SqueezeBERT¶

Overview¶

The SqueezeBERT model was proposed in SqueezeBERT: What can computer vision teach NLP about efficient neural networks? by Forrest N. Iandola, Albert E. Shaw, Ravi Krishna, Kurt W. Keutzer. It’s a bidirectional transformer similar to the BERT model. The key difference between the BERT architecture and the SqueezeBERT architecture is that SqueezeBERT uses grouped convolutions instead of fully-connected layers for the Q, K, V and FFN layers.

The abstract from the paper is the following:

Humans read and write hundreds of billions of messages every day. Further, due to the availability of large datasets, large computing systems, and better neural network models, natural language processing (NLP) technology has made significant strides in understanding, proofreading, and organizing these messages. Thus, there is a significant opportunity to deploy NLP in myriad applications to help web users, social networks, and businesses. In particular, we consider smartphones and other mobile devices as crucial platforms for deploying NLP models at scale. However, today’s highly-accurate NLP neural network models such as BERT and RoBERTa are extremely computationally expensive, with BERT-base taking 1.7 seconds to classify a text snippet on a Pixel 3 smartphone. In this work, we observe that methods such as grouped convolutions have yielded significant speedups for computer vision networks, but many of these techniques have not been adopted by NLP neural network designers. We demonstrate how to replace several operations in self-attention layers with grouped convolutions, and we use this technique in a novel network architecture called SqueezeBERT, which runs 4.3x faster than BERT-base on the Pixel 3 while achieving competitive accuracy on the GLUE test set. The SqueezeBERT code will be released.

Tips:

  • SqueezeBERT is a model with absolute position embeddings so it’s usually advised to pad the inputs on the right rather than the left.

  • SqueezeBERT is similar to BERT and therefore relies on the masked language modeling (MLM) objective. It is therefore efficient at predicting masked tokens and at NLU in general, but is not optimal for text generation. Models trained with a causal language modeling (CLM) objective are better in that regard.

  • For best results when finetuning on sequence classification tasks, it is recommended to start with the squeezebert/squeezebert-mnli-headless checkpoint.

SqueezeBertConfig¶

class transformers.SqueezeBertConfig(vocab_size=30522, hidden_size=768, num_hidden_layers=12, num_attention_heads=12, intermediate_size=3072, hidden_act='gelu', hidden_dropout_prob=0.1, attention_probs_dropout_prob=0.1, max_position_embeddings=512, type_vocab_size=2, initializer_range=0.02, layer_norm_eps=1e-12, pad_token_id=0, embedding_size=768, q_groups=4, k_groups=4, v_groups=4, post_attention_groups=1, intermediate_groups=4, output_groups=4, **kwargs)[source]¶

This is the configuration class to store the configuration of a SqueezeBertModel. It is used to instantiate a SqueezeBERT model according to the specified arguments, defining the model architecture.

Configuration objects inherit from PretrainedConfig and can be used to control the model outputs. Read the documentation from PretrainedConfig for more information.

Parameters
  • vocab_size (int, optional, defaults to 30522) – Vocabulary size of the SqueezeBERT model. Defines the number of different tokens that can be represented by the inputs_ids passed when calling SqueezeBertModel.

  • hidden_size (int, optional, defaults to 768) – Dimensionality of the encoder layers and the pooler layer.

  • num_hidden_layers (int, optional, defaults to 12) – Number of hidden layers in the Transformer encoder.

  • num_attention_heads (int, optional, defaults to 12) – Number of attention heads for each attention layer in the Transformer encoder.

  • intermediate_size (int, optional, defaults to 3072) – Dimensionality of the “intermediate” (often named feed-forward) layer in the Transformer encoder.

  • hidden_act (str or Callable, optional, defaults to "gelu") – The non-linear activation function (function or string) in the encoder and pooler. If string, "gelu", "relu", "silu" and "gelu_new" are supported.

  • hidden_dropout_prob (float, optional, defaults to 0.1) – The dropout probability for all fully connected layers in the embeddings, encoder, and pooler.

  • attention_probs_dropout_prob (float, optional, defaults to 0.1) – The dropout ratio for the attention probabilities.

  • max_position_embeddings (int, optional, defaults to 512) – The maximum sequence length that this model might ever be used with. Typically set this to something large just in case (e.g., 512 or 1024 or 2048).

  • type_vocab_size (int, optional, defaults to 2) – The vocabulary size of the token_type_ids passed when calling BertModel or TFBertModel.

  • initializer_range (float, optional, defaults to 0.02) – The standard deviation of the truncated_normal_initializer for initializing all weight matrices.

  • layer_norm_eps (float, optional, defaults to 1e-12) –

  • pad_token_id (int, optional, defaults to 0) – The ID of the token in the word embedding to use as padding.

  • embedding_size (int, optional, defaults to 768) – The dimension of the word embedding vectors.

  • q_groups (int, optional, defaults to 4) – The number of groups in Q layer.

  • k_groups (int, optional, defaults to 4) – The number of groups in K layer.

  • v_groups (int, optional, defaults to 4) – The number of groups in V layer.

  • post_attention_groups (int, optional, defaults to 1) – The number of groups in the first feed forward network layer.

  • intermediate_groups (int, optional, defaults to 4) – The number of groups in the second feed forward network layer.

  • output_groups (int, optional, defaults to 4) – The number of groups in the third feed forward network layer.

Examples:

>>> from transformers import SqueezeBertModel, SqueezeBertConfig

>>> # Initializing a SqueezeBERT configuration
>>> configuration = SqueezeBertConfig()

>>> # Initializing a model from the configuration above
>>> model = SqueezeBertModel(configuration)

>>> # Accessing the model configuration
>>> configuration = model.config

Attributes: pretrained_config_archive_map (Dict[str, str]): A dictionary containing all the available pre-trained checkpoints.

SqueezeBertTokenizer¶

class transformers.SqueezeBertTokenizer(vocab_file, do_lower_case=True, do_basic_tokenize=True, never_split=None, unk_token='[UNK]', sep_token='[SEP]', pad_token='[PAD]', cls_token='[CLS]', mask_token='[MASK]', tokenize_chinese_chars=True, strip_accents=None, **kwargs)[source]¶

Constructs a SqueezeBert tokenizer.

BertTokenizer and runs end-to-end tokenization: punctuation splitting + wordpiece.

Refer to superclass BertTokenizer for usage examples and documentation concerning parameters.

build_inputs_with_special_tokens(token_ids_0: List[int], token_ids_1: Optional[List[int]] = None) → List[int]¶

Build model inputs from a sequence or a pair of sequence for sequence classification tasks by concatenating and adding special tokens. A BERT sequence has the following format:

  • single sequence: [CLS] X [SEP]

  • pair of sequences: [CLS] A [SEP] B [SEP]

Parameters
  • token_ids_0 (List[int]) – List of IDs to which the special tokens will be added.

  • token_ids_1 (List[int], optional) – Optional second list of IDs for sequence pairs.

Returns

List of input IDs with the appropriate special tokens.

Return type

List[int]

create_token_type_ids_from_sequences(token_ids_0: List[int], token_ids_1: Optional[List[int]] = None) → List[int]¶

Create a mask from the two sequences passed to be used in a sequence-pair classification task. A BERT sequence pair mask has the following format:

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
| first sequence    | second sequence |

If token_ids_1 is None, this method only returns the first portion of the mask (0s).

Parameters
  • token_ids_0 (List[int]) – List of IDs.

  • token_ids_1 (List[int], optional) – Optional second list of IDs for sequence pairs.

Returns

List of token type IDs according to the given sequence(s).

Return type

List[int]

get_special_tokens_mask(token_ids_0: List[int], token_ids_1: Optional[List[int]] = None, already_has_special_tokens: bool = False) → List[int]¶

Retrieve sequence ids from a token list that has no special tokens added. This method is called when adding special tokens using the tokenizer prepare_for_model method.

Parameters
  • token_ids_0 (List[int]) – List of IDs.

  • token_ids_1 (List[int], optional) – Optional second list of IDs for sequence pairs.

  • already_has_special_tokens (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether or not the token list is already formatted with special tokens for the model.

Returns

A list of integers in the range [0, 1]: 1 for a special token, 0 for a sequence token.

Return type

List[int]

save_vocabulary(save_directory: str, filename_prefix: Optional[str] = None) → Tuple[str]¶

Save only the vocabulary of the tokenizer (vocabulary + added tokens).

This method won’t save the configuration and special token mappings of the tokenizer. Use _save_pretrained() to save the whole state of the tokenizer.

Parameters
  • save_directory (str) – The directory in which to save the vocabulary.

  • filename_prefix (str, optional) – An optional prefix to add to the named of the saved files.

Returns

Paths to the files saved.

Return type

Tuple(str)

SqueezeBertTokenizerFast¶

class transformers.SqueezeBertTokenizerFast(vocab_file, tokenizer_file=None, do_lower_case=True, unk_token='[UNK]', sep_token='[SEP]', pad_token='[PAD]', cls_token='[CLS]', mask_token='[MASK]', tokenize_chinese_chars=True, strip_accents=None, **kwargs)[source]¶

Constructs a “Fast” SqueezeBert tokenizer (backed by HuggingFace’s tokenizers library).

SqueezeBertTokenizerFast is identical to BertTokenizerFast and runs end-to-end tokenization: punctuation splitting + wordpiece.

Refer to superclass BertTokenizerFast for usage examples and documentation concerning parameters.

slow_tokenizer_class¶

alias of transformers.tokenization_squeezebert.SqueezeBertTokenizer

SqueezeBertModel¶

class transformers.SqueezeBertModel(config)[source]¶

The bare SqueezeBERT Model transformer outputting raw hidden-states without any specific head on top.

The SqueezeBERT model was proposed in SqueezeBERT: What can computer vision teach NLP about efficient neural networks? by Forrest N. Iandola, Albert E. Shaw, Ravi Krishna, and Kurt W. Keutzer

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

For best results finetuning SqueezeBERT on text classification tasks, it is recommended to use the squeezebert/squeezebert-mnli-headless checkpoint as a starting point.

Parameters

config (SqueezeBertConfig) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

Hierarchy:

Internal class hierarchy:
    SqueezeBertModel
        SqueezeBertEncoder
            SqueezeBertModule
            SqueezeBertSelfAttention
                ConvActivation
                ConvDropoutLayerNorm

Data layouts:

Input data is in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.

Data inside the encoder is in [batch, hidden_size, sequence_length] format. But, if :obj:`output_hidden_states
== True`, the data from inside the encoder is returned in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.

The final output of the encoder is in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.
forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, token_type_ids=None, position_ids=None, head_mask=None, inputs_embeds=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, return_dict=None)[source]¶

The SqueezeBertModel forward method, overrides the __call__() special method.

Note

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Parameters
  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length))) –

    Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using SqueezeBertTokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

    • 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,

    • 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.

    What are token type IDs?

  • position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

    What are position IDs?

  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) –

    Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,

    • 0 indicates the head is masked.

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length), hidden_size), optional) – Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

  • output_attentions (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

  • return_dict (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

Returns

A BaseModelOutputWithPooling (if return_dict=True is passed or when config.return_dict=True) or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor comprising various elements depending on the configuration (SqueezeBertConfig) and inputs.

  • last_hidden_state (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size)) – Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the model.

  • pooler_output (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, hidden_size)) – Last layer hidden-state of the first token of the sequence (classification token) further processed by a Linear layer and a Tanh activation function. The Linear layer weights are trained from the next sentence prediction (classification) objective during pretraining.

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Return type

BaseModelOutputWithPooling or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Example:

>>> from transformers import SqueezeBertTokenizer, SqueezeBertModel
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = SqueezeBertTokenizer.from_pretrained('squeezebert/squeezebert-mnli-headless')
>>> model = SqueezeBertModel.from_pretrained('squeezebert/squeezebert-mnli-headless', return_dict=True)

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")
>>> outputs = model(**inputs)

>>> last_hidden_states = outputs.last_hidden_state
get_input_embeddings()[source]¶

Returns the model’s input embeddings.

Returns

A torch module mapping vocabulary to hidden states.

Return type

nn.Module

set_input_embeddings(new_embeddings)[source]¶

Set model’s input embeddings.

Parameters

value (nn.Module) – A module mapping vocabulary to hidden states.

SqueezeBertForMaskedLM¶

class transformers.SqueezeBertForMaskedLM(config)[source]¶

SqueezeBERT Model with a language modeling head on top.

The SqueezeBERT model was proposed in SqueezeBERT: What can computer vision teach NLP about efficient neural networks? by Forrest N. Iandola, Albert E. Shaw, Ravi Krishna, and Kurt W. Keutzer

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

For best results finetuning SqueezeBERT on text classification tasks, it is recommended to use the squeezebert/squeezebert-mnli-headless checkpoint as a starting point.

Parameters

config (SqueezeBertConfig) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

Hierarchy:

Internal class hierarchy:
    SqueezeBertModel
        SqueezeBertEncoder
            SqueezeBertModule
            SqueezeBertSelfAttention
                ConvActivation
                ConvDropoutLayerNorm

Data layouts:

Input data is in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.

Data inside the encoder is in [batch, hidden_size, sequence_length] format. But, if :obj:`output_hidden_states
== True`, the data from inside the encoder is returned in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.

The final output of the encoder is in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.
forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, token_type_ids=None, position_ids=None, head_mask=None, inputs_embeds=None, labels=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, return_dict=None)[source]¶

The SqueezeBertForMaskedLM forward method, overrides the __call__() special method.

Note

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Parameters
  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length))) –

    Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using SqueezeBertTokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

    • 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,

    • 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.

    What are token type IDs?

  • position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

    What are position IDs?

  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) –

    Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,

    • 0 indicates the head is masked.

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length), hidden_size), optional) – Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

  • output_attentions (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

  • return_dict (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

  • labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) – Labels for computing the masked language modeling loss. Indices should be in [-100, 0, ..., config.vocab_size] (see input_ids docstring) Tokens with indices set to -100 are ignored (masked), the loss is only computed for the tokens with labels in [0, ..., config.vocab_size]

Returns

A MaskedLMOutput (if return_dict=True is passed or when config.return_dict=True) or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor comprising various elements depending on the configuration (SqueezeBertConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) – Masked language modeling (MLM) loss.

  • logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, config.vocab_size)) – Prediction scores of the language modeling head (scores for each vocabulary token before SoftMax).

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Return type

MaskedLMOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Example:

>>> from transformers import SqueezeBertTokenizer, SqueezeBertForMaskedLM
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = SqueezeBertTokenizer.from_pretrained('squeezebert/squeezebert-uncased')
>>> model = SqueezeBertForMaskedLM.from_pretrained('squeezebert/squeezebert-uncased', return_dict=True)

>>> inputs = tokenizer("The capital of France is [MASK].", return_tensors="pt")
>>> labels = tokenizer("The capital of France is Paris.", return_tensors="pt")["input_ids"]

>>> outputs = model(**inputs, labels=labels)
>>> loss = outputs.loss
>>> logits = outputs.logits
get_output_embeddings()[source]¶

Returns the model’s output embeddings.

Returns

A torch module mapping hidden states to vocabulary.

Return type

nn.Module

SqueezeBertForSequenceClassification¶

class transformers.SqueezeBertForSequenceClassification(config)[source]¶

SqueezeBERT Model transformer with a sequence classification/regression head on top (a linear layer on top of the pooled output) e.g. for GLUE tasks.

The SqueezeBERT model was proposed in SqueezeBERT: What can computer vision teach NLP about efficient neural networks? by Forrest N. Iandola, Albert E. Shaw, Ravi Krishna, and Kurt W. Keutzer

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

For best results finetuning SqueezeBERT on text classification tasks, it is recommended to use the squeezebert/squeezebert-mnli-headless checkpoint as a starting point.

Parameters

config (SqueezeBertConfig) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

Hierarchy:

Internal class hierarchy:
    SqueezeBertModel
        SqueezeBertEncoder
            SqueezeBertModule
            SqueezeBertSelfAttention
                ConvActivation
                ConvDropoutLayerNorm

Data layouts:

Input data is in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.

Data inside the encoder is in [batch, hidden_size, sequence_length] format. But, if :obj:`output_hidden_states
== True`, the data from inside the encoder is returned in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.

The final output of the encoder is in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.
forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, token_type_ids=None, position_ids=None, head_mask=None, inputs_embeds=None, labels=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, return_dict=None)[source]¶

The SqueezeBertForSequenceClassification forward method, overrides the __call__() special method.

Note

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Parameters
  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length))) –

    Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using SqueezeBertTokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

    • 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,

    • 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.

    What are token type IDs?

  • position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

    What are position IDs?

  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) –

    Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,

    • 0 indicates the head is masked.

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length), hidden_size), optional) – Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

  • output_attentions (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

  • return_dict (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

  • labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size,), optional) – Labels for computing the sequence classification/regression loss. Indices should be in [0, ..., config.num_labels - 1]. If config.num_labels == 1 a regression loss is computed (Mean-Square loss), If config.num_labels > 1 a classification loss is computed (Cross-Entropy).

Returns

A SequenceClassifierOutput (if return_dict=True is passed or when config.return_dict=True) or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor comprising various elements depending on the configuration (SqueezeBertConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) – Classification (or regression if config.num_labels==1) loss.

  • logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, config.num_labels)) – Classification (or regression if config.num_labels==1) scores (before SoftMax).

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Return type

SequenceClassifierOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Example:

>>> from transformers import SqueezeBertTokenizer, SqueezeBertForSequenceClassification
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = SqueezeBertTokenizer.from_pretrained('squeezebert/squeezebert-mnli-headless')
>>> model = SqueezeBertForSequenceClassification.from_pretrained('squeezebert/squeezebert-mnli-headless', return_dict=True)

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")
>>> labels = torch.tensor([1]).unsqueeze(0)  # Batch size 1
>>> outputs = model(**inputs, labels=labels)
>>> loss = outputs.loss
>>> logits = outputs.logits

SqueezeBertForMultipleChoice¶

class transformers.SqueezeBertForMultipleChoice(config)[source]¶

SqueezeBERT Model with a multiple choice classification head on top (a linear layer on top of the pooled output and a softmax) e.g. for RocStories/SWAG tasks.

The SqueezeBERT model was proposed in SqueezeBERT: What can computer vision teach NLP about efficient neural networks? by Forrest N. Iandola, Albert E. Shaw, Ravi Krishna, and Kurt W. Keutzer

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

For best results finetuning SqueezeBERT on text classification tasks, it is recommended to use the squeezebert/squeezebert-mnli-headless checkpoint as a starting point.

Parameters

config (SqueezeBertConfig) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

Hierarchy:

Internal class hierarchy:
    SqueezeBertModel
        SqueezeBertEncoder
            SqueezeBertModule
            SqueezeBertSelfAttention
                ConvActivation
                ConvDropoutLayerNorm

Data layouts:

Input data is in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.

Data inside the encoder is in [batch, hidden_size, sequence_length] format. But, if :obj:`output_hidden_states
== True`, the data from inside the encoder is returned in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.

The final output of the encoder is in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.
forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, token_type_ids=None, position_ids=None, head_mask=None, inputs_embeds=None, labels=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, return_dict=None)[source]¶

The SqueezeBertForMultipleChoice forward method, overrides the __call__() special method.

Note

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Parameters
  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, num_choices, sequence_length))) –

    Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using SqueezeBertTokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape ((batch_size, num_choices, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, num_choices, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

    • 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,

    • 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.

    What are token type IDs?

  • position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, num_choices, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

    What are position IDs?

  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) –

    Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,

    • 0 indicates the head is masked.

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape ((batch_size, num_choices, sequence_length), hidden_size), optional) – Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

  • output_attentions (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

  • return_dict (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

  • labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size,), optional) – Labels for computing the multiple choice classification loss. Indices should be in [0, ..., num_choices-1] where num_choices is the size of the second dimension of the input tensors. (see input_ids above)

Returns

A MultipleChoiceModelOutput (if return_dict=True is passed or when config.return_dict=True) or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor comprising various elements depending on the configuration (SqueezeBertConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) – Classification loss.

  • logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, num_choices)) – num_choices is the second dimension of the input tensors. (see input_ids above).

    Classification scores (before SoftMax).

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Return type

MultipleChoiceModelOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Example:

>>> from transformers import SqueezeBertTokenizer, SqueezeBertForMultipleChoice
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = SqueezeBertTokenizer.from_pretrained('squeezebert/squeezebert-mnli-headless')
>>> model = SqueezeBertForMultipleChoice.from_pretrained('squeezebert/squeezebert-mnli-headless', return_dict=True)

>>> prompt = "In Italy, pizza served in formal settings, such as at a restaurant, is presented unsliced."
>>> choice0 = "It is eaten with a fork and a knife."
>>> choice1 = "It is eaten while held in the hand."
>>> labels = torch.tensor(0).unsqueeze(0)  # choice0 is correct (according to Wikipedia ;)), batch size 1

>>> encoding = tokenizer([[prompt, prompt], [choice0, choice1]], return_tensors='pt', padding=True)
>>> outputs = model(**{k: v.unsqueeze(0) for k,v in encoding.items()}, labels=labels)  # batch size is 1

>>> # the linear classifier still needs to be trained
>>> loss = outputs.loss
>>> logits = outputs.logits

SqueezeBertForTokenClassification¶

class transformers.SqueezeBertForTokenClassification(config)[source]¶

SqueezeBERT Model with a token classification head on top (a linear layer on top of the hidden-states output) e.g. for Named-Entity-Recognition (NER) tasks.

The SqueezeBERT model was proposed in SqueezeBERT: What can computer vision teach NLP about efficient neural networks? by Forrest N. Iandola, Albert E. Shaw, Ravi Krishna, and Kurt W. Keutzer

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

For best results finetuning SqueezeBERT on text classification tasks, it is recommended to use the squeezebert/squeezebert-mnli-headless checkpoint as a starting point.

Parameters

config (SqueezeBertConfig) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

Hierarchy:

Internal class hierarchy:
    SqueezeBertModel
        SqueezeBertEncoder
            SqueezeBertModule
            SqueezeBertSelfAttention
                ConvActivation
                ConvDropoutLayerNorm

Data layouts:

Input data is in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.

Data inside the encoder is in [batch, hidden_size, sequence_length] format. But, if :obj:`output_hidden_states
== True`, the data from inside the encoder is returned in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.

The final output of the encoder is in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.
forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, token_type_ids=None, position_ids=None, head_mask=None, inputs_embeds=None, labels=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, return_dict=None)[source]¶

The SqueezeBertForTokenClassification forward method, overrides the __call__() special method.

Note

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Parameters
  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length))) –

    Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using SqueezeBertTokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

    • 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,

    • 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.

    What are token type IDs?

  • position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

    What are position IDs?

  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) –

    Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,

    • 0 indicates the head is masked.

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length), hidden_size), optional) – Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

  • output_attentions (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

  • return_dict (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

  • labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) – Labels for computing the token classification loss. Indices should be in [0, ..., config.num_labels - 1].

Returns

A TokenClassifierOutput (if return_dict=True is passed or when config.return_dict=True) or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor comprising various elements depending on the configuration (SqueezeBertConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) – Classification loss.

  • logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, config.num_labels)) – Classification scores (before SoftMax).

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Return type

TokenClassifierOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Example:

>>> from transformers import SqueezeBertTokenizer, SqueezeBertForTokenClassification
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = SqueezeBertTokenizer.from_pretrained('squeezebert/squeezebert-mnli-headless')
>>> model = SqueezeBertForTokenClassification.from_pretrained('squeezebert/squeezebert-mnli-headless', return_dict=True)

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")
>>> labels = torch.tensor([1] * inputs["input_ids"].size(1)).unsqueeze(0)  # Batch size 1

>>> outputs = model(**inputs, labels=labels)
>>> loss = outputs.loss
>>> logits = outputs.logits

SqueezeBertForQuestionAnswering¶

class transformers.SqueezeBertForQuestionAnswering(config)[source]¶

SqueezeBERT Model with a span classification head on top for extractive question-answering tasks like SQuAD (a linear layers on top of the hidden-states output to compute span start logits and span end logits).

The SqueezeBERT model was proposed in SqueezeBERT: What can computer vision teach NLP about efficient neural networks? by Forrest N. Iandola, Albert E. Shaw, Ravi Krishna, and Kurt W. Keutzer

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

For best results finetuning SqueezeBERT on text classification tasks, it is recommended to use the squeezebert/squeezebert-mnli-headless checkpoint as a starting point.

Parameters

config (SqueezeBertConfig) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

Hierarchy:

Internal class hierarchy:
    SqueezeBertModel
        SqueezeBertEncoder
            SqueezeBertModule
            SqueezeBertSelfAttention
                ConvActivation
                ConvDropoutLayerNorm

Data layouts:

Input data is in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.

Data inside the encoder is in [batch, hidden_size, sequence_length] format. But, if :obj:`output_hidden_states
== True`, the data from inside the encoder is returned in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.

The final output of the encoder is in [batch, sequence_length, hidden_size] format.
forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, token_type_ids=None, position_ids=None, head_mask=None, inputs_embeds=None, start_positions=None, end_positions=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, return_dict=None)[source]¶

The SqueezeBertForQuestionAnswering forward method, overrides the __call__() special method.

Note

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Parameters
  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length))) –

    Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using SqueezeBertTokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

    • 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,

    • 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.

    What are token type IDs?

  • position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length)), optional) –

    Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

    What are position IDs?

  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) –

    Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,

    • 0 indicates the head is masked.

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape ((batch_size, sequence_length), hidden_size), optional) – Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

  • output_attentions (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

  • return_dict (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

  • start_positions (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size,), optional) – Labels for position (index) of the start of the labelled span for computing the token classification loss. Positions are clamped to the length of the sequence (sequence_length). Position outside of the sequence are not taken into account for computing the loss.

  • end_positions (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size,), optional) – Labels for position (index) of the end of the labelled span for computing the token classification loss. Positions are clamped to the length of the sequence (sequence_length). Position outside of the sequence are not taken into account for computing the loss.

Returns

A QuestionAnsweringModelOutput (if return_dict=True is passed or when config.return_dict=True) or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor comprising various elements depending on the configuration (SqueezeBertConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) – Total span extraction loss is the sum of a Cross-Entropy for the start and end positions.

  • start_logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) – Span-start scores (before SoftMax).

  • end_logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) – Span-end scores (before SoftMax).

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Return type

QuestionAnsweringModelOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Example:

>>> from transformers import SqueezeBertTokenizer, SqueezeBertForQuestionAnswering
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = SqueezeBertTokenizer.from_pretrained('squeezebert/squeezebert-mnli-headless')
>>> model = SqueezeBertForQuestionAnswering.from_pretrained('squeezebert/squeezebert-mnli-headless', return_dict=True)

>>> question, text = "Who was Jim Henson?", "Jim Henson was a nice puppet"
>>> inputs = tokenizer(question, text, return_tensors='pt')
>>> start_positions = torch.tensor([1])
>>> end_positions = torch.tensor([3])

>>> outputs = model(**inputs, start_positions=start_positions, end_positions=end_positions)
>>> loss = outputs.loss
>>> start_scores = outputs.start_logits
>>> end_scores = outputs.end_logits