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QRQA-10385-4
John's town used to have lots of water, back when there were only a few hundred people. However, now that the town holds several thousand people, the water availability is
{ "text": [ "scarce", "plentiful" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Many of the worlds people live with water scarcity, and that percentage will increase as populations increase and climate changes.
QRSent-10385
{ "effect_prop": "population growth", "cause_dir_str": "increase", "effect_dir_str": "increase", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "scarcity" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "several thousand", "less_effect_dir": "a few hundred", "less_cause_prop": "water", "more_effect_prop": "people", "less_effect_prop": "people", "less_cause_dir": "people" }
QRQA-10116-3
Electrons further away from a nucleus have _____ energy levels than close ones.
{ "text": [ "higher", "lower" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Electrons at lower energy levels, which are closer to the nucleus, have less energy.
QRSent-10116
{ "effect_prop": "energy", "cause_dir_str": "closer", "effect_dir_str": "less", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "distance from a nucleus" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "higher", "less_effect_dir": "lower", "less_cause_prop": "nucleus", "more_effect_prop": "electron energy levels", "less_effect_prop": "electron energy levels", "less_cause_dir": "electron energy levels" }
QRQA-10208-3
Milo threw both a basketball and a baseball through the air. If the basketball has more mass then the baseball, which ball has more kinetic energy?
{ "text": [ "basketball", "baseball" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
An object with greater mass or greater velocity has more kinetic energy.
QRSent-10208
{ "effect_prop": "kinetic energy", "cause_dir_str": "greater", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "mass" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "kinetic energy", "less_effect_prop": "kinetic energy", "less_cause_dir": "kinetic energy" }
QRQA-10012-3
If greenhouse gases in the atmosphere were to be doubled, Earth will become
{ "text": [ "cooler", "warmer" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
If there are more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, more ultraviolet radiation will be trapped and the Earth will heat up.
QRSent-10012
{ "effect_prop": "Earth temperatures", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "greenhouse gases in the atmosphere" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "warmer", "less_effect_dir": "cooler", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "temperature", "less_effect_prop": "temperature", "less_cause_dir": "temperature" }
QRQA-10136-4
If you put a lot of energy into some food the temperature of it will
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The temperature of matter increases with the added energy.
QRSent-10136
{ "effect_prop": "temperature", "cause_dir_str": "added", "effect_dir_str": "increases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "energy" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "temperature", "less_effect_prop": "temperature", "less_cause_dir": "temperature" }
QRQA-10269-4
If Milo has just performed a hard workout and his body temperature increases, what happens to the size of his blood vessels?
{ "text": [ "decrease", "increase" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
When your brain senses that your body temperature is increasing, it sends messages to the blood vessels in the skin to increase in diameter.
QRSent-10269
{ "effect_prop": "blood vessels", "cause_dir_str": "increasing", "effect_dir_str": "increase", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "body temperature" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "size of his blood vessels", "less_effect_prop": "size of his blood vessels", "less_cause_dir": "size of his blood vessels" }
QRQA-10384-1
John's company committed to decrease greenhouse gas production worldwide. What likely happens to the global temperature in the future as a result?
{ "text": [ "it will increase", "it will decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
A decrease in greenhouse gas levels decreases global temperature and an increase raises global temperature.
QRSent-10384
{ "effect_prop": "global temperature", "cause_dir_str": "decrease", "effect_dir_str": "decreases", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "greenhouse gas levels" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "will increase", "less_effect_dir": "will decrease", "less_cause_prop": "greenhouse gas production", "more_effect_prop": "global temperature", "less_effect_prop": "global temperature", "less_cause_dir": "global temperature" }
QRQA-10003-1
A scientist sees that some galaxies are further apart than before, so they know that the universe's expansion is
{ "text": [ "less", "more" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
As the Universe expands, galaxies move further and further apart.
QRSent-10003
{ "effect_prop": "distance", "cause_dir_str": "expands", "effect_dir_str": "further and further", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "expansion" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "further apart", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "expansion", "more_effect_prop": "galaxies", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
QRQA-10064-1-flip
Ian sees an object with few colliding particles, and he compares it to another object with few colliding particles. Which is true about the objects?
{ "text": [ "the object with many colliding particles has a lower concentration of particles", "the object with many colliding particles has a higher concentration of particles" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
At higher concentrations, particles of reactants are crowded closer together, so they are more likely to collide and react.
QRSent-10064
{ "effect_prop": "likely to collide and react", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "concentrations of particles" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "higher concentration", "less_effect_dir": "lower concentration", "less_cause_prop": "particles", "more_effect_prop": "particles", "less_effect_prop": "particles", "less_cause_dir": "particles" }
QRQA-10368-4
If Mona adds more water to her cauldron of melting rock, what will happen to the melting point of that rock?
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
As the amount of water increases, the melting point of rock decreases.
QRSent-10368
{ "effect_prop": "melting point of rock", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "decreases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "amount of water" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increasse", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "melting point of that rock", "less_effect_prop": "melting point of that rock", "less_cause_dir": "melting point of that rock" }
QRQA-10286-1-flip
When there are fewer carbon atoms in something there are
{ "text": [ "many options", "few options" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
A: The more carbon atoms there are, the greater the number of possible arrangements of carbon atoms.
QRSent-10286
{ "effect_prop": "options there are", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "carbon atoms" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "many", "less_effect_dir": "few", "less_cause_prop": "carbon atoms", "more_effect_prop": "options", "less_effect_prop": "options", "less_cause_dir": "options" }
QRQA-10198-4
Eric increased the heat of the molecules. They now vibrate
{ "text": [ "faster", "slower" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Warmer molecules vibrate faster than cooler ones.
QRSent-10198
{ "effect_prop": "vibrate faster", "cause_dir_str": "warmer", "effect_dir_str": "faster", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "Warmer molecules" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "faster", "less_effect_dir": "slower", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "vibrate", "less_effect_prop": "vibrate", "less_cause_dir": "vibrate" }
QRQA-10084-4-flip
If you mixed salt water and regular water which would float?
{ "text": [ "regular water", "salt water" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Water density increases as salinity and pressure increase, or as temperature decreases.
QRSent-10084
{ "effect_prop": "dense", "cause_dir_str": "increase", "effect_dir_str": "increases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "salt" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "salt", "less_effect_dir": "regular", "less_cause_prop": "water", "more_effect_prop": "water", "less_effect_prop": "water", "less_cause_dir": "water" }
QRQA-10213-4-flip
A structure with an increased surface area will _____ in functioning.
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
In Life Sciences it is important to note that whenever a structure has an increased surface area, there is an increase in the functioning of that structure.
QRSent-10213
{ "effect_prop": "functioning", "cause_dir_str": "increased", "effect_dir_str": "increase", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "surface area" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "functioning", "less_effect_prop": "functioning", "less_cause_dir": "functioning" }
QRQA-10386-1-flip
Jim is playing with a rubber band by stretching and releasing it. Would he feel less resistance stretching the band to
{ "text": [ "40 cm or", "30 cm" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
The farther you stretch the band, the greater the resistance is.
QRSent-10386
{ "effect_prop": "resistance", "cause_dir_str": "farther", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "stretch" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "stretching the band", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "resistance", "less_cause_dir": "resistance" }
QRQA-10145-2
John monitors the log to see the temperature of the water, and he notices that as the temperature rises, the evaporation rate is
{ "text": [ "Higher", "Lower." ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
In transipration, at warmer temperatures water molecules move faster, and the rate of evaporation from stomata is therefore much faster.
QRSent-10145
{ "effect_prop": "evaporation", "cause_dir_str": "warmer", "effect_dir_str": "faster", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "temperatures" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "higher", "less_effect_dir": "lower", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "evaporation rate", "less_effect_prop": "evaporation rate", "less_cause_dir": "evaporation rate" }
QRQA-10386-2-flip
Eric relaxes a rubber band. The band's resistance
{ "text": [ "decreases", "increases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The farther you stretch the band, the greater the resistance is.
QRSent-10386
{ "effect_prop": "resistance the band", "cause_dir_str": "farther", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "farther you stretch the band" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "rubber band", "more_effect_prop": "band's resistance", "less_effect_prop": "band's resistance", "less_cause_dir": "band's resistance" }
QRQA-10100-4-flip
An electromagnetic wave is traveling. Ned notices that the wave has stayed at its origin. As it travels, it is
{ "text": [ "more diluted", "less diluted." ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
However, the energy is diluted as an electromagnetic wave travels farther from its source because it spreads out over an ever-larger area.
QRSent-10100
{ "effect_prop": "dilution of energy", "cause_dir_str": "farther", "effect_dir_str": "diluted", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "distance" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "electromagnetic wave", "more_effect_prop": "diluted", "less_effect_prop": "diluted", "less_cause_dir": "diluted" }
QRQA-10080-3-flip
If Mona is making lemonade and she decreases the acidity of it by adding more lemons, what happens to its closeness to pH 0?
{ "text": [ "increases", "decreases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
The more acidic a solution is, the closer its pH value will be to 0
QRSent-10080
{ "effect_prop": "closer its pH value will be to 0", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "closer", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "acidic a solution" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "acidity", "more_effect_prop": "ph value", "less_effect_prop": "ph value", "less_cause_dir": "ph value" }
QRQA-10018-3
When we spend time lifting a lot of weights we become
{ "text": [ "weaker", "stronger" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
Anaerobic exercises cause muscles to get bigger and stronger.
QRSent-10018
{ "effect_prop": "strength", "cause_dir_str": "", "effect_dir_str": "bigger and stronger", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "exercise" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "stronger", "less_effect_dir": "weaker", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "we", "less_effect_prop": "we", "less_cause_dir": "we" }
QRQA-10262-1-flip
If Jim removes hydrogen ions from his solution, what will happen to the level of acidity?
{ "text": [ "it will become less acidic", "it will become more acidic" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
With a higher concentration of hydrogen ions, a solution is more acidic but has a lower pH.
QRSent-10262
{ "effect_prop": "acidity", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "hydrogen ions" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "hydrogen ions", "more_effect_prop": "acidic", "less_effect_prop": "acidic", "less_cause_dir": "acidic" }
QRQA-10204-3-flip
The gravitational force between two things that are far apart is
{ "text": [ "weaker", "stronger" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The closer the field lines are drawn together, the stronger the field being described.
QRSent-10204
{ "effect_prop": "strength", "cause_dir_str": "closer", "effect_dir_str": "stronger", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "distance" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "stronger", "less_effect_dir": "weaker", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "gravitational force", "less_effect_prop": "gravitational force", "less_cause_dir": "gravitational force" }
QRQA-10027-1-flip
An asteroid traveled equal distance between a small massed planet and a large massed planet and got caught by one of their gravitational pulls. Which one is less likely to have caught the asteroid?
{ "text": [ "Small planet", "Large planet" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Objects with greater mass have a stronger force of gravity between them.
QRSent-10027
{ "effect_prop": "force of gravity", "cause_dir_str": "greater", "effect_dir_str": "stronger", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "mass" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "less likely", "less_cause_prop": "massed planet", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "to have caught the asteroid", "less_cause_dir": "to have caught the asteroid" }
QRQA-10222-5
When we dig up rocks the deeper we get the rocks get
{ "text": [ "older", "younger" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Older rocks are at the bottom and younger rocks are at the top.
QRSent-10222
{ "effect_prop": "age", "cause_dir_str": "older", "effect_dir_str": "bottom", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "depth" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "older", "less_effect_dir": "younger", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "rocks", "less_effect_prop": "rocks", "less_cause_dir": "rocks" }
QRQA-10160-3
As more goats are introduced to an area with grass what will happen to the grass levels?
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
In an inverse relationship, when one variable increases, the other variable decreases.
QRSent-10160
{ "effect_prop": "another variable", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "decreases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "one variable" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "grass", "less_effect_prop": "grass", "less_cause_dir": "grass" }
QRQA-10107-5-flip
Ian decreases the pH of his water. Its pH value becomes more
{ "text": [ "acidic", "basic" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The more basic a solution is, the closer its pH value will be to 14.
QRSent-10107
{ "effect_prop": "closer its pH to 14", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "closer", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "basic a solution" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "water", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "pH", "less_cause_dir": "pH" }
QRQA-10348-5-flip
If a dog is extremely unfit and unhealthy breeders will want it to have
{ "text": [ "more offspring", "less offspring" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
Genotypes with greater fitness produce more offspring and pass more copies of their alleles to the next generation.
QRSent-10348
{ "effect_prop": "offspring", "cause_dir_str": "greater", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "fitness" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "unfit", "more_effect_prop": "offspring", "less_effect_prop": "offspring", "less_cause_dir": "offspring" }
QRQA-10344-4-flip
Charles sees an atom through the microscope that is the smallest he's ever seen. The valence electrons in this atom are likely _____ the nucleus
{ "text": [ "far from", "close to" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
In bigger atoms, valence electrons are farther from the nucleus.
QRSent-10344
{ "effect_prop": "farther from nucleus are valence electrons", "cause_dir_str": "bigger", "effect_dir_str": "farther", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "bigger atoms" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "far from nucleus", "less_effect_dir": "close to nucleus", "less_cause_prop": "atom", "more_effect_prop": "valence electrons", "less_effect_prop": "valence electrons", "less_cause_dir": "valence electrons" }
QRQA-10096-4
Don is getting screened for cancer. Because his cancer is caught early, at the first screening, the chance of a cure is
{ "text": [ "greater", "lesser" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The sooner cancer is treated, the greater the chances of a cure.
QRSent-10096
{ "effect_prop": "chance of cure", "cause_dir_str": "sooner", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "soon" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "greater", "less_effect_dir": "lesser", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "chance of a cure", "less_effect_prop": "chance of a cure", "less_cause_dir": "chance of a cure" }
QRQA-10297-3-flip
If Milo is out exploring and he comes across two glaciers, each with their own u-shaped valley, will the smaller or larger glacier have a larger u-shaped valley?
{ "text": [ "larger glacier", "smaller glacier" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Smaller tributary glaciers, like tributary streams, flow into the main glacier in their own shallower U-shaped valleys.
QRSent-10297
{ "effect_prop": "U-shaped valleys", "cause_dir_str": "smaller", "effect_dir_str": "shallower", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "tributary glaciers" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "larger", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "glacier", "more_effect_prop": "u-shaped valley", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
QRQA-10080-5-flip
Eric drank a glass of juice. The juice tasted sweet. The pH of the drink is likely closest to
{ "text": [ "0", "1" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
The more acidic a solution is, the closer its pH value will be to 0
QRSent-10080
{ "effect_prop": "closer its pH to 0", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "closer", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "acidic a solution is" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "pH", "less_effect_dir": "pH", "less_cause_prop": "juice", "more_effect_prop": "0", "less_effect_prop": "1", "less_cause_dir": "1" }
QRQA-10380-1
Geremy went to the gym frequently, while Tim did not. Who likely has larger muscles?
{ "text": [ "Geremy", "Tim" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Exercising muscles increases their size, and bigger muscles have greater strength.
QRSent-10380
{ "effect_prop": "muscle size", "cause_dir_str": "", "effect_dir_str": "increases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "exercising muscles" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "larger", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "muscles", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
QRQA-10351-1-flip
By moving a Geiger counter from a block of Uranium to a rock that has lower radiation, was the scientist able to hear
{ "text": [ "more clicks", "fewer clicks?" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
The faster the clicks of a Geiger counter occur, the higher the level of radiation.
QRSent-10351
{ "effect_prop": "frequency of Geiger counter clicks", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "faster", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "level of radiation" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more clicks", "less_effect_dir": "fewer clicks", "less_cause_prop": "rock", "more_effect_prop": "Geiger counter", "less_effect_prop": "Geiger counter", "less_cause_dir": "Geiger counter" }
QRQA-10310-2
John was watching the sound waves in his electronic monitor when he noticed something. The speed of the sound waves was slower when the temperature was
{ "text": [ "higher", "lower" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
For a given medium, sound waves travel more slowly at lower temperatures.
QRSent-10310
{ "effect_prop": "temperature", "cause_dir_str": "more slowly", "effect_dir_str": "lower", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "speed" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "higher", "less_effect_dir": "lower", "less_cause_prop": "speed of the sound waves", "more_effect_prop": "temperature", "less_effect_prop": "temperature", "less_cause_dir": "temperature" }
QRQA-10224-5-flip
When people forgot how to farm the population
{ "text": [ "decreased", "increased" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
More recently, the death rate has fallen because of the availability of more food and medical advances.
QRSent-10224
{ "effect_prop": "death", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "fallen", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "food and medicine" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "decreased", "less_effect_dir": "increased", "less_cause_prop": "how to farm", "more_effect_prop": "population", "less_effect_prop": "population", "less_cause_dir": "population" }
QRQA-10237-2
As the air becomes drier, transpiration of a leaf will
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
As humidity increases, the water potential gradient across the inside and outside the leaf become more equal, and so the rate of transpiration decreases.
QRSent-10237
{ "effect_prop": "transpiration of a leaf", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "decreases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "humidity" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "air", "more_effect_prop": "transpiration", "less_effect_prop": "transpiration", "less_cause_dir": "transpiration" }
QRQA-10127-1
Tommy traded in his four-cylinder Pinto for an eight-cylinder Mustang. The Pinto engine was
{ "text": [ "more powerful", "less powerful." ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
The more cylinders a car engine has, the more powerful its engine can be.
QRSent-10127
{ "effect_prop": "Powerful engines", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "Cylinders" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "cylinder", "more_effect_prop": "powerful", "less_effect_prop": "powerful", "less_cause_dir": "powerful" }
QRQA-10172-5
When people get older what happens to their risk of cancer?
{ "text": [ "decreases", "increases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
Breast cancer is rare in teens. It becomes more common as women get older.
QRSent-10172
{ "effect_prop": "cancer", "cause_dir_str": "older", "effect_dir_str": "more common", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "age" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "risk of cancer", "less_effect_prop": "risk of cancer", "less_cause_dir": "risk of cancer" }
QRQA-10329-1-flip
Air pressure is lower in the
{ "text": [ "mountains", "valleys." ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Air pressure is less at higher elevations.
QRSent-10329
{ "effect_prop": "air pressure", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "less", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "elevation" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "lower", "less_cause_prop": "elevation", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "air pressure", "less_cause_dir": "air pressure" }
QRQA-10027-2
If Mona is comparing an orange and an apple and she determines that the apple is more massive then the orange, which object has more gravity?
{ "text": [ "orange", "apple" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
Objects with greater mass have a stronger force of gravity between them.
QRSent-10027
{ "effect_prop": "gravity", "cause_dir_str": "greater", "effect_dir_str": "stronger", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "mass" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "gravity", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
QRQA-10358-1-flip
If you were to cool down steel what would happen to its thermal energy?
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
If two objects have the same mass, the object with the higher temperature has greater thermal energy.
QRSent-10358
{ "effect_prop": "thermal energy", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "temperature" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "steel", "more_effect_prop": "thermal energy", "less_effect_prop": "thermal energy", "less_cause_dir": "thermal energy" }
QRQA-10028-4
Decker pulls some taffy as far as he can. The elastic potential energy of the candy would
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The farther the object is stretched or compressed, the greater its elastic potential energy is.
QRSent-10028
{ "effect_prop": "elastic potential energy", "cause_dir_str": "farther", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "the object is stretched or compressed" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "elastic potential energy", "less_effect_prop": "elastic potential energy", "less_cause_dir": "elastic potential energy" }
QRQA-10030-2
The air gets thinner when it is
{ "text": [ "hot", "cold" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Increasing air temperature decreases atmospheric pressure.
QRSent-10030
{ "effect_prop": "atmospheric pressure", "cause_dir_str": "increasing", "effect_dir_str": "decreases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "temperature" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "thinner", "less_cause_prop": "air", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "air", "less_cause_dir": "air" }
QRQA-10393-3
When two crests are closes together in a wave what increases?
{ "text": [ "frequency", "amplitude" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
The closer together the particles are, the greater the amplitude of the wave.
QRSent-10393
{ "effect_prop": "amplitude", "cause_dir_str": "closer", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "distance" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "things in a wave", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
QRQA-10404-4
John was looking at the weather data and making some observations. He saw that with less trees, droughts were
{ "text": [ "Greater", "Lesser" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
With fewer trees, the air is drier and droughts are more common.
QRSent-10404
{ "effect_prop": "droughts", "cause_dir_str": "fewer", "effect_dir_str": "more common", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "trees" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "greater", "less_effect_dir": "lesser", "less_cause_prop": "trees", "more_effect_prop": "droughts", "less_effect_prop": "droughts", "less_cause_dir": "droughts" }
QRQA-10111-2
Sue measured water to be a pH of 7, and she measured bleach at a pH of 11. Which substance is more basic?
{ "text": [ "water", "bleach" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
For bases we can state the folllowing: The higher the pH of a substance, the more basic it is.
QRSent-10111
{ "effect_prop": "basic it is", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "pH value" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "pH", "more_effect_prop": "basic", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
QRQA-10118-2
Bob increased the rope segments on his pully; this means he will need to use _____ force on it.
{ "text": [ "more", "less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
The more rope segments on a pully that are helping to do the lifting work, the less force that is needed for the job.
QRSent-10118
{ "effect_prop": "force needed", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "less", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "rope segments on a pully" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "force", "less_effect_prop": "force", "less_cause_dir": "force" }
QRQA-10034-4-flip
If your larynx were to grow, your voice would become _____ deep.
{ "text": [ "more", "less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The voice becomes deeper as the larynx in the throat grows larger.
QRSent-10034
{ "effect_prop": "depth of voice", "cause_dir_str": "larger", "effect_dir_str": "deeper", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "larynx size" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "deep", "less_effect_prop": "deep", "less_cause_dir": "deep" }
QRQA-10035-1-flip
If Mary is cleaning her pool and she increases the pH value of the water, what happens to the acidity of the water?
{ "text": [ "increases", "decreases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
Acids have pH values below 7. The lower the pH value, the more strongly acidic the substance.
QRSent-10035
{ "effect_prop": "acidic", "cause_dir_str": "lower", "effect_dir_str": "more strongly", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "pH value" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "acidity", "less_effect_prop": "acidity", "less_cause_dir": "acidity" }
QRQA-10227-4-flip
An aquifer deep down will provide _____ access to its water than one near the surface.
{ "text": [ "easier", "harder" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
The closer to the surface an aquifer is, the easier it is to get the water.
QRSent-10227
{ "effect_prop": "ease at getting its water", "cause_dir_str": "closer", "effect_dir_str": "easier", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "depth of an aquifer" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "easier", "less_effect_dir": "harder", "less_cause_prop": "water", "more_effect_prop": "access", "less_effect_prop": "access", "less_cause_dir": "access" }
QRQA-10134-5
Mike wants his voice to travel slowly, so he will speak in a room that is
{ "text": [ "colder", "warmer" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
For a given medium such as air, sound has a slower speed at lower temperatures.
QRSent-10134
{ "effect_prop": "temperatures", "cause_dir_str": "slower", "effect_dir_str": "lower", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "speed" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "warmer", "less_effect_dir": "colder", "less_cause_prop": "voice travel", "more_effect_prop": "room", "less_effect_prop": "room", "less_cause_dir": "room" }
QRQA-10313-1-flip
If Jim has a container of hydrogen gas that is 50 liters in volume and he moves the gas to a container that is 40 liters in volume, what happens to the density of the gas?
{ "text": [ "increases", "decreases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
In the larger container we will still have the same number of gas particles, but now they are filling a much larger space.
QRSent-10313
{ "effect_prop": "gas density", "cause_dir_str": "larger", "effect_dir_str": "", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "container size" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "volume", "more_effect_prop": "density", "less_effect_prop": "density", "less_cause_dir": "density" }
QRQA-10252-1-flip
The largest alkenes should have the _____ boiling and melting points.
{ "text": [ "lowest", "highest" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Larger alkenes have lower boiling and melting points, so they are liquids or waxy solids at room temperature.
QRSent-10252
{ "effect_prop": "boiling and melting points", "cause_dir_str": "larger", "effect_dir_str": "lower", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "alkenes" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "highest", "less_effect_dir": "lowest", "less_cause_prop": "alkenes", "more_effect_prop": "boiling and melting points", "less_effect_prop": "boiling and melting points", "less_cause_dir": "boiling and melting points" }
QRQA-10356-5
The thinner a resistor equals _____ resistance.
{ "text": [ "less", "more" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
Thicker resistors offer less resistance than thinner resistors.
QRSent-10356
{ "effect_prop": "resistance", "cause_dir_str": "thicker", "effect_dir_str": "less", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "resistor thickness" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "resistor", "more_effect_prop": "resistance", "less_effect_prop": "resistance", "less_cause_dir": "resistance" }
QRQA-10217-1
Causing a series to lose resistors will result in a/an _____ in the total resistance of the circuit.
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
As more resistors are added in series, the total resistance of the circuit increases.
QRSent-10217
{ "effect_prop": "resistance of the circuit", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "increases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "resistors in a series" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "resistors", "more_effect_prop": "total resistance of the circuit", "less_effect_prop": "total resistance of the circuit", "less_cause_dir": "total resistance of the circuit" }
QRQA-10013-3-flip
Sara is in a container representing an object. Her container has 30 balls flying around, representing particles. Tyler is in another container, and his contains 5 balls. Which person's container likely would be under the least pressure?
{ "text": [ "Sara's", "Tyler's" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
More particles inside the container means more collisions, and more collisions mean a higher pressure.
QRSent-10013
{ "effect_prop": "pressure", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "higher", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "particles in the container" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "least", "less_cause_prop": "balls", "more_effect_prop": "pressure", "less_effect_prop": "pressure", "less_cause_dir": "pressure" }
QRQA-10359-4
Eric adds resistors in parallel to a circuit. The total current
{ "text": [ "increases", "decreases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
When we add resistors in parallel to each other the total resistance decreases and the current increases.
QRSent-10359
{ "effect_prop": "total current", "cause_dir_str": "add", "effect_dir_str": "increases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "resistors in parallel" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "total current", "less_effect_prop": "total current", "less_cause_dir": "total current" }
QRQA-10122-5
The population of coyotes has risen in Michigan, this raise in opportunistic predators has made the cat population
{ "text": [ "raise", "lower." ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
An increase in predators, the emergence of a new disease, or the loss of habitat are just three possible problems that will decrease a population.
QRSent-10122
{ "effect_prop": "population", "cause_dir_str": "increase", "effect_dir_str": "decrease", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "predators" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "raise", "less_effect_dir": "lower", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "cat population", "less_effect_prop": "cat population", "less_cause_dir": "cat population" }
QRQA-10216-2-flip
If you use a thin piece of wire then electrons move
{ "text": [ "easier", "harder" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
A thinner wire is more difficult for electrons to move through than a thicker wire.
QRSent-10216
{ "effect_prop": "difficult", "cause_dir_str": "thinner", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "diamter" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "harder", "less_effect_dir": "easier", "less_cause_prop": "wire", "more_effect_prop": "move", "less_effect_prop": "move", "less_cause_dir": "move" }
QRQA-10023-4-flip
Devon's cat, Fluffy, is looking for a nice warm spot to lay out in the sun. Because of how the sun heats the earth, and how some heat radiates into the air, the cat laying high up in a tree branch, rather than on the ground, would keep the cat
{ "text": [ "cooler", "warmer" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The surface is heated by the Sun and some of that heat radiates back into the air. This makes the temperature higher near the surface than at higher altitudes.
QRSent-10023
{ "effect_prop": "close to surface", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "near ", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "temperature" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "lower", "less_effect_dir": "higher", "less_cause_prop": "temperature", "more_effect_prop": "ground", "less_effect_prop": "up in a tree branch", "less_cause_dir": "up in a tree branch" }
QRQA-10328-5-flip
When something gets very hot does it move
{ "text": [ "slower", "faster" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
At higher temperatures, particles of reactants have more energy, so they move faster. They are more likely to bump into one another and to collide with greater force.
QRSent-10328
{ "effect_prop": "faster", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "faster", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "temperature" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "faster", "less_effect_dir": "slower", "less_cause_prop": "something", "more_effect_prop": "move", "less_effect_prop": "move", "less_cause_dir": "move" }
QRQA-10160-3-flip
As goats are removed from an area with grass what will happen to the grass levels?
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
In an inverse relationship, when one variable increases, the other variable decreases.
QRSent-10160
{ "effect_prop": "another variable", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "decreases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "one variable" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "goats", "more_effect_prop": "grass", "less_effect_prop": "grass", "less_cause_dir": "grass" }
QRQA-10319-4-flip
Tina cools some oxygen gas. The oxygen particles will move
{ "text": [ "faster", "slower" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
If the gas is heated, the particles will move faster as they gain more energy.
QRSent-10319
{ "effect_prop": "faster particles", "cause_dir_str": "heated", "effect_dir_str": "faster", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "heated gas" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "faster", "less_effect_dir": "slower", "less_cause_prop": "oxygen", "more_effect_prop": "particles", "less_effect_prop": "particles", "less_cause_dir": "particles" }
QRQA-10105-5-flip
Karly is studying two rivers and how they are affecting the rock around them. If the 2nd river she looks at is half as big as the first river she is studying, then Karly would expect to see _____ erosion caused by the 2nd river.
{ "text": [ "more", "less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
The bigger the waves are and the more sediment they carry, the more erosion they cause.
QRSent-10105
{ "effect_prop": "erosion", "cause_dir_str": "bigger", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "waves" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "river", "more_effect_prop": "erosion", "less_effect_prop": "erosion", "less_cause_dir": "erosion" }
QRQA-10051-3
If Milo increases the number of crests of his wave, what happens to the frequency of his wave?
{ "text": [ "increases", "decreases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Wave frequency can be measured by counting the number of crests or compressions that pass the point in 1 second or other time period. The higher the number is, the greater is the frequency of the wave.
QRSent-10051
{ "effect_prop": "frequency", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "number of crests" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "frequency", "less_effect_prop": "frequency", "less_cause_dir": "frequency" }
QRQA-10305-1-flip
If Jim decreases the pH value of his swimming pool, the base becomes
{ "text": [ "stronger", "weaker" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
The higher the pH value is, the stronger the base.
QRSent-10305
{ "effect_prop": "stronger the base", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "stronger", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "pH" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "stronger", "less_effect_dir": "weaker", "less_cause_prop": "pH", "more_effect_prop": "base", "less_effect_prop": "base", "less_cause_dir": "base" }
QRQA-10182-2
John was looking at the substances and noticed something. The stronger that the acid was, the concentration of Ions became
{ "text": [ "Larger", "Smaller" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
A stronger acid produces a greater concentration of ions than a weaker acid.
QRSent-10182
{ "effect_prop": "concentration", "cause_dir_str": "stronger", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "acid" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "larger", "less_effect_dir": "smaller", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "concentration of Ions", "less_effect_prop": "concentration of Ions", "less_cause_dir": "concentration of Ions" }
QRQA-10141-4
If you have a wire that is long it will have
{ "text": [ "low resistance", "high resistance" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
Longer length resistors will offer more resistance than shorter resistors.
QRSent-10141
{ "effect_prop": "resistantce", "cause_dir_str": "longer", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "resistor length" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "high", "less_effect_dir": "low", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "resistance", "less_effect_prop": "resistance", "less_cause_dir": "resistance" }
QRQA-10138-4
Planets coming closer means there will be _____ gravitational force between them.
{ "text": [ "more", "less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The further objects are away from each other, the smaller the gravitational force.
QRSent-10138
{ "effect_prop": "gravitational force", "cause_dir_str": "further", "effect_dir_str": "smaller", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "distance between objects" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "planets", "more_effect_prop": "gravitational force", "less_effect_prop": "gravitational force", "less_cause_dir": "gravitational force" }
QRQA-10316-4-flip
Ray analyzed the color of moths for a project. He notices that black moths produce more adult offspring than white ones. The white moth's traits will likely become _____ common over time.
{ "text": [ "less", "more" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Natural selection is the process by which living things with beneficial traits produce more offspring, so their traits become more common over time.
QRSent-10316
{ "effect_prop": "traits common over time", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "produce offspring" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "white moth's traits", "less_effect_prop": "white moth's traits", "less_cause_dir": "white moth's traits" }
QRQA-10183-1-flip
A city will grow smaller when the number of people who are there
{ "text": [ "grows", "shrinks" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
More people also means more clearing of land for agriculture and development.
QRSent-10183
{ "effect_prop": "land development", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "people" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "smaller", "less_cause_prop": "number of people", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "city", "less_cause_dir": "city" }
QRQA-10251-1-flip
Compared to a block of ice , would the water molecules in a kettle of boiling water move
{ "text": [ "faster?", "slower" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The more energy the particles in matter have, the faster and more strongly they vibrate.
QRSent-10251
{ "effect_prop": "the speed at which they vibrate", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "faster", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "the energy of a particle of matter" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "boiling", "less_effect_dir": "ice", "less_cause_prop": "slower", "more_effect_prop": "water molecules", "less_effect_prop": "water molecules", "less_cause_dir": "water molecules" }
QRQA-10093-2
If Jim changes his radio transmitter to a higher frequency, the energy produced is
{ "text": [ "greater", "smaller" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Higher frequency waves have greater energy.
QRSent-10093
{ "effect_prop": "energy", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "frequency" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "greater", "less_effect_dir": "smaller", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "energy", "less_effect_prop": "energy", "less_cause_dir": "energy" }
QRQA-10105-3
When there are a lot of waves things are eroded
{ "text": [ "faster", "slower" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The bigger the waves are and the more sediment they carry, the more erosion they cause.
QRSent-10105
{ "effect_prop": "erosion", "cause_dir_str": "bigger", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "wave" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "eroded faster", "less_effect_dir": "eroded slower", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "things", "less_effect_prop": "things", "less_cause_dir": "things" }
QRQA-10280-1
Years from now, solar power will be _____ than it is today.
{ "text": [ "more expensive", "less expensive" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
Solar power is expensive, but as demand increases technology improves and costs decrease.
QRSent-10280
{ "effect_prop": "price", "cause_dir_str": "", "effect_dir_str": "", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "time since tech was introduced" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "expensive", "less_effect_prop": "expensive", "less_cause_dir": "expensive" }
QRQA-10245-3
As you pull on a string the harder that you pull it the _____ the force.
{ "text": [ "greater", "weaker" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The farther apart you move your hands, the stronger the force of the rubber band pulling your hands together.
QRSent-10245
{ "effect_prop": "force", "cause_dir_str": "farther apart", "effect_dir_str": "stronger", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "distance" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "Harder", "less_effect_dir": "Softer", "less_cause_prop": "Force", "more_effect_prop": "Pull", "less_effect_prop": "Pull", "less_cause_dir": "Pull" }
QRQA-10233-1-flip
When a star is moving away from a planet, the star will be pulled into it if the gravitational force is
{ "text": [ "weaker", "stronger" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The closer objects are to each other, the stronger the gravitational force between them.
QRSent-10233
{ "effect_prop": "gravitation force", "cause_dir_str": "closer", "effect_dir_str": "stronger", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "closeness" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "stronger", "less_effect_dir": "weaker", "less_cause_prop": "star", "more_effect_prop": "gravitational force", "less_effect_prop": "gravitational force", "less_cause_dir": "gravitational force" }
QRQA-10307-1
Suppose that Mary smokes cigarettes for 20 years. If you measured the oxygen levels in her blood before she started smoking and compared them to oxygen levels later in her life, what would you find?
{ "text": [ "less oxygen in her blood later in life", "more oxygen in her blood later in life" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Smoking reduces the amount of oxygen available for diffusion at the lungs, so less oxygen gets absorbed and blood is oxygenated to a lesser degree.
QRSent-10307
{ "effect_prop": "less oxygen in the blood", "cause_dir_str": "", "effect_dir_str": "less", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "smoking" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "smoking", "more_effect_prop": "oxygen in her blood", "less_effect_prop": "oxygen in her blood", "less_cause_dir": "oxygen in her blood" }
QRQA-10225-3
Chris is studying Lake Michigan. He takes soil samples from the Lake in two places. The first sample he takes from right near the shore. The second sample is taken from the middle of the lake. The _____ sample will have greater dissolved nutrients in it.
{ "text": [ "first", "second" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Water near shore generally has more dissolved nutrients than water farther from shore.
QRSent-10225
{ "effect_prop": "dissolved nutrients", "cause_dir_str": "near", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "near shore" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "greater dissolved nutrients", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "soil", "more_effect_prop": "sample", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
QRQA-10021-5
Rich is 60 years old and Tony is 30 years old. _____ has a greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
{ "text": [ "Rich", "Tony" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Older age, male gender, and a family history of cardiovascular disease all increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and cant be controlled.
QRSent-10021
{ "effect_prop": "risk of developing cardiovascular disease", "cause_dir_str": "older", "effect_dir_str": "increase", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "older age" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "greater", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "years old", "more_effect_prop": "risk", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
QRQA-10140-1
Two people are standing out in the sunlight; one with dark skin, one with light skin. The person with dark skin will be burned
{ "text": [ "more", "less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
Light-skinned people get sunburned more quickly than people with darker skin.
QRSent-10140
{ "effect_prop": "melanin", "cause_dir_str": "more quickly", "effect_dir_str": "light-skinned", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "quickly" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "dark", "less_effect_dir": "light", "less_cause_prop": "burned", "more_effect_prop": "skin", "less_effect_prop": "skin", "less_cause_dir": "skin" }
QRQA-10274-1
It Jim makes his resistor longer, the resistance is exhibits is
{ "text": [ "smaller", "greater" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
The longer the resistor, the more resistance it has.
QRSent-10274
{ "effect_prop": "resistance", "cause_dir_str": "longer", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "longer the resistor" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "greater", "less_effect_dir": "smaller", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "resistance", "less_effect_prop": "resistance", "less_cause_dir": "resistance" }
QRQA-10116-4-flip
Sally has an electron. Sue has an electron that is farther from the nucleus. Whose electron has lower energy?
{ "text": [ "Sally", "Sue" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Electrons at lower energy levels, which are closer to the nucleus, have less energy.
QRSent-10116
{ "effect_prop": "closer to the nucleus", "cause_dir_str": "less", "effect_dir_str": "closer", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "energy levels electrons" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "farther from the nucleus", "less_cause_prop": "energy of electron", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "electron", "less_cause_dir": "electron" }
QRQA-10022-4-flip
If Mona is exploring different continents and she notices that Africa is cooler then North America, which continent will have more types of vegetation?
{ "text": [ "North America", "Africa" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The warmer a climate is, the more types of vegetation it will have and the greater the rate of biological weathering.
QRSent-10022
{ "effect_prop": "types of vegetation it will have", "cause_dir_str": "warmer", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "warmer a climate is" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "types of vegetation", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
QRQA-10280-4
If demand for solar power were to fall, the power would become _____ expensive.
{ "text": [ "less", "more" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
Solar power is expensive, but as demand increases technology improves and costs decrease.
QRSent-10280
{ "effect_prop": "costs", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "decrease", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "demand" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more expensive", "less_effect_dir": "less expensive", "less_cause_prop": "demand for solar power", "more_effect_prop": "power", "less_effect_prop": "power", "less_cause_dir": "power" }
QRQA-10156-3-flip
Derek's dad was now at a reduced risk of getting a cardiovascular disease, even though nothing about his lifestyle or diet changed. The thing that did change is that his dad is now considered to be at a
{ "text": [ "larger age", "smaller age" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
The older a person is, the greater their chance of developing a cardiovascular disease.
QRSent-10156
{ "effect_prop": "chance of cardiovascular diseasse", "cause_dir_str": "older", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "age" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "reduced", "less_cause_prop": "age", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "risk of getting a cardiovascular disease", "less_cause_dir": "risk of getting a cardiovascular disease" }
QRQA-10235-2
If America has a bigger industrial sector then China, which country will produce more hazardous waste?
{ "text": [ "America", "China" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Nations that have more industry produce more hazardous waste.
QRSent-10235
{ "effect_prop": "hazardous waste", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "industry" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "hazardous waste", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
QRQA-10061-3
To view the most stars, use a larger telescope because it can collect
{ "text": [ "more or", "less light." ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Larger telescopes can collect more light.
QRSent-10061
{ "effect_prop": "light", "cause_dir_str": "larger", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "telescopes" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "star light", "less_effect_prop": "star light", "less_cause_dir": "star light" }
QRQA-10170-1-flip
Peter removed salt to his juice one morning. The mixture became _____ dense.
{ "text": [ "more", "less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
If salt is added to a volume of water, there are more molecules in the same volume, so the water is denser.
QRSent-10170
{ "effect_prop": "More density", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "denser", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "Molecules" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "dense", "less_effect_prop": "dense", "less_cause_dir": "dense" }
QRQA-10205-5
Tom was digging in his backyard one day, after two inches he picked up an oval shaped rock. Tom kept digging and after twelve inches he picked up a square shaped rock, which rock was younger?
{ "text": [ "The Oval Shaped Rock", "The Square Shaped Rock" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The upper rock layers are much younger.
QRSent-10205
{ "effect_prop": "Younger", "cause_dir_str": "upper", "effect_dir_str": "younger", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "Rock" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "younger", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "oval shaped rock", "more_effect_prop": "rock", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
QRQA-10380-5-flip
Dwayne Johnson is weaker than Kevin Hart because he exercises less and therefore his muscles have grown
{ "text": [ "larger or", "smaller." ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
Exercising muscles increases their size, and bigger muscles have greater strength.
QRSent-10380
{ "effect_prop": "strength", "cause_dir_str": "bigger", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "muscles" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "muscles", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "stronger", "less_cause_dir": "stronger" }
QRQA-10118-4-flip
If Jim decreases the number of segments on a rope he is using as a pully, the amount of force that he needs to apply when lifting something with the rope
{ "text": [ "increases", "decreases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The more rope segments on a pully that are helping to do the lifting work, the less force that is needed for the job.
QRSent-10118
{ "effect_prop": "force that is needed for the job", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "less", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "rope segments" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "segments", "more_effect_prop": "force", "less_effect_prop": "force", "less_cause_dir": "force" }
QRQA-10107-3-flip
When a number on the pH scale is very low it is said to be
{ "text": [ "acidic", "basic" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The more basic a solution is, the closer its pH value will be to 14.
QRSent-10107
{ "effect_prop": "number", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "closer", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "basic" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "very low", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "number on the pH scale", "less_cause_dir": "number on the pH scale" }
QRQA-10255-4-flip
Greta lost weight after eating food. Her force of gravity
{ "text": [ "increased", "decreased" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
Objects with greater mass have a stronger force of gravity.
QRSent-10255
{ "effect_prop": "force of gravity", "cause_dir_str": "greater", "effect_dir_str": "stronger", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "object mass" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increased", "less_effect_dir": "decreased", "less_cause_prop": "weight", "more_effect_prop": "force of gravity", "less_effect_prop": "force of gravity", "less_cause_dir": "force of gravity" }
QRQA-10263-2
If Mona adds some mass to the object she is creating for her school project, what happens to the gravitational attraction of that object?
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
The greater the objects mass, the greater the force of gravitational attraction.
QRSent-10263
{ "effect_prop": "gravitational attraction", "cause_dir_str": "greater", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "mass" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "gravitational attraction of that object", "less_effect_prop": "gravitational attraction of that object", "less_cause_dir": "gravitational attraction of that object" }
QRQA-10374-4
If Mary is running and race and begins to breathe hard, what happens to the air pressure in her lungs as she constricts her chest?
{ "text": [ "increases", "decreases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
Exhaling, or breathing out, decreases the size of the chest, which increases air pressure inside the lungs.
QRSent-10374
{ "effect_prop": "air pressure inside the lungs", "cause_dir_str": "decreases", "effect_dir_str": "increases", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "size of the chest" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "chest", "more_effect_prop": "air pressure in her lungs", "less_effect_prop": "air pressure in her lungs", "less_cause_dir": "air pressure in her lungs" }
QRQA-10237-4-flip
Milo operates a greenhouse for profit. One day he turns down the humidity controls. What will happen to the rate of transpiration of the plants in the greenhouse?
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
A
As humidity increases, the water potential gradient across the inside and outside the leaf become more equal, and so the rate of transpiration decreases.
QRSent-10237
{ "effect_prop": "transpiration", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "decreases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "humidity" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "humidity controls", "more_effect_prop": "rate of transpiration", "less_effect_prop": "rate of transpiration", "less_cause_dir": "rate of transpiration" }
QRQA-10240-4
Dan is watching the ship leave the dock. While the ship is near him, it is massive. However, as the ship floats away, it begins to look
{ "text": [ "bigger", "smaller" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
If you are standing on the shore and a ship is going out to sea, the ship gets smaller as it moves further away from you.
QRSent-10240
{ "effect_prop": "distance", "cause_dir_str": "smaller", "effect_dir_str": "further away", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "big" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "floats away", "less_effect_dir": "near him", "less_cause_prop": "ship", "more_effect_prop": "ship", "less_effect_prop": "ship", "less_cause_dir": "ship" }
QRQA-10016-3-flip
Jim loves to build circuits. One day he builds a circuit that has less resistors then any other circuit he has built. Since the circuit has less resistors the amount of current in the circuit is
{ "text": [ "reduced", "increased" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
We also saw that adding resistors to a series circuit increases the total resistance of the circuit, causing the current to decrease.
QRSent-10016
{ "effect_prop": "current", "cause_dir_str": "adding", "effect_dir_str": "decrease", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "resistors" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increased", "less_effect_dir": "reduced", "less_cause_prop": "resistors", "more_effect_prop": "current", "less_effect_prop": "current", "less_cause_dir": "current" }
QRQA-10118-5
Will has a pully with 5 rope segments. Alan's pully has an equal size rope with 7 segments. Which person needs less force to do the same job?
{ "text": [ "Will", "Alan" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
B
The more rope segments on a pully that are helping to do the lifting work, the less force that is needed for the job.
QRSent-10118
{ "effect_prop": "force needed", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "less", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "rope segments on a pully" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "segments", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "force", "less_cause_dir": "force" }

Dataset Card for "quartz"

Dataset Summary

QuaRTz is a crowdsourced dataset of 3864 multiple-choice questions about open domain qualitative relationships. Each question is paired with one of 405 different background sentences (sometimes short paragraphs). The QuaRTz dataset V1 contains 3864 questions about open domain qualitative relationships. Each question is paired with one of 405 different background sentences (sometimes short paragraphs).

The dataset is split into train (2696), dev (384) and test (784). A background sentence will only appear in a single split.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

More Information Needed

Languages

More Information Needed

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

default

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 0.49 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 1.72 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 2.22 MB

An example of 'train' looks as follows.

{
    "answerKey": "A",
    "choices": {
        "label": ["A", "B"],
        "text": ["higher", "lower"]
    },
    "id": "QRQA-10116-3",
    "para": "Electrons at lower energy levels, which are closer to the nucleus, have less energy.",
    "para_anno": {
        "cause_dir_sign": "LESS",
        "cause_dir_str": "closer",
        "cause_prop": "distance from a nucleus",
        "effect_dir_sign": "LESS",
        "effect_dir_str": "less",
        "effect_prop": "energy"
    },
    "para_id": "QRSent-10116",
    "question": "Electrons further away from a nucleus have _____ energy levels than close ones.",
    "question_anno": {
        "less_cause_dir": "electron energy levels",
        "less_cause_prop": "nucleus",
        "less_effect_dir": "lower",
        "less_effect_prop": "electron energy levels",
        "more_effect_dir": "higher",
        "more_effect_prop": "electron energy levels"
    }
}

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all splits.

default

  • id: a string feature.
  • question: a string feature.
  • choices: a dictionary feature containing:
    • text: a string feature.
    • label: a string feature.
  • answerKey: a string feature.
  • para: a string feature.
  • para_id: a string feature.
  • effect_prop: a string feature.
  • cause_dir_str: a string feature.
  • effect_dir_str: a string feature.
  • cause_dir_sign: a string feature.
  • effect_dir_sign: a string feature.
  • cause_prop: a string feature.
  • more_effect_dir: a string feature.
  • less_effect_dir: a string feature.
  • less_cause_prop: a string feature.
  • more_effect_prop: a string feature.
  • less_effect_prop: a string feature.
  • less_cause_dir: a string feature.

Data Splits

name train validation test
default 2696 384 784

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

More Information Needed

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

More Information Needed

Who are the source language producers?

More Information Needed

Annotations

Annotation process

More Information Needed

Who are the annotators?

More Information Needed

Personal and Sensitive Information

More Information Needed

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

More Information Needed

Discussion of Biases

More Information Needed

Other Known Limitations

More Information Needed

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

More Information Needed

Licensing Information

The dataset is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

Citation Information

@InProceedings{quartz,
  author = {Oyvind Tafjord and Matt Gardner and Kevin Lin and Peter Clark},
  title = {"QUARTZ: An Open-Domain Dataset of Qualitative Relationship
Questions"},

  year = {"2019"},
}

Contributions

Thanks to @patrickvonplaten, @lewtun, @thomwolf for adding this dataset.

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