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animal-train-1
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2652
lytrosis unitaria
[ "lytrosis (hulst) of louisiana vernon antoine brou jr. 2005. southern lepidopterists' news, 27: 7 .\nlytrosis sinuosa - wings are various shades of brown or yellowish brown with the median area being concolorous with the basal area of the wing .\na revision of the moth genus lytrosis (lepidoptera, geometridae) frederick h. rindge. 1971. american museum novitates, 2474: 1 - 21 .\nphotographs are the copyrighted property of each photographer listed. contact individual photographers for permission to use for any purpose .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd xhtml 1. 0 transitional / / en\nurltoken\nupcoming events 2018 bugguide gathering in virginia july 27 - 29: registration and discussion photos of insects and people from the 2015 gathering in wisconsin, july 10 - 12 photos of insects and people from the 2014 gathering in virginia, june 4 - 7. photos of insects and people from the 2013 gathering in arizona, july 25 - 28 photos of insects and people from the 2012 gathering in alabama photos of insects and people from the 2011 gathering in iowa photos from the 2010 workshop in grinnell, iowa photos from the 2009 gathering in washington\ndisclaimer: dedicated naturalists volunteer their time and resources here to provide this service. we strive to provide accurate information, but we are mostly just amateurs attempting to make sense of a diverse natural world. if you need expert professional advice, contact your local extension office .\ncontributors own the copyright to and are solely responsible for contributed content. click the contributor' s name for licensing and usage information. everything else copyright © 2003 - 2018 iowa state university, unless otherwise noted .\neol content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. as a result, from time to time you may find pages on eol that are confusing .\nto request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. thank you !\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd html 4. 01 transitional / / en\nurltoken\nonline list of [... ] the geometridae of the world (dec 2007), website (version 01 / 12 / 2007 )\nmaintained by malcolm j. scoble and axel hausmann. online list of valid and available names of the geometridae of the world, urltoken last update december 2007\ndisclaimer: itis taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. however, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. while every effort has been made to provide the most reliable and up - to - date information available, ultimate legal requirements with respect to species are contained in provisions of treaties to which the united states is a party, wildlife statutes, regulations, and any applicable notices that have been published in the federal register. for further information on u. s. legal requirements with respect to protected taxa, please contact the u. s. fish and wildlife service .\nbiokids is sponsored in part by the interagency education research initiative. it is a partnership of the university of michigan school of education, university of michigan museum of zoology, and the detroit public schools. this material is based upon work supported by the national science foundation under grant drl - 0628151. copyright © 2002 - 2018, the regents of the university of michigan. all rights reserved .\nconfused by a class within a class or an order within an order? please see our brief essay .\nto cite this page: myers, p. , r. espinosa, c. s. parr, t. jones, g. s. hammond, and t. a. dewey. 2018. the animal diversity web (online). accessed at https: / / animaldiversity. org .\ndisclaimer: the animal diversity web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. adw doesn' t cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. while adw staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control .\nthis material is based upon work supported by the national science foundation grants drl 0089283, drl 0628151, due 0633095, drl 0918590, and due 1122742. additional support has come from the marisla foundation, um college of literature, science, and the arts, museum of zoology, and information and technology services .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd xhtml 1. 0 strict / / en\nurltoken\nhodges, r. w. et al. , eds. 1983. check list of the lepidoptera of america north of mexico. e. w. classey limited and the wedge entomological research foundation, london. 284 pp .\ndue to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other natureserve network databases and when they appear on natureserve explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. please refer to\ndistribution data for u. s. states and canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon .\na location where the species occurs or has occurred and where there is potential for persistence or regular recurrence. for most species minimally verification of an adult or larva in association with suitable habitat including larval foodplant. minimum verification standards vary by species from genitalia dissection to decent photographs, but specimens are strongly recommended. it is usually advisable to rear larvae to the adult stage for positive identification .\nmost of these species are more or less landscape level moths that occupy a variety of wooded habitats and often adjacent shrublands and thickets. in the context of habitat separation, suitable habitat includes marginal habitat and unsuitable means sparsely wooded to treeless places without suitable larval foodplant. for the relatively few included species that are specialized feeders forest or woodland where the foodplant is absent or nearly so can be treated as unsuitable habitats. in particular for the obligate conifer feeders, forest tracts in which suitable (for that species) pines, spruces, firs, etc. comprise fewer than 4 canopy trees per hectare may be regarded as unsuitable. see habitat and food comments fields for species - specific information on what constitutes habitat when mapping occurrences .\nmoths in this group typically occur in large habitats (500 to > 100, 000 hectares) at substantial densities (certainly several to many per hectare per year) and utilize dominant or co - dominant trees or understory shrubs for larval foodplants. most species are polyphagous or feed on common trees or shrubs (such as oaks southward or birches northward; westward often a dominant conifer or aspen) or at least on widespread species (such as tulip tree, white pine, hickories in many mixed eastern forests) and are not highly localized. while the suitable habitat figure is arbitrary it takes into account that adults are not especially powerful fliers with most probably flying about a meter per second or about 3. 6 km per hour. they probably do not commonly move far out of forests or at least wooded situations and probably often turn back when they do while on the other hand source populations are probably usually large making isolation of occurrences from each other difficult. most of these moths are widespread within forested habitats and it is very unlikely that two collections only 10 (or even 20) kilometers apart in extensively forested regions would really be separate occurrences - - even if (as will often be true) habitat quality were not uniform .\nthis figure is arbitrary but a circle of two kilometers radius would define a habitat clearly smaller than most, but well above the smallest ones. it is probably unrealistically low in extensively forested areas. this figure should not be used however if forests are reduced to small woodlots and the landscape is more than 50% agricultural or otherwise essentially devoid of native tree cover. in such cases the inferred extent is simply the woodlot in which the collection was made. in general with habitats under 1000 hectares assume full occupancy .\nuse the generic guidelines for the application of occurrence ranks (2008). the key for ranking species occurrences using the generic approach provides a step - wise process for implementing this method .\nzoological data developed by natureserve and its network of natural heritage programs (see local programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see sources) .\nscoble, m. j. (ed .), m. s. parsons, m. r. honey, l. m. pitkin, and b. r. pitkin. 1999. geometrid moths of the world: a catalogue. volumes 1 and 2: 1016 pp. + index 129 pp. csiro publishing, collingwood, victoria, australia .\nthe small print: trademark, copyright, citation guidelines, restrictions on use, and information disclaimer .\nnote: all species and ecological community data presented in natureserve explorer at urltoken were updated to be current with natureserve' s central databases as of november 2016. note: this report was printed on\ntrademark notice :\nnatureserve\n, natureserve explorer, the natureserve logo, and all other names of natureserve programs referenced herein are trademarks of natureserve. any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners .\ncopyright notice: copyright © 2017 natureserve, 4600 n. fairfax dr. , 7th floor, arlington virginia 22203, u. s. a. all rights reserved. each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. the following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site .\nnatureserve. 2017. natureserve explorer: an online encyclopedia of life [ web application ]. version 7. 1. natureserve, arlington, virginia. available http: / / explorer. natureserve. org. (accessed :\nridgely, r. s. , t. f. allnutt, t. brooks, d. k. mcnicol, d. w. mehlman, b. e. young, and j. r. zook. 2003. digital distribution maps of the birds of the western hemisphere, version 1. 0. natureserve, arlington, virginia, usa .\ndata provided by natureserve in collaboration with robert ridgely, james zook, the nature conservancy - migratory bird program, conservation international - cabs, world wildlife fund - us, and environment canada - wildspace .\npatterson, b. d. , g. ceballos, w. sechrest, m. f. tognelli, t. brooks, l. luna, p. ortega, i. salazar, and b. e. young. 2003. digital distribution maps of the mammals of the western hemisphere, version 1. 0. natureserve, arlington, virginia, usa .\ndata provided by natureserve in collaboration with bruce patterson, wes sechrest, marcelo tognelli, gerardo ceballos, the nature conservancy - migratory bird program, conservation international - cabs, world wildlife fund - us, and environment canada - wildspace .\niucn, conservation international, and natureserve. 2004. global amphibian assessment. iucn, conservation international, and natureserve, washington, dc and arlington, virginia, usa .\ndata developed as part of the global amphibian assessment and provided by iucn - world conservation union, conservation international and natureserve .\nno graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by natureserve. nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of natureserve. no trademark owned by natureserve may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from natureserve. except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any natureserve copyright .\n). your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users." ]
{ "text": [ "lytrosis unitaria , the common lytrosis moth , is a species of moth of the geometridae family .", "it is found in north america , including arkansas , georgia , iowa , massachusetts , new hampshire , new jersey , new york , north carolina , ohio , oklahoma , ontario , pennsylvania , south carolina , tennessee , texas , virginia , west virginia and wisconsin .", "the wingspan is about 50 mm .", "the larvae feed on rosa , crataegus , amelanchier , acer , quercus and viburnum species . " ], "topic": [ 29, 20, 9, 8 ] }
lytrosis unitaria, the common lytrosis moth, is a species of moth of the geometridae family. it is found in north america, including arkansas, georgia, iowa, massachusetts, new hampshire, new jersey, new york, north carolina, ohio, oklahoma, ontario, pennsylvania, south carolina, tennessee, texas, virginia, west virginia and wisconsin. the wingspan is about 50 mm. the larvae feed on rosa, crataegus, amelanchier, acer, quercus and viburnum species.
[ "lytrosis unitaria, the common lytrosis moth, is a species of moth of the geometridae family. it is found in north america, including arkansas, georgia, iowa, massachusetts, new hampshire, new jersey, new york, north carolina, ohio, oklahoma, ontario, pennsylvania, south carolina, tennessee, texas, virginia, west virginia and wisconsin. the wingspan is about 50 mm. the larvae feed on rosa, crataegus, amelanchier, acer, quercus and viburnum species." ]
animal-train-2
animal-train-2
2653
abantiades sericatus
[ "abantiades sericatus tindale, 1932; rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 513; tl: western australia, lake grace\nabantiades sericatus; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 856 (list )\nabantiades lineacurva. brookton highway, se of kelmscott, western australia. photo courtesy of paul hutchinson©\nabantiades lineacurva moore & edwards, 2014; aust. ent. 41: 30; tl: western australia, kojonup\nabantiades latipennis tindale, 1932; rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 530; tl: victoria, lorne\nabantiades argentangulum moore & edwards, 2014; aust. ent. 41: 34; tl: yanchep national park, 5mil n of yanchep\nabantiades ocellatus tindale, 1932; rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 514; tl: western australia, denmark\nabantiades marcidus tindale, 1932; rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 515; tl: south australia, adelaide\nabantiades magnificus; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 857 (list )\nabantiades fulvomarginatus tindale, 1932; rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 534; tl: western australia, lennox\nabantiades equipalpus moore, 2014; aust. ent. 41 (4): 217; tl: western australia, 2km w of s. bullabulling\nabantiades aurilegulus tindale, 1932; rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 520; tl: western australia ,\ngoldfields\nabantiades ocellatus; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 856 (list )\nabantiades marcidus; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 856 (list )\nabantiades aurilegulus; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 856 (list )\nabantiades latipennis; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 857 (list )\nabantiades fulvomarginatus; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 857 (list )\nabantiades antenniochrus moore, 2014; aust. ent. 41 (4): 224; tl: western australia, 31. 425653°s, 118. 426902°e, goldfields rd, 400m e of eyre highway, 6. 5km wsw of burracoppin\nabantiades hyalinatus; tindale, 1932, rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 517; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 856 (list )\nabantiades labyrinthicus; tindale, 1932, rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 522; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 856 (list )\nabantiades leucochiton; tindale, 1932, rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 526; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 856 (list )\nabantiades hydrographus; tindale, 1932, rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 528; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 857 (list )\nabantiades barcas; tindale, 1932, rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 532; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 857 (list )\nabantiades albofasciatus; tindale, 1932, rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 533; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 857 (list )\nabantiades aphenges; tindale, 1932, rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 535; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 857 (list )\nabantiades (hepialidae); tindale, 1932, rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 510; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 856 (list )\nthe female adult moths of this species basically have pale brown forewings with a sinuous pattern of white patches with black outlines, each forewing has two or three orange and blue eyespots. the hindwings are plain pale brown. the head and thorax are black, and the abdomen is brown. the wingspan is about 7 cms .\nthe males are similar, but have white forewings with the sinuous pattern, and have plain white hindwings. the moths have\nvolume 4, part 4 (1932), pp. 513 - 514, figs. 27, 28 .\nconfused by a class within a class or an order within an order? please see our brief essay .\nto cite this page: myers, p. , r. espinosa, c. s. parr, t. jones, g. s. hammond, and t. a. dewey. 2018. the animal diversity web (online). accessed at https: / / animaldiversity. org .\ndisclaimer: the animal diversity web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. adw doesn' t cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. while adw staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control .\nthis material is based upon work supported by the national science foundation grants drl 0089283, drl 0628151, due 0633095, drl 0918590, and due 1122742. additional support has come from the marisla foundation, um college of literature, science, and the arts, museum of zoology, and information and technology services .\nmany species show stricking purplish colors at the base of the hindwings and adjacent body that quickly fade in collection specimens. digital photography of fresh specimens is changing perceptions about the appearance of these species .\nexcavate near vertical tunnels that may branch near the ground surface and are almost horizontal when in contact with surface litter. larvae feeding callus formed at localized lesions. the feeding area is sometimes enveloped by callus and larvae continue feeding inside the resulting cavity\nfemale and male. brindabella ranges, new south wales. photo courtesy of david fischer©\nfemale, april 1, 2015, wittlesea, victoria, austrlaia. image courtesy of nick temby©\napril 1, 2015, wittlesea, victoria, austrlaia. image courtesy of nick temby©\ngleneagle state forest, armadale, western australia. 17 march, 2012. photo courtesy of paul hutchinson©\ngleneagle state forest, armadale, western australia. march, 2012. photo courtesy of paul hutchinson©\nholotype swan river, 1869. from oxford university museum. image courtesy of roman yakovlev\nholotype male. collected by nick tenby, ex fabian douglas collection. image courtesy of mike moore\nwe parsed the following live from the web into this page. such content is managed by its original site and not cached on discover life. please send feedback and corrections directly to the source. see original regarding copyrights and terms of use .\n=; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 856 (list )\n=; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 856 (list )\naustralia (new south wales, victoria, tasmania). see [ maps ]\n=; tindale, 1932, rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 517; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 856 (list )\n=; tindale, 1932, rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 517 ♀; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 856 (list )\naustralia (queensland, new south wales, victoria). see [ maps ]\n=; tindale, 1932, rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 522 ♂; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 856 (list )\n=; tindale, 1932, rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 522; [ nhm card ]; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 856 (list )\n=; tindale, 1932, rec. s. aust. mus. 4 (4): 522; [ aucl ]; nielsen, robinson & wagner, 2000, j. nat. hist. 34: 856 (list )\npielus leucochiton pfitzner, 1914; ent. rundschau 31 (17): 95; tl: australia\npielus magnificus lucas, 1898; proc. r. soc. qd 13: 61; tl: australia\npielus hydrographus felder, 1874; reise fregatte novara, bd 2 (abth. 2) (4): pl. 80, f. 3; tl: adelaide\npielus barcas pfitzner, 1914; ent. rundschau 31 (17): 95; tl: australia\npielus albofasciatus swinhoe, 1892; cat. het. mus. oxford (1): 289; tl: swan river\npielus aphenges turner, 1904; trans. r. soc. s. austr. 28: 247; tl: new south wales\n[ maps ] warning! the maps are automatically generated from the textual information, and the process does not always produce acceptable result; see about maps for more info .\nan epitome of the natural history of the insects of new holland, new zealand, new guinea, otaheite and other islands in the indian, sothern and pacific oceans ...\nreise der österreichischen fregatte novara um die erde in den jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den behilfen des commodore b. von wüllerstorf - urbair. zoologischer theil. band 2. abtheilung 2. lepidoptera. rhopalocera\n- 120, (inhalts - verz .) 1 - 9 (pl. 1 - 74), (felder & rogenhofer, 1874), (5): pl .\nsystematische bearbeitung der schmetterlinge von europa, zugleich als text, revision und supplement zu j. hübner' s sammlung europäischer schmetterlinge, sechter un letzter band, 1843 - 1856\n( 1): (i) pl. i (1843), (3): (i) i - ii, pl. ii - iv (1844), (6): (i) pl. v (1844), (7): (i) pl. vi (1844), (8): (i) iii - x, pl. vii - viii (1844), (9): (i) pl. ix - xi (1844), (11): (i) pl. xii (1845), (13): (i) xi - xiv, pl. xiii - xiv (1846), (17): (i) pl. xvi (1846), (22): (ii) pl. i - iii (1847), (35): (i) pl. xv (1848), (36): (i) pl. xvii - xix (1848), (37): (i) pl. xx (1849), (? 38): (i) xv - xviii (1849), (38): (i) pl. xxi - xxii (1849), (40): (ii) i - ii - iv, pl. iv - ix (1849), (48): [\n- 36 (1852), (60): (ii) v - viii, pl. x - xiv (iv) 37 - 40 (1853), (65): (iv )\nrevision of the australian ghost moths (lepidoptera homoneura, family hepialidae) pt. i\nwalker, 1865 list of the specimens of lepidopterous insects in the collection of the british museum list spec. lepid. insects colln br. mus. 31: 1 - 322 ([ 1865 ]), 32: 323 - 706 (1865), 33: 707 - 1120 (1865), 34: 1121 - 1534 ([ 1866 ]), 35: 1535 - 2040 (1866 )\nif you have corrections, comments or information to add into these pages, just send mail to markku savela keep in mind that the taxonomic information is copied from various sources, and may include many inaccuracies. expert help is welcome .\nthis article has been rated as stub - class on the project' s quality scale .\nthis article has been rated as low - importance on the project' s importance scale .\nneed help improving this article? ask a librarian what' s this? at the national library of australia .\ntext is available under the creative commons attribution - sharealike license; additional terms may apply. by using this site, you agree to the terms of use and privacy policy. wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the wikimedia foundation, inc. , a non - profit organization." ]
{ "text": [ "abantiades sericatus is a moth of the hepialidae family .", "it is endemic to western australia .", "the wingspan is about 70 mm .", "adult females have pale brown forewings with a sinuous pattern of white patches with black outlines and two to three orange and blue eyespots .", "the hindwings are pale brown .", "males have white forewings with a sinuous pattern and white hindwings . " ], "topic": [ 2, 0, 9, 1, 1, 1 ] }
abantiades sericatus is a moth of the hepialidae family. it is endemic to western australia. the wingspan is about 70 mm. adult females have pale brown forewings with a sinuous pattern of white patches with black outlines and two to three orange and blue eyespots. the hindwings are pale brown. males have white forewings with a sinuous pattern and white hindwings.
[ "abantiades sericatus is a moth of the hepialidae family. it is endemic to western australia. the wingspan is about 70 mm. adult females have pale brown forewings with a sinuous pattern of white patches with black outlines and two to three orange and blue eyespots. the hindwings are pale brown. males have white forewings with a sinuous pattern and white hindwings." ]
animal-train-3
animal-train-3
2654
eupoca haakei
[ "eupoca haakei is a moth in the crambidae family. it was described by solis and adamski in 1998. it is found at low elevations in south - eastern costa rica .\neupoca haakei is a moth in the crambidae family. it was described by solis and adamski in 1998. it is found at low elevations in south - eastern costa rica .\neupoca micralis is a moth in the crambidae family. it is found in mexico .\neupoca leucolepia is a moth in the crambidae family. it is found in brazil .\neupoca polyorma is a moth in the crambidae family. it is found in venezuela .\nthis page is based on the copyrighted wikipedia article eupoca haakei; it is used under the creative commons attribution - sharealike 3. 0 unported license (cc - by - sa). you may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the cc - by - sa\neupoca bifascialis is a moth in the crambidae family. it is found from southern mexico to north - central argentina .\neupoca sanctalis is a moth in the crambidae family. it is found from central costa rica south to northern colombia .\neupoca chicalis is a moth in the crambidae family. it was described by schaus in 1920. it is found from guatemala south - east to french guiana .\nthirty - one species of glaphyriinae (crambidae: pyraloidea) from costa rica are reviewed, including nine new species: aureopteryx olufsoni, eupoca haakei, glaphyria tetra spina, glaphyria spinacrista, glaphyria stellaspina, glaphyria spinasingularis, lipocosma rosalia, lipocosma pitilla, and lipocosma fonsecai. lipocosma teliferalis dyar is a junior synonym of lipocosma punctissimalis dyar, lipocosma plagalis schaus is a junior synonym of lipocosma ausonialis (druce), and parambia gleanealis dyar is a junior synonym of parambia gnomosynalis dyar. a key to the identification of costa rican species is provided. the presence of a pseudognathos in the male genitalia and modified scales on the area between cua 2 and cup of the hind wing are discussed .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd xhtml 1. 0 strict / / en\nurltoken\nurn: lsid: catalogueoflife. org: taxon: 322c1faa - 4e2c - 11e8 - 9ed0 - fa163e792e6e: col20180626\nurn: lsid: catalogueoflife. org: taxon: 322c25e1 - 4e2c - 11e8 - 9ed0 - fa163e792e6e: col20180626\nurn: lsid: catalogueoflife. org: taxon: 322c277b - 4e2c - 11e8 - 9ed0 - fa163e792e6e: col20180626\nurn: lsid: catalogueoflife. org: taxon: 322dd07d - 4e2c - 11e8 - 9ed0 - fa163e792e6e: col20180626\nurn: lsid: catalogueoflife. org: taxon: 32504564 - 4e2c - 11e8 - 9ed0 - fa163e792e6e: col20180626\nurn: lsid: catalogueoflife. org: taxon: 32504772 - 4e2c - 11e8 - 9ed0 - fa163e792e6e: col20180626\nurn: lsid: catalogueoflife. org: taxon: 34c9903c - 4e2c - 11e8 - 9ed0 - fa163e792e6e: col20180626\nbeccaloni g. , scoble m. , kitching i. , simonsen t. , robinson g. , pitkin b. , hine a. & lyal c. (2018). lepindex: the global lepidoptera names index (version 12. 3, jan 2012). in: roskov y. , abucay l. , orrell t. , nicolson d. , bailly n. , kirk p. m. , bourgoin t. , dewalt r. e. , decock w. , de wever a. , nieukerken e. van, zarucchi j. , penev l. , eds. (2018). species 2000 & itis catalogue of life, 30th june 2018. digital resource at urltoken species 2000: naturalis, leiden, the netherlands. issn 2405 - 8858 .\nurn: lsid: catalogueoflife. org: taxon: 50e2c156 - 4e2c - 11e8 - 9ed0 - fa163e792e6e: col20180626\n. if you continue to use the site we will assume that you agree with this .\neol content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. as a result, from time to time you may find pages on eol that are confusing .\nto request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. thank you !\nreview of the costa rican glaphyriinae (lepidoptera: pyraloidea: cramb\nby m. alma solis and david adamski\nm. alma solis, systematic entomology laboratory, psi, ars, usda, nat. mus. nat. hist. , mrc 168, washington, d. c. 20560 david adamski, systematic entomology laboratory, psi, ars, usda, nat. mus. nat. hist. , mrc 168, washington, d. c. 20560 follow\npublished in j. new york entomol. soc. 106 (1): 1 - 55, 1998 .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd html 4. 01 transitional / / en\nurltoken\nnote: you should have a urltoken account to upload new topics and comments. please, create an account or log in to add comments\n* our website is multilingual. some comments have been translated from other languages .\nthere are no photos of this species on the website yet. you can offer your photo by logging into your account\ncurators: konstantin efetov, vasiliy feoktistov, svyatoslav knyazev, evgeny komarov, stan korb, alexander zhakov .\nspecies catalog enables to sort by characteristics such as expansion, flight time, etc. .\nthe length of the forewings is 7. 8 - 9. 5 mm. the ground colour of the forewings is brown mixed with white and pale brown scales. the distal part of the subterminal area is pale brown and the marginal line is brown. the hindwings are pale brown with a brown marginal line .\nlua error in package. lua at line 80: module' module: buffer' not found .\npopular: trivia, history, america, television, tv, usa, geography, world, ... more\nall fasciae on the forewings are dark brown near the costa, except for the light brown basal fascia. the antemedial, postmedial and subterminal lines are faint white .\nthe apical, subapical and tornal areas of the forewings are brown and the medial area is light brown. the antemedial and subterminal lines are white. the hindwings are uniform grey with a narrow marginal line .\npopular: trivia, history, america, television, tv, usa, geography, cities, ... more" ]
{ "text": [ "eupoca haakei is a moth in the crambidae family .", "it was described by solis and adamski in 1998 .", "it is found at low elevations in south-eastern costa rica .", "the length of the forewings is 7.8-9.5 mm .", "the ground colour of the forewings is brown mixed with white and pale brown scales .", "the distal part of the subterminal area is pale brown and the marginal line is brown .", "the hindwings are pale brown with a brown marginal line . " ], "topic": [ 2, 5, 20, 9, 1, 1, 1 ] }
eupoca haakei is a moth in the crambidae family. it was described by solis and adamski in 1998. it is found at low elevations in south-eastern costa rica. the length of the forewings is 7.8-9.5 mm. the ground colour of the forewings is brown mixed with white and pale brown scales. the distal part of the subterminal area is pale brown and the marginal line is brown. the hindwings are pale brown with a brown marginal line.
[ "eupoca haakei is a moth in the crambidae family. it was described by solis and adamski in 1998. it is found at low elevations in south-eastern costa rica. the length of the forewings is 7.8-9.5 mm. the ground colour of the forewings is brown mixed with white and pale brown scales. the distal part of the subterminal area is pale brown and the marginal line is brown. the hindwings are pale brown with a brown marginal line." ]
animal-train-4
animal-train-4
2655
polish cochineal
[ "clockwise: kermes, armenian cochineal, polish cochineal, lac dye and american cochineal .\n], and hence its presence does not exclude the use of polish cochineal, whereas pp6 precludes the american one .\ncollecting cochineal bugs in peruvian highlands. (the collecting cloth is naturally dyed with cochineal. )\nthe scarcity of polish cochineal and its plant host today may be traced to extensive harvesting over the centuries. rather than collect the larvae alone, harvesters uprooted the entire plant. until the introduction of cochineal from the americas in the 16th century, the polish cochineal insect was an important trade commodity .\nchromatograms of the extracts of polish and american cochineal (obtained with ms and spectrophotometric detection) are apparently almost identical (fig .\npolish cochineal is another dye, which was widely used until the mid 19 th century as a textile dye. it was not used as a food dye. polish cochineal is also derived from an insect, the margarodes polonicus, found in eastern europe and parts of asia .\nidentification of polish cochineal (porphyrophora polonica l .) in historical textiles by high - performance liquid chromatography coupled with spectrophotometric and tandem mass spectrometric detection\n]. it is most probably the reason why this dye, obtained from polish cochineal, has not been studied for the last 25 years .\nuv–vis (287, 435, and 495 nm) and ms chromatograms (extracted negative ion) of extract from polish cochineal (cf. table\nidentification of polish cochineal (porphyrophora polonica l .) in historical textiles by high - performance liquid chromatography coupled with spectrophotometric and tandem mass spectrometric detection | springerlink\nan account of the polish cochineal: in a letter to mr. henry baker, f. r. s. from dr. wolfe, of warsaw\napparently identical chromatograms of extracts from american and polish cochineals in the range of 10. 7–12. 0 min are in fact crucial for differentiation between these two natural red dyestuffs. the chromatogram of the extract obtained from polish cochineal consists of peak at t\nparts of this work were presented at ix polish conference on analytical chemistry – poznán, poland .\nhaur jk. dziennik handlowy (in polish). 1787; i - ii: 27–8 .\napart from pp6, the extract of polish cochineal contains another colorant of relatively large concentration, pp7. this compound has been reported previously by wouters and verhecken [\nchemical differentiation between red animal dyes obtained from cochineal scale insects such as polish and american cochineal has been extremely difficult so far, since they have similar composition of their anthraquinone compounds. examination of the extract obtained from polish cochineal by hplc - dad - esi qqq ms allowed identification of 22 color compounds; the structures of 16 among them have not yet been proposed. most of them were\n- hexosides of kermesic and flavokermesic acids or their derivatives. the present paper introduces a fingerprint of color compounds present in polish cochineal and defines them, particularly pp6 (ppi ,\n- hexoside of flavokermesic acid), as its markers allow distinguishing of polish - cochineal reds from the american ones. usefulness of the selected set of markers for identification of polish cochineal has been demonstrated in the examination of textiles from the collection of the national museum in warsaw using the multiple reaction monitoring (mrm) method, originally elaborated on the basis of this study .\ncochineal dye was introduced into europe in the late 1500s by spanish explorers from south and central america. no information was provided on the source or nature of cochineal because the spaniards closely protected their supply. more on the history and origins of cochineal in latin america here dried cochineal looks like small silver - grey peppercorns or plant seeds. before microscopes where in use, european scientists argued for a long time as to whether cochineal was a plant, an animal or a mineral. we now know that cochineal is a female scale insect that lives on prickly pear cactus plants (opuntia or nopal) native to central and south america. scale insects are plant - sucking bugs that are covered by a white fluffy, protective coating and cochineal bugs produce carminic acid as a by - product to deter predators. crimson, fuchsia, raspberry and scarlet reds can be obtained from cochineal. the red colorant is used in drinks (e. g. campari) and in foods (under the code e120), and in drugs and cosmetics. polish cochineal, kermes, lac and st john’s blood are produced from different scale insects that are more or less closely related to true cochineal insects. the term cochineal may be applied either to the living or dried cochineal insects or to cochineal dye which is obtained from them. it takes about 155, 000 cochineal insects to produce 1 kilo of cochineal dye. more on cochineal insects (cochineal bugs or cochineal beetles)? click here .\nłagowska b, golan k, stepaniuk k. wiad entomol (in polish). 2006; 25: 5–14 .\nthese fabrics were dyed in cochineal by judy newland using eco - dye techniques .\n- glycosidic one; thus strong mineral acid causes its hydrolysis and formation of free aglycones more easily. consequently, kermesic and flavokermesic acids were determined in significantly larger amount in polish than in american cochineal .\nscience in the dyepot tiny cochineal insects produce a stunning red that has been valued since ancient times. these cactus - eating scale insects grow on prickly pear cactus right in our neighborhoods, but are cultivated in peru, which produces higher amounts of color. the coccid family includes american cochineal, polish and armenian cochineal, lac, and kermes – all bursting with carminic acid .\n475 → 341, 311, 282) as well, the isomers eluting at approximately the same time. since pp6 (ppi) has already been proposed by us as a marker of polish cochineal, its absence in other extracts suggests that those fibers were probably dyed with american cochineal species (table\nfigures of insects and eggs observed in poland, polish cochineal [ porphyrophora polonica ] or carmine scales. inscribed in pencil with instructions to printers. two sets of drawings mounted on a single backing sheet. plate 10 from the paper “further account of the polish cochineal... ”, by nathaniel matthew wolfe (1724 - 1784), philosophical transactions of the royal society, vol. 54 (1764) pp. 95 - 98 .\n10. 8 min). because of a relatively intensive chromatographic peak of pp6, this compound was proposed as the marker that would allow distinguishing between polish cochineal and other cochineal species. it also has to be noted that comparison of its uv–vis spectrum with the one of ppi presented by wouters and verhecken [\nkuwana. the latter is a new species of cochineal inventoried in algeria. the families of\npolish cochineal (porphyrophora polonica), like kermes and cochineal, are sessile, parasitic scale insects. they live on the roots of various herbs - especially those of the perennial knawel - found in central europe and other parts of eurasia. cochineal was used through the middle ages in the ukraine, lithuania, and eastern europe to supplement or replace the rare and costly kermes red. harvested just before the females reach maturity, usually around the saint’s day of john the baptist, the dye became known as saint john’s blood. polish cochineal was used to dye a variety of natural fabrics. the dye itself contains carminic acid with small amounts of kermesic acid .\nthere are two principal forms of cochineal dye: cochineal extract (e120 (ii) ) is a colouring made from the raw dried and pulverised bodies of insects with around 20% carminic acid; and carmine (e120 (i) ) a more purified colouring made from cochineal .\ncochinea red dye - the use of cochineal beetles as natural fabric dye in chinchero, peru .\nup until the end of the medieval period, the most extravagant, brilliant and enduring crimson red fabrics were dyed with valuable insect dyes: kermes, lac dye and polish and armenian cochineal. symbols of hierarchy and power, crimson... more\ncochineal extract is a bright - red natural dye obtained from the scale insect dactylopius coccus costa, known as american cochineal, and found in tropical and subtropical areas of south america and mexico. 1) the major pigment in cochineal extract is carminic acid (ca), which consists of an anthraquinone aglycone linked to a c - d - glucopyranose unit 2) (fig. 1). the anthraquinone aglycone in ca is kermesic acid, based on a study of european scale insects belonging to the kermes group known as polish cochineal. 3 )\nthe result of the present study clearly indicates that tandem mass spectrometric detection coupled with high - performance liquid chromatography is essential for the unequivocal identification of polish cochineal. the ms / ms fragmentation experiments enable fast and reliable evaluation of even limited number of samples .\na naturally - dyed and handwoven bag from patabamba, peru, using cochineal dyed yarn in lower half .\n]. however, this statistical method requires a large number of reference samples to create a correct model, which seems to be particularly difficult given the limited availability of polish cochineal. the present study demonstrates that detection of minor but characteristic compounds can also be an efficient tool for identification of polish cochineal in the historical samples, especially if access to the respective number of dye samples is restricted. nevertheless, if only appropriate reference materials are available, further studies using pls - da would be undertaken in order to validate the coherence of these two independent approaches .\n], the composition of colorants in polish and armenian cochineals is very similar; in both dyes pp2, pp6, pp7, pp10, or pp12 may be found .\n- glucoside of flavokermesic acid, present mainly in american cochineal). despite nearly the same retention times, they were differentiated on the basis of their different mass and spectrophotometric spectra. even though dcii was not noted in polish cochineal, this compound always accompanied pp6 in the extracts obtained from the historical threads. nonetheless, dcii is not a marker of any dye, and may be present in\nin the eighteenth century cochineal became known in the rest of europe and was much sought after. as demand for cochineal increased stricter laws about the production were enacted, which controlled the purity of the dye and guarded against illegal importation of cochineal. other countries took steps to learn about the cultivation of cochineal to circumvent the virtual monopoly spain had in the cochineal trade. in 1777 the french sent a botanist, thiery de menonville, to oaxaca to observe the production of cochineal. 12 menonville published the findings of his trip in 1787 in a book entitled traité de la culture du nopal et de l' education de la cochenille dans les colonies françaises de l' amérique; précédé d' une voyage a guaxaca. 13 the french attempted to cultivate cochineal in haiti but were unsuccessful. 14\nthe english also made attempts to learn more about the cultivation of cochineal so that they could grow their own crops. the botanist james anderson wrote a series of letters in the 1790s to a colleague in india regarding the importation of cochineal into hindostan. anderson sent samples of the nopal cactus and crates of cochineal bugs from mexico to his contact in india in an attempt to try to establish the cultivation of cochineal there, but the enterprise was ultimately unsuccessful. 15 there were also attempts to import cochineal to south carolina for cultivation. some estimated that one slave could tend to four acres of nopal. another writer suggested that one slave could tend to ten to twelve acres of the plants. the cultivation of cochineal appeared to be a very lucrative enterprise, but the nopal cactus did not take there. 16 in 1828, the dutch succeeded in establishing cochineal in java, but new spain remained the main source of cochineal .\non the populations of mealybugs in our study is the first in algeria. equal distribution of cochineal species is minimal ,\nthe quantitative determination of selected dyestuff components by high performance liquid chromatography, diode - array detection, and post - run data manipulation was used to recognize dyes on historic yarns prepared from dactylopius coccus (american cochineal), kermococcus vermilio (kermes), porphyrophora polonica (polish cochineal), porphyrophora hamelii (ararat cochineal), or kerria lacca (indian lac). study of scale - insect red dyes suggests a rather widespread use of mixed primary sources, not only of insect reds alone, but also in combination with plant reds and tannins .\na prickly pear in the phoenix valley provides a home for cochineal insects covered in a white bloom of very fine hairs .\nbooks for the serious dyer, dominique cardon’s natural dyes is a must read. a classic study is fred gerber’s 1978 book, cochineal and the insect dyes. for a fascinating history of cochineal, read amy butler greenfield’s, a perfect red. for a beautiful look at objects in museum collections, check out cochineal red: the art history of a color by elena phipps\n- d - glucopyranoside of flavokermesic acid (dcofka). its occurrence has already been reported in the case of american cochineal [\nthe presence of 10 species of cochineal (homoptera: coccoidea) belonging to eight genera and four families (table 1) .\ncochineal (dactylopius coccus) is an insect very like the kermes insect, and lives on some cacti or prickly pears. the cochineal beetle is a primarily sessile parasite, feeding on moisture and nutrients in the cacti or prickly pears that form its habitat .\nearly observers were confused about the source of cochineal. some thought the dye came from the seed of a plant while others correctly identified the source of the dye as an insect. 5 cochineal comes from a shield insect similar to the kermes. these insects lay their eggs on the leaves or pencas of the nopal cactus, also known as the prickly pear or indian fig. 6 wild cochineal, also known as grana silvestra, could be harvested up to six times a year. this cochineal was covered with a white hairy powder and produced a higher quality dye. cultivated cochineal, or grana fina, could be harvested three times a year. 7\neuropeans first became aware of cochineal in the new world in 1523 when hernán cortés heard about the existence of nocheztli or grana, which had been used as a dyestuff by the aztec and mexican indians since time immemorial. 3 specimens of cochineal were taken to spain in the 1520s and records show that cloth merchants in antwerp were buying cochineal in insect and powdered form in spain by the 1540s. 4\nas a natural dye, the red from polish cochineal is a mixture of colorants, the composition of which is very similar to other animal red dyes such as american or armenian cochineals. they all contain mainly carminic acid and many minor colorants (i. e. , flavokermesic acid, kermesic acid, dcii, dciv, dcvii) [\ncochineal extract is hydrophilic and stable to heat and light. cochineal extract changes color depending on the ph, without forming a sediment, and therefore it has been widely used as a natural dye for food additives, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. 1) however, allergic reactions probably induced by the intake of cochineal extract have been reported, and the reaction is likely triggered by proteins and peptides in the insect, d. coccus. 4 – 6) for this reason, highly purified ca prepared from cochineal extract is often used in food additives. however, further investigation into minor compounds in commercial products is required to maintain the quality assurance of cochineal extract and ensure food safety .\ncochineal remained one of the most important sources of red dyestuffs until the 1850s, when the first synthetic dyes, called aniline dyes, were produced. the introduction of red azo dyes in the 1880s provided a cheaper synthetic alternative to cochineal and production of it essentially ceased. 17\nbrandt (two closely related species) are very similar. moreover, due to the limited availability of polish cochineal caused by decrease in its population and its protection by law, the content of the main colorants determined by the authors of the studies until now constituted the only base for the identification of this dye in pieces of art. in this way\nin addition as a dye for textiles, cochineal became widely used as a food colouring. cakes, cookies, beverages, jam, jelly, ice cream, sausages, pies, dried fish, yogurt, cider, maraschino cherries and tomato products were brightened with it as were chewing gum, pills and cough drops. cosmetic rouge was developed with cochineal as the main ingredient. cochineal is still widely used in cosmetics .\nkawecki z, 1971. a note on some european lecaniidae (coccoidea) with new additions of the austrian, british, italian and polish fauna. bulletin de l’academie polonaise des sciences, 19: 255 - 260 .\nby the seventeenth century the production of cochineal had spread through all of new spain. around 1620, the governor of yucatán, antonio de figueroa had almost three million nopal seeds planted in that peninsula. the production of cochineal was a vital product in the trade between the americas and spain. 10 the cultivation of cochineal spread into central and south america and was successful in honduras, guatemala, san salvador, and nicaragua. 11\nthe aim of the study was to create a fingerprint of color compounds present in polish cochineal and to find its markers, which would allow distinguishing of this dye from other reds of animal origin, primarily american cochineal. for this reason, hplc - uv–vis - esi qqq ms system was used. the compounds separated on a reverse phase phenyl column were detected spectrophotometrically at various wavelengths as well as by the use of mass spectrometer in the negative ion mode under various acquisition conditions. ms detection performed in the full\ncochineal was already used as a colour by the aztec and maya peoples of central and north america. cochineal was a commodity of much value, even comparable to gold. cities send bags of cochineal to the capital tenochtitlán as a yearly contribute to the emperor. the spanish conquerors of central america saw the value of the dye, which produced a much better colour than the dyes used in europe at the time. the dye, which at the time was mainly used in cosmetics and textiles and to a lesser extend in foods, became very popular in europe. roman catholic cardinals robes were coloured with cochineal, as were the jackets of the british military. cochineal was a highly prized product and was regularly traded on the london and amsterdam commodity exchanges. as its origins were not known to most europeans, the american colonists bought their cochineal from europe, instead directly from mexico ...\ncarmine (made from cochineal insects) is much more concentrated than the traditional red dyes of madder root, kermes, polish cochineal and brazilwood. it was in high demand throughout europe, coloring the fabrics of royalty, nobility, and church leaders. for several centuries it was the most important insect dye used in hand - woven oriental rugs. michelangelo used carmine in his paints, and the dye lent distinction to the uniforms of the british redcoats (shown here), the hussars, the turks and the royal canadian mounted police .\nin addition to dye for fabric, cochineal became widely used as a food coloring. cakes, cookies, beverages, jam, jelly, ice cream, sausages, pies, dried fish, yogurt, cider, maraschino cherries and tomato products were brightened with it as were chewing gum, pills and cough drops. cosmetic rouge was developed with cochineal as the main ingredient. but while ever more diverse uses were found for cochineal, it’s origin remained a mystery .\nthis is the name of an azo dye, e124, which bears no resemblance with cochineal, but produces a similar colour, hence the (confusing) name .\ncochineal extract is the concentrated solution obtained after removing the alcohol from an aqueous - alcoholic extract of the dried bodies of a female insect (coccus cactic l .) .\napart from grown dyes, medieval dyers used also local, wild - growing plants, fungi and lichens, and also insects. a widely known dye were the larvae of a local (poland, lithuania, parts of germany) insect called polish cochineal (polish carmine scale) (porphyrophora polonica v. cocus polonicus) that produced a beautiful, rich scarlet. it was exported since the early middle ages to many west european countries. another scale insect producing beautiful shades of scarlet was so called kermes (kermes vermillio), imported to the cities of northern europe from the mediterranean. the use of both these insects were gradually abandoned with introduction of imported cochineal. few centuries earlier no less important dye was tyrian purple, in the times of the roman empire produced from sea snails (murex trunculus, murex brandaris). it was the most expensive dye of the antiquity .\nwitness the beautiful life cycle of a polish cochineal (porphyrophora polonica) and its host plant, the knawel. both are rather unassuming, which helps them avoid predation. the cochineal doesn' t like to bring it, but if forced it will step up (meaning, be chewed thoroughly enough that it releases foul - tasting red liquids .) while bug flour may be the salvation for an overcrowded, resource - depleted world, these critters probably won' t be factor into any waffles or baguettes. (illustration from johann philip breyn' s 1731 historia naturalis cocci radicum tincttorii quod polonicum vulgo audit. )\nin this paper, we described the isolation and structural elucidation of a novel anthraquinone compound, spiroketalcarminic acid (1), as a minor pigment isolated from commercial cochineal extract .\nis a scale insect known as polish cochineal. at times, it has been commercially cultivated to produce a red dye based on its carminic acid content. it was primarily cultivated in the area of eastern europe that now contains poland and ukraine. in the 1400 and 1500s, trade in the dye flourished. trade plummeted when the spanish began to import mexican cochineal from north america in the 1540s. it became no longer profitable to produce the dye and knawel cultivation was replaced by other crops. at the end of the 1700s when trade opened between eastern europe and the orient, the dye was once again in demand and\ncochineal comes from the cochineal insect, which produces carminic acid to protect itself from its insect predators. carmine dye is made from carminic acid, which is extracted from the female beetles’ body and eggs. this deep crimson dye is used to produce scarlet, orange, and other shades of red, and is found in cosmetics and as a food colorant .\none reason cochineal is prized is its stability as a dye. the color remains constant over time, and is one of the most resistant natural colorants to the effects of light, heat and oxidation, even more so than some synthetic colorants. you can identify carmine dyes in food and cosmetics as e120, cochineal, or natural red 4 on packaging labels .\nthe polish cochineal was dried using a lyophilizer, alpha 1–2 ld, martin christ (osterode am harz, germany). extraction of colorants was performed with the use of an ultrasonic bath, branson model 1210 (danbury, ct, usa) as well as with a water bath, memmert wb 10 (schwabach, germany), and the extract was separated from the residue using centrifuge mpw - 350r, mpw med. instruments (warsaw, poland) .\non the 1st july 2016, ttt member ana serrano presented and discussed her phd dissertation, with the title “the red road of the iberian expansion: cochineal and the global dye trade”, which aimed to explore the impact of american cochineal in the global trade, and its importance in the main european and asian textile centres, between the 16th and the 18th centuries .\ncarminic acid of analytical chemical grade was purchased from fluka (buchs, switzerland), kermesic acid was kindly donated by dr. ioannis karapanagiotis (ormylia art diagnosis center, greece), and flavokermesic acid was obtained from a mixture of natural product known as lac dye, which was purchased from kremer - pigmente (aichstetten, germany). polish cochineal was harvested by bożena łagowska and katarzyna golan (department of entomology, university of life sciences, lublin, poland) and kindly donated by jerzy holc (the head of conservation workshop of historical textiles at wawel royal castle, kraków, poland). american cochineal was purchased from kremer - pigmente (aichstetten, germany) .\nhowever, because of health concerns over synthetic colorants and food additives, there is a renewed interest in natural dyes. some artists prefer to use natural dyes, creating a market for carmine oil paints and watercolors. production of cochineal dyes, known to be non - toxic and non - carcinogenic, has once more become viable for applications in medicine, food production, and cosmetics. cactus crops in mexico, guatemala, and the canary islands are in use as commercial cochineal production sites. a small number of people are allergic to cochineal, and react with anaphylactic shock symptoms .\nuntil the end of the 15th century, the richest red fabrics were dyed with kermes, lac dye and polish and armenian cochineal. these insect dyes were collected from plant roots and tree branches growing in certain parts of europe and asia, and they were traded between both continents, by way of major commercial routes, such as the silk road. thus, they travelled great distances to reach the main textile industries, where they were used to colour fine and expensive cloths, meant for the wealthy elites .\nfull citations for books: greenfield, amy butler, 2005, a perfect red, harper perennial, new york. cardon, dominique, 2007, natural dyes, archetype publications, london. gerber, frederick, 1978, cochineal and the insect dyes, ormond beach, fl. phipps, elena, 2010, cochineal red: the art history of a color, yale university press, new haven, ct .\nthe insects are killed by immersion in hot water (after which they are dried) or by exposure to sunlight, steam, or the heat of an oven. each method produces a different colour which results in the varied appearance of commercial cochineal. the insects must be dried to about 30 percent of their original body weight before they can be stored without decaying. it takes about 155, 000 insects to make one kilogram of cochineal .\na multidisciplinary investigation, combining history, textile objects from museum collections, and chemistry, aimed to explore the impact of cochineal as a commercial product in the global circulation of dyestuffs, and its importance in... more\nin this tutorial, it is described step - by - step how to characterize chromatographic results of cochineal dyes found in fibre samples from historical textiles, through models developed with partial - least squares discriminant analysis... more\nin our evaluation of the purities of commercial products of cochineal extract; cochineal extract for food additives, carmine that is an aluminum salt of cochineal extract used as a natural dye for food additives and in cosmetics, 17) and a reagent of ca used as a standard, we found three remarkable minor pigments in all these samples. two of these pigments were identified as known compounds, dciv and dcvii as isomers of ca, by comparing their mass and nmr data with previously reported data. however, the mass spectral data of the other minor pigment did not agree with any previously reported data of minor compounds detected in the extracts of dried insects and traditional art objects .\n] also do not seem to be a solution to the problem of differentiation and identification of cochineal species. despite numerous advantages of these techniques, without separating the components of mixtures they are not able to detect discrete nuances in the composition of minor colorants between different cochineals, especially considering the dominant content of carminic acid in these dyestuffs. however, mass spectrometry coupled with high - performance liquid chromatography has already been used for identification of anthraquinones in american cochineal [\ncochineal it is neither toxic nor known to be carcinogenic. however, the dye can induce an anaphylactic - shock reaction in a small number of people, due to impurities in the preparation, not due to the carminic acid .\nin this tutorial, it is described step - by - step how to characterize chromatographic results of cochineal dyes found in fibre samples from historical textiles, through models developed with partial - least squares discriminant analysis (pls - da). this tutorial has been developed in the framework of the doctoral project “the red road of the iberian expansion: cochineal and the global dye trade”. you may find this tutorial, along with pls - da models, at urltoken .\nharvested cochineal insects were killed by immersion in hot water, steam, or baking in an oven. they were then dried and crushed. this method was developed by the aztec and mayan people of central and north america, where the cochineal insects’ natural cactus habitat is found. after columbus and the colonization of the americas, demand from europe increased the scale of production of this highly prized dye. nowadays, a variety of methods are employed to extract carmine dye .\n- hexosides of kermesic and flavokermesic acids, or deoxyerythrolaccin. five of them (i. e. , pp2, pp6 (ppi), pp7 (ppii), pp10, and pp12) are proposed as specific markers of polish cochineal because of their complete absence in american cochineal and the relatively high intensity of their chromatographic peaks. hence, it can be assumed that these compounds can also participate in the dyeing process by bonding with the fiber via various mordants. as a consequence, they can be detected and identified using advanced techniques, such as hplc - uv–vis or hplc - esi ms / ms. however, they can be observed in the extracts only when mild isolation procedure (with addition of formic acid instead of previously used hydrochloric one) is carried out. particular attention has to be paid to pp6 (ppi ,\nthe aim of this study was to define compounds of porphyrophora polonica l. by hplc - dad - esi qqq ms, and consequently to indicate markers for distinguishing of polish cochineal from other similar dyes of animal origin. the colorants separated on a reverse phase phenyl column were detected spectrophotometrically at 277, 287, 435, 495, and 525 nm, and examined by ms / ms in the negative ion mode. the obtained data formed the basis for the multiple reaction monitoring (mrm) method, used originally for identification of colorants in historical red textiles from the collection of the national museum in warsaw .\nnatural red dyes have long been associated with power and extravagance, as they were expensive to acquire and the dyeing process was complex and required specialized knowledge. until the end of the 15th century, cochineal, kermes and lac... more\ngranara de willink mc, 1998. reubicación sistemática de\nla cochinilla del delta\n( homoptera: coccidae). [ systematic relocation of the\ndelta cochineal\n( homoptera: coccidae). ] insecta mundi, 12: 149 - 153 .\nwhat do we see when we look in our red natural dye pots? passion, fire, fertility, blood, desire? each caldron of color is infused with history, tradition, and cultural meaning—all swirling with stories. the red dyes have invoked strong feelings and cloaked royalty since ancient times and this summer we will explore three red dyes: american cochineals, lac and madder. our cochineal investigation focuses on peru, a country that now produces the largest amount of red cochineal dye in the world .\na multidisciplinary investigation, combining history, textile objects from museum collections, and chemistry, aimed to explore the impact of cochineal as a commercial product in the global circulation of dyestuffs, and its importance in the main centres of textile production in europe and in asia. the outcome brought assertive interpretations about the investigated textiles and the dynamics of american cochineal in european and asian societies. this approach has shown to be a recommendable methodology to adopt in future projects for the characterization of insect dyes in cultural heritage objects .\ncochineal is one of the few natural and water - soluble colorants that resist degradation with time. it is the most light - and heat - stable and oxidation - resistant of all the natural colorants and is even more stable than some synthetic food colours .\napart from the aforementioned novel glycoside compounds, another constituent (co - eluted with pp15 at 27. 4 min) was found in the extract from polish cochineal. its [ m − h ] − ion at m / z 269 gives the ms / ms spectrum almost identical to that of flavokermesic acid, but does not consist of a signal corresponding to the loss of co 2. this similarity allowed its identification as deoxyerythrolaccin (doe, flavokermesic acid without the carboxylic group). this hypothesis seems to be justified by the fact that its o - glycosides (pp2, pp10, pp12, and pp13) are also identified in the extract .\nthe social meaning of textiles cannot be underestimated. all are created within a particular cultural context and reflect ways of thinking and acting on the materials available in that culture. in peru, the making of textiles extends into the deep past and cochineal (cochinilla) has been used in that cloth production since the nasca culture (ad 1 - 700), long before the inca created their brilliant red clothing. the center for traditional textiles of cusco is one peruvian weaving community still producing fine heritage textiles using local cochineal ,\nwith the introduction of commercial synthetic dyes in the late 19th century, the natural dye industry began to diminish. a process that involved the intensive manual labor of breeding the cochineal insects and handpicking them was no competition for laboratory production, which became increasingly inexpensive .\nexplore history once the spanish saw cochineal in the aztec plazas, they cornered the market and funded their empire on the backs of tiny scale insects. cochineal red spread from the americas to europe then to the middle east and textiles colored with this valuable dye can be found in collections all over the world. red was the color at the top of the heap, highly prized and its secrets protected. an in - depth history of this amazing dye can be discovered in amy butler greenfield’s wonderful book, a perfect red .\n; 25: 393–410), but specified only as compounds of unknown structures) that do not occur (e. g. , in american cochineal). the ms / ms experiments, complemented with uv–vis data, enable identification of mono - and di - ,\nyou' ll no doubt recall this comparison of a cochineal dude and dudette from doctor henry hartshorne' s 1881 houshold cyclopedia. females are fat and sedentary, whereas males have peace signs coming out of their butts and die almost instantly after fertilizing their mates' eggs .\nfor this, she undertook a comprehensive revision of historical publications and primary printed sources related to the trade and use of american cochineal as a red textile colorant, as well as of other eurasian insect dyes. since historical information is not always available in the literature, relevant evidence may also be found in the examination of historical textiles. therefore, interpretations based on the historiography were intertwined with luxurious historical textile objects (dating from the 15th to 17th centuries), by following a pioneering chemical method to determine the presence of cochineal on their red colours .\nlecanium persicae goidanichi kawecki, 1962: 17. type data: italy: western alps, cueno, on pinus sylvestris and on viscum album. syntypes, female and first instar. type depository: warsaw: museum of the institute of zoology, polish academy of sciences, poland. described: female and first instar. synonymy by kosztarab & kozar, 1988: 223. notes: syntypes include first and second instar larva .\nin the 19 th century the insects were imported and grown on a large scale on the canary islands and the mexican monopoly came to an end. in 1868, the canary islands exported six million pounds of cochineal, equivalent to 420. 000. 000. 000 insects... .\ntwo mg of lyophilized and ground polish cochineal was extracted with 250 μ l of methanol. the solution was kept in an ultrasonic bath for 15 min, and in a water bath (at 60 °c) for the next 15 min, then filtered over a 0. 22 μ m pet syringe filter. dilution of the extract with water (1: 1, v / v) resulted in immediate precipitation of a white solid, which was separated by centrifugation (10, 000 rpm, 70 min, 21 °c) through amicon ultra - 0. 5 centrifugal filter unit with ultracel - 3 membrane shut - off compounds above 3 kda (merck millipore ltd. , carrigtwohill, ireland). the obtained solution was analyzed as described above .\nana serrano developed a multidisciplinary phd project - combining history, textile objects from museum collections, and chemistry - to explore american cochineal’s long - distance trade between the 16th and the 18th centuries, as well as its impact in european and asian centres of textile production, in relation to traditional dyes .\nnatural red dyes have long been associated with power and extravagance, as they were expensive to acquire and the dyeing process was complex and required specialized knowledge. until the end of the 15th century, cochineal, kermes and lac insects were collected and traded throughout europe and asia. at the beginning of the 16th century, the castilians began exporting american cochineal from mexico, which was richer in colorant than the european and asian insects. this dyestuff became a great success in european and asian centres of textile production, and a lucrative commodity for the economy of the castilian empire throughout the colonial period. this phd project aims to take a closer look at the overall circulation of american cochineal as a commercial product and its dynamics in the process of revolutionizing ancient dyeing practices among 16th‐ and 18th‐century european and asian textile workshops. archlab access provided the opportunity to gain knowledge about the contents of th ...\nthe demand for cochineal fell sharply with the appearance on the market of alizarin crimson and many other artificial (food and textile) dyes discovered in europe in the middle of the 19 th century. trade in cochineal almost totally disappeared in the course of the 20 th century, but in recent years it has become commercially valuable again as many producers (and consumers) prefer natural colours over synthetic colours. however, most consumers are unaware that the ‘natural colouring e120' refers to a dye that is derived from an insect. it is thus not suitable for vegetarians and is banned by some religions .\nwiki user zyance approached this gaggle of giggling bugs on an opuntia cactus, their favorite gathering place. the matchhead - sized females also rebuffed him. the canaries are full of stuck - up cochineal due to the area' s history as a bug ranch. in 1868, locals exported 420 billion of the dye - making insects worldwide .\nextract of american cochineal for comparative analysis was prepared by dissolving 4 mg of dried powder in 1 ml of methanol. in this case, centrifugation was not required as precipitation did nor form. the obtained solution, before further analysis steps, was diluted 30 times with a mixture of methanol and water (1: 1, v / v) .\nnot that you' ve boiled down your dried insects into carmine, you are ready to make some kick - ass tie - dyed shirts or a historical replica of a british army uniform. seriously: the red coats used to march into battle wearing cochineal - bug threads, and the robes of catholic cardinals were buggy, too. (uglyagnes / flickr )\nkermes insects (kermes vermillio, kermes palestinensis) are scale insects from the mediterranean region that are parasitic on several species of dryland oak shrubs. a brilliant red dye is extracted from the shell of the female insects, which huddle immobile in clusters on the wood. their use has been documented since ancient times, when this color was known as the “king’s red” and treasured as a painter’s pigment. the dye is made using kermesic acid, produced by the kermes insects. cochineal replaced kermes as the red dye of choice when it was brought back to europe from the “new world” of america. the dyes are comparable in color quality and intensity, but cochineal dye is 10 or 12 times as effective as the kermes dye .\nmost europeans thought it was extracted from berries or cereals because the dried insects looked like grains of wheat. this misconception was promoted by the spanish, who had launched a brutal cover - up of the dye making process as soon as they realized cochineal’s potential. many new world natives unfortunate enough to have chosen a career in red dye production were simply put to death .\nf or centuries europeans sought the perfect red dye, red being a color much valued and somewhat difficult to obtain. red could be obtained from various plant sources such as madder root and related alizarin - based dyestuffs. the other main source of red came from insects. the best of these insect sources was american cochineal, which provided the best intensity of color and was most readily available. 1 a similar insect dye was known in europe in the form of the kermes insect (kermes vermilio), a shield - louse that lives on the host tree kermes oak. in the later middle ages these insects were gathered commercially in several mediterranean countries and sold throughout europe. kermes dyes have been found in the ecclesiastical burial wrappings in fourteenth and fifteenth - century england, at baynards castle in the fourteenth - century layers, and in anglo - scandinavian york. kermes fell out of use with the introduction of cochineal in the sixteenth century due to the simple fact that, while the two dyes were comparable in quality and color intensity, ten to twelve times as much kermes was needed to produce the same effect as cochineal. 2\nlac insects produce a red dye very similar to those of the cochineal and kermes insects, but are also known for their production of a glassy resin processed to produce shellac. also scale insects, the laccifer lacca or kerria lacca insects secrete a resin to protect themselves between hatching and maturing into adults. they are found in huge colonies on a variety of trees in southeast asia .\nmethanol of lc / ms purity was purchased from poch (gliwice, poland), formic acid (> 99. 5 %) of lc / ms purity, from fisher scientific (fair lawn, nj, usa), and hydrochloric acid (35–38 %) of analytical grade, from applichem (darmstadt, germany). demineralized water was made using milli - q system model millipore elix 3 (molsheim, france). examined fibers were taken from seven polish textiles dated to the 17th–19th century and provided by ewa orlińska - mianowska from the textile division of the national museum in warsaw .\nbetween the end of the 15th century and beginning of the 16th, the portuguese and the spanish expanded their empires to the americas. this eventually led to the exploitation and export of local sources. for instance, while the portuguese soon dedicated to the exploitation of brazilwood, the spanish came to establish a monopoly in american cochineal that was of paramount value, ranking in price after silver and gold among exports to spain .\nthe female insects laid hundreds of eggs on the nopal plant and thirty - five to forty days later the young hatched and fed on the nopal for five months. these insects were then gathered and dried by laying them in the sun or heating them over a low fire. 8 the dried bodies of the insects were then crushed and used with a mordant, in particular tin - chloride, to produce the brilliant cochineal red. 9\nthe purities of cochineal extract, carmine, and ca reagent were evaluated by uplc - pda - esi - tof / ms analysis. we found three remarkable minor pigments in all the samples and these pigments were observed as consecutive peaks on chromatograms (fig. 2). the first and second peaks were identified as two isomers of ca, dciv and dcvii, respectively, by comparing with ms and nmr data reported previously. 13) in aqueous conditions, ca equilibrates with dciv and dcvii and ca is a major compound, since the c - glucose moiety in ca is a stable glucopyranose form, whereas dciv and dcvii are unstable glucofranose forms. a kinetic study using purified dciv and dcvii previously revealed the equilibrium state between ca, dcvi, and dcvii in aqueous conditions. 15) thus, these two isomers (dciv and dcvii) are constitutive minor components of cochineal samples .\ncarmine (derived from cochineal) is used to color food and drinks red. carmine can be found in food such as meat, sausages, processed poultry products (meat products cannot be colored in the united states unless they are labeled as such), bakery products, cookies, desserts, icings, pie fillings, jams, preserves, gelatin desserts, juice beverages, varieties of cheddar cheese, yogurts, ice - cream and other dairy products, sauces and sweets .\nultimately, this has contributed to achieve an unparalleled view of the global circulation of american cochineal in the early modern world, as well as unique perspectives about its overall impact in european and asian dyeing traditions and patterns of consumption of red dye sources. indeed, it became clear that a gradual but clear adoption of this insect dye in europe and in west asia occurred, while local insect dyes kept a representative role in on - going practices, especially in east and southeast asia .\ndye technique various techniques work for the dyeing of materials using cochineal. my favorite method is to grind the dried bugs in a small coffee grinder dedicated to dye materials. weigh the required amount to get the desired shade. boil the ground dye matter for 15 minutes and add a pinch of cream of tartar. strain the liquid into a dyepot. repeat two more times without the cream of tartar, adding water as needed and pouring dye liquid from each boil into the dyepot. this may seem like a lot of work, but will extract the most dye from your precious stash of bugs. add fibers to the dyepot and simmer for at least 30 minutes. leave in the dye bath to cool. this bath can be used repeatedly until the water is clear. water is key in this process. cochineal is extremely sensitive to chemicals in the water. try one bath with your tap water to see the results. clear reds can usually be obtained by using distilled water, including rinsing in distilled water. as with all natural dyeing, experimentation will be your guide." ]
{ "text": [ "polish cochineal ( porphyrophora polonica ) , also known as polish carmine scales , is a scale insect formerly used to produce a crimson dye of the same name , colloquially known as \" saint john 's blood \" .", "the larvae of p. polonica are sessile parasites living on the roots of various herbs — especially those of the perennial knawel — growing on the sandy soils of central europe and other parts of eurasia .", "before the development of aniline , alizarin , and other synthetic dyes , the insect was of great economic importance , although its use was in decline after the introduction of mexican cochineal to europe in the 16th century . " ], "topic": [ 28, 8, 17 ] }
polish cochineal (porphyrophora polonica), also known as polish carmine scales, is a scale insect formerly used to produce a crimson dye of the same name, colloquially known as " saint john's blood ". the larvae of p. polonica are sessile parasites living on the roots of various herbs — especially those of the perennial knawel — growing on the sandy soils of central europe and other parts of eurasia. before the development of aniline, alizarin, and other synthetic dyes, the insect was of great economic importance, although its use was in decline after the introduction of mexican cochineal to europe in the 16th century.
[ "polish cochineal (porphyrophora polonica), also known as polish carmine scales, is a scale insect formerly used to produce a crimson dye of the same name, colloquially known as \" saint john's blood \". the larvae of p. polonica are sessile parasites living on the roots of various herbs — especially those of the perennial knawel — growing on the sandy soils of central europe and other parts of eurasia. before the development of aniline, alizarin, and other synthetic dyes, the insect was of great economic importance, although its use was in decline after the introduction of mexican cochineal to europe in the 16th century." ]
animal-train-5
animal-train-5
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tenrec
[ "keeping lesser hedgehog tenrecs in captivity has helped biologists learn much about this tenrec species and tenrec biology in general. there are 4 other species of tenrec that do well in captivity: the common tenrec (the largest tenrec species), the greater hedgehog tenrec (the larger cousin of the lesser hedgehog tenrec) and the 2 species of streaked tenrec (tenrecs with little yellow and black stripes). there is still a vast amount to learn about these species and their wild cousins .\nembed this arkive thumbnail link (\nportlet\n) by copying and pasting the code below. < a href =\nurltoken\ntitle =\narkive species - common tenrec (tenrec ecaudatus )\n> < img src =\nurltoken\nalt =\narkive species - common tenrec (tenrec ecaudatus )\ntitle =\narkive species - common tenrec (tenrec ecaudatus )\nborder =\n0\n/ > < / a >\ntenrec has made managing our site easy and efficient. both our north america and greater china teams rely on tenrec to keep our site updated and secure. ”\nlowland streaked tenrec (hemicentetes semispinosus). photo by rhett a. butler / mongabay\n“we partnered with tenrec several years ago to help us improve both our web site functionality and design. tenrec exceeded our expectations, and consistently provides us with exemplary service. ”\n] was a problem for drawing final conclusions about tenrec colonization timing. it now appears that\ninformation on the common tenrec is currently being researched and written and will appear here shortly .\n[ … ] here and got me interested in the group. the amazing multipurpose tenrec introductory article: tenrec series: the amazing multi - purpose tenrecs eco facts the otter that is notter giant otter - shrews: tenrec series: the otter that is notter eco facts [ … ]\nghr sequences and compare it with the level of molecular divergence displayed within the malagasy tenrec clade .\n] to be the first malagasy tenrec genus to have diverged, its absence from poux et al. [\nthe common tenrec is endemic to madagascar, though has been introduced to nearby islands in the indian ocean .\nan omnivrous species, the common tenrec will eat food such as invertebrates, small mammals, and fruit .\nthe common tenrec is a solitary animal and attempts to avoid conspecifics; with the exception of mother and young .\nlesser and greater hedgehog tenrecs are the only tenrec species completely covered in spines. the spines are modified hairs .\n, the web - footed tenrec, has led to controversies. its specialized morphological features brought some authors to the conclusion that\n“ [ tenrec is ] always available and willing to find cost - conscious ways to bring my ideas to life. without hesitation i trust tenrec with our online reputation and our brand, and those are pretty precious assets for our firm. ”\n]; none comprised a taxon sampling broad enough to delineate the successive tenrec speciation events. the study by douady et al. [\nper and his team are very responsive, organized, and thoughtful. tenrec was able to take our very high - level design concepts and turn them into a well - designed, user - friendly application. most importantly, it is easy and enjoyable to work with tenrec. ”\n]) might help to resolve this issue, and subsequently to understand the morphological evolution of the aquatic specialization of the web - footed tenrec .\n“tenrec has been fantastic to work with on our mini sites. excellent client service and great people. they are a 5 - star vendor! ”\nlesser hedgehog tenrecs are one of 30 species of tenrec found on the island of madagascar. tenrecs are the most diverse mammalian family on the island .\n), and that the semi - aquatic behavior was an example of convergence acquired twice during tenrec evolution [ guth et al. [ 1959 ] in [\none of the most important of the common tenrec' s senses may be the long whiskers and the sensitive hairs on the back; these are used to detect vibrations. the common tenrec' s eyesight is better than that of most tenrecids and may also be an important sense. in addition, observations of captive\nthe common tenrec occurs on madagascar and on the comoro islands, between madagascar and africa. it has been introduced on reunion, mauritius, and the seychelle islands .\nmost of the tenrec species are not well known. scientists have not studied many of the tenrecs in the wild and not many of them are in zoos. the lesser hedgehog tenrec is an exception. the lesser hedgehog tenrec has been kept in captivity since the well - known author and conservationist gerald durrell brought them to the uk in the hope they would breed. in august 1967 they did just that! this was the first recorded breeding in the uk and there were more baby tenrecs to come .\n), which share a shrew - like appearance and a small size, remains more open. most earlier, molecular studies did not include more than five tenrec species [\nto cite this page: gorog, a. 1999 .\ntenrec ecaudatus\n( on - line), animal diversity web. accessed july 09, 2018 at urltoken\nasher rj, hofreiter m: tenrec phylogeny and the noninvasive extraction of nuclear dna. syst biol. 2006, 55: 181 - 194. 10. 1080 / 10635150500433649 .\nour results provide as yet the best resolved gene tree comprising all malagasy tenrec genera, and may lead to a revision of tenrec taxonomy. a timeframe of tenrec evolution built on the basis of this solid phylogenetic framework showed that morphological specializations of the tenrecs may have been affected by environmental changes caused by climatic and / or subsequent colonization events. analyses including various taxon sampling and data partitions allow us to point out some possible pitfalls that may lead to biased results in molecular dating; however, further analyses are needed to corroborate these observations .\nthe common tenrec has been an important food source for the human inhabitants of madagascar for thousands of years. in addition, as an insectivore it undoubtedly reduces the numbers of insect pests .\nasher rj, hofreiter m: tenrec phylogeny and the noninvasive extraction of nuclear dna. syst biol. 2006, 55 (2): 181 - 194. 10. 1080 / 10635150500433649 .\n] in order to compare results inferred from similar datasets and methods). these dates are quite close to the periods of appearance of extant tenrec genera: the radiation of tenrecinae and the split between\n]. the tenrec family (tenrecidae) comprises four subfamilies, the potamogalinae from continental africa, and the tenrecinae, geogalinae and oryzorictinae from madagascar. the malagasy tenrecs are divided into eight genera and 30 species [\n“i have now been through the processes of creating a new website, as well as completely overhauling an existing website, with tenrec. they have been my go - to web and internet resource for seven years and have been extremely helpful. customer service is a top priority for the tenrec team and they excel at client care. i highly recommend them if you are looking for a partner in your project – as opposed to just a vendor. ”\nis nested within the malagasy tenrec clade, and therefore plays no role when estimating the period of colonization. consequently, the window of colonization of madagascar by tenrecs could not be narrowed. as previously concluded in poux et al. [\n“tenrec is an invaluable business partner. our website is engaging with streamlined content and audience - focused design. our experience database and proposal generator are user - friendly technologies that allow me to respond to rfps and pitches quickly and effectively. ”\n). consequently, the results of the latter three studies are, as can be expected, rather similar. the present study, with the broadest taxon and gene sampling, estimates the tenrecs / golden mole split at 69 ± 4 mya, followed by the divergence between african and malagasy tenrecs at 47 ± 4 mya. the malagasy tenrec radiation began 29 ± 3 mya, and several diversification events spread over time gave rise to the totality of malagasy tenrec genera around between 20 ± 1 mya and 7 ± 1 mya (table\n]. furthermore, ka (i. e. , number of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site) and ks (i. e. , number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site) of pairwise tenrec sequences were calculated using the program codeml from the paml package [\nyou could bring in several different kinds of animals to live in the trees, and the water, and burrow in the ground. or you could bring in the ancestor of the tenrec and wait for it to develop into different kinds of animals that can live in all of those different places .\n“the tenrec team has been doing an amazing job for many years helping us create and maintain our website. the level of knowledge and support is second to none no matter the nature of the issue or project, and it definitely makes my job easier knowing our website is in such good hands. ”\ntenrec has developed and managed numerous fenwick web applications over a 10 year span. they are deeply knowledgeable about online marketing for law firms, so go beyond “mere” coding and work with us to define and meet business goals for their projects. we couldn' t be happier with the results .\ntenrecs are a group of mammals that lives on the island of madagascar off the coast of east africa. there are also a few tenrec species in the forests of central and west africa. people have been very confused about what kind of animals tenrecs are, and even about what groups of animals are tenrecs. this confusion is because there are species of tenrecs that look like many different kinds of animals. some tenrecs have small round bodies with spikes all over them. they look almost exactly like hedgehogs. the fossorial tenrec with the scientific name oryzorictes hova digs in the ground and looks like a mole. there are several tenrec species that look like shrews. along rivers in the rain forests of africa there are three species of tenrecs with body shapes and lifestyles similar to otters. they are called otter - shrews, although they are neither otters nor shrews! for a long time people weren’t even sure that otter - shrews were tenrecs .\nmalagasy tenrecs belong to the afrotherian clade of placental mammals and comprise three subfamilies divided in eight genera (tenrecinae: tenrec, echinops, setifer and hemicentetes; oryzorictinae: oryzorictes, limnogale and microgale; geogalinae: geogale). the diversity of their morphology and incomplete taxon sampling made it difficult until now to resolve phylogenies based on either morphology or molecular data for this group. therefore, in order to delineate the evolutionary history of this family, phylogenetic and dating analyses were performed on a four nuclear genes dataset (adra2b, ar, ghr and vwf) including all malagasy tenrec genera. moreover, the influence of both taxon sampling and data partitioning on the accuracy of the estimated ages were assessed .\nwho are tenrecs related to? because the body shapes of several of the tenrec species resemble hedgehogs and shrews, people thought that tenrecs were related to these groups. scientists now think that this is wrong. by building family trees of mammal groups using genetic material, scientists now think that some of the closest relatives of tenrecs are elephants, aardvarks, and manatees !\nthis species is reported to be common on madagascar, and is not generally believed to be in need of special conservation efforts. introduced rats (genus rattus) may compete with the common tenrec in some circumstances. the iucn rates the species as being of\nleast concern ,\nit' s lowest category, and the species is not listed in the cites treaty .\nhow did this weird group of animals evolve into so many different body shapes and lifestyles? part of what explains the many different kinds of tenrecs is where they live. most tenrec species live on the island of madagascar where they have been for millions of years. dr. p. j. stephenson is a tenrec expert. he explains what happened once the tenrecs arrived in madagascar: “when tenrecs arrived (probably by rafting on logs or floating vegetation) there were no mammals so they evolved to fill many of the available niches. rodents don’t compete directly as they don’t feed on the same things. ” a niche is the way of life of an animal, what it eats and where it lives. in most habitats there are many different kinds of animals that compete for the same kind of niche. when the ancestor of the tenrec arrived on madagascar millions of years ago though there were few mammals to compete with the tenrecs. the tenrecs evolved to take over many different niches that they probably could not have if they had to compete with rodents, moles, shrews, hedgehogs, and other species .\nit is found in all natural forest formations and plantations, farmlands, secondary open wooded grasslands, and has even been recorded from urban centres. the largest tenrec species weighing up to 2 kg. it is omnivorous and enters seasonal torpor. this species has the highest reproductive potential of any mammal; the female gives birth to up to 32 young and may breed twice per year .\nis generally found near water sources in areas with ample brush and undergrowth for cover. it seems to be equally common in inland plateaus and coastal humid forests throughout madagascar, but it is absent in the arid southwestern districts. generally, the common tenrec is found in the eastern rainforests and in the gallery forests that border the river systems of the west. these animals are very common near paddy fields .\n]. these two studies found two different results concerning its phylogenetic position. the first study, comprising three mitochondrial genes (nd2, 12s rrna and trnavaline) and one nuclear marker (vwf exon 28), displayed, in a parsimony framework, the large - eared tenrec as the most basal of all malagasy tenrecs. this result was not influenced by the inclusion of morphological characters in the analyses. asher and hofreiter [\nwithin afrotheria the vast majority of the nodes received a high support, including the grouping of hyrax with sea cow and the monophyly of both afroinsectivora (macroscelidea + afrosoricida) and afroinsectiphillia (tubulidentata + afroinsectivora). strongly supported relationships were also recovered among all tenrec genera, allowing us to firmly establish the grouping of geogale with oryzorictinae, and to confirm the previously hypothesized nesting of limnogale within the genus microgale. the timeline of malagasy tenrec diversification does not reflect a fast adaptive radiation after the arrival on madagascar, indicating that morphological specializations have appeared over the whole evolutionary history of the family, and not just in a short period after colonization. in our analysis, age estimates at the root of a clade became older with increased taxon sampling of that clade. moreover an augmentation of data partitions resulted in older age estimates as well, whereas standard deviations increased when more extreme partition schemes were used .\nthe burrows of the common tenrec are usually near streams and are of two distict types. a hibernating burrow is between one and two meters long. the single entrance is plugged with soil during the period of torpor. the burrows of active common tenrecs are quite different; a y - shaped opening provides two open exit routes. the burrows serve the animals as buffers to extreme temperatures. tenrecs hibernate during the dry autumn months of may through september, when resources are limited. during this period of torpor, their bodies are cold to the touch .\nis one of the largest living insectivores. head and body length ranges from 265 to 390 mm. the coloration of the common tenrec varies geographically from grey - brown to red - brown. pelage is not dense and is a combination of hairs and blunt spines. the young have rows of white spines in longitudinal rows along their backs; these are replaced in the adult by a mane of stiff long hairs. the forelimbs are longer than the hindlimbs. the skull is cylindrical and the snout elongated. females generally have 12 nipples, but up to 29 have been recorded .\nks (i. e. , number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site) are given in the lower left part of the table and ka (i. e. , number of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site) in the upper right part. the divergence between the two geogale ghr sequences (underligned) is greater than or equal to that between some other tenrec species (bold). geogale a is the sequence from the database (acc. nr. : dq202287), geogale b is our sequence. hemicent. stands for hemicentetes, and m. brevi. for microgale brevicaudata .\nwhen threatened or angered the common tenrec erects the ridge of long hairs on its back and vocalizes with hisses, squeaks, squeals, and\npiff\nsounds. if an animal is surprised in its nest it will display its truly enormous gape. if startled in the open it can run quickly to cover. disturbed young tenrecs produce an audible alarm signal through a process called stridulation, in which bristles on the midback are rubbed together. hearing this sound may cause littermates to scatter and run. stridulation may also help the young to locate one another or the mother to locate her young .\ntiming of tenrec speciation events and madagascar colonization. tree topology as in figure 1. divergence times were estimated from the concatenated dataset by a bayesian relaxed molecular clock method, with six time constraints from fossil calibrations (see material and methods). one of them, the paenungulate radiation is represented on the chronogram. black circles indicate the divergence from the non - malagasy sister group (node 2) and the initial divergence of malagasy tenrecs (node 3). standard deviations are indicated by grey bars, and 95% credibility intervals by open bars. the period of a putative land bridge between madagascar and africa at 45–26 mya [ 53 ] is shaded .\nthe complete phylogeny of the malagasy tenrec genera has now been resolved with strong support. these results should lead to a revision of the taxonomy with regard to the genus geogale (if it comprises more than one species) and the limnogale / microgale clade (if this last genus is truly paraphyletic). this solid phylogenetic and dating framework shows that the major morphological specializations of the tenrecs are not the result of fast adaptive radiations just after colonization, but would as well have been affected by ecological changes caused by climatic and / or subsequent colonization events; however, more work is still needed to understand the role of possible biotic interactions on the speciation processes of malagasy tenrecs .\njaws of tenrec ecaudatus in lateral view. these images demonstrate how adult size in an afrotherian may be reached in the absence of many permanent cheek tooth loci. the old individual above has its complete permanent dentition erupted, showing p4 - m2 worn down to their roots (umzc h5431j, image reversed). the individual below is larger, but retains its deciduous canine through dp4; their permanent successors plus m3 are still unerupted within the dentary (bmnh 70. 3. 10. 4). scale bar (in millimeters) applies to both specimens. the dotted line from the condyle to symphysis on the top specimen represents measure taken of maximum jaw length, quantified in figure 2 .\n]. our data also support these results, as the afrosoricida / macroscelidea clade (= afroinsectivora) is displayed with high confidence (pp = 1. 00 and bp = 93), and tubulidentata is found to be the sister group of this clade (pp = 1. 00 and bp = 95). with a smaller dataset (only one tenrec) the support for the afrosoricida / macroscelidea clade slightly increased (pp = 1. 00 and bp = 96). hence, enlarged taxon sampling cannot explain our strong phylogenetic results within the afrotherian clade. all four genes separately displayed afroinsectiphillia either as paraphyletic or weakly supported therefore the present results are not due to gene sampling biases. the retroposon analyses of nishihara et al. [\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd xhtml 1. 0 transitional / / en\nurltoken\nwarning: the ncbi web site requires javascript to function. more ...\ndepartment of zoology, university of cambridge, downing st, , cambridge cb2 3ej, uk .\nafrotheria comprises a newly recognized clade of mammals with strong molecular evidence for its monophyly. in contrast, morphological data uniting its diverse constituents, including elephants, sea cows, hyraxes, aardvarks, sengis, tenrecs and golden moles, have been difficult to identify. here, we suggest relatively late eruption of the permanent dentition as a shared characteristic of afrotherian mammals. this characteristic and other features (such as vertebral anomalies and testicondy) recall the phenotype of a human genetic pathology (cleidocranial dysplasia), correlations with which have not been explored previously in the context of character evolution within the recently established phylogeny of living mammalian clades .\nalthough data on the absolute timing of eruption in sengis, golden moles and tenrecs are still unknown, craniometric comparisons for ontogenetic series of these taxa show that considerable skull growth takes place prior to the complete eruption of the permanent cheek teeth. specimens showing less than half (sengis, golden moles) or two - thirds (tenrecs, hyraxes) of their permanent cheek teeth reach or exceed the median jaw length of conspecifics with a complete dentition. with few exceptions, afrotherians are closer to median adult jaw length with fewer erupted, permanent cheek teeth than comparable stages of non - afrotherians. manatees (but not dugongs), elephants and hyraxes with known age data show eruption of permanent teeth late in ontogeny relative to other mammals. while the occurrence of delayed eruption, vertebral anomalies and other potential afrotherian synapomorphies resemble some symptoms of a human genetic pathology, these characteristics do not appear to covary significantly among mammalian clades .\nmorphological characteristics shared by such physically disparate animals such as elephants and golden moles are not easy to recognize, but are now known to include late eruption of permanent teeth, in addition to vertebral anomalies, testicondy and other features. awareness of their possible genetic correlates promises insight into the developmental basis of shared morphological features of afrotherians and other vertebrates .\npmid: 18366669 pmcid: pmc2292681 doi: 10. 1186 / 1741 - 7007 - 6 - 14\nanalyses of character correlation. (a) principal coordinate analysis based on morphological characters from [ 48 ], plus those identified in figure 3. coordinates 1, 2 and 3 explain 35. 5% , 9. 4% and 6. 5% of variation, respectively (other axes do not exceed 5. 2 %). ccd - relevant characters are shown with polygons using abbreviations from figure 3. (b) correlation of number of thoracolumbar vertebrae with ratio of age at female sexual maturity to age at complete dental eruption. line represents least squares fit and does not comprise a significant correlation, remaining insignificant with outliers (petrogale, trichechus, procavia) removed. as in figure 3, dental eruption for the macropodid petrogale is based on p. concinna; vertebral number is based on p. penicillata .\ntraditionally included in the lipotyphla (= insectivora sensu stricto). various molecular studies (madsen et al. , 2001; murphy et al. , 2001 a, b; springer et al. , 1999) and syntheses of morphological and molecular data (asher et al. , 2003; liu et al. , 2001) support a clade containing tenrecs and golden moles, which stanhope et al. (1998) named afrosoricida. this name is inappropriate since this clade does not include soricids, and could lead to confusion with the soricid subgenus afrosorex hutterer, 1986. noting that tenrecomorpha butler, 1972 may be a prior, and more explicit name for this clade following simpson’s (1945) guidelines for naming superfamial taxa, bronner et al. (2003) nevertheless accepted afrosoricida because this name is entrenched in the recent literature .\nfollowing simpson (1931), the term\ntenrecoid\nhas also been widely misused as a general name for a vaguely defined grouping of (extinct and extant) taxa characterized by zalambdodonty, even though it has become clear that some of these were not technically zalambdodont, and that zalambdodonty may have arisen independently several times (e. g. broom, 1916). this further militates against its stricter nomenclatorial use, even at taxonomic ranks below order .\nthe supraordinal affiliation of the afrosoricida remains controversial. molecular data strongly support an affinity within the afrotheria, whereas morphological data suggest a closer relationship to lipotyphlans. lipotyphlan monophyly, however, is only weakly supported by cladistic analyses of morphological data (asher, 1999) and phylogenetic analyses of combined anatomical and molecular data strongly support the inclusion of afrosoricids within afrotheria (asher et al. , 2003) .\nmammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference (book, 2005) [ worldcat. org ]\nyour web browser is not enabled for javascript. some features of worldcat will not be available .\nyour list has reached the maximum number of items. please create a new list with a new name; move some items to a new or existing list; or delete some items .\nnote: citations are based on reference standards. however, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. the specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied .\nthe e - mail address (es) field is required. please enter recipient e - mail address (es) .\nthe e - mail address (es) you entered is (are) not in a valid format. please re - enter recipient e - mail address (es) .\ni thought you might be interested in this item at urltoken title: mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference author: don e wilson; deeann m reeder publisher: baltimore: johns hopkins university press, ©2005. isbn / issn: 0801882214 9780801882210 0801882389 9780801882388 0801882397 9780801882395 oclc: 57557352\nwilson and reeder' s mammal species of the world is the classic reference book on the taxonomic classification and distribution of the more than 5400 species of mammals that exist today. the third edition includes detailed information on nomenclature and, for the first time, common names. each concise entry covers type locality, distribution, synonyms, and major reference sources. the systematic arrangement of\ninformation indicates evolutionary relationships at both the ordinal and the family level. this indispensable reference work belongs in public and academic libraries throughout the world and on the shelf of every biologist who works with mammals .\n- - publisher' s website .\nplease choose whether or not you want other users to be able to see on your profile that this library is a favorite of yours .\nthis indispensable reference work belongs in public and academic libraries throughout the world and on the shelf of every biologist who works with mammals .\na uniquely valuable compendium of taxonomic and distributional data on the world' s living and historically extinct mammalian species. contributors and editors alike deserve the thanks of all\nadd tags for\nmammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference\n.\nyou may have already requested this item. please select ok if you would like to proceed with this request anyway .\nwilson and reeder' s mammal species of the world is the classic reference book on the taxonomic classification and distribution of the more than 5400 species of mammals that exist today. the third edition includes detailed information on nomenclature and, for the first time, common names. each concise entry covers type locality, distribution, synonyms, and major reference sources. the systematic arrangement of information indicates evolutionary relationships at both the ordinal and the family level. this indispensable reference work belongs in public and academic libraries throughout the world and on the shelf of every biologist who works with mammals .\n- - publisher' s website .\nworldcat is the world' s largest library catalog, helping you find library materials online. learn more ››\ndon' t have an account? you can easily create a free account .\nthe placental mammalian clade afrotheria is now supported by diverse forms of genomic data, but interordinal relationships within, and morphological support for, the group remains elusive. as a means for addressing these outstanding problems, competing hypotheses of afrotherian interordinal relationships were tested through simultaneous parsimony analysis of a large data set (> 4, 590 parsimony informative characters) containing genomic data (> 17 kb of nucleotide data, chromosomal associations, and retroposons) and 400 morphological characters scored across 16 extant and 35 extinct afrotherians .\nparsimony analysis of extant taxa alone recovered the interordinal topology (afrosoricida, (( macroscelidea, tubulidentata), (hyracoidea, (proboscidea, sirenia) )) ). analysis following addition of extinct taxa instead supported afroinsectivora (afrosoricida + macroscelidea) and pseudoungulata (tubulidentata + paenungulata), as well as tethytheria (proboscidea + sirenia). this latter topology is, however, sensitive to taxon deletion and different placements of the placental root, and numerous alternative interordinal arrangements within afrotheria could not be statistically rejected. relationships among extinct stem members of each afrotherian clade were more stable, but one alleged stem macroscelidean (herodotius) never grouped with that clade and instead consistently joined pseudoungulates or paenungulates. when character transformations were optimized onto a less resolved afrotherian tree that reflects uncertainty about the group' s interordinal phylogeny, a total of 21 morphological features were identified as possible synapomorphies of crown afrotheria, 9 of which optimized unambiguously across all character treatments and optimization methods .\ninstability in afrotherian interordinal phylogeny presumably reflects rapid divergences during two pulses of cladogenesis – the first in the late cretaceous, at and just after the origin of crown afrotheria, and the second in the early cenozoic, with the origin of crown paenungulata. morphological evidence for divergences during these two pulses either never existed or has largely been\nerased\nby subsequent evolution along long ordinal branches. there may, nevertheless, be more morphological character support for crown afrotheria than is currently assumed; the features identified here as possible afrotherian synapomorphies can be further scrutinized through future phylogenetic analyses with broader taxon sampling, as well as recovery of primitive fossil afrotherians from the afro - arabian landmass, where the group is likely to have first diversified .\n], but morphological phylogenetic analyses of the placental mammal radiation continue to favor afrotherian polyphyly [ e. g. , [\n], whereas afrosoricids – which were formerly placed in the order lipotyphla alongside hedgehogs, shrews, moles, and solenodons (now eulipotyphla) – share a number of seemingly primitive morphological features with eulipotyphlans and cretaceous stem placentals. phylogenetic analyses of the longest available concatenation of afrotherian dna sequences [\nanother outstanding problem in afrotherian phylogenetics is the branching order among hyracoidea, proboscidea and sirenia within paenungulata. various types of genomic data have been collected in an effort to resolve paenungulate relationships [\n] that suggest an early preference for semi - aquatic habitus. if tethytheria is monophyletic, this adaptive pattern is best explained as having been due to common ancestry, whereas if the group is paraphyletic, semi - aquatic habitus either evolved convergently in early proboscideans and sirenians, or was an ancestral feature of paenungulata as a whole .\n] that otherwise might attract due to homoplasy rather than homology. the only recent phylogenetic analysis to have scored members of all extant afrotherian orders included only two undoubted fossil afrotherians, however, both of which were extinct paenungulates [\n], and which recovered a macroscelidean - paenungulate clade to the exclusion of perissodactyls and artiodactyls, did not sample aardvarks, tenrecs and golden moles, which lack some or all of the features that support the macroscelidean - paenungulate clade recovered in that study .\n] to create the single largest phylogenetic data set (at least 4, 590 parsimony informative characters) that has yet been brought to bear on the interrelationships of living and extinct afrotherians. included in the morphological partition are new data on recently published afrotherian fossil material from the paleogene of north africa [\n] as well as undescribed late eocene hyracoids, macroscelideans, and afrosoricids from egypt. parsimony analysis of these data reveals a new hypothesis of relationships within afrotheria, and highlights a central role for paleogene\nelephant - shrews\nin afrotherian phylogenetics .\nregardless of how morphological characters were treated [ i. e. , with selected multistate characters either unordered (= ua, unordered analysis), or ordered and scaled (= osa, ordered and scaled analysis) ], simultaneous analysis of extant taxa alone recovered paenungulata, tethytheria, a macroscelidea - tubulidentata clade, and a macroscelidea - tubulidentata - paenungulata clade to the exclusion of afrosoricida (fig .\n). aside from monophyly of paenungulata, these results are at odds with the relationships recovered by amrine - madsen et al. [\n], although among these supraordinal clades only paenungulata had high bootstrap support (fig .\n). with afrosoricida placed as the sister group of all other afrotherians, there was only one unambiguously optimized morphological synapomorphy of afrotheria in the osa (placement of the root of the zygomatic lateral to m3), none in the ua, but 24 (ua) to 30 (osa) ambiguous morphological synapomorphies of that clade. the macroscelidea - tubulidentata - paenungulata clade was supported by 69 (osa) to 71 (ua) ambiguously and 22 (ua) to 26 (osa) unambiguously optimized morphological synapomorphies .\nestimate of afrotherian interordinal phylogeny based on data from extant taxa alone. strict consensus of results from parsimony analyses of extant taxa only with all characters unordered (1 most parsimonious tree (mpt), tree length (tl) = 18428, consistency index (ci) = 0. 52, retention index (ri) = 0. 39, rescaled consistency index (rci) = 0. 26) and with some multistate characters ordered and scaled (1 mpt, tl = 18068, ci = 0. 52, ri = 0. 39, rci = 0. 26). intraordinal relationships are not shown, but in both trees are as in fig. 2. numbers above and below branches are bootstrap support values (1000 replicates) from analysis of the matrix with some multistate characters ordered and scaled (above) and with all multistate characters unordered (below) .\nphylogenetic relationships of living and extinct afrotherians. adams consensus tree summarizing results from parsimony analyses with all characters unordered (12 mpts, tl = 19478, ci = 0. 50, ri = 0. 44, rci = 0. 28) and with some morphological characters ordered and scaled (1 mpt, tl = 18689. 54, ci = 0. 50, ri = 0. 44, rci = 0. 28). branches depicted with dashes break down in the strict consensus of all 13 trees. values above and below branches are bootstrap support (1000 replicates) from analysis of the matrix with some multistate characters ordered and scaled (above) and with all multistate characters unordered (below). herodotiine taxa (alleged stem macroscelideans) are in bold face; asterisks identify\nwild card\ntaxa whose variable positions given different character treatments lead to decreased resolution in the strict consensus tree .\nparsimony analysis following addition of 35 extinct afrotherian species recovered a supraordinal branching pattern that is more consistent with amrine - madsen et al.' s [\n] tree based solely on molecular data. the macroscelidea - tubulidentata clade recovered in the analysis of extant taxa alone breaks down, and macroscelidea joined afrosoricida, forming a weakly supported afroinsectivora. the primary differences from amrine - madsen et al.' s [\n], and of hyracoidea as the sister group of tethytheria rather than of proboscidea alone. outside of paenungulata, the branching order among afrotherians was the same as in amrine - madsen et al.' s [\n] tree, but the root was placed between afroinsectivora and pseudoungulata rather than between afroinsectiphillia and paenungulata. inclusion of fossil taxa led to reduced bootstrap support for both paenungulata and tethytheria, in the former case due in part to the variable placement of the alleged stem macroscelidean\n, which in different equally parsimonious trees emerged as the sister taxon of either pseudoungulata, tubulidentata, paenungulata, or hyracoidea, but never as a sister group of crown macroscelidea. the lower support for tethytheria can be explained by the inclusion of primitive fossil proboscideans and sirenians, which reveal that a number of the apomorphies that were unambiguously optimized as tethytherian synapomorphies in the analysis of extant taxa alone are in fact more parsimoniously explained as homoplasies rather than homologies [ e. g. , [\nalthough it is interesting that the addition of fossil taxa led to an improved fit with the tree derived from maximum likelihood and bayesian analysis of the molecular data alone, closer examination reveals that this most parsimonious topology is not particularly stable. for instance, trees derived from analyses that were constrained to recover the interordinal arrangement (afrosoricida, (paenungulata, (macroscelidea - tubulidentata) )) were only two steps longer than the unconstrained tree, and could not be statistically rejected; nor could the alternative arrangement of a monophyletic afroinsectiphillia containing afroinsectivora (table\n). none of the three possible arrangements of the paenungulate orders were either well supported or rejected by statistical tests, and even afrosoricid diphyly (e. g. , with either tenrecoidea or chrysochloridae placed as the sister taxon of macroscelidea) could not be rejected (table\n' s placement as a stem sirenian in the present analysis. deletion of basal eocene taxa, such as the herodotiines\nstatistics for most parsimonious trees derived from analyses that were constrained to agree with alternative phylogenetic hypotheses. consistency index excludes uninformative characters. value for templeton test (p, calculated in paup 4. 0b10) is the probability of finding a more extreme t - value under the null hypothesis of no difference between the two trees (two - tailed test), arbitrarily calculated by comparing the first tree in each of the two alternative tree lists. results in bold are those that are present in the adams consensus of all equally parsimonious trees. os = ordered and scaled analysis; u = unordered analysis; na = not applicable .\ninterordinal relationships within afrotheria from (above) analyses constrained to agree with the alternative hypotheses exafroplacentalia (afrotheria, (boreoeutheria, xenarthra) ) and atlantogenata (boreoeutheria, (afrotheria, xenarthra) ), and (below) analyses run following deletion or addition of various extinct taxa. results followed by an asterisk are those that occur in the adams consensus of all equally parsimonious trees (the strict consensus of which was less resolved than the optimal topologies based on analyses including all taxa). os = ordered and scaled analysis; u = unordered analysis .\nthe phylogeny of the diverse paleogene paenungulate radiation has never been analyzed within the context of afrotherian monophyly. one of the novel results of this analysis is the placement of enigmatic\n], was placed as the sister group of elephantiforms to the exclusion of all other eocene taxa .\n] as the sister group of all younger hyracoids. in contrast to previous studies that positioned\n, including cranial remains, helps to place that genus as the sister taxon of crown macroscelidea with strong bootstrap support (fig .\nwas consistently placed alongside\npseudoungulates\nrather than macroscelideans (see discussion below). a placement of both herodotiines as stem macroscelideans could not be statistically rejected, however (table\n– does not alter the scheme of interordinal relationships supported by the full taxon set. regardless of how characters are treated ,\ndespite the placement of afrosoricids with macroscelideans in the analysis of living and extinct taxa, under this arrangement afrotherian monophyly is not unambiguously supported by any of the\nproto - ungulate\nfeatures that macroscelideans share with aardvarks and paenungulates. in fact the existence of any unambiguous morphological character support for afrotheria given this tree is dependent on whether delayed or accelerated optimization is used; under delayed transformation, there are four unambiguous synapomorphies of afrotheria regardless of how multistate characters are treated (presence of a naviculocalcaneal facet, scattered vomeronasal organ blood vessels [\n]). an additional four features [ presence of a small p3 protocone, presence of well - developed buccal cingula rather than stylar shelves, increase in lumbar vertebra number from 6 to 8, and testicondy (intrabdominal testes) ] emerge as unambiguous synapomorphies depending on treatment of certain multistate characters. under accelerated transformation, there are no unambiguous afrotherian synapomorphies, but there are 31 (osa) and 33 (ua) ambiguous synapomorphies of that clade .\ngiven that there can be little confidence in any of the proposed arrangements of afrosoricida, macroscelidea, or tubulidentata within afrotheria, an alternative, and perhaps more conservative, approach is to optimize characters onto an afrotherian phylogeny that is less resolved at the supraordinal level. with macroscelidea, tubulidentata, afrosoricida, and\n). of these characters, nine are congruently optimized as afrotherian synapomorphies regardless of how transformations are optimized (accelerated or delayed) or how multistate characters are treated (ordered and scaled or unordered) .\ncharacter state changes identified as unambiguous morphological synapomorphies of afrotheria when relationships among afrosoricida, macroscelidea, paenungulata, and tubulidentata are depicted as unresolved. osa _ at = ordered and scaled analysis, accelerated transformation; osa _ dt = ordered and scaled analysis, delayed transformation; ua _ at = unordered analysis, accelerated transformation; ua _ dt = unordered analysis, delayed transformation .\nthe instability of afrotherian interordinal relationships is remarkable given that all of the analyses performed here included at least 4, 590 parsimony informative molecular and morphological characters. molecular divergence estimates clearly indicate that cladogenesis among the stem lineages of tubulidentata, macroscelidea, afrosoricida, and paenungulata occurred rapidly, and probably in the latest cretaceous; according to the recent estimates provided by murphy et al. [\n], these clades had all diverged within the first 5 million years of crown afrotherian evolution. morphological evidence for these supraordinal divergences either did not accumulate along these short internal branches, or was subsequently\nerased\nby evolution along the much longer branches leading to ordinal crown clades .\nconsiderable ambiguity is introduced by missing data and different methods for optimizing character states onto slightly different afrotherian phylogenies, but it remains distinctly possible that there are a number of morphological synapomorphies of crown afrotheria, and that the ancestral crown afrotherian more closely resembled a\nproto - ungulate\nthan an\ninsectivore\n. for instance, some of the only character transformations that consistently optimized unambiguously onto the afrotherian stem on the less resolved tree (table\n. with characters unordered, the ancestral afrotherian is also reconstructed as having no parastyles and well - developed buccal cingula rather than stylar shelves, which again suggests that afrosoricids (which do have parastyles and stylar shelves) have undergone reversals to the dental character states observable in more primitive cretaceous placentals .\n) is placed in afroinsectivora with macroscelideans. herodotiine diphyly is probably an artifact of missing data, but the distribution of herodotiines on both sides of the afrotherian tree again lends some support to the idea that the paenungulate - like dental morphology of herodotiines may be primitive within afrotheria. the most likely explanation for herodotiine diphyly is that, in known parts ,\nhas somewhat paenungulate - like anterior premolars and incisors (personal observation). if some uniformity of herodotiine morphology is assumed and\nare assigned the character states of the herodotiine taxon that preserves those parts, then these taxa together join tubulidentata (osa) or pseudoungulata (ua adams consensus), but never macroscelidea, in parsimony analyses of the data set presented here. additional cranial or postcranial morphology of herodotiines should play a key role in future efforts to tease apart homology and homoplasy among early afrotherians: if herodotiines are in fact stem macroscelideans within afroinsectivora, then their detailed dental resemblances to paenungulates will either not be present in older and more primitive stem macroscelideans, or these features will emerge as plesiomorphic within afroinsectivora and afrotheria and will support a proto - ungulate origin for both clades .\nof the remaining morphological features that support afrotherian monophyly on the less resolved tree, none clearly point to either a\nproto - ungulate\nor\ninsectivore\norigin for the clade. under delayed transformation, at least one morphological feature that was previously thought to be a synapomorphy of paenungulata (loss of lunar - unciform contact) [\n] instead appears as a synapomorphy of afrotheria as a whole. other features that have already been identified as probable afrotherian synapomorphies, such as increased lumbar vertebral number [\n] also optimize unambiguously as afrotherian synapomorphies across all or most assumption sets. presence of a contact between the navicular and calcaneus, which occurs in proboscideans ,\n, and aardvarks as well as some macroscelideans, tenrecs, golden moles, and fossil hyracoids, is here identified for the first time as another possible morphological synapomorphy of crown afrotheria .\nthere are a few obvious deficiencies of the present study, some of which should be improved upon in future analyses. one obvious improvement that can be made is greater taxon sampling within placentalia (and mammalia more broadly), including a greater diversity of cretaceous mammals, as all such taxa should help to clarify ancestral character states for crown placentalia. one obvious criticism of the equally - weighted total evidence approach taken here is that\nrare genomic changes\n( rgcs) such as retroposons and chromosomal syntenies have been given equal weight to point mutations in dna sequences, the latter of which are surely much more prone to homoplasy [\n]. unfortunately there is no clear solution to this practical problem aside from arbitrary weighting of rgcs – which, in the absence of a strong theoretical framework for predicting the relative likelihood of, for instance, chromosomal rearrangements relative to point mutations, is here considered to be an untenable approach. the same criticism can certainly also be raised regarding delimitation and treatment of morphological characters (many of which may be of low phylogenetic utility), however the same problem holds [\n]; thus far, however, bayesian analyses of the current data set have failed to achieve convergence despite considerable computational effort, presumably due in large part to the numerous genomic and morphological characters missing in fossil taxa .\nsimultaneous analysis of ≤ 4, 590 parsimony informative genomic and morphological characters scored across 16 extant and 35 extinct afrotherians recovers a monophyletic afroinsectivora (afrosoricida + macroscelidea), pseudoungulata (tubulidentata + paenungulata), and tethytheria (proboscidea + sirenia) within paenungulata. none of these supraordinal clades are well - supported, however, and phylogenetic alternatives such as afroinsectiphillia, a (paenungulata, (macroscelidea, tubulidentata) ) clade, an afrosoricida - tubulidentata clade, afrosoricid diphyly, a hyracoidea - proboscidea clade, and a hyracoidea - sirenia could not be statistically rejected .\ndivergences among afrosoricida, macroscelidea, paenungulata, and tubulidentata must have occurred very rapidly in the late cretaceous, and unambiguous morphological evidence for afrotherian supraordinal clades aside from paenungulata either does not exist or has been overwritten by subsequent evolution through the cenozoic. on the optimal topologies derived from these analyses, identification of unambiguous morphological support for afrotherian monophyly is dependent on optimization method, but on a less resolved interordinal phylogeny a total of 21 unambiguous afrotherian synapomorphies are identified, 9 of which appear as such across all character treatments and optimization methods." ]
{ "text": [ "a tenrec is any species of mammal within the family tenrecidae , found on madagascar and in parts of the african mainland .", "tenrecs are widely diverse ; as a result of convergent evolution they resemble hedgehogs , shrews , opossums , mice and even otters .", "they occupy aquatic , arboreal , terrestrial and fossorial environments .", "some of these species , including the greater hedgehog tenrec , can be found in the madagascar dry deciduous forests . " ], "topic": [ 20, 4, 13, 20 ] }
a tenrec is any species of mammal within the family tenrecidae, found on madagascar and in parts of the african mainland. tenrecs are widely diverse; as a result of convergent evolution they resemble hedgehogs, shrews, opossums, mice and even otters. they occupy aquatic, arboreal, terrestrial and fossorial environments. some of these species, including the greater hedgehog tenrec, can be found in the madagascar dry deciduous forests.
[ "a tenrec is any species of mammal within the family tenrecidae, found on madagascar and in parts of the african mainland. tenrecs are widely diverse; as a result of convergent evolution they resemble hedgehogs, shrews, opossums, mice and even otters. they occupy aquatic, arboreal, terrestrial and fossorial environments. some of these species, including the greater hedgehog tenrec, can be found in the madagascar dry deciduous forests." ]
animal-train-6
animal-train-6
2657
neodactria caliginosellus
[ "black grass - veneer - hodges # 5381 (neodactria caliginosella) - neodactria caliginosellus - bugguide. net\nspecies neodactria caliginosellus - black grass - veneer - hodges # 5381 - bugguide. net\nlandry, b. and r. l. brown. 2005. two new species of neodactria landry (lepidoptera: pyralidae: crambinae) from the united states of america. zootaxa 1080: 1 - 16\nphotographs are the copyrighted property of each photographer listed. contact individual photographers for permission to use for any purpose .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd xhtml 1. 0 transitional / / en\nurltoken\nupcoming events 2018 bugguide gathering in virginia july 27 - 29: registration and discussion photos of insects and people from the 2015 gathering in wisconsin, july 10 - 12 photos of insects and people from the 2014 gathering in virginia, june 4 - 7. photos of insects and people from the 2013 gathering in arizona, july 25 - 28 photos of insects and people from the 2012 gathering in alabama photos of insects and people from the 2011 gathering in iowa photos from the 2010 workshop in grinnell, iowa photos from the 2009 gathering in washington\npresence in north carolina 19 pinned specimens (listed under crambus), including locally collected specimens (north carolina state u. )\npresence in south dakota; key to species (b. mcdaniel et al, journal of the lepidopterists' society, 1984, courtesy of yale u. , connecticut )\npresence in alberta list of collected specimens, localities, and collection dates (strickland entomological museum, u. of alberta )\ndisclaimer: dedicated naturalists volunteer their time and resources here to provide this service. we strive to provide accurate information, but we are mostly just amateurs attempting to make sense of a diverse natural world. if you need expert professional advice, contact your local extension office .\ncontributors own the copyright to and are solely responsible for contributed content. click the contributor' s name for licensing and usage information. everything else copyright © 2003 - 2018 iowa state university, unless otherwise noted .\nfound at outside cf lights in a wooded, suburban yard. id confirmed by hugh mcguinness .\nselect your preferred way to display the comments and click' save settings' to activate your changes .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd xhtml 1. 0 strict / / en\nurltoken\nhodges, r. w. et al. , eds. 1983. check list of the lepidoptera of america north of mexico. e. w. classey limited and the wedge entomological research foundation, london. 284 pp .\ndue to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other natureserve network databases and when they appear on natureserve explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. please refer to\ndistribution data for u. s. states and canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon .\nuse the generic guidelines for the application of occurrence ranks (2008). the key for ranking species occurrences using the generic approach provides a step - wise process for implementing this method .\nzoological data developed by natureserve and its network of natural heritage programs (see local programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see sources) .\nlandry, b. 1995. a phylogenetic analysis of the major lineages of the crambinae and of the genera of crambini of north america (lepidoptera: pyralidae). memoirs on entomology, international 1: 1 - 245 .\npoole, r. w. , and p. gentili (eds .). 1996. nomina insecta nearctica: a checklist of the insects of north america. volume 3 (diptera, lepidoptera, siphonaptera). entomological information services, rockville, md .\nthe small print: trademark, copyright, citation guidelines, restrictions on use, and information disclaimer .\nnote: all species and ecological community data presented in natureserve explorer at urltoken were updated to be current with natureserve' s central databases as of november 2016. note: this report was printed on\ntrademark notice :\nnatureserve\n, natureserve explorer, the natureserve logo, and all other names of natureserve programs referenced herein are trademarks of natureserve. any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners .\ncopyright notice: copyright © 2017 natureserve, 4600 n. fairfax dr. , 7th floor, arlington virginia 22203, u. s. a. all rights reserved. each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. the following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site .\nnatureserve. 2017. natureserve explorer: an online encyclopedia of life [ web application ]. version 7. 1. natureserve, arlington, virginia. available http: / / explorer. natureserve. org. (accessed :\nridgely, r. s. , t. f. allnutt, t. brooks, d. k. mcnicol, d. w. mehlman, b. e. young, and j. r. zook. 2003. digital distribution maps of the birds of the western hemisphere, version 1. 0. natureserve, arlington, virginia, usa .\ndata provided by natureserve in collaboration with robert ridgely, james zook, the nature conservancy - migratory bird program, conservation international - cabs, world wildlife fund - us, and environment canada - wildspace .\npatterson, b. d. , g. ceballos, w. sechrest, m. f. tognelli, t. brooks, l. luna, p. ortega, i. salazar, and b. e. young. 2003. digital distribution maps of the mammals of the western hemisphere, version 1. 0. natureserve, arlington, virginia, usa .\ndata provided by natureserve in collaboration with bruce patterson, wes sechrest, marcelo tognelli, gerardo ceballos, the nature conservancy - migratory bird program, conservation international - cabs, world wildlife fund - us, and environment canada - wildspace .\niucn, conservation international, and natureserve. 2004. global amphibian assessment. iucn, conservation international, and natureserve, washington, dc and arlington, virginia, usa .\ndata developed as part of the global amphibian assessment and provided by iucn - world conservation union, conservation international and natureserve .\nno graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by natureserve. nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of natureserve. no trademark owned by natureserve may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from natureserve. except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any natureserve copyright .\nall documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided\nas is\nwithout warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. natureserve hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non - infringement. natureserve makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. in no event shall natureserve be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. natureserve may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, natureserve makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. the data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. if ground - disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program (s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site - specific review of the project area (see visit local programs) .\n). your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users .\nconfused by a class within a class or an order within an order? please see our brief essay .\nto cite this page: myers, p. , r. espinosa, c. s. parr, t. jones, g. s. hammond, and t. a. dewey. 2018. the animal diversity web (online). accessed at https: / / animaldiversity. org .\ndisclaimer: the animal diversity web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. adw doesn' t cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. while adw staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control .\nthis material is based upon work supported by the national science foundation grants drl 0089283, drl 0628151, due 0633095, drl 0918590, and due 1122742. additional support has come from the marisla foundation, um college of literature, science, and the arts, museum of zoology, and information and technology services .\na corn root webworm moth in anne arundel co. , maryland (7 / 8 / 2016). identification verified by hugh mcguinness / inaturalist and roger downer / bamona. photo by timothy reichard. (mbp list )\na corn root webworm moth in anne arundel co. , maryland (6 / 30 / 2016). identification verified by roger downer / bamona. photo by timothy reichard. (mbp list )\na corn root webworm moth in prince george' s co. , maryland (6 / 17 / 2010). photo by bob patterson. (mbp list )\na corn root webworm moth collected by john glaser. photo by larry line. (mbp list )\nuse of images featured on maryland biodiversity project is only permitted with express permission of the photographer." ]
{ "text": [ "neodactria caliginosellus , the corn root webworm or black grass-veneer , is a moth in the crambidae family .", "it was described by clemens in 1860 .", "it is found in north america , where it has been recorded from alabama , alberta , california , florida , georgia , illinois , indiana , maine , maryland , mississippi , north carolina , ohio , oklahoma , ontario , south carolina and tennessee .", "the habitat consists of grassy areas and fields .", "the wingspan is about 17 mm .", "the forewings are dark brown to blackish with black postmedian and subterminal lines .", "the hindwings are dark greyish brown .", "there is one generation per year with adults on wing in june and july in the northern part of the range .", "in florida , adults have been recorded on wing from february to november .", "the larvae feed on turf grasses and corn stalks .", "they have a pale white to grey body . " ], "topic": [ 2, 5, 20, 24, 9, 1, 1, 8, 8, 8, 23 ] }
neodactria caliginosellus, the corn root webworm or black grass-veneer, is a moth in the crambidae family. it was described by clemens in 1860. it is found in north america, where it has been recorded from alabama, alberta, california, florida, georgia, illinois, indiana, maine, maryland, mississippi, north carolina, ohio, oklahoma, ontario, south carolina and tennessee. the habitat consists of grassy areas and fields. the wingspan is about 17 mm. the forewings are dark brown to blackish with black postmedian and subterminal lines. the hindwings are dark greyish brown. there is one generation per year with adults on wing in june and july in the northern part of the range. in florida, adults have been recorded on wing from february to november. the larvae feed on turf grasses and corn stalks. they have a pale white to grey body.
[ "neodactria caliginosellus, the corn root webworm or black grass-veneer, is a moth in the crambidae family. it was described by clemens in 1860. it is found in north america, where it has been recorded from alabama, alberta, california, florida, georgia, illinois, indiana, maine, maryland, mississippi, north carolina, ohio, oklahoma, ontario, south carolina and tennessee. the habitat consists of grassy areas and fields. the wingspan is about 17 mm. the forewings are dark brown to blackish with black postmedian and subterminal lines. the hindwings are dark greyish brown. there is one generation per year with adults on wing in june and july in the northern part of the range. in florida, adults have been recorded on wing from february to november. the larvae feed on turf grasses and corn stalks. they have a pale white to grey body." ]
animal-train-7
animal-train-7
2658
cerithiopsilla antarctica
[ "species cerithiopsilla antarctica (smith, 1907) accepted as cerithiella antarctica (e. a. smith, 1907 )\nspecies cerithiopsilla cincta thiele, 1912 accepted as cerithiella cincta (thiele, 1912) accepted as cerithiella antarctica (e. a. smith, 1907) (original combination )\ncerithiopsilla cincta thiele, 1912 accepted as cerithiella cincta (thiele, 1912) accepted as cerithiella antarctica (e. a. smith, 1907) (type by original designation )\nfor full functionality of this site it is necessary to enable javascript. here are the instructions how to enable javascript in your web browser .\nthe scientific data on this site is licensed under a creative commons attribution 3. 0 unported license .\ngriffiths, h. j. ; linse, k. ; crame, j. a. (2003). sombase - southern ocean mollusc database: a tool for biogeographic analysis in diversity and evolution. organisms diversity and evolution. 3: 207 - 213. , available online at urltoken [ details ]\nintergovernmental oceanographic commission (ioc) of unesco. the ocean biogeographic information system (obis), available online at urltoken [ details ]\neol content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. as a result, from time to time you may find pages on eol that are confusing .\nto request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. thank you !\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd html 4. 01 transitional / / en\nurltoken\n, select family and click on' identification by pictures' to display all available pictures in sealifebase for the family .\n, select country and click on' identification by pictures' to display all available pictures in sealifebase for the country .\n, select ecosystem and click on' identification by pictures' to display all available pictures in sealifebase for the ecosystem .\ncfm script by, 30. 11. 04, , php script by, 05 / 11 / 2010, last modified by kbanasihan, 06 / 28 / 2010\n( a. gittenberger & goud in a. gittenberger, goud & e. gittenberger, 2000) [" ]
{ "text": [ "cerithiopsilla antarctica is a species of very small sea snails , marine gastropod molluscs in the family cerithiopsidae .", "it was described by smith in 1907 . " ], "topic": [ 2, 5 ] }
cerithiopsilla antarctica is a species of very small sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family cerithiopsidae. it was described by smith in 1907.
[ "cerithiopsilla antarctica is a species of very small sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family cerithiopsidae. it was described by smith in 1907." ]
animal-train-8
animal-train-8
2659
peristernia pulchella
[ "peristernia - pulchella _ 01. jpg taken by reeve 1847: plate fig. 65 image page with metadata full resolution image\n- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - species: peristernia pulchella (l. a. reeve, 1847) - id: 1972653970\nreeve, l. a. 1847. conchologia iconica: or, illustrations of the shells of molluscous animals. vol. iv. - pp. [ unpaginated ], with many plates. london. (reeve) .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd html 4. 01 transitional / / en\nurltoken\nversion 43. 0 went live 11 / 6 / 2018 - i hope that the majority of issues have been fixed. my email address is on the home page if you see anything wrong .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd html 4. 01 transitional / / en\nsri lanka, 1 / 2 mi. w wellawalta, 3 mi. s colombo hbr .\n. each record tells when. see dataset links for citations & terms of use .\nthe prices for is valid in all major cities of india including bangalore, delhi, hyderabad, chennai, mumbai, kolkata and pune. please check instructions at the specific stores for any deviation .\nhenri frankfort, h. a. frankfort, john a. wilson, thorkild jacobsen" ]
{ "text": [ "peristernia pulchella is a species of sea snail , a marine gastropod mollusk in the family fasciolariidae , the spindle snails , the tulip snails and their allies . " ], "topic": [ 2 ] }
peristernia pulchella is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family fasciolariidae, the spindle snails, the tulip snails and their allies.
[ "peristernia pulchella is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family fasciolariidae, the spindle snails, the tulip snails and their allies." ]
animal-train-9
animal-train-9
2660
caesio caerulaurea
[ "nick hope marked the creole, english common name\ngowana\nfrom\ncaesio caerulaurea lacepède, 1801\nas untrusted .\nnick hope marked the creole, english common name\nkibiri\nfrom\ncaesio caerulaurea lacepède, 1801\nas untrusted .\nnick hope marked the creole, english common name\nvaber - vaber\nfrom\ncaesio caerulaurea lacepède, 1801\nas untrusted .\na goldband fusilier, caesio caerulaurea, at mios kon island, raja ampat, indonesia. source: dennis polack / fishwise professional. license: cc by attribution - noncommercial - sharealike\n( of caesio azuraureus rüppell, 1830) froese, r. & d. pauly (editors). (2018). fishbase. world wide web electronic publication. , available online at urltoken [ details ]\n( of caesio caerulaureus lacepède, 1801) froese, r. & d. pauly (editors). (2018). fishbase. world wide web electronic publication. , available online at urltoken [ details ]\n( of caesio maculatus cuvier, 1830) froese, r. & d. pauly (editors). (2018). fishbase. world wide web electronic publication. , available online at urltoken [ details ]\n( of caesio nori montrouzier, 1857) froese, r. & d. pauly (editors). (2018). fishbase. world wide web electronic publication. , available online at urltoken [ details ]\n( of caesio coerulaureus lacepède, 1801) froese, r. & d. pauly (editors). (2018). fishbase. world wide web electronic publication. , available online at urltoken [ details ]\n( of caesio cearulaurea lacepède, 1801) froese, r. & d. pauly (editors). (2018). fishbase. world wide web electronic publication. , available online at urltoken [ details ]\n( of caesio caerulaureus lacepède, 1801) liu j. y. [ ruiyu ] (ed .). (2008). checklist of marine biota of china seas. china science press. 1267 pp. (look up in imis) [ details ] available for editors [ request ]\nlatin, caesius, bluish - grey, 1835; it is the same name given to the silvery metal (cs) (ref. 45335 )\nmarine; reef - associated; non - migratory; depth range 1 - 50 m (ref. 30874). tropical; 34°n - 31°s, 30°e - 116°w (ref. 94071 )\nindo - west pacific: red sea and east africa to samoa, north to southern japan, south to new caledonia. absent in the arabian (persian) gulf .\nmaturity: l m? range? -? cm max length: 35. 0 cm tl male / unsexed; (ref. 402); common length: 23. 5 cm sl male / unsexed; (ref. 37816 )\ninhabits coastal areas, primarily around coral reefs. found in schools in deep lagoons and along seaward reefs (ref. 9710), mixing with other species of fusiliers (ref. 48636). juveniles used as tuna bait fish. oviparous, with small pelagic eggs (ref. 402) .\nmating behavior is marked by six distinguishable patterns, namely: 1) nuzzling; 2) several males joining in courtship; 3) spiraling towards the surface; 4) pair spawning; 5) sperm release by sneakers; and 6) post spawning. nuzzling is done about 1 - 1. 5 hours before spawning. for most of the day the fish swam slowly in school. at nearly spawning time, one or two males approach a selected female and begin pecking and pushing her swollen abdomen with their snouts. interruption happens at this stage resulting in spawners returning to the school. with less than an hour until spawning, 2 - 6 males may attempt to get their abdomen as close to the female' s abdomen as possible. for the pair that completes this position, a spiraling ascent to the surface occurs followed by a release of both eggs and sperm while other males come in pursuit. these sneakers release sperm at the same spot where the initial pair had released their gametes. some spawnings may occur without sneakers getting involved in the process (ref. 37498) .\ncarpenter, k. e. , 1987. revision of the indo - pacific fish family caesionidae (lutjanoidea), with descriptions of five new species. indo - pac. fish. (15): 56 p. (ref. 1723 )\n): 24. 7 - 29, mean 28 (based on 814 cells) .\nphylogenetic diversity index (ref. 82805): pd 50 = 0. 5020 [ uniqueness, from 0. 5 = low to 2. 0 = high ] .\nbayesian length - weight: a = 0. 01349 (0. 00817 - 0. 02226), b = 3. 07 (2. 93 - 3. 21), in cm total length, based on lwr estimates for this species & (sub) family - body (ref. 93245) .\ntrophic level (ref. 69278): 3. 4 ±0. 45 se; based on food items .\nresilience (ref. 69278): high, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (preliminary k or fecundity .) .\nvulnerability (ref. 59153): low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .\ninhabits coastal areas, primarily around coral reefs. found in schools in deep lagoons and along seaward reefs (ref. 9710), mixing with other species of fusiliers (ref. 48636). juveniles used as tuna bait fish. oviparous, with small pelagic eggs (ref. 402) .\neol content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. as a result, from time to time you may find pages on eol that are confusing .\nto request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. thank you !\nthe webpage text is licensed under a creative commons attribution - noncommercial 4. 0 license\nfroese, r. & d. pauly (editors). (2018). fishbase. world wide web electronic publication. , available online at urltoken [ details ]\n( of smaris mauritianus quoy & gaimard, 1824) froese, r. & d. pauly (editors). (2018). fishbase. world wide web electronic publication. , available online at urltoken [ details ]\nhong kong marine fish database. afcd. , available online at urltoken [ details ]\nthe goldband fusilier is of a blue - green colour with a single yellow stripe on its sides, inbetween two blue stripes. it has a black pectoral - fin axil, and a dark streak on each lobe of its forked caudal fin .\nconfused by a class within a class or an order within an order? please see our brief essay .\nto cite this page: myers, p. , r. espinosa, c. s. parr, t. jones, g. s. hammond, and t. a. dewey. 2018. the animal diversity web (online). accessed at https: / / animaldiversity. org .\ndisclaimer: the animal diversity web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. adw doesn' t cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. while adw staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control .\nthis material is based upon work supported by the national science foundation grants drl 0089283, drl 0628151, due 0633095, drl 0918590, and due 1122742. additional support has come from the marisla foundation, um college of literature, science, and the arts, museum of zoology, and information and technology services .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd html 4. 01 transitional / / en\nurltoken\nspecial publication of the center for biodiversity research and information, no. 1, vol 1 - 3\ndisclaimer: itis taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. however, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. while every effort has been made to provide the most reliable and up - to - date information available, ultimate legal requirements with respect to species are contained in provisions of treaties to which the united states is a party, wildlife statutes, regulations, and any applicable notices that have been published in the federal register. for further information on u. s. legal requirements with respect to protected taxa, please contact the u. s. fish and wildlife service .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd xhtml 1. 0 transitional / / en\nurltoken\nnamed after the prominent golden stripe on its side, this small fusilier can be seen at many of our dive sites .\nsave my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time i comment .\nchaloklum diving, 25 / 29 - 30 moo 7, chaloklum village, koh phangan, suratthani 84280. thailand .\n< p > an evidence describes the source of an annotation, e. g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. < / p > < p > < a href =\n/ manual / evidences\n> more... < / a > < / p >\nhelp pages, faqs, uniprotkb manual, documents, news archive and biocuration projects .\nyou are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. please consider upgrading your browser .\n< p > when browsing through different uniprot proteins, you can use the ‘basket’ to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. < p > < a href =' / help / basket' target =' _ top' > more... < / a > < / p >\n< p > this will take you to the blast page where you can edit options < / p > < p > < a href =\n/ help / sequence - searches\n> more. . < / a > < / p >\nwe' d like to inform you that we have updated our privacy notice to comply with europe’s new general data protection regulation (gdpr) that applies since 25 may 2018." ]
{ "text": [ "caesio caerulaurea , the blue and gold fusilier , blue fusilier , gold-band fusilier or scissor-tailed fusilier , is a species of marine fish in the family caesionidae .", "it is widespread throughout the tropical waters of the indo-pacific area , including the red sea .", "this fish can reach a maximum size of 35 cm in length , but its common length is 23.5 cm . " ], "topic": [ 14, 13, 0 ] }
caesio caerulaurea, the blue and gold fusilier, blue fusilier, gold-band fusilier or scissor-tailed fusilier, is a species of marine fish in the family caesionidae. it is widespread throughout the tropical waters of the indo-pacific area, including the red sea. this fish can reach a maximum size of 35 cm in length, but its common length is 23.5 cm.
[ "caesio caerulaurea, the blue and gold fusilier, blue fusilier, gold-band fusilier or scissor-tailed fusilier, is a species of marine fish in the family caesionidae. it is widespread throughout the tropical waters of the indo-pacific area, including the red sea. this fish can reach a maximum size of 35 cm in length, but its common length is 23.5 cm." ]
animal-train-10
animal-train-10
2661
i ' ll have another
["“it’s kind of sad. i would have liked to have had a lot of i’ll have anothers. ”\nabove / (...TRUNCATED)
{"text":["i 'll have another ( foaled april 1 , 2009 ) is a north american thoroughbred race horse ,(...TRUNCATED)
"i'll have another (foaled april 1, 2009) is a north american thoroughbred race horse, bred in kentu(...TRUNCATED)
["i'll have another (foaled april 1, 2009) is a north american thoroughbred race horse, bred in kent(...TRUNCATED)

Dataset Card for GEM/wiki_cat_sum

Link to Main Data Card

You can find the main data card on the GEM Website.

Dataset Summary

WikiCatSum is an English summarization dataset in three domains: animals, companies, and film. It provides multiple paragraphs of text paired with a summary of the paragraphs.

You can load the dataset via:

import datasets
data = datasets.load_dataset('GEM/wiki_cat_sum')

The data loader can be found here.

website

Github

paper

Arxiv

authors

Laura Perez-Beltrachini, Yang Liu, Mirella Lapata (University of Edinburgh) Peter J. Liu, Mohammad Saleh, Etienne Pot, Ben Goodrich, Ryan Sepassi, Lukasz Kaiser, Noam Shazeer (GoogleBrain)

Dataset Overview

Where to find the Data and its Documentation

Webpage

Github

Download

Website

Paper

Arxiv

BibTex

@inproceedings{perez-beltrachini-etal-2019-generating,
    title = "Generating Summaries with Topic Templates and Structured Convolutional Decoders",
    author = "Perez-Beltrachini, Laura  and
      Liu, Yang  and
      Lapata, Mirella",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics",
    month = jul,
    year = "2019",
    address = "Florence, Italy",
    publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics",
    url = "https://aclanthology.org/P19-1504",
    doi = "10.18653/v1/P19-1504",
}

Contact Name

Laura Perez-Beltrachini

Contact Email

lperez@ed.ac.uk

Has a Leaderboard?

no

Languages and Intended Use

Multilingual?

no

Covered Languages

English

License

cc-by-sa-3.0: Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 Unported

Intended Use

Research on multi-document abstractive summarisation.

Primary Task

Summarization

Communicative Goal

Summarise the most important facts of a given entity in the Film, Company, and Animal domains from a cluster of related documents.

Credit

Curation Organization Type(s)

industry, academic

Curation Organization(s)

Google Cloud Platform, University of Edinburgh

Dataset Creators

Laura Perez-Beltrachini, Yang Liu, Mirella Lapata (University of Edinburgh) Peter J. Liu, Mohammad Saleh, Etienne Pot, Ben Goodrich, Ryan Sepassi, Lukasz Kaiser, Noam Shazeer (GoogleBrain)

Funding

Google Cloud Platform, European Research Council

Who added the Dataset to GEM?

Ronald Cardenas (University of Edinburgh) Laura Perez-Beltrachini (University of Edinburgh)

Dataset Structure

Data Fields

  • id: ID of the data example
  • title: Is the Wikipedia article's title
  • paragraphs: Is the ranked list of paragraphs from the set of crawled texts
  • summary: Is constituted by a list of sentences together with their corresponding topic label

Example Instance

This is a truncated example from the animal setting:

{'gem_id': 'animal-train-1',
 'gem_parent_id': 'animal-train-1',
 'id': '2652',
 'paragraphs': ["lytrosis (hulst) of louisiana vernon antoine brou jr. 2005. southern lepidopterists' news, 27: 7 ., ..."],
 'references': ['lytrosis unitaria , the common lytrosis moth, is a species of moth of the geometridae family. it is found in north america, including arkansas, georgia, iowa , massachusetts, and wisconsin. the wingspan is about 50 mm. the larvae feed on rosa, crataegus, amelanchier, acer, quercus and viburnum species.'],
 'summary': {'text': ['lytrosis unitaria , the common lytrosis moth , is a species of moth of the geometridae family .',
   'it is found in north america , including arkansas , georgia , iowa , massachusetts , new hampshire , new jersey , new york , north carolina , ohio , oklahoma , ontario , pennsylvania , south carolina , tennessee , texas , virginia , west virginia and wisconsin .',
   'the wingspan is about 50 mm .',
   'the larvae feed on rosa , crataegus , amelanchier , acer , quercus and viburnum species . '],
  'topic': [29, 20, 9, 8]},
 'target': 'lytrosis unitaria , the common lytrosis moth, is a species of moth of the geometridae family. it is found in north america, including arkansas, georgia, iowa , massachusetts, and wisconsin. the wingspan is about 50 mm. the larvae feed on rosa, crataegus, amelanchier, acer, quercus and viburnum species.',
 'title': 'lytrosis unitaria'}

Data Splits

Nb of instances in train/valid/test are 50,938/2,855/2,831

Splitting Criteria

The data was split i.i.d., i.e. uniformly split into training, validation, and test datasets.

Dataset in GEM

Rationale for Inclusion in GEM

Why is the Dataset in GEM?

Evaluation of models' performance on noisy (document, summary) pairs and long inputs. Evaluate models' capabilities to generalise and mitigate biases.

Similar Datasets

no

Unique Language Coverage

no

Ability that the Dataset measures

Capabilities to generalise, mitigate biases, factual correctness.

GEM-Specific Curation

Modificatied for GEM?

yes

GEM Modifications

annotations added

Modification Details

We provide topic labels for summary sentences.

Additional Splits?

no

Getting Started with the Task

Pointers to Resources

And all references in these papers.

Previous Results

Previous Results

Measured Model Abilities

Capabilities to generalise, mitigate biases, factual correctness.

Metrics

ROUGE, BERT-Score, MoverScore, Other: Other Metrics

Other Metrics

  • Abstract/Copy
  • Factual accuracy based on the score of (Goodrich et al., 2019) and the relation extraction system of (Sorokin and Gurevych, 2017).

Proposed Evaluation

Human based are Question Answering and Ranking (Content, Fluency and Repetition)

Previous results available?

yes

Other Evaluation Approaches

Those listed above.

Relevant Previous Results

Generating Summaries with Topic Templates and Structured Convolutional Decoders https://arxiv.org/abs/1906.04687

Noisy Self-Knowledge Distillation for Text Summarization https://arxiv.org/abs/2009.07032

Dataset Curation

Original Curation

Original Curation Rationale

The dataset is a subset of the WikiSum (Liu et al., 2018) dataset focusing on summaries of entities in three domains (Film, Company, and Animal). It is multi-document summarisation where input-output pairs for each example entity are created as follows. The input is a set of paragraphs collected from i) documents in the Reference section of the entity's Wikipedia page plus ii) documents collected from the top ten search results after querying Google search engine with the entity name. The output summary is the Wikipedia abstract for the entity.

Communicative Goal

Generate descriptive summaries with specific domains, where certain topics are discussed and generally in specific orders.

Sourced from Different Sources

yes

Source Details

WikiSum (Liu et al., 2018)

Language Data

How was Language Data Obtained?

Other

Topics Covered

The dataset and task focuses on summaries for entities in three domains: Company, Film, and Animal.

Data Validation

not validated

Data Preprocessing

Summary sentences are associated with a topic label. There is a topic model for each domain.

Was Data Filtered?

not filtered

Structured Annotations

Additional Annotations?

automatically created

Annotation Service?

no

Annotation Values

Each summary sentences was annotated with a topic label. There is a topic model for each of the three domains. This was used to guide a hierarchical decoder.

Any Quality Control?

validated by data curators

Quality Control Details

Manual inspection of a sample of topics assigned to sentences. The number of topics was selected based on the performance of the summarisation model.

Consent

Any Consent Policy?

no

Justification for Using the Data

The dataset is base on Wikipedia and referenced and retrieved documents crawled from the Web.

Private Identifying Information (PII)

Contains PII?

unlikely

Any PII Identification?

no identification

Maintenance

Any Maintenance Plan?

no

Broader Social Context

Previous Work on the Social Impact of the Dataset

Usage of Models based on the Data

no

Impact on Under-Served Communities

Addresses needs of underserved Communities?

no

Discussion of Biases

Any Documented Social Biases?

yes

Links and Summaries of Analysis Work

This dataset is based on Wikipedia and thus biases analysis on other Wikipedia-based datasets are potentially true for WikiCatSum. For instance, see analysis for the ToTTo dataset here [1].

[1] Automatic Construction of Evaluation Suites for Natural Language Generation Datasets https://openreview.net/forum?id=CSi1eu_2q96

Considerations for Using the Data

PII Risks and Liability

Licenses

Copyright Restrictions on the Dataset

public domain

Copyright Restrictions on the Language Data

public domain

Known Technical Limitations

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