MFAQ is a multilingual corpus of Frequently Asked Questions parsed from the Common Crawl.

from datasets import load_dataset
load_dataset("clips/mfaq", "en")
  "qa_pairs": [
      "question": "Do  I need a rental Car in Cork?",
      "answer": "If you plan on travelling outside of Cork City, for instance to  Kinsale [...]"


We collected around 6M pairs of questions and answers in 21 different languages. To download a language specific subset you need to specify the language key as configuration. See below for an example.

load_dataset("clips/mfaq", "en") # replace "en" by any language listed below
Language Key Pairs Pages
All all 6,346,693 1,035,649
English en 3,719,484 608,796
German de 829,098 111,618
Spanish es 482,818 75,489
French fr 351,458 56,317
Italian it 155,296 24,562
Dutch nl 150,819 32,574
Portuguese pt 138,778 26,169
Turkish tr 102,373 19,002
Russian ru 91,771 22,643
Polish pl 65,182 10,695
Indonesian id 45,839 7,910
Norwegian no 37,711 5,143
Swedish sv 37,003 5,270
Danish da 32,655 5,279
Vietnamese vi 27,157 5,261
Finnish fi 20,485 2,795
Romanian ro 17,066 3,554
Czech cs 16,675 2,568
Hebrew he 11,212 1,921
Hungarian hu 8,598 1,264
Croatian hr 5,215 819

Data Fields

Nested (per page - default)

The data is organized by page. Each page contains a list of questions and answers.

  • id
  • language
  • num_pairs: the number of FAQs on the page
  • domain: source web domain of the FAQs
  • qa_pairs: a list of questions and answers
    • question
    • answer
    • language


The data is organized by pair (i.e. pages are flattened). You can access the flat version of any language by appending _flat to the configuration (e.g. en_flat). The data will be returned pair-by-pair instead of page-by-page.

  • domain_id
  • pair_id
  • language
  • domain: source web domain of the FAQs
  • question
  • answer

Source Data

This section was adapted from the source data description of OSCAR

Common Crawl is a non-profit foundation which produces and maintains an open repository of web crawled data that is both accessible and analysable. Common Crawl's complete web archive consists of petabytes of data collected over 8 years of web crawling. The repository contains raw web page HTML data (WARC files), metdata extracts (WAT files) and plain text extracts (WET files). The organisation's crawlers has always respected nofollow and robots.txt policies.

To construct MFAQ, the WARC files of Common Crawl were used. We looked for FAQPage markup in the HTML and subsequently parsed the FAQItem from the page.


This model was developed by Maxime De Bruyn, Ehsan Lotfi, Jeska Buhmann and Walter Daelemans.

Licensing Information

These data are released under this licensing scheme.
We do not own any of the text from which these data has been extracted.
We license the actual packaging of these data under the Creative Commons CC0 license ("no rights reserved")

Should you consider that our data contains material that is owned by you and should therefore not be reproduced here, please:
* Clearly identify yourself, with detailed contact data such as an address, telephone number or email address at which you can be contacted.
* Clearly identify the copyrighted work claimed to be infringed.
* Clearly identify the material that is claimed to be infringing and information reasonably sufficient to allow us to locate the material.

We will comply to legitimate requests by removing the affected sources from the next release of the corpus.

Citation information

      title={MFAQ: a Multilingual FAQ Dataset}, 
      author={Maxime {De Bruyn} and Ehsan Lotfi and Jeska Buhmann and Walter Daelemans},

Models trained or fine-tuned on clips/mfaq