Datasets:
quartz

Task Categories: question-answering
Languages: English
Multilinguality: monolingual
Size Categories: 1K<n<10K
Language Creators: crowdsourced
Annotations Creators: crowdsourced
Source Datasets: original
Licenses: cc-by-4.0
Dataset Preview
Go to dataset viewer
id (string)question (string)choices (sequence)answerKey (string)para (string)para_id (string)para_anno (dict)question_anno (dict)
"QRQA-10226-1"
"If a moving object slows down, it will have _____ kinetic energy."
{ "text": [ "more", "less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Anything that is moving has kinetic energy, and the faster it is moving, the more kinetic energy it has."
"QRSent-10226"
{ "effect_prop": "kinetic energy it has", "cause_dir_str": "faster", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "speed of anything that is moving" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "moving object", "more_effect_prop": "kinetic energy", "less_effect_prop": "kinetic energy", "less_cause_dir": "kinetic energy" }
"QRQA-10361-1-flip"
"If Milo moves his finger farther from his eyes, what happens to the perceived position change of his finger?"
{ "text": [ "increases", "decreases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"The closer your finger is to your eyes, the greater the position changes because of parallax."
"QRSent-10361"
{ "effect_prop": "position changes", "cause_dir_str": "closer", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "closer your finger is to your eyes" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "his finger", "more_effect_prop": "perceived position change", "less_effect_prop": "perceived position change", "less_cause_dir": "perceived position change" }
"QRQA-10311-1"
"Don was swimming in the ocean, and decided to dive deeper. Don noticed that the deeper he swam the water got"
{ "text": [ "darker", "lighter" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The deeper you go, the darker the water gets."
"QRSent-10311"
{ "effect_prop": "dark", "cause_dir_str": "deeper", "effect_dir_str": "darker", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "deep" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "darker", "less_effect_dir": "lighter", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "the water", "less_effect_prop": "the water", "less_cause_dir": "the water" }
"QRQA-10049-2-flip"
"Willy was skateboarding with his rough new board. Heather was riding his old skateboard, which was smoother from use. Who had less friction when riding?"
{ "text": [ "Willy", "Heather" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Friction is greater when objects have rougher surfaces or are heavier so they press together with greater force."
"QRSent-10049"
{ "effect_prop": "objects rougher surfaces", "cause_dir_str": "greater", "effect_dir_str": "rougher", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "friction" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "rough", "less_effect_dir": "smoother", "less_cause_prop": "friction", "more_effect_prop": "skateboard", "less_effect_prop": "skateboard", "less_cause_dir": "skateboard" }
"QRQA-10006-2"
"John was a doctor in a cancer ward and knew that early detection was key. The cancer being detected quickly makes the cancer treatment"
{ "text": [ "Easier", "Harder" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The sooner cancer is detected the easier it is to treat."
"QRSent-10006"
{ "effect_prop": "treatment", "cause_dir_str": "sooner", "effect_dir_str": "easier", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "quickly" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "Easier", "less_effect_dir": "Harder", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "cancer treatment", "less_effect_prop": "cancer treatment", "less_cause_dir": "cancer treatment" }
"QRQA-10267-1"
"Ron bought a tree with narrow leaves. These areas have a smaller surface area so _____ water vapour is lost."
{ "text": [ "more", "less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Leaves can have the following adaptations to reduce transpiration rate: Small or narrow leaves to reduce the surface area over which water vapour is lost"
"QRSent-10267"
{ "effect_prop": "surface area over which water vapour is lost", "cause_dir_str": "narrow", "effect_dir_str": "reduce", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "narrow leaves" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "water vapor is lost", "less_effect_prop": "water vapor is lost", "less_cause_dir": "water vapor is lost" }
"QRQA-10347-5"
"A 100 pound box would be easier or harder to shove than a 10 pound box?"
{ "text": [ "harder", "easier" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"Heavier objects also have more friction because they press together with greater force."
"QRSent-10347"
{ "effect_prop": "friction", "cause_dir_str": "heavier", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "weight" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "harder", "less_effect_dir": "easier", "less_cause_prop": "box", "more_effect_prop": "to shove", "less_effect_prop": "to shove", "less_cause_dir": "to shove" }
"QRQA-10044-4-flip"
"If Mona is speaking to Milo in a soft tone and then decreases the amplification of the sound waves leaving her mouth, what will happen to the loudness level of her voice?"
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Amplified sound waves have more energy, which increases the intensity and loudness of the sounds, so they are easier to hear."
"QRSent-10044"
{ "effect_prop": "loudness of the sounds", "cause_dir_str": "amplified", "effect_dir_str": "increases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "Amplified sound waves" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "the amplification", "more_effect_prop": "loudness level of her voice", "less_effect_prop": "loudness level of her voice", "less_cause_dir": "loudness level of her voice" }
"QRQA-10308-3"
"John was observing a circuit breaker in operation to see if it would pop. He noticed that as the current increases, the electromagnet becomes"
{ "text": [ "Stronger", "Weaker" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"If the current passing through the circuit breaker increases, the electromagnet becomes stronger."
"QRSent-10308"
{ "effect_prop": "electromagnet", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "stronger", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "current" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "Stronger", "less_effect_dir": "Weaker", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "electromagnet", "less_effect_prop": "electromagnet", "less_cause_dir": "electromagnet" }
"QRQA-10219-4"
"Will ran in a race. His pulse rate increases, providing _____ oxygen to his cells."
{ "text": [ "less", "more" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"This causes the delivery of less oxygen to the cells, and this stimulates the heart rate via adrenalin, so that pulse rate increases in an effort to deliver enough oxygen to cells."
"QRSent-10219"
{ "effect_prop": "oxygen to cells", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "pulse rate" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "oxygen", "less_effect_prop": "oxygen", "less_cause_dir": "oxygen" }
"QRQA-10179-4-flip"
"Sarah is traveling, and notices that continents get smaller when they are where in relation to the pole"
{ "text": [ "closer", "further" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"In a Mercator projection, because Greenland is closer to the pole, the continents shape and size are greatly increased."
"QRSent-10179"
{ "effect_prop": "size", "cause_dir_str": "closer", "effect_dir_str": "increased", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "close to pole" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "smaller", "less_cause_prop": "distance", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "continent", "less_cause_dir": "continent" }
"QRQA-10159-1-flip"
"Mike noticed that more people in his group were dying sooner, because the food they had was"
{ "text": [ "better", "worse" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"With better food and less chance of disease, the death rate fell."
"QRSent-10159"
{ "effect_prop": "death rate", "cause_dir_str": "better", "effect_dir_str": "fell", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "food" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "dying sooner", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "food", "more_effect_prop": "people", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
"QRQA-10324-5-flip"
"If we use just our eyes, rather than a telescope, to look into space, we are able to see"
{ "text": [ "less", "more" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"What this means is that at higher magnification, we are able to see objects of smaller and smaller size within our field of view."
"QRSent-10324"
{ "effect_prop": "visibility", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "able", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "magnification" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "see", "less_effect_prop": "see", "less_cause_dir": "see" }
"QRQA-10397-3-flip"
"If Milo notices that the frequency of his electromagnetic wave seems to be decreasing, what does that say about the energy of the wave?"
{ "text": [ "it's increasing", "it's decreasing" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"The higher the frequency of an electromagnetic wave, the greater its energy."
"QRSent-10397"
{ "effect_prop": "energy", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "frequency of an electromagnetic wave" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increasing", "less_effect_dir": "decreasing", "less_cause_prop": "frequency", "more_effect_prop": "energy", "less_effect_prop": "energy", "less_cause_dir": "energy" }
"QRQA-10191-4"
"If Mona is filling balloons with helium and she continues to add helium, what happens to the space the molecules have to move in?"
{ "text": [ "increases", "decreases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"When a gas is squeezed into a smaller volume, the particles have less space to move."
"QRSent-10191"
{ "effect_prop": "space to move", "cause_dir_str": "smaller", "effect_dir_str": "less", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "gas is squeezed into a smaller volume" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "space", "less_effect_prop": "space", "less_cause_dir": "space" }
"QRQA-10273-5"
"If Milo's country begins increasing the size of its population, what happens to its growth rate?"
{ "text": [ "it decreases", "it increases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"With exponential growth, the population starts out growing slowly. As population size increases, the growth rate also increases."
"QRSent-10273"
{ "effect_prop": "growth rate", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "increases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "population size" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "growth rate", "less_effect_prop": "growth rate", "less_cause_dir": "growth rate" }
"QRQA-10214-5"
"Jan wants to help the Earth, so she stops driving to work and instead bikes. Because Jan is using less fossil fuels, she is contributing carbon dioxide emissions in amounts that are"
{ "text": [ "greater", "smaller" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"The carbon taxes encourage people to use less fossil fuel, which reduces carbon dioxide emissions."
"QRSent-10214"
{ "effect_prop": "carbon dioxide emissions", "cause_dir_str": "less", "effect_dir_str": "reduces", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "fossil fuel use" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "greater", "less_effect_dir": "smaller", "less_cause_prop": "fossil fuels", "more_effect_prop": "carbon dioxide emissions", "less_effect_prop": "carbon dioxide emissions", "less_cause_dir": "carbon dioxide emissions" }
"QRQA-10361-2-flip"
"The parallax levels in a rifle scope wind up changing as we get farther from the target, in general they"
{ "text": [ "decrease", "increase" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The closer your finger is to your eyes, the greater the position changes because of parallax."
"QRSent-10361"
{ "effect_prop": "parallax", "cause_dir_str": "closer", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "distance" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "parallax levels", "less_effect_prop": "parallax levels", "less_cause_dir": "parallax levels" }
"QRQA-10139-3-flip"
"If Mona turns her radio down and decreases the size of the crests of the soundwave it is producing, what happens to the amplitude of that wave?"
{ "text": [ "decreases", "increases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The higher the crests are, the greater the amplitude of the wave."
"QRSent-10139"
{ "effect_prop": "amplitude of the wave", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "higher the crests" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "crests", "more_effect_prop": "Soundwave", "less_effect_prop": "Soundwave", "less_cause_dir": "Soundwave" }
"QRQA-10292-2"
"Micah wants a base that is weaker rather than stronger. The number of hydroxide ions that will be produced are therefore"
{ "text": [ "more", "less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"A stronger base produces more hydroxide ions than a weaker base."
"QRSent-10292"
{ "effect_prop": "hydroxide ions", "cause_dir_str": "stronger", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "strong base" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "base", "more_effect_prop": "hydroxide ions", "less_effect_prop": "hydroxide ions", "less_cause_dir": "hydroxide ions" }
"QRQA-10381-3"
"When you put resistors in parallel then the resistance"
{ "text": [ "increases", "decreases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Increasing the number of resistors connected in parallel decreases the overall resistance of the circuit."
"QRSent-10381"
{ "effect_prop": "resistance", "cause_dir_str": "increasing", "effect_dir_str": "decreases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "resistors in parallel" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "resistance", "less_effect_prop": "resistance", "less_cause_dir": "resistance" }
"QRQA-10282-1"
"Derek needs to be able to read really small print, so he reaches for a curved lens magnifying glass, which can magnify"
{ "text": [ "more", "less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The more curved the convex lens is in a magnifying glass, the greater its ability to magnify objects."
"QRSent-10282"
{ "effect_prop": "magnification", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "curved the lens" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "magnify", "less_effect_prop": "magnify", "less_cause_dir": "magnify" }
"QRQA-10137-5-flip"
"If Mona is examining her arteries and she looks at ones that are closer to her heart, what happens to the size of the arteries?"
{ "text": [ "smaller", "larger" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Further away from the heart, the aorta branches into smaller arteries, which eventually branch into capillaries."
"QRSent-10137"
{ "effect_prop": "aorta branches into smaller arteries", "cause_dir_str": "further away", "effect_dir_str": "smaller", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "Further away from the heart" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "larger", "less_effect_dir": "smaller", "less_cause_prop": "heart", "more_effect_prop": "size of arteries", "less_effect_prop": "size of arteries", "less_cause_dir": "size of arteries" }
"QRQA-10185-2"
"When we look at animals when their population gets bigger what happens to each animal?"
{ "text": [ "grow bigger", "shrink" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"In exponential growth as the population size increases, the growth rate also increases."
"QRSent-10185"
{ "effect_prop": "growth rate", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "increases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "population increase" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "grow bigger", "less_effect_dir": "shrink", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "animal", "less_effect_prop": "animal", "less_cause_dir": "animal" }
"QRQA-10214-4-flip"
"When people were taxed not heavily for smoking cigarettes the smoking level"
{ "text": [ "increased", "decreased" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The carbon taxes encourage people to use less fossil fuel, which reduces carbon dioxide emissions."
"QRSent-10214"
{ "effect_prop": "carbon dioxide emissions", "cause_dir_str": "", "effect_dir_str": "reduces", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "taxes" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increased", "less_effect_dir": "decreased", "less_cause_prop": "taxed", "more_effect_prop": "smoking", "less_effect_prop": "smoking", "less_cause_dir": "smoking" }
"QRQA-10067-2"
"If the Earth's orbit moves closer to the Sun, what happens to the gravitational force between the two planets?"
{ "text": [ "it increases", "it decreases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"This is because the gravitational force of attraction between the Earth and Sun is stronger when the Earth is closer to the Sun."
"QRSent-10067"
{ "effect_prop": "gravitational force", "cause_dir_str": "closer", "effect_dir_str": "stronger", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "closer to the Sun" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "gravitational force", "less_effect_prop": "gravitational force", "less_cause_dir": "gravitational force" }
"QRQA-10047-3"
"Evan is a farmer and needs to plant on a slope. For a slower flow of water, he should choose a slope that is"
{ "text": [ "steeper", "gentler" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"A gentle slope favours slower flow of surface water, reduces erosion, and increases availability of water to plants."
"QRSent-10047"
{ "effect_prop": "flow of surface water", "cause_dir_str": "gentle", "effect_dir_str": "slower", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "slope" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "slower flow", "less_cause_prop": "slope", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "water", "less_cause_dir": "water" }
"QRQA-10347-4"
"Tina gained more weight over the year. Her amount of friction with the ground"
{ "text": [ "decreases", "increases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Heavier objects also have more friction because they press together with greater force."
"QRSent-10347"
{ "effect_prop": "friction", "cause_dir_str": "heavier", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "heavier objects" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "friction", "less_effect_prop": "friction", "less_cause_dir": "friction" }
"QRQA-10196-4"
"john was taking the patients blood pressure and other vital signs. He saw that the lower the blood volume, the pressure was"
{ "text": [ "Greater", "Less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"This is because the lower blood volume in the vessels exerts less pressure on the vessel walls."
"QRSent-10196"
{ "effect_prop": "pressure", "cause_dir_str": "lower", "effect_dir_str": "less", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "volume" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "greater", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "blood volume", "more_effect_prop": "pressure", "less_effect_prop": "pressure", "less_cause_dir": "pressure" }
"QRQA-10234-3-flip"
"When people are younger they are generally"
{ "text": [ "healthier", "sicker" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"Many diseases become more common as people grow older."
"QRSent-10234"
{ "effect_prop": "diseases", "cause_dir_str": "older", "effect_dir_str": "more common", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "age" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "sicker", "less_effect_dir": "healthier", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "people", "less_effect_prop": "people", "less_cause_dir": "people" }
"QRQA-10091-3-flip"
"Something that is smaller and moving will have _____ energy than something small."
{ "text": [ "less", "more" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"Therefore, an object with more mass has greater thermal energy than an object with less mass, even if their individual atoms are moving at the same speed."
"QRSent-10091"
{ "effect_prop": "thermal energy", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "mass" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "mass", "more_effect_prop": "energy", "less_effect_prop": "energy", "less_cause_dir": "energy" }
"QRQA-10169-4-flip"
"William sees that a country is shrinking rapidly. Will there be more or less availability of water in the future?"
{ "text": [ "more", "less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The availability of water is projected to get worse as demand increases."
"QRSent-10169"
{ "effect_prop": "availability of water", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "worse", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "demand of water" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "country", "more_effect_prop": "availability of water", "less_effect_prop": "availability of water", "less_cause_dir": "availability of water" }
"QRQA-10288-5-flip"
"If Mona removes carbon atoms to her alkane, what happens to the boiling point of that alkane?"
{ "text": [ "increases", "decreases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Alkanes with more carbon atoms generally have higher boiling and melting points."
"QRSent-10288"
{ "effect_prop": "higher boiling and melting points", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "higher", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "carbon atoms" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "carbon", "more_effect_prop": "boiling point", "less_effect_prop": "boiling point", "less_cause_dir": "boiling point" }
"QRQA-10203-3"
"If we all used single use plastic the waste would"
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"Using less nonrenewable resources means that they will last longer."
"QRSent-10203"
{ "effect_prop": "waste", "cause_dir_str": "less", "effect_dir_str": "longer", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "renewable resources" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "waste", "less_effect_prop": "waste", "less_cause_dir": "waste" }
"QRQA-10078-3-flip"
"Milton approaches a red soccer ball and kicks it as hard as he can, then he approaches a blue soccer ball and it kicks it very softly. Which soccer ball will experience less acceleration?"
{ "text": [ "blue soccer ball", "red soccer ball" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The greater the net force acting on the object, the greater its acceleration will be, but the mass of the object also affects its acceleration."
"QRSent-10078"
{ "effect_prop": "acceleration", "cause_dir_str": "greater", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "net force" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "blue soccer ball", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "acceleration", "less_cause_dir": "acceleration" }
"QRQA-10379-1"
"Dean held two magnets at arms length, and did not feel them pull at each other. The magnets did start pulling at each other when they were"
{ "text": [ "further", "closer" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"The smaller the distance between the objects, the greater the force of magnetic attraction."
"QRSent-10379"
{ "effect_prop": "magnetic attraction", "cause_dir_str": "smaller", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "distance" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "start pulling at each other", "less_effect_dir": "did not feel them pull at each other", "less_cause_prop": "pulling", "more_effect_prop": "magnets", "less_effect_prop": "magnets", "less_cause_dir": "magnets" }
"QRQA-10137-4-flip"
"As we get closer to the heart what happens to the artery size"
{ "text": [ "grow", "shrink" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"Further away from the heart, the aorta branches into smaller arteries, which eventually branch into capillaries."
"QRSent-10137"
{ "effect_prop": "size", "cause_dir_str": "further away", "effect_dir_str": "smaller", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "distance" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "grow", "less_effect_dir": "shrink", "less_cause_prop": "the heart", "more_effect_prop": "artery size", "less_effect_prop": "artery size", "less_cause_dir": "artery size" }
"QRQA-10202-3"
"If Milo is measuring the energy levels of electrons and he finds that a certain electron emits more energy than another, what does that say about that electron's distance from the nucleus?"
{ "text": [ "farther", "closer" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"Electrons at higher energy levels, which are farther from the nucleus, have more energy."
"QRSent-10202"
{ "effect_prop": "farther from the nucleus", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "energy levels" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "farther", "less_effect_dir": "closer", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "distance from the nucleus", "less_effect_prop": "distance from the nucleus", "less_cause_dir": "distance from the nucleus" }
"QRQA-10129-5"
"If Jim is performing experiments on plants and he manages to increase the rate of photosynthesis in those plants, what happens to the amount of stored glucose inside the plants?"
{ "text": [ "it increases", "it decreases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"As photosynthesis increases, the amount of stored glucose in the guard cells increases."
"QRSent-10129"
{ "effect_prop": "stored glucose", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "increases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "photosynthesis" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "stored glucose", "less_effect_prop": "stored glucose", "less_cause_dir": "stored glucose" }
"QRQA-10029-3"
"Jimbo was sailing in the ocean when he noticed large glaciers around his ship. The next year he sailed back to that same spot and noticed that there weren't as many glaciers around the ship. If there are less glaciers, what does that mean about the sea level?"
{ "text": [ "it's lower", "it's higher" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"An increase in glaciers lowers sea level and a decrease in glaciers raises sea level."
"QRSent-10029"
{ "effect_prop": "sea level", "cause_dir_str": "increase", "effect_dir_str": "lowers", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "glaciers" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "higher", "less_effect_dir": "lower", "less_cause_prop": "glaciers", "more_effect_prop": "sea level", "less_effect_prop": "sea level", "less_cause_dir": "sea level" }
"QRQA-10304-3"
"If Jimbo is throwing a basketball and he applies more force, what happens to the distance that the ball will travel?"
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The will travel faster and farther if the batter hits it with more force."
"QRSent-10304"
{ "effect_prop": "travel", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "faster and farther", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "force" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "travel", "less_effect_prop": "travel", "less_cause_dir": "travel" }
"QRQA-10291-4"
"If Jim is observing a nucleus and he notices the electromagnetic force is increasing, that means the nuclear force is"
{ "text": [ "increasing", "decreasing" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"As more protons are added to the nucleus, the electromagnetic force of repulsion between them gets stronger, while the strong nuclear force of attraction between them gets weaker."
"QRSent-10291"
{ "effect_prop": "nuclear force", "cause_dir_str": "stronger", "effect_dir_str": "weaker", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "electromagnetic force" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increasing", "less_effect_dir": "decreasing", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "nuclear force", "less_effect_prop": "nuclear force", "less_cause_dir": "nuclear force" }
"QRQA-10324-5"
"If we use a telescope, rather than just our eyes, to look into space, we are able to see"
{ "text": [ "less", "more" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"What this means is that at higher magnification, we are able to see objects of smaller and smaller size within our field of view."
"QRSent-10324"
{ "effect_prop": "visibility", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "able", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "magnification" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "see", "less_effect_prop": "see", "less_cause_dir": "see" }
"QRQA-10234-2-flip"
"If Mona is currently 35 years old and she lives her life until the age of 65, what happens to her chance of contracting a disease as she grows older?"
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Many diseases become more common as people grow older."
"QRSent-10234"
{ "effect_prop": "diseases become more common", "cause_dir_str": "older", "effect_dir_str": "more common", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "people grow older" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "age of 65", "more_effect_prop": "chance of contracting a disease", "less_effect_prop": "chance of contracting a disease", "less_cause_dir": "chance of contracting a disease" }
"QRQA-10202-1"
"Jimbo was observing electrons with his microscope. He noticed some were close to the nucleus and some were far from the nucleus. Which electrons had more energy?"
{ "text": [ "close to the nucleus", "far from the nucleus" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Electrons at higher energy levels, which are farther from the nucleus, have more energy."
"QRSent-10202"
{ "effect_prop": "energy", "cause_dir_str": "farther", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "farther from the nucleus" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "nucleus", "more_effect_prop": "energy", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
"QRQA-10074-3-flip"
"If Mona owns a car and she decides to switch to a dirtier burning fuel, will she create more or less pollution?"
{ "text": [ "more pollution", "less pollution" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The advantage to biofuels is that they burn more cleanly than fossil fuels. As a result, they create less pollution and less carbon dioxide."
"QRSent-10074"
{ "effect_prop": "pollution", "cause_dir_str": "more cleanly", "effect_dir_str": "less", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "burn more cleanly" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "fuel", "more_effect_prop": "pollution", "less_effect_prop": "pollution", "less_cause_dir": "pollution" }
"QRQA-10168-5-flip"
"John was observing the objects in the physics lab. He found that the less force is applied to an object, the acceleration will be"
{ "text": [ "More", "Less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"The greater the force that is applied to an object of a given mass, the more the object will accelerate."
"QRSent-10168"
{ "effect_prop": "acceleration", "cause_dir_str": "greater", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "force" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "force", "more_effect_prop": "acceleration", "less_effect_prop": "acceleration", "less_cause_dir": "acceleration" }
"QRQA-10070-4-flip"
"As the plane dropped altitude, the passengers felt _____."
{ "text": [ "cooler", "warmer" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"In the troposphere, temperatures decrease as altitude increases."
"QRSent-10070"
{ "effect_prop": "Altitude", "cause_dir_str": "decrease", "effect_dir_str": "increase", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "Temperature" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "dropped", "less_cause_prop": "passengers felt", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "altitude", "less_cause_dir": "altitude" }
"QRQA-10254-5-flip"
"Ian has a model of early Earth in the oven. He decreases the convection of the oven, making the plate tectonics"
{ "text": [ "faster", "slower" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Convection on early Earth was faster and so plate tectonics was faster."
"QRSent-10254"
{ "effect_prop": "faster plate tectonics", "cause_dir_str": "faster", "effect_dir_str": "faster", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "faster convection on early earth" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "faster", "less_effect_dir": "slower", "less_cause_prop": "convection", "more_effect_prop": "plate tectonics", "less_effect_prop": "plate tectonics", "less_cause_dir": "plate tectonics" }
"QRQA-10243-5"
"Reid lives in a city with 5000 people. Eric lives in a city with 50000 people that is roughly the same size geographically. Whose city needs more resources?"
{ "text": [ "Eric", "Reid" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"More people need more resources."
"QRSent-10243"
{ "effect_prop": "resource need", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "people" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "people", "more_effect_prop": "resources", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
"QRQA-10350-1-flip"
"If John decreases the concentration of reactants in his solution, what will happen to the rate of reaction?"
{ "text": [ "it will become faster", "it will become slower" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"When the concentration of reactants is higher, the reaction rate is faster."
"QRSent-10350"
{ "effect_prop": "reaction rate", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "faster", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "reactant concentration" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "faster", "less_effect_dir": "slower", "less_cause_prop": "concentration of reactants", "more_effect_prop": "rate of reaction", "less_effect_prop": "rate of reaction", "less_cause_dir": "rate of reaction" }
"QRQA-10226-5"
"A person that is running very fast has what level of kinetic energy?"
{ "text": [ "Low", "High" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Anything that is moving has kinetic energy, and the faster it is moving, the more kinetic energy it has."
"QRSent-10226"
{ "effect_prop": "kinetic energy", "cause_dir_str": "faster", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "speed" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "high", "less_effect_dir": "low", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "kinetic energy", "less_effect_prop": "kinetic energy", "less_cause_dir": "kinetic energy" }
"QRQA-10203-2-flip"
"If Mona begins using more nonrenewable resources what will happen to the length of time those resources will last?"
{ "text": [ "decrease", "increase" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"Using less nonrenewable resources means that they will last longer."
"QRSent-10203"
{ "effect_prop": "last longer", "cause_dir_str": "less", "effect_dir_str": "longer", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "nonrenewable resources" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "length of time those resources will last", "less_effect_prop": "length of time those resources will last", "less_cause_dir": "length of time those resources will last" }
"QRQA-10179-3-flip"
"Milo is making a map for school. If he places a country far to the North Pole, what will happen to the size and shape of that country on the map?"
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"In a Mercator projection, because Greenland is closer to the pole, the continents shape and size are greatly increased."
"QRSent-10179"
{ "effect_prop": "continents shape and size", "cause_dir_str": "closer", "effect_dir_str": "increased", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "closer to the pole" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "country", "more_effect_prop": "size", "less_effect_prop": "size", "less_cause_dir": "size" }
"QRQA-10071-3-flip"
"A photon has less energy when the frequency is"
{ "text": [ "higher or", "lower" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"The higher the frequency is, the more energy a photon has."
"QRSent-10071"
{ "effect_prop": "energy", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "frequency" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "frequency", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "energy", "less_cause_dir": "energy" }
"QRQA-10276-5-flip"
"If something has a small surface area and is being mixed with something else it will react"
{ "text": [ "slower", "faster" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"Surface Area of Reactants When a solid substance is involved in a chemical reaction, only the matter at the surface of the solid is exposed to other reactants. If a solid has more surface area, more of it is exposed and able to react."
"QRSent-10276"
{ "effect_prop": "exposed to reactants", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "surface area" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "faster", "less_effect_dir": "slower", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "react", "less_effect_prop": "react", "less_cause_dir": "react" }
"QRQA-10020-3-flip"
"When particles are closer together what happens to diffusion?"
{ "text": [ "increases", "decreases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"This means the rate of diffusion is much slower in liquids than in gases, because the particles of a gas are further apart and collide much less."
"QRSent-10020"
{ "effect_prop": "diffusion", "cause_dir_str": "further apart", "effect_dir_str": "slower", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "distance" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "Less", "less_effect_dir": "More", "less_cause_prop": "Diffusion", "more_effect_prop": "Distance", "less_effect_prop": "Distance", "less_cause_dir": "Distance" }
"QRQA-10014-1-flip"
"When Katie was in the hospital with high blood pressure, she understood that the volume of her blood was"
{ "text": [ "high", "low" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"As blood volume in the body increases, blood pressure increases."
"QRSent-10014"
{ "effect_prop": "pressure", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "increases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "volume" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "high", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "volume of her blood", "more_effect_prop": "blood pressure", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
"QRQA-10282-5-flip"
"When using a magnifying glass the less curved one will be"
{ "text": [ "weaker", "stronger" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The more curved the convex lens is in a magnifying glass, the greater its ability to magnify objects."
"QRSent-10282"
{ "effect_prop": "magnification", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "curve" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "stronger", "less_effect_dir": "weaker", "less_cause_prop": "curved", "more_effect_prop": "magnification", "less_effect_prop": "magnification", "less_cause_dir": "magnification" }
"QRQA-10244-2"
"If there is a lot of resistance in a wire the current at the end of the wire will be"
{ "text": [ "higher", "lower" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"As the total resistance increases, the current strength decreases."
"QRSent-10244"
{ "effect_prop": "current", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "decreases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "resistance" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "higher", "less_effect_dir": "lower", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "current at the end of the wire", "less_effect_prop": "current at the end of the wire", "less_cause_dir": "current at the end of the wire" }
"QRQA-10091-4"
"John was watching the particle accelerator and notating the reactions of the atoms. He observed that an object with more mass has a thermal energy that is"
{ "text": [ "More", "Less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"Therefore, an object with more mass has greater thermal energy than an object with less mass, even if their individual atoms are moving at the same speed."
"QRSent-10091"
{ "effect_prop": "thermal energy", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "mass" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "thermal energy", "less_effect_prop": "thermal energy", "less_cause_dir": "thermal energy" }
"QRQA-10267-2-flip"
"Rich has a leaf with a large surface area. This adaptation likely causes _____ water vapor to evaporate."
{ "text": [ "more", "less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"Leaves can have the following adaptations to reduce transpiration rate: Small or narrow leaves to reduce the surface area over which water vapour is lost"
"QRSent-10267"
{ "effect_prop": "surface area over which water vapour is lost", "cause_dir_str": "small or narrow", "effect_dir_str": "reduce", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "leaves" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "large", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "surface area", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
"QRQA-10078-2"
"If Mary is pushing her wagon and she increases the force that she is applying to push it, what will happen to the wagon's acceleration?"
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The greater the net force acting on the object, the greater its acceleration will be, but the mass of the object also affects its acceleration."
"QRSent-10078"
{ "effect_prop": "acceleration", "cause_dir_str": "greater", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "net force acting on the object" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "acceleration", "less_effect_prop": "acceleration", "less_cause_dir": "acceleration" }
"QRQA-10304-1"
"Jim hits baseball number one with a small amount of force and baseball number two with a large amount of force. Which object will travel a greater distance?"
{ "text": [ "baseball one", "baseball two" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"The will travel faster and farther if the batter hits it with more force."
"QRSent-10304"
{ "effect_prop": "travel", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "faster and farther", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "force" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "greater", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "amount of force", "more_effect_prop": "distance", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
"QRQA-10139-2"
"Jeff increases the waves' crests' height in the simulation. The amplitude is now"
{ "text": [ "higher", "lower" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The higher the crests are, the greater the amplitude of the wave."
"QRSent-10139"
{ "effect_prop": "amplitude of the wave", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "higher the crests" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "higher", "less_effect_dir": "lower", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "amplitude", "less_effect_prop": "amplitude", "less_cause_dir": "amplitude" }
"QRQA-10397-4-flip"
"If an electromagnetic wave has a higher frequency than another wave, it will have _____ energy."
{ "text": [ "more", "less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The higher the frequency of an electromagnetic wave, the greater its energy."
"QRSent-10397"
{ "effect_prop": "its energy", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "frequency of an electromagnetic wave" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "energy", "less_effect_prop": "energy", "less_cause_dir": "energy" }
"QRQA-10292-4-flip"
"If Milo is mixing chemicals together into a solution and he decreases the strength of the base, what happens to the amount of hydroxide ions?"
{ "text": [ "increases", "decreases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"A stronger base produces more hydroxide ions than a weaker base."
"QRSent-10292"
{ "effect_prop": "more hydroxide ions", "cause_dir_str": "stronger", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "stronger base" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "strength", "more_effect_prop": "hydroxide ions", "less_effect_prop": "hydroxide ions", "less_cause_dir": "hydroxide ions" }
"QRQA-10196-5"
"Dan has relatively low blood volume, which means that within his blood vessels, there is pressure that is relatively"
{ "text": [ "lesser", "greater" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"This is because the lower blood volume in the vessels exerts less pressure on the vessel walls."
"QRSent-10196"
{ "effect_prop": "pressure on vessel walls", "cause_dir_str": "lower", "effect_dir_str": "less", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "blood volume in vessels" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "greater", "less_effect_dir": "lesser", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "pressure", "less_effect_prop": "pressure", "less_cause_dir": "pressure" }
"QRQA-10044-3"
"Amplifiers are used to _____ energy which makes music louder."
{ "text": [ "decrease", "increase" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Amplified sound waves have more energy, which increases the intensity and loudness of the sounds, so they are easier to hear."
"QRSent-10044"
{ "effect_prop": "sounds", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "increases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "energy" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "louder", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "energy", "more_effect_prop": "music", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
"QRQA-10070-2"
"When we get very high into the troposphere the temperature"
{ "text": [ "increases", "decreases" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"In the troposphere, temperatures decrease as altitude increases."
"QRSent-10070"
{ "effect_prop": "temperature", "cause_dir_str": "increase", "effect_dir_str": "decrease", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "altitude" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increases", "less_effect_dir": "decreases", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "temperature", "less_effect_prop": "temperature", "less_cause_dir": "temperature" }
"QRQA-10324-4-flip"
"Eric decreases magnification of his telescope. He is able to see _____ stars."
{ "text": [ "less", "more" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"What this means is that at higher magnification, we are able to see objects of smaller and smaller size within our field of view."
"QRSent-10324"
{ "effect_prop": "objects seen", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "smaller", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "magnification" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "telescope", "more_effect_prop": "stars", "less_effect_prop": "stars", "less_cause_dir": "stars" }
"QRQA-10267-2"
"Rich has a leaf with a small surface area. This adaptation likely causes _____ water vapor to evaporate."
{ "text": [ "more", "less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Leaves can have the following adaptations to reduce transpiration rate: Small or narrow leaves to reduce the surface area over which water vapour is lost"
"QRSent-10267"
{ "effect_prop": "surface area over which water vapour is lost", "cause_dir_str": "small or narrow", "effect_dir_str": "reduce", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "leaves" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "small", "less_cause_prop": "surface area", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "surface area", "less_cause_dir": "surface area" }
"QRQA-10148-1"
"If North America is smaller then Asia, which continent experiences less trash buildup?"
{ "text": [ "North America", "Asia" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The Southern Hemisphere has less trash buildup in the oceans because less of the region is continent."
"QRSent-10148"
{ "effect_prop": "trash buildup", "cause_dir_str": "less", "effect_dir_str": "less", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "continent" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "continent", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "trash buildup", "less_cause_dir": "trash buildup" }
"QRQA-10219-4-flip"
"Will ran in a race. His pulse rate decreases, providing _____ oxygen to his cells."
{ "text": [ "less", "more" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"This causes the delivery of less oxygen to the cells, and this stimulates the heart rate via adrenalin, so that pulse rate increases in an effort to deliver enough oxygen to cells."
"QRSent-10219"
{ "effect_prop": "oxygen to cells", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "pulse rate" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "pulse rate", "more_effect_prop": "oxygen", "less_effect_prop": "oxygen", "less_cause_dir": "oxygen" }
"QRQA-10373-4-flip"
"A puddle in the Sahara desert where the thermometer read 40 F was the same size as a puddle in Montana where the thermometer read 90 F. The puddle in Montana will evaporate _____ than the puddle in the Sahara desert."
{ "text": [ "more slowly", "more quickly" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"The higher the temperature of the liquid, the faster it will evaporate."
"QRSent-10373"
{ "effect_prop": "evaporation", "cause_dir_str": "higher", "effect_dir_str": "faster", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "temperature of liquid" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "quickly", "less_effect_dir": "slowly", "less_cause_prop": "degrees", "more_effect_prop": "evaporation", "less_effect_prop": "evaporation", "less_cause_dir": "evaporation" }
"QRQA-10276-3-flip"
"If Jim is performing chemical reactions in his lab and he wanted to decrease the strength of his reaction, what would he do to the surface area?"
{ "text": [ "increase it", "decrease it" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Surface Area of Reactants When a solid substance is involved in a chemical reaction, only the matter at the surface of the solid is exposed to other reactants. If a solid has more surface area, more of it is exposed and able to react."
"QRSent-10276"
{ "effect_prop": "able to react", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "surface area" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "surface area", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "strength of his reaction", "less_cause_dir": "strength of his reaction" }
"QRQA-10226-1-flip"
"If a moving object speeds up, it will have _____ kinetic energy."
{ "text": [ "more", "less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"Anything that is moving has kinetic energy, and the faster it is moving, the more kinetic energy it has."
"QRSent-10226"
{ "effect_prop": "kinetic energy it has", "cause_dir_str": "faster", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "speed of anything that is moving" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "kinetic energy", "less_effect_prop": "kinetic energy", "less_cause_dir": "kinetic energy" }
"QRQA-10282-4-flip"
"Micah wants to be able to read very large text, and needs to use a tool to do so. He looks at two magnifying glasses, and chooses the one with the lens that is"
{ "text": [ "more curved", "less curved" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"The more curved the convex lens is in a magnifying glass, the greater its ability to magnify objects."
"QRSent-10282"
{ "effect_prop": "ability to magnify", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "curved" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "read", "less_cause_prop": "curved", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "large text", "less_cause_dir": "large text" }
"QRQA-10091-3"
"Something that is larger and moving will have _____ energy than something small."
{ "text": [ "less", "more" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Therefore, an object with more mass has greater thermal energy than an object with less mass, even if their individual atoms are moving at the same speed."
"QRSent-10091"
{ "effect_prop": "thermal energy", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "mass" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "energy", "less_effect_prop": "energy", "less_cause_dir": "energy" }
"QRQA-10029-1-flip"
"Would a sudden warm spell that halved the size of glaciers"
{ "text": [ "increase sea level", "decrease sea level?" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"An increase in glaciers lowers sea level and a decrease in glaciers raises sea level."
"QRSent-10029"
{ "effect_prop": "sea level", "cause_dir_str": "increase", "effect_dir_str": "lowers", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "glaciers" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "glaciers", "more_effect_prop": "sea level", "less_effect_prop": "sea level", "less_cause_dir": "sea level" }
"QRQA-10147-2-flip"
"Rich sees a blue star with his telescope. Tina sees a red star with his telescope. _____ sees the cooler star."
{ "text": [ "Rich", "Tina" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"But, in stars, the bluer the star, the hotter it is, and the redder it is, the older and colder it is."
"QRSent-10147"
{ "effect_prop": "hotter it is", "cause_dir_str": "bluer", "effect_dir_str": "hotter", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "bluer the star" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "cooler", "less_cause_prop": "star", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "star", "less_cause_dir": "star" }
"QRQA-10006-1-flip"
"John went to the doctor one day and was told they caught his cancer really late. What does this mean about the ease with which the cancer is treated?"
{ "text": [ "harder to treat", "easier to treat" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The sooner cancer is detected the easier it is to treat."
"QRSent-10006"
{ "effect_prop": "easier it is to treat", "cause_dir_str": "sooner", "effect_dir_str": "easier", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "sooner cancer is detected" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "easier to treat", "less_effect_dir": "harder to treat", "less_cause_prop": "cancer", "more_effect_prop": "cancer", "less_effect_prop": "cancer", "less_cause_dir": "cancer" }
"QRQA-10199-1"
"John kicks the ball on a smooth surface. Compared to traveling on a rough surface, the ball travels"
{ "text": [ "slower.", "faster" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"The smoother the surface, the less friction against an object, so the faster it will move."
"QRSent-10199"
{ "effect_prop": "motion", "cause_dir_str": "less", "effect_dir_str": "faster", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "friction" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "travels quickly", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "ball", "more_effect_prop": "ball", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
"QRQA-10044-4"
"If Mona is speaking to Milo in a soft tone and then increases the amplification of the sound waves leaving her mouth, what will happen to the loudness level of her voice?"
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"Amplified sound waves have more energy, which increases the intensity and loudness of the sounds, so they are easier to hear."
"QRSent-10044"
{ "effect_prop": "loudness of the sounds", "cause_dir_str": "amplified", "effect_dir_str": "increases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "Amplified sound waves" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "decrease", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "loudness level of her voice", "less_effect_prop": "loudness level of her voice", "less_cause_dir": "loudness level of her voice" }
"QRQA-10052-4"
"Joan is trying to get rocks to melt by using depth to get higher pressure. The more pressure that Joan applies to the rock, the melting temperature will be"
{ "text": [ "higher", "lower" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"Pressure: Pressure increases with depth, but increased pressure raises the melting temperature, so melting of rock is less likely to occur at higher pressures."
"QRSent-10052"
{ "effect_prop": "melting", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "with", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "pressure" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "higher", "less_effect_dir": "lower", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "melting temperature", "less_effect_prop": "melting temperature", "less_cause_dir": "melting temperature" }
"QRQA-10361-4"
"Harry is 6 feet away from you and Sara is 15 feet away. Who will appear to move further away if they both take one step?"
{ "text": [ "Harry", "Sara" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The closer your finger is to your eyes, the greater the position changes because of parallax."
"QRSent-10361"
{ "effect_prop": "position changing", "cause_dir_str": "closer", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "finger closer to eyes" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "move further away", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "Sara", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
"QRQA-10159-5-flip"
"Mona lives in a city with decent access to food. If a city that has more money starts stealing food originally intended for her city, what will happen to the death rate in Mona's city?"
{ "text": [ "increase", "decrease" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"With better food and less chance of disease, the death rate fell."
"QRSent-10159"
{ "effect_prop": "death rate", "cause_dir_str": "better", "effect_dir_str": "fell", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "better food" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "higher", "less_effect_dir": "lower", "less_cause_prop": "food", "more_effect_prop": "death rate", "less_effect_prop": "death rate", "less_cause_dir": "death rate" }
"QRQA-10078-5-flip"
"John was watching the objects and noticing their reactions in the physics simulator. He observed that the smaller net force moving the object, that the acceleration would be"
{ "text": [ "Greater", "Lesser" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"The greater the net force acting on the object, the greater its acceleration will be, but the mass of the object also affects its acceleration."
"QRSent-10078"
{ "effect_prop": "acceleration", "cause_dir_str": "greater", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "net force" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "Greater", "less_effect_dir": "Lesser", "less_cause_prop": "net force", "more_effect_prop": "acceleration", "less_effect_prop": "acceleration", "less_cause_dir": "acceleration" }
"QRQA-10308-1"
"A weakening electromagnet indicates _____ current passing through the circuit breaker."
{ "text": [ "more", "less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"If the current passing through the circuit breaker increases, the electromagnet becomes stronger."
"QRSent-10308"
{ "effect_prop": "electromagnet strength", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "stronger", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "current passing through the circuit breaker" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "", "less_effect_dir": "weakening", "less_cause_prop": "current passing through the circuit breaker", "more_effect_prop": "", "less_effect_prop": "electromagnet strength", "less_cause_dir": "electromagnet strength" }
"QRQA-10267-5-flip"
"A smaller leaf will have _____ lost water vapour than a big one."
{ "text": [ "less", "more" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"Leaves can have the following adaptations to reduce transpiration rate: Small or narrow leaves to reduce the surface area over which water vapour is lost"
"QRSent-10267"
{ "effect_prop": "lost water vapour", "cause_dir_str": "small or narrow", "effect_dir_str": "lost", "cause_dir_sign": "LESS", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "leaves" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "leaf", "more_effect_prop": "lost water vapour", "less_effect_prop": "lost water vapour", "less_cause_dir": "lost water vapour" }
"QRQA-10276-2"
"An object with a small surface area is _____ likely to experience surface reaction than a larger object."
{ "text": [ "more", "less" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Surface Area of Reactants When a solid substance is involved in a chemical reaction, only the matter at the surface of the solid is exposed to other reactants. If a solid has more surface area, more of it is exposed and able to react."
"QRSent-10276"
{ "effect_prop": "exposed area that can react", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "more", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "surface area" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "surface area", "more_effect_prop": "surface reaction", "less_effect_prop": "surface reaction", "less_cause_dir": "surface reaction" }
"QRQA-10220-2-flip"
"Dan falls from a single stair one day, then the next day falls down three stairs at once. After falling down one stair, compared to three, Dan will experience"
{ "text": [ "greater friction", "less friction" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"Heavier objects press together with greater force, and this causes greater friction between them."
"QRSent-10220"
{ "effect_prop": "friction", "cause_dir_str": "greater", "effect_dir_str": "greater", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "force" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "greater", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "stair", "more_effect_prop": "friction", "less_effect_prop": "friction", "less_cause_dir": "friction" }
"QRQA-10011-5-flip"
"The resistance will increase in a circuit when resistors are added in"
{ "text": [ "parallel", "series" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"In a parallel circuit, the resistance decreases as more resistors are added in parallel."
"QRSent-10011"
{ "effect_prop": "resistance", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "decreases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "resistors in paralle" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "increase", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "series", "more_effect_prop": "resistance", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
"QRQA-10011-3-flip"
"When Alec removes a resistor from the parallel circuit, there is"
{ "text": [ "more resistance", "less resistance." ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"In a parallel circuit, the resistance decreases as more resistors are added in parallel."
"QRSent-10011"
{ "effect_prop": "resistance", "cause_dir_str": "more", "effect_dir_str": "decreases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "resistors" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "resistor", "more_effect_prop": "resistance", "less_effect_prop": "resistance", "less_cause_dir": "resistance" }
"QRQA-10114-1"
"Dean looked at the sky with his eyes, then looked at the sky with his telescope. Dean saw more through the telescope, because the lens there was"
{ "text": [ "bigger", "smaller" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"The larger a telescope's mirror or lens, the better it is at seeing narrowly separated objects as individual objects and the sharper the images look."
"QRSent-10114"
{ "effect_prop": "sight", "cause_dir_str": "larger", "effect_dir_str": "better", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "lens" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "lens", "more_effect_prop": "saw", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
"QRQA-10339-5"
"Xavier is using a 2x microscope while Yania is using her eyes. Who has the largest field of view?"
{ "text": [ "Xavier", "Yania" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"As the magnification increases, the field of view decreases."
"QRSent-10339"
{ "effect_prop": "field of view", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "decreases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "magnification" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "largest", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "eyes", "more_effect_prop": "field of view", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
"QRQA-10291-2-flip"
"John was looking at atoms in an electron microscope. What he noticed is that as the repulsion of the atoms was weaker, the force of attraction between them got"
{ "text": [ "Stronger", "Weaker" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"A"
"As more protons are added to the nucleus, the electromagnetic force of repulsion between them gets stronger, while the strong nuclear force of attraction between them gets weaker."
"QRSent-10291"
{ "effect_prop": "attraction", "cause_dir_str": "stronger", "effect_dir_str": "weaker", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "repulsion" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "Stronger", "less_effect_dir": "Weaker", "less_cause_prop": "repulsion", "more_effect_prop": "attraction", "less_effect_prop": "attraction", "less_cause_dir": "attraction" }
"QRQA-10169-3-flip"
"Marie likes to take very short, hot showers every day. The availability of the water she uses daily will _____ as demand increases."
{ "text": [ "become less available", "become more available" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"The availability of water is projected to get worse as demand increases."
"QRSent-10169"
{ "effect_prop": "water", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "worse", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "demand" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more available", "less_effect_dir": "less available", "less_cause_prop": "showers", "more_effect_prop": "water", "less_effect_prop": "water", "less_cause_dir": "water" }
"QRQA-10114-3-flip"
"Yolanda looks through a miniature telescope and then compares the view to a normal sized telescope. The telescope that less likely differentiates between celestial objects the best is"
{ "text": [ "larger", "smaller" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"The larger a telescope's mirror or lens, the better it is at seeing narrowly separated objects as individual objects and the sharper the images look."
"QRSent-10114"
{ "effect_prop": "seeing narrowly seperated objects", "cause_dir_str": "larger", "effect_dir_str": "better", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "MORE", "cause_prop": "telescope's mirror or lens" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "differentiates between", "less_effect_dir": "", "less_cause_prop": "telescope", "more_effect_prop": "celestial objects", "less_effect_prop": "", "less_cause_dir": "" }
"QRQA-10339-4-flip"
"As you zoom out from something the total things you see are"
{ "text": [ "less", "more" ], "label": [ "A", "B" ] }
"B"
"As the magnification increases, the field of view decreases."
"QRSent-10339"
{ "effect_prop": "field of view", "cause_dir_str": "increases", "effect_dir_str": "decreases", "cause_dir_sign": "MORE", "effect_dir_sign": "LESS", "cause_prop": "magnifcation" }
{ "more_effect_dir": "more", "less_effect_dir": "less", "less_cause_prop": "", "more_effect_prop": "total things you see", "less_effect_prop": "total things you see", "less_cause_dir": "total things you see" }
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for "quartz"

Dataset Summary

QuaRTz is a crowdsourced dataset of 3864 multiple-choice questions about open domain qualitative relationships. Each question is paired with one of 405 different background sentences (sometimes short paragraphs). The QuaRTz dataset V1 contains 3864 questions about open domain qualitative relationships. Each question is paired with one of 405 different background sentences (sometimes short paragraphs).

The dataset is split into train (2696), dev (384) and test (784). A background sentence will only appear in a single split.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

More Information Needed

Languages

More Information Needed

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

default

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 0.47 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 1.64 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 2.12 MB

An example of 'train' looks as follows.

{
    "answerKey": "A",
    "choices": {
        "label": ["A", "B"],
        "text": ["higher", "lower"]
    },
    "id": "QRQA-10116-3",
    "para": "Electrons at lower energy levels, which are closer to the nucleus, have less energy.",
    "para_anno": {
        "cause_dir_sign": "LESS",
        "cause_dir_str": "closer",
        "cause_prop": "distance from a nucleus",
        "effect_dir_sign": "LESS",
        "effect_dir_str": "less",
        "effect_prop": "energy"
    },
    "para_id": "QRSent-10116",
    "question": "Electrons further away from a nucleus have _____ energy levels than close ones.",
    "question_anno": {
        "less_cause_dir": "electron energy levels",
        "less_cause_prop": "nucleus",
        "less_effect_dir": "lower",
        "less_effect_prop": "electron energy levels",
        "more_effect_dir": "higher",
        "more_effect_prop": "electron energy levels"
    }
}

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all splits.

default

  • id: a string feature.
  • question: a string feature.
  • choices: a dictionary feature containing:
    • text: a string feature.
    • label: a string feature.
  • answerKey: a string feature.
  • para: a string feature.
  • para_id: a string feature.
  • effect_prop: a string feature.
  • cause_dir_str: a string feature.
  • effect_dir_str: a string feature.
  • cause_dir_sign: a string feature.
  • effect_dir_sign: a string feature.
  • cause_prop: a string feature.
  • more_effect_dir: a string feature.
  • less_effect_dir: a string feature.
  • less_cause_prop: a string feature.
  • more_effect_prop: a string feature.
  • less_effect_prop: a string feature.
  • less_cause_dir: a string feature.

Data Splits

name train validation test
default 2696 384 784

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

More Information Needed

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

More Information Needed

Who are the source language producers?

More Information Needed

Annotations

Annotation process

More Information Needed

Who are the annotators?

More Information Needed

Personal and Sensitive Information

More Information Needed

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

More Information Needed

Discussion of Biases

More Information Needed

Other Known Limitations

More Information Needed

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

More Information Needed

Licensing Information

The dataset is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

Citation Information

@InProceedings{quartz,
  author = {Oyvind Tafjord and Matt Gardner and Kevin Lin and Peter Clark},
  title = {"QUARTZ: An Open-Domain Dataset of Qualitative Relationship
Questions"},

  year = {"2019"},
}

Contributions

Thanks to @patrickvonplaten, @lewtun, @thomwolf for adding this dataset.

Models trained or fine-tuned on quartz