \"Unconditional Love\" (2002) - Barry Moore\n", "BULLET::::- \"Peter Pan\" (2003) - Smee\n", "BULLET::::- \"As You Like It\" (2006) - Adam\n", "BULLET::::- \"National Theatre Live: London Assurance\" (2010) - Mr. Adolphus Spanker\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Only One Who Knows You're Afraid\" (2011) - Narrator\n", "BULLET::::- \"Run for Your Wife\" (2012) - Newspaper Seller\n", "BULLET::::- \"Cockneys vs Zombies\" (2012) - Hamish\n", "BULLET::::- \"Top Gear\" (2013, TV series) - Sat Nav (Voice)\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Richard Briers at BFI ScreenOnline\n", "BULLET::::- Obituary in The Independent by Marcus Williamson\n" ] }
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"157729"
"Richard Briers"
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"1958 births,2000 deaths,Accidental deaths in Maryland,Road incident deaths in Maryland"
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"20149"
{ "paragraph": [ "Mike Muuss\n", "Michael John Muuss (October 16, 1958 – November 20, 2000) was the American author of the freeware network tool ping.\n", "Section::::Career.\n", "A graduate of Johns Hopkins University, Muuss was a senior scientist specializing in geometric solid modeling, ray-tracing, MIMD architectures and digital computer networks at the United States Army Research Laboratory at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland when he died. He wrote a number of software packages (including BRL-CAD) and network tools (including ttcp and the concept of the default route or \"default gateway\") and contributed to many others (including BIND).\n", "However, the thousand-line ping, which he wrote in December 1983 while working at the Ballistic Research Laboratory, is the program for which he is most remembered. Due to its usefulness, ping has been implemented on a large number of operating systems, initially BSD and Unix, but later others including Windows and Mac OS X.\n", "In 1993, the USENIX Association gave a Lifetime Achievement Award (\"Flame\") to the Computer Systems Research Group at University of California, Berkeley, honoring 180 individuals, including Muuss, who contributed to the CSRG's 4.4BSD-Lite release.\n", "Muuss is mentioned in two books, \"The Cuckoo's Egg\" () and \"Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier\" (), for his role in tracking down crackers. He also is mentioned in Peter Salus's \"A Quarter Century of UNIX\".\n", "Muuss died in an automobile collision on Interstate 95 on November 20, 2000. The Michael J. Muuss Research Award, set up by friends and family of Muuss, memorializes him at Johns Hopkins University.\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- Heterogeneous Element Processor\n", "BULLET::::- ttcp\n", "BULLET::::- ping\n", "BULLET::::- BRL-CAD\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- Mike Muuss's home page\n", "BULLET::::- Mike Muuss, The Story of the PING Program\n", "BULLET::::- An Early UseNet Post by Mike Muuss Discussing Ping's history ICMP As A Diagnostic Tool?\n", "BULLET::::- Mike Muuss, The Story of the TTCP Program\n", "BULLET::::- BRL-CAD\n" ] }
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"20149"
"Mike Muuss"
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"Dutch male artists,Burials in Utrecht (province),1898 births,Dutch illustrators,M. C. Escher,Knights of the Order of Orange-Nassau,Dutch engravers,20th-century Dutch artists,Dutch draughtsmen,Dutch printmakers,Delft University of Technology alumni,Dutch stamp designers,Officers of the Order of Orange-Nassau,Modern printmakers,Mathematical artists,1972 deaths"
"512px-Maurits_Cornelis_Escher.jpg"
"20127"
{ "paragraph": [ "M. C. Escher\n", "Maurits Cornelis Escher (; 17 June 1898 – 27 March 1972) was a Dutch graphic artist who made mathematically-inspired woodcuts, lithographs, and mezzotints.\n", "Despite wide popular interest, Escher was for long somewhat neglected in the art world, even in his native Netherlands. He was 70 before a retrospective exhibition was held. In the twenty-first century, he became more widely appreciated, with exhibitions across the world.\n", "His work features mathematical objects and operations including impossible objects, explorations of infinity, reflection, symmetry, perspective, truncated and stellated polyhedra, hyperbolic geometry, and tessellations. Although Escher believed he had no mathematical ability, he interacted with the mathematicians George Pólya, Roger Penrose, Harold Coxeter and crystallographer Friedrich Haag, and conducted his own research into tessellation.\n", "Early in his career, he drew inspiration from nature, making studies of insects, landscapes, and plants such as lichens, all of which he used as details in his artworks. He traveled in Italy and Spain, sketching buildings, townscapes, architecture and the tilings of the Alhambra and the Mezquita of Cordoba, and became steadily more interested in their mathematical structure.\n", "Escher's art became well known among scientists and mathematicians, and in popular culture, especially after it was featured by Martin Gardner in his April 1966 Mathematical Games column in \"Scientific American\". Apart from being used in a variety of technical papers, his work has appeared on the covers of many books and albums. He was one of the major inspirations of Douglas Hofstadter's Pulitzer Prize-winning 1979 book \"Gödel, Escher, Bach\".\n", "Section::::Early life.\n", "Maurits Cornelis Escher was born on 17 June 1898 in Leeuwarden, Friesland, the Netherlands, in a house that forms part of the Princessehof Ceramics Museum today. He was the youngest son of the civil engineer George Arnold Escher and his second wife, Sara Gleichman. In 1903, the family moved to Arnhem, where he attended primary and secondary school until 1918. Known to his friends and family as \"Mauk\", he was a sickly child and was placed in a special school at the age of seven; he failed the second grade. Although he excelled at drawing, his grades were generally poor. He took carpentry and piano lessons until he was thirteen years old.\n", "In 1918, he went to the Technical College of Delft. From 1919 to 1922, Escher attended the Haarlem School of Architecture and Decorative Arts, learning drawing and the art of making woodcuts. He briefly studied architecture, but he failed a number of subjects (due partly to a persistent skin infection) and switched to decorative arts, studying under the graphic artist Samuel Jessurun de Mesquita.\n", "Section::::Study journeys.\n", "In 1922, an important year of his life, Escher traveled through Italy, visiting Florence, San Gimignano, Volterra, Siena, and Ravello. In the same year, he traveled through Spain, visiting Madrid, Toledo, and Granada. He was impressed by the Italian countryside and, in Granada, by the Moorish architecture of the fourteenth-century Alhambra. The intricate decorative designs of the Alhambra, based on geometrical symmetries featuring interlocking repetitive patterns in the coloured tiles or sculpted into the walls and ceilings, triggered his interest in the mathematics of tessellation and became a powerful influence on his work.\n", "Escher returned to Italy and lived in Rome from 1923 to 1935. While in Italy, Escher met Jetta Umiker – a Swiss woman, like himself attracted to Italy – whom he married in 1924. The couple settled in Rome where their first son, Giorgio (George) Arnaldo Escher, named after his grandfather, was born. Escher and Jetta later had two more sons – Arthur and Jan.\n", "He travelled frequently, visiting (among other places) Viterbo in 1926, the Abruzzi in 1927 and 1929, Corsica in 1928 and 1933, Calabria in 1930, the Amalfi coast in 1931 and 1934, and Gargano and Sicily in 1932 and 1935. The townscapes and landscapes of these places feature prominently in his artworks. In May and June 1936, Escher travelled back to Spain, revisiting the Alhambra and spending days at a time making detailed drawings of its mosaic patterns. It was here that he became fascinated, to the point of obsession, with tessellation, explaining:\n", "The sketches he made in the Alhambra formed a major source for his work from that time on. He also studied the architecture of the Mezquita, the Moorish mosque of Cordoba. This turned out to be the last of his long study journeys; after 1937, his artworks were created in his studio rather than in the field. His art correspondingly changed sharply from being mainly observational, with a strong emphasis on the realistic details of things seen in nature and architecture, to being the product of his geometric analysis and his visual imagination. All the same, even his early work already shows his interest in the nature of space, the unusual, perspective, and multiple points of view.\n", "Section::::Later life.\n", "In 1935, the political climate in Italy (under Mussolini) became unacceptable to Escher. He had no interest in politics, finding it impossible to involve himself with any ideals other than the expressions of his own concepts through his own particular medium, but he was averse to fanaticism and hypocrisy. When his eldest son, George, was forced at the age of nine to wear a Ballila uniform in school, the family left Italy and moved to Château-d'Œx, Switzerland, where they remained for two years.\n", "The Netherlands post office had Escher design a semi-postal stamp for the \"Air Fund\" in 1935, and again in 1949 he designed Netherlands stamps. These were for the 75th anniversary of the Universal Postal Union; a different design was used by Surinam and the Netherlands Antilles for the same commemoration.\n", "Escher, who had been very fond of and inspired by the landscapes in Italy, was decidedly unhappy in Switzerland. In 1937, the family moved again, to Uccle (Ukkel), a suburb of Brussels, Belgium. World War II forced them to move in January 1941, this time to Baarn, Netherlands, where Escher lived until 1970. Most of Escher's best-known works date from this period. The sometimes cloudy, cold, and wet weather of the Netherlands allowed him to focus intently on his work. After 1953, Escher lectured widely. A planned series of lectures in North America in 1962 was cancelled after an illness, and he stopped creating artworks for a time, but the illustrations and text for the lectures were later published as part of the book \"Escher on Escher\". He was awarded the Knighthood of the Order of Orange-Nassau in 1955; he was later made an Officer in 1967.\n", "In July 1969 he finished his last work, a large woodcut with threefold rotational symmetry called \"Snakes\", in which snakes wind through a pattern of linked rings. These shrink to infinity toward both the center and the edge of a circle. It was exceptionally elaborate, being printed using three blocks, each rotated three times about the center of the image and precisely aligned to avoid gaps and overlaps, for a total of nine print operations for each finished print. The image encapsulates Escher's love of symmetry; of interlocking patterns; and, at the end of his life, of his approach to infinity. The care that Escher took in creating and printing this woodcut can be seen in a video recording.\n", "Escher moved to the Rosa Spier Huis in Laren in 1970, an artists' retirement home in which he had his own studio. He died in a hospital in Hilversum on 27 March 1972, aged 73. He is buried at the New Cemetery in Baarn.\n", "Section::::Mathematically inspired work.\n", "Escher's work is inescapably mathematical. This has caused a disconnect between his full-on popular fame and the lack of esteem with which he has been viewed in the art world. His originality and mastery of graphic techniques are respected, but his works have been thought too intellectual and insufficiently lyrical. Movements such as conceptual art have, to a degree, reversed the art world's attitude to intellectuality and lyricism, but this did not rehabilitate Escher, because traditional critics still disliked his narrative themes and his use of perspective. However, these same qualities made his work highly attractive to the public. \n", "Escher is not the first artist to explore mathematical themes: Parmigianino (1503–1540) had explored spherical geometry and reflection in his 1524 \"Self-portrait in a Convex Mirror\", depicting his own image in a curved mirror, while William Hogarth's 1754 \"Satire on False Perspective\" foreshadows Escher's playful exploration of errors in perspective. Another early artistic forerunner is Giovanni Battista Piranesi (1720–1778), whose dark \"fantastical\" prints such as \"The Drawbridge\" in his \"Carceri\" (\"Prisons\") sequence depict perspectives of complex architecture with many stairs and ramps, peopled by walking figures. Only with 20th century movements such as Cubism, De Stijl, Dadaism, and Surrealism did mainstream art start to explore Escher-like ways of looking at the world with multiple simultaneous viewpoints. However, although Escher had much in common with, for example, Magritte's surrealism, he did not make contact with any of these movements.\n", "Section::::Mathematically inspired work.:Tessellation.\n", "In his early years, Escher sketched landscapes and nature. He also sketched insects such as ants, bees, grasshoppers, and mantises, which appeared frequently in his later work. His early love of Roman and Italian landscapes and of nature created an interest in tessellation, which he called \"Regular Division of the Plane\"; this became the title of his 1958 book, complete with reproductions of a series of woodcuts based on tessellations of the plane, in which he described the systematic buildup of mathematical designs in his artworks. He wrote, \"Mathematicians have opened the gate leading to an extensive domain\".\n", "After his 1936 journey to the Alhambra and to La Mezquita, Cordoba, where he sketched the Moorish architecture and the tessellated mosaic decorations, Escher began to explore the properties and possibilities of tessellation using geometric grids as the basis for his sketches. He then extended these to form complex interlocking designs, for example with animals such as birds, fish, and reptiles. One of his first attempts at a tessellation was his pencil, India ink, and watercolour \"Study of Regular Division of the Plane with Reptiles\" (1939), constructed on a hexagonal grid. The heads of the red, green, and white reptiles meet at a vertex; the tails, legs, and sides of the animals interlock exactly. It was used as the basis for his 1943 lithograph \"Reptiles\".\n", "His first study of mathematics began with papers by George Pólya and by the crystallographer Friedrich Haag on plane symmetry groups, sent to him by his brother Berend, a geologist. He carefully studied the 17 canonical wallpaper groups and created periodic tilings with 43 drawings of different types of symmetry. From this point on, he developed a mathematical approach to expressions of symmetry in his artworks using his own notation. Starting in 1937, he created woodcuts based on the 17 groups. His \"Metamorphosis I\" (1937) began a series of designs that told a story through the use of pictures. In \"Metamorphosis I\", he transformed convex polygons into regular patterns in a plane to form a human motif. He extended the approach in his piece \"Metamorphosis III\", which is four metres long.\n", "In 1941 and 1942, Escher summarized his findings for his own artistic use in a sketchbook, which he labeled (following Haag) \"Regelmatige vlakverdeling in asymmetrische congruente veelhoeken\" (\"Regular division of the plane with asymmetric congruent polygons\"). The mathematician Doris Schattschneider unequivocally described this notebook as recording \"a methodical investigation that can only be termed mathematical research.\" She defined the research questions he was following as\n", "Section::::Mathematically inspired work.:Geometries.\n", "Although Escher did not have mathematical training—his understanding of mathematics was largely visual and intuitive—his art had a strong mathematical component, and several of the worlds that he drew were built around impossible objects. After 1924, Escher turned to sketching landscapes in Italy and Corsica with irregular perspectives that are impossible in natural form. His first print of an impossible reality was \"Still Life and Street\" (1937); impossible stairs and multiple visual and gravitational perspectives feature in popular works such as \"Relativity\" (1953). \"House of Stairs\" (1951) attracted the interest of the mathematician Roger Penrose and his father, the biologist Lionel Penrose. In 1956, they published a paper, \"Impossible Objects: A Special Type of Visual Illusion\" and later sent Escher a copy. Escher replied, admiring the Penroses' continuously rising flights of steps, and enclosed a print of \"Ascending and Descending\" (1960). The paper also contained the tribar or Penrose triangle, which Escher used repeatedly in his lithograph of a building that appears to function as a perpetual motion machine, \"Waterfall\" (1961).\n", "Escher was interested enough in Hieronymus Bosch's 1500 triptych \"The Garden of Earthly Delights\" to re-create part of its right-hand panel, \"Hell\", as a lithograph in 1935. He reused the figure of a Mediaeval woman in a two-pointed headdress and a long gown in his lithograph \"Belvedere\" in 1958; the image is, like many of his other \"extraordinary invented places\", peopled with \"jesters, knaves, and contemplators\". Thus, Escher not only was interested in possible or impossible geometry but was, in his own words, a \"reality enthusiast\"; he combined \"formal astonishment with a vivid and idiosyncratic vision\".\n", "Escher worked primarily in the media of lithographs and woodcuts, although the few mezzotints he made are considered to be masterpieces of the technique. In his graphic art, he portrayed mathematical relationships among shapes, figures, and space. Integrated into his prints were mirror images of cones, spheres, cubes, rings, and spirals.\n", "Escher was also fascinated by mathematical objects such as the Möbius strip, which has only one surface. His wood engraving \"Möbius Strip II\" (1963) depicts a chain of ants marching forever over what, at any one place, are the two opposite faces of the object—which are seen on inspection to be parts of the strip's single surface. In Escher's own words:\n", "The mathematical influence in his work became prominent after 1936, when, having boldly asked the Adria Shipping Company if he could sail with them as travelling artist in return for making drawings of their ships, they surprisingly agreed, and he sailed the Mediterranean, becoming interested in order and symmetry. Escher described this journey, including his repeat visit to the Alhambra, as \"the richest source of inspiration I have ever tapped\".\n", "Escher's interest in curvilinear perspective was encouraged by his friend and \"kindred spirit\", the art historian and artist Albert Flocon, in another example of constructive mutual influence. Flocon identified Escher as a \"thinking artist\" alongside Piero della Francesca, Leonardo da Vinci, Albrecht Dürer, Wenzel Jamnitzer, Abraham Bosse, Girard Desargues, and Père Nicon. Flocon was delighted by Escher's \"Grafiek en tekeningen\" (\"Graphics in Drawing\"), which he read in 1959. This stimulated Flocon and André Barre to correspond with Escher and to write the book \"La Perspective curviligne\" (\"Curvilinear perspective\").\n", "Section::::Mathematically inspired work.:Platonic and other solids.\n", "Escher often incorporated three-dimensional objects such as the Platonic solids such as spheres, tetrahedrons, and cubes into his works, as well as mathematical objects such as cylinders and stellated polyhedra. In the print \"Reptiles\", he combined two- and three-dimensional images. In one of his papers, Escher emphasized the importance of dimensionality:\n", "Escher's artwork is especially well-liked by mathematicians such as Doris Schattschneider and scientists such as Roger Penrose, who enjoy his use of polyhedra and geometric distortions. For example, in \"Gravitation\", animals climb around a stellated dodecahedron.\n", "The two towers of \"Waterfall\" impossible building are topped with compound polyhedra, one a compound of three cubes, the other a stellated rhombic dodecahedron now known as Escher's solid. Escher had used this solid in his 1948 woodcut \"Stars\", which also contains all five of the Platonic solids and various stellated solids, representing stars; the central solid is animated by chameleons climbing through the frame as it whirls in space. Escher possessed a 6 cm refracting telescope and was a keen-enough amateur astronomer to have recorded observations of binary stars.\n", "Section::::Mathematically inspired work.:Levels of reality.\n", "Escher's artistic expression was created from images in his mind, rather than directly from observations and travels to other countries. His interest in the multiple levels of reality in art is seen in works such as \"Drawing Hands\" (1948), where two hands are shown, each drawing the other. The critic Steven Poole commented that\n", "Section::::Mathematically inspired work.:Infinity and hyperbolic geometry.\n", "In 1954, the International Congress of Mathematicians met in Amsterdam, and N. G. de Bruin organized a display of Escher's work at the Stedelijk Museum for the participants. Both Roger Penrose and H. S. M. Coxeter were deeply impressed with Escher's intuitive grasp of mathematics. Inspired by \"Relativity\", Penrose devised his tribar, and his father, Lionel Penrose, devised an endless staircase. Roger Penrose sent sketches of both objects to Escher, and the cycle of invention was closed when Escher then created the perpetual motion machine of \"Waterfall\" and the endless march of the monk-figures of \"Ascending and Descending\". \n", "In 1957, Coxeter obtained Escher's permission to use two of his drawings in his paper \"Crystal symmetry and its generalizations\". He sent Escher a copy of the paper; Escher recorded that Coxeter's figure of a hyperbolic tessellation \"gave me quite a shock\": the infinite regular repetition of the tiles in the hyperbolic plane, growing rapidly smaller towards the edge of the circle, was precisely what he wanted to allow him to represent infinity on a two-dimensional plane.\n", "Escher carefully studied Coxeter's figure, marking it up to analyse the successively smaller circles with which (he deduced) it had been constructed. He then constructed a diagram, which he sent to Coxeter, showing his analysis; Coxeter confirmed it was correct, but disappointed Escher with his highly technical reply. All the same, Escher persisted with hyperbolic tiling, which he called \"Coxetering\". Among the results were the series of wood engravings \"Circle Limit I–IV\". In 1959, Coxeter published his finding that these works were extraordinarily accurate: \"Escher got it absolutely right to the millimeter\".\n", "Section::::Legacy.\n", "Escher's special way of thinking and rich graphics have had a continuous influence in mathematics and art, as well as in popular culture.\n", "Section::::Legacy.:In art collections.\n", "The Escher intellectual property is controlled by the M.C. Escher Company, while exhibitions of his artworks are managed separately by the M.C. Escher Foundation.\n", "The primary institutional collections of original works by M.C. Escher are the Escher Museum in The Hague; the National Gallery of Art (Washington, DC); the National Gallery of Canada (Ottawa); the Israel Museum (Jerusalem); and the Huis ten Bosch (Nagasaki, Japan).\n", "Section::::Legacy.:Exhibitions.\n", "Despite wide popular interest, Escher was for a long time somewhat neglected in the art world; even in his native Netherlands, he was 70 before a retrospective exhibition was held. In the twenty-first century, major exhibitions have been held in cities across the world. An exhibition of his work in Rio de Janeiro attracted more than 573,000 visitors in 2011; its daily visitor count of 9,677 made it the most visited museum exhibition of the year, anywhere in the world. No major exhibition of Escher's work was held in Britain until 2015, when the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art ran one in Edinburgh from June to September 2015, moving in October 2015 to the Dulwich Picture Gallery, London. The exhibition moved to Italy in 2015–2016, attracting over 500,000 visitors in Rome and Bologna, and then Milan.\n", "Section::::Legacy.:In mathematics and science.\n", "Doris Schattschneider identifies 11 strands of mathematical and scientific research anticipated or directly inspired by Escher. These are the classification of regular tilings using the edge relationships of tiles: two-color and two-motif tilings (counterchange symmetry or antisymmetry); color symmetry (in crystallography); metamorphosis or topological change; covering surfaces with symmetric patterns; Escher's algorithm (for generating patterns using decorated squares); creating tile shapes; local versus global definitions of regularity; symmetry of a tiling induced by the symmetry of a tile; orderliness not induced by symmetry groups; the filling of the central void in Escher's lithograph \"Print Gallery\" by H. Lenstra and B. de Smit.\n", "The Pulitzer Prize-winning 1979 book \"Gödel, Escher, Bach\" by Douglas Hofstadter discusses the ideas of self-reference and strange loops, drawing on a wide range of artistic and scientific sources including Escher's art and the music of J. S. Bach.\n", "The asteroid 4444 Escher was named in Escher's honor in 1985.\n", "Section::::Legacy.:In popular culture.\n", "Escher's fame in popular culture grew when his work was featured by Martin Gardner in his April 1966 \"Mathematical Games\" column in \"Scientific American\". Escher's works have appeared on many album covers including The Scaffold's 1969 \"L the P\" with \"Ascending and Descending\"; Mott the Hoople's eponymous 1969 record with \"Reptiles\", Beaver & Krause's 1970 \"In A Wild Sanctuary\" with \"Three Worlds\"; and Mandrake Memorial's 1970 \"Puzzle\" with \"House of Stairs\" and (inside) \"Curl Up\". His works have similarly been used on many book covers, including some editions of Edwin Abbott's \"Flatland\", which used \"Three Spheres\"; E. H. Gombrich's \"Meditations on a Hobby Horse\" with \"Horseman\"; Pamela Hall's \"Heads You Lose\" with \"Plane Filling 1\"; Patrick A. Horton's \"Mastering the Power of Story\" with \"Drawing Hands\"; Erich Gamma et al.'s \"Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-oriented software\" with \"Swans\"; and Arthur Markman's \"Knowledge Representation\" with \"Reptiles\". The \"World of Escher\" markets posters, neckties, T-shirts, and jigsaw puzzles of Escher's artworks. Both Austria and the Netherlands have issued postage stamps commemorating the artist and his works.\n", "Section::::Selected works.\n", "BULLET::::- \"Trees\", ink (1920)\n", "BULLET::::- \"St. Bavo's, Haarlem\", ink (1920)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Flor de Pascua (The Easter Flower)\", woodcut/book illustrations (1921)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Eight Heads\", woodcut (1922)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Dolphins\" also known as \"Dolphins in Phosphorescent Sea\", woodcut (1923)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Tower of Babel\", woodcut (1928)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Street in Scanno, Abruzzi\", lithograph (1930)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Castrovalva\", lithograph (1930)\n", "BULLET::::- \"The Bridge\", lithograph (1930)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Palizzi, Calabria\", woodcut (1930)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Pentedattilo, Calabria\", lithograph (1930)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Atrani, Coast of Amalfi\", lithograph (1931)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Ravello and the Coast of Amalfi\", lithograph (1931)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Covered Alley in Atrani, Coast of Amalfi\", wood engraving (1931)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Phosphorescent Sea\", lithograph (1933)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Still Life with Spherical Mirror\", lithograph (1934)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Hand with Reflecting Sphere\" also known as \"Self-Portrait in Spherical Mirror\", lithograph (1935)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Inside St. Peter's\", wood engraving (1935)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Portrait of G.A. Escher\", lithograph (1935)\n", "BULLET::::- \"\"Hell\"\", lithograph, (copied from a painting by Hieronymus Bosch) (1935)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Regular Division of the Plane\", series of drawings that continued until the 1960s (1936)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Still Life and Street\" (his first impossible reality), woodcut (1937)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Metamorphosis I\", woodcut (1937)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Day and Night\", woodcut (1938)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Cycle\", lithograph (1938)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Sky and Water I\", woodcut (1938)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Sky and Water II\", lithograph (1938)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Metamorphosis II\", woodcut (1939–1940)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Verbum (Earth, Sky and Water)\", lithograph (1942)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Reptiles\", lithograph (1943)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Ant\", lithograph (1943)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Encounter\", lithograph (1944)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Doric Columns\", wood engraving (1945)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Balcony\", lithograph (1945)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Three Spheres I\", wood engraving (1945)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Magic Mirror\", lithograph (1946)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Three Spheres II\", lithograph (1946)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Another World Mezzotint\" also known as \"Other World Gallery\", mezzotint (1946)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Eye\", mezzotint (1946)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Another World\" also known as \"Other World\", wood engraving and woodcut (1947)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Crystal\", mezzotint (1947)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Up and Down\" also known as \"High and Low\", lithograph (1947)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Drawing Hands\", lithograph (1948)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Dewdrop\", mezzotint (1948)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Stars\", wood engraving (1948)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Double Planetoid\", wood engraving (1949)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Order and Chaos (Contrast)\", lithograph (1950)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Rippled Surface\", woodcut and linoleum cut (1950)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Curl-up\", lithograph (1951)\n", "BULLET::::- \"House of Stairs\", lithograph (1951)\n", "BULLET::::- \"House of Stairs II\", lithograph (1951)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Puddle\", woodcut (1952)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Gravitation\", (1952)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Dragon\", woodcut lithograph and watercolor (1952)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Cubic Space Division\", lithograph (1952)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Relativity\", lithograph (1953)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Tetrahedral Planetoid\", woodcut (1954)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Compass Rose (Order and Chaos II)\", lithograph (1955)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Convex and Concave\", lithograph (1955)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Three Worlds\", lithograph (1955)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Print Gallery\", lithograph (1956)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Mosaic II\", lithograph (1957)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Cube with Magic Ribbons\", lithograph (1957)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Belvedere\", lithograph (1958)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Sphere Spirals\", woodcut (1958)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Circle Limit III\", woodcut (1959)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Ascending and Descending\", lithograph (1960)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Waterfall\", lithograph (1961)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Möbius Strip II (Red Ants)\", woodcut (1963)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Knot\", pencil and crayon (1966)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Metamorphosis III\", woodcut (1967–1968)\n", "BULLET::::- \"Snakes\", woodcut (1969)\n", "Section::::See also.\n", "BULLET::::- Victor Vasarely\n", "BULLET::::- Escher sentences, named after works like \"Ascending and Descending\"\n", "Section::::Further reading.\n", "Section::::Further reading.:Media.\n", "BULLET::::- Escher, M. C. \"The Fantastic World of M. C. Escher\", Video collection of examples of the development of his art, and interviews, Director, Michele Emmer.\n", "Section::::External links.\n", "BULLET::::- — physical replicas of some of Escher's \"impossible\" designs\n", "BULLET::::- Copyright issue regarding Escher from the Artquest Artlaw archive.\n" ] }
"http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FilePath/Maurits_Cornelis_Escher.jpg"
{ "aliases": { "alias": [ "Maurits Cornelis Escher", "Mauricio Escher", "Mauk Escher" ] }, "description": "Dutch graphic artist", "enwikiquote_title": "M. C. Escher", "wikidata_id": "Q1470", "wikidata_label": "M. C. Escher", "wikipedia_title": "M. C. Escher" }
"20127"
"M. C. Escher"
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