# Datasets: GEM /wiki_cat_sum

Languages: English
Multilinguality: unknown
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gem_id (string)gem_parent_id (string)id (string)title (string)paragraphs (sequence)summary (sequence)target (string)references (list)
"animal-train-1"
"animal-train-1"
"2652"
"lytrosis unitaria"
{ "text": [ "lytrosis unitaria , the common lytrosis moth , is a species of moth of the geometridae family .", "it is found in north america , including arkansas , georgia , iowa , massachusetts , new hampshire , new jersey , new york , north carolina , ohio , oklahoma , ontario , pennsylvania , south carolina , tennessee , texas , virginia , west virginia and wisconsin .", "the wingspan is about 50 mm .", "the larvae feed on rosa , crataegus , amelanchier , acer , quercus and viburnum species . " ], "topic": [ 29, 20, 9, 8 ] }
"lytrosis unitaria, the common lytrosis moth, is a species of moth of the geometridae family. it is found in north america, including arkansas, georgia, iowa, massachusetts, new hampshire, new jersey, new york, north carolina, ohio, oklahoma, ontario, pennsylvania, south carolina, tennessee, texas, virginia, west virginia and wisconsin. the wingspan is about 50 mm. the larvae feed on rosa, crataegus, amelanchier, acer, quercus and viburnum species."
[ "lytrosis unitaria, the common lytrosis moth, is a species of moth of the geometridae family. it is found in north america, including arkansas, georgia, iowa, massachusetts, new hampshire, new jersey, new york, north carolina, ohio, oklahoma, ontario, pennsylvania, south carolina, tennessee, texas, virginia, west virginia and wisconsin. the wingspan is about 50 mm. the larvae feed on rosa, crataegus, amelanchier, acer, quercus and viburnum species." ]
"animal-train-2"
"animal-train-2"
"2653"
{ "text": [ "abantiades sericatus is a moth of the hepialidae family .", "it is endemic to western australia .", "the wingspan is about 70 mm .", "adult females have pale brown forewings with a sinuous pattern of white patches with black outlines and two to three orange and blue eyespots .", "the hindwings are pale brown .", "males have white forewings with a sinuous pattern and white hindwings . " ], "topic": [ 2, 0, 9, 1, 1, 1 ] }
"abantiades sericatus is a moth of the hepialidae family. it is endemic to western australia. the wingspan is about 70 mm. adult females have pale brown forewings with a sinuous pattern of white patches with black outlines and two to three orange and blue eyespots. the hindwings are pale brown. males have white forewings with a sinuous pattern and white hindwings."
[ "abantiades sericatus is a moth of the hepialidae family. it is endemic to western australia. the wingspan is about 70 mm. adult females have pale brown forewings with a sinuous pattern of white patches with black outlines and two to three orange and blue eyespots. the hindwings are pale brown. males have white forewings with a sinuous pattern and white hindwings." ]
"animal-train-3"
"animal-train-3"
"2654"
"eupoca haakei"
{ "text": [ "eupoca haakei is a moth in the crambidae family .", "it was described by solis and adamski in 1998 .", "it is found at low elevations in south-eastern costa rica .", "the length of the forewings is 7.8-9.5 mm .", "the ground colour of the forewings is brown mixed with white and pale brown scales .", "the distal part of the subterminal area is pale brown and the marginal line is brown .", "the hindwings are pale brown with a brown marginal line . " ], "topic": [ 2, 5, 20, 9, 1, 1, 1 ] }
"eupoca haakei is a moth in the crambidae family. it was described by solis and adamski in 1998. it is found at low elevations in south-eastern costa rica. the length of the forewings is 7.8-9.5 mm. the ground colour of the forewings is brown mixed with white and pale brown scales. the distal part of the subterminal area is pale brown and the marginal line is brown. the hindwings are pale brown with a brown marginal line."
[ "eupoca haakei is a moth in the crambidae family. it was described by solis and adamski in 1998. it is found at low elevations in south-eastern costa rica. the length of the forewings is 7.8-9.5 mm. the ground colour of the forewings is brown mixed with white and pale brown scales. the distal part of the subterminal area is pale brown and the marginal line is brown. the hindwings are pale brown with a brown marginal line." ]
"animal-train-4"
"animal-train-4"
"2655"
"polish cochineal"
{ "text": [ "polish cochineal ( porphyrophora polonica ) , also known as polish carmine scales , is a scale insect formerly used to produce a crimson dye of the same name , colloquially known as \" saint john 's blood \" .", "the larvae of p. polonica are sessile parasites living on the roots of various herbs — especially those of the perennial knawel — growing on the sandy soils of central europe and other parts of eurasia .", "before the development of aniline , alizarin , and other synthetic dyes , the insect was of great economic importance , although its use was in decline after the introduction of mexican cochineal to europe in the 16th century . " ], "topic": [ 28, 8, 17 ] }
"polish cochineal (porphyrophora polonica), also known as polish carmine scales, is a scale insect formerly used to produce a crimson dye of the same name, colloquially known as " saint john's blood ". the larvae of p. polonica are sessile parasites living on the roots of various herbs — especially those of the perennial knawel — growing on the sandy soils of central europe and other parts of eurasia. before the development of aniline, alizarin, and other synthetic dyes, the insect was of great economic importance, although its use was in decline after the introduction of mexican cochineal to europe in the 16th century."
[ "polish cochineal (porphyrophora polonica), also known as polish carmine scales, is a scale insect formerly used to produce a crimson dye of the same name, colloquially known as \" saint john's blood \". the larvae of p. polonica are sessile parasites living on the roots of various herbs — especially those of the perennial knawel — growing on the sandy soils of central europe and other parts of eurasia. before the development of aniline, alizarin, and other synthetic dyes, the insect was of great economic importance, although its use was in decline after the introduction of mexican cochineal to europe in the 16th century." ]
"animal-train-5"
"animal-train-5"
"2656"
"tenrec"
{ "text": [ "a tenrec is any species of mammal within the family tenrecidae , found on madagascar and in parts of the african mainland .", "tenrecs are widely diverse ; as a result of convergent evolution they resemble hedgehogs , shrews , opossums , mice and even otters .", "they occupy aquatic , arboreal , terrestrial and fossorial environments .", "some of these species , including the greater hedgehog tenrec , can be found in the madagascar dry deciduous forests . " ], "topic": [ 20, 4, 13, 20 ] }
"a tenrec is any species of mammal within the family tenrecidae, found on madagascar and in parts of the african mainland. tenrecs are widely diverse; as a result of convergent evolution they resemble hedgehogs, shrews, opossums, mice and even otters. they occupy aquatic, arboreal, terrestrial and fossorial environments. some of these species, including the greater hedgehog tenrec, can be found in the madagascar dry deciduous forests."
[ "a tenrec is any species of mammal within the family tenrecidae, found on madagascar and in parts of the african mainland. tenrecs are widely diverse; as a result of convergent evolution they resemble hedgehogs, shrews, opossums, mice and even otters. they occupy aquatic, arboreal, terrestrial and fossorial environments. some of these species, including the greater hedgehog tenrec, can be found in the madagascar dry deciduous forests." ]
"animal-train-6"
"animal-train-6"
"2657"
"neodactria caliginosellus"
{ "text": [ "neodactria caliginosellus , the corn root webworm or black grass-veneer , is a moth in the crambidae family .", "it was described by clemens in 1860 .", "it is found in north america , where it has been recorded from alabama , alberta , california , florida , georgia , illinois , indiana , maine , maryland , mississippi , north carolina , ohio , oklahoma , ontario , south carolina and tennessee .", "the habitat consists of grassy areas and fields .", "the wingspan is about 17 mm .", "the forewings are dark brown to blackish with black postmedian and subterminal lines .", "the hindwings are dark greyish brown .", "there is one generation per year with adults on wing in june and july in the northern part of the range .", "in florida , adults have been recorded on wing from february to november .", "the larvae feed on turf grasses and corn stalks .", "they have a pale white to grey body . " ], "topic": [ 2, 5, 20, 24, 9, 1, 1, 8, 8, 8, 23 ] }
"neodactria caliginosellus, the corn root webworm or black grass-veneer, is a moth in the crambidae family. it was described by clemens in 1860. it is found in north america, where it has been recorded from alabama, alberta, california, florida, georgia, illinois, indiana, maine, maryland, mississippi, north carolina, ohio, oklahoma, ontario, south carolina and tennessee. the habitat consists of grassy areas and fields. the wingspan is about 17 mm. the forewings are dark brown to blackish with black postmedian and subterminal lines. the hindwings are dark greyish brown. there is one generation per year with adults on wing in june and july in the northern part of the range. in florida, adults have been recorded on wing from february to november. the larvae feed on turf grasses and corn stalks. they have a pale white to grey body."
[ "neodactria caliginosellus, the corn root webworm or black grass-veneer, is a moth in the crambidae family. it was described by clemens in 1860. it is found in north america, where it has been recorded from alabama, alberta, california, florida, georgia, illinois, indiana, maine, maryland, mississippi, north carolina, ohio, oklahoma, ontario, south carolina and tennessee. the habitat consists of grassy areas and fields. the wingspan is about 17 mm. the forewings are dark brown to blackish with black postmedian and subterminal lines. the hindwings are dark greyish brown. there is one generation per year with adults on wing in june and july in the northern part of the range. in florida, adults have been recorded on wing from february to november. the larvae feed on turf grasses and corn stalks. they have a pale white to grey body." ]
"animal-train-7"
"animal-train-7"
"2658"
"cerithiopsilla antarctica"
[ "species cerithiopsilla antarctica (smith, 1907) accepted as cerithiella antarctica (e. a. smith, 1907 )\nspecies cerithiopsilla cincta thiele, 1912 accepted as cerithiella cincta (thiele, 1912) accepted as cerithiella antarctica (e. a. smith, 1907) (original combination )\ncerithiopsilla cincta thiele, 1912 accepted as cerithiella cincta (thiele, 1912) accepted as cerithiella antarctica (e. a. smith, 1907) (type by original designation )\nfor full functionality of this site it is necessary to enable javascript. here are the instructions how to enable javascript in your web browser .\nthe scientific data on this site is licensed under a creative commons attribution 3. 0 unported license .\ngriffiths, h. j. ; linse, k. ; crame, j. a. (2003). sombase - southern ocean mollusc database: a tool for biogeographic analysis in diversity and evolution. organisms diversity and evolution. 3: 207 - 213. , available online at urltoken [ details ]\nintergovernmental oceanographic commission (ioc) of unesco. the ocean biogeographic information system (obis), available online at urltoken [ details ]\neol content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. as a result, from time to time you may find pages on eol that are confusing .\nto request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. thank you !\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd html 4. 01 transitional / / en\nurltoken\n, select family and click on' identification by pictures' to display all available pictures in sealifebase for the family .\n, select country and click on' identification by pictures' to display all available pictures in sealifebase for the country .\n, select ecosystem and click on' identification by pictures' to display all available pictures in sealifebase for the ecosystem .\ncfm script by, 30. 11. 04, , php script by, 05 / 11 / 2010, last modified by kbanasihan, 06 / 28 / 2010\n( a. gittenberger & goud in a. gittenberger, goud & e. gittenberger, 2000) [" ]
{ "text": [ "cerithiopsilla antarctica is a species of very small sea snails , marine gastropod molluscs in the family cerithiopsidae .", "it was described by smith in 1907 . " ], "topic": [ 2, 5 ] }
"cerithiopsilla antarctica is a species of very small sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family cerithiopsidae. it was described by smith in 1907."
[ "cerithiopsilla antarctica is a species of very small sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family cerithiopsidae. it was described by smith in 1907." ]
"animal-train-8"
"animal-train-8"
"2659"
"peristernia pulchella"
[ "peristernia - pulchella _ 01. jpg taken by reeve 1847: plate fig. 65 image page with metadata full resolution image\n- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - species: peristernia pulchella (l. a. reeve, 1847) - id: 1972653970\nreeve, l. a. 1847. conchologia iconica: or, illustrations of the shells of molluscous animals. vol. iv. - pp. [ unpaginated ], with many plates. london. (reeve) .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd html 4. 01 transitional / / en\nurltoken\nversion 43. 0 went live 11 / 6 / 2018 - i hope that the majority of issues have been fixed. my email address is on the home page if you see anything wrong .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd html 4. 01 transitional / / en\nsri lanka, 1 / 2 mi. w wellawalta, 3 mi. s colombo hbr .\n. each record tells when. see dataset links for citations & terms of use .\nthe prices for is valid in all major cities of india including bangalore, delhi, hyderabad, chennai, mumbai, kolkata and pune. please check instructions at the specific stores for any deviation .\nhenri frankfort, h. a. frankfort, john a. wilson, thorkild jacobsen" ]
{ "text": [ "peristernia pulchella is a species of sea snail , a marine gastropod mollusk in the family fasciolariidae , the spindle snails , the tulip snails and their allies . " ], "topic": [ 2 ] }
"peristernia pulchella is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family fasciolariidae, the spindle snails, the tulip snails and their allies."
[ "peristernia pulchella is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family fasciolariidae, the spindle snails, the tulip snails and their allies." ]
"animal-train-9"
"animal-train-9"
"2660"
"caesio caerulaurea"
{ "text": [ "caesio caerulaurea , the blue and gold fusilier , blue fusilier , gold-band fusilier or scissor-tailed fusilier , is a species of marine fish in the family caesionidae .", "it is widespread throughout the tropical waters of the indo-pacific area , including the red sea .", "this fish can reach a maximum size of 35 cm in length , but its common length is 23.5 cm . " ], "topic": [ 14, 13, 0 ] }
"caesio caerulaurea, the blue and gold fusilier, blue fusilier, gold-band fusilier or scissor-tailed fusilier, is a species of marine fish in the family caesionidae. it is widespread throughout the tropical waters of the indo-pacific area, including the red sea. this fish can reach a maximum size of 35 cm in length, but its common length is 23.5 cm."
[ "caesio caerulaurea, the blue and gold fusilier, blue fusilier, gold-band fusilier or scissor-tailed fusilier, is a species of marine fish in the family caesionidae. it is widespread throughout the tropical waters of the indo-pacific area, including the red sea. this fish can reach a maximum size of 35 cm in length, but its common length is 23.5 cm." ]
"animal-train-10"
"animal-train-10"
"2661"
"i ' ll have another"
[ "“it’s kind of sad. i would have liked to have had a lot of i’ll have anothers. ”\nabove / below: i' ll have another wins the 2012 kentucky derby .\nabove: i' ll have another and lava man in the post parade .\ni’ll have another’s dam archs gal edith showed talent in winning her only start .\ni’ll have another has a fluid gait with good extension and no wasted motion .\ni' ll have another wins the kentucky derby with mario gutierrez atop on saturday .\ni’ll have another is a product of the mr. prospector sire line through his son\nolder comments about i' ll have another - stud or dud? ...\ni’ll have another is currently based at trainer doug o’neill’s stable at betfair hollywood park .\nlouisville, ky. - - i' ll have another looked like just another horse at the kentucky derby .\ni' ll have another is scheduled to return home to california on sunday or monday .\ni' ll have another dropped to third on the backstretch as longview drive took second and creative cause started a move on the far turn, passing i' ll have another .\nwhen i’ll have another arrived, kimura’s impressions were confirmed, he said. i’ll have another can be easily distracted, so kimura tries to keep a distance from him to build trust .\nkentucky derby and preakness winner i' ll have another is headed to stud duty in japan .\ni’ll have another' s name appears in translation on a sign in front of his paddock .\nabove: preakness day at pimlico. below, i' ll have another before the race .\nabove: i' ll have another june 6... gotta love that odd cloud .\nall four of those wins for i’ll have another came with the unheralded jockey mario gutierrez aboard .\nwhen asked what i’ll have another meant to him, gutierrez said, “he’s my hero. ”\no' neill called i' ll have another' s injury a\nfreakish thing .\nit' s kind of sad. i would have liked to have had a lot of i' ll have anothers .\nelmont, n. y. – someday there may be another triple crown winner, but it won’t be i’ll have another .\nlouisville, ky. — canadian - owned i’ll have another didn’t seem to have the goods to win the kentucky derby .\ni' ll have another surprised a competitive field to win the 138th running of the kentucky derby .\njockey mario gutierrez, making his derby debut, called i' ll have another a steady competitor .\nlater, it was announced that i’ll have another would lead the post parade for saturday’s belmont stakes .\nlet' s take a look a some facts and race recaps from i' ll have another .\ni’ll have another’s offspring overall won’t be precocious. they’ll prefer to run at least a mile and should do well over all surfaces .\nowner j. paul reddam named i’ll have another for what he replies when his wife, zillah, asks him if he would like to have another cookie .\no’neill didn’t waste any time vowing that i’ll have another will go on to the preakness in two weeks .\nabove: heading down the homestretch, i' ll have another as he approached front - running bodemeister .\nabove / below: dual classic winner i' ll have another leaves pimlico to head to belmont park .\nthe main question was can i’ll have another win again? the answer proved to be a resounding yes .\ni’ll have another’s withdrawal is a devastating blow for america’s struggling race industry, which has been waiting 34 years for another triple crown winner .\nasked if i' ll have another has raced his last race, he said:' if i had to wager. i would say yes.'\nlike i' ll have another, both fillies have inherited their sire' s pace - stalking style but they have not won beyond 8. 5 furlongs .\nabove: the first time i photographed i' ll have another and lava man together was april 29 - the first morning they stepped out at churchill downs. jonny garcia was aboard i' ll have another and sabas rivera rode lava man .\nafter a rough start, i’ll have another is showing promise as a stud horse at japan’s big red farm .\nabove: after the winner' s circle celebration, i' ll have another was cooled down by friends .\nabove / below: buddies. . sort of... i' ll have another and lava man .\nabove: i' ll have another training at belmont park, a. k. a. big sandy .\nsb nation' s horse racing expert matt gardner reacts to i' ll have another' s preakness triumph .\nif so, i' ll have another will join an elite group of horses, including secretariat and whirlaway .\nthis was all known prior to i' ll have another' s injury. the degree is just different .\ni' ll have another became the first horse to win the derby starting from post position no. 19 .\ni' ll have another has retired, per nbc sports. his triple crown dreams have evaporated almost just 34 days after they arrived .\nabove / below: the newly retired i' ll have another with team o' neill, still politely posing. shortly thereafter, i' ll have another headed back to his regular barn (mark hennig' s) .\ni' ll have another becomes the 12th horse to have claimed the first two legs of the triple crown since 1978, but i' ll have another will try to become the only one to go on to win the belmont for the triple crown .\ni’ll have another is tentatively scheduled to leave for japan in august, after completing quarantine requirements, reddam said. there have been discussions with hollywood park officials about parading i’ll have another on a race day before the conclusion of the summer meeting july 15 .\nfootage of i' ll have another selling at the 2010 september yearling sale as part of the brookdale sales consignment .\nabove: bodemeister set the early pace in the preakness, as i' ll have another settled in behind him .\nabove / below: i' ll have another drove past a game bodemeister to add the preakness to his resume .\nwe have to go back to i’ll have another’s fifth dam patelin, a blue hen, to find a direct link to stakes winning quality .\nabove: i' ll have another, mario gutierrez up, and lava man, in the kentucky derby post parade .\nabove / below: cranky lava man with i' ll have another, who almost always looked surprised by that crankiness .\nalthough i’ll have another didn’t contest the belmont stakes, he certainly had the pedigree and running style to win the race .\ni’ll have another’s 2010 half - sister gloria s (by tapit) has yet to make her appearance on the track .\ni’ll have another, winner of the kentucky derby and preakness stakes last month, is bound for stud duty in japan .\ni' ll have another is the son of flower alley, out of the arch mare arch' s gal edith .\ni' ll have another is one of those nice case stories that slipped by and became the cinderella of the crop .\nbodemeister was on the lead by three lengths as they entered the stretch; i' ll have another would have to find second gear to catch him .\nshigeyuki okada, the farm’s owner, paid $10 million for i’ll have another after the horse’s career ended abruptly in 2012 .\nabove: heading for home, bodemeister was still in the lead, but i' ll have another loomed on the left .\nabove / below: ... doug o' neill removed i' ll have another' s saddle... .\nthere was nothing in o’neill’s handling of i’ll have another or his comportment throughout the triple crown series that would confirm this caricature .\ni’ll have another follows sunday silence and empire maker as outstanding american 3 - year - olds to stand at stud in japan .\ni' ll have another won the race, but creative cause was still considered by most the best on the west coast .\nbut on paper and on most fans' minds, it will be i' ll have another' s race to lose .\no’neill noticed swelling in i’ll have another’s left foreleg thursday afternoon, but with treatment the swelling subsided. o’neill sent i’ll have another to the track at 5: 30 a. m. friday – three hours earlier than usual – where he jogged and galloped .\ni’ll have another, ridden by mario gutierrez, edging bodemeister and mike smith at the finish of the 137th preakness stakes on saturday .\nabove / below: once settled in at pimlico, i' ll have another looked grand... and raring to go .\ni' ll have another settled in nicely in fourth place early and started his move slowly from the three - quarter mile pole .\nbode and another break well. bode, pretension, creative cause, then another. mario gutierrez asks another to go as they head into the stretch. i’ll have another catches bodemeister to win! !! !! the triple crown is alive !\nmario gutierrez celebrates after riding canadian - owned i' ll have another to victory in the 138th running of the kentucky derby on saturday .\no' neill didn' t waste any time vowing that i' ll have another will go on to the preakness in two weeks .\ngutierrez and i' ll have another will lead the post parade for the belmont stakes on saturday, the new york racing association said .\nwith i’ll have another out of the triple crown, there will be less controversy and maybe more clarity at belmont, dan packel writes .\ni' ll have another defeated bodemeister by more than one length at the 1¼ - mile classic, attended by a record churchill downs crowd .\ninstead of union rags and dullahan being i' ll have another' s most dangerous challengers, they are now the belmont' s favorites .\nsilver charm, real quiet, charismatic, war emblem, funny cide (gelding), smarty jones, big brown and i’ll have another .\ni’ll have another carries linebreeding to mr. prospector, northern dancer and way back in his seventh generation is some cross - breeding (through sire and dam) to bold ruler. i’ll have another also carries the blood of hail to reason through two of his top turf descendants, sadlers’ wells and roberto. i’ll have another’s pedigree is inclusive of the most popular modern bloodlines and should mix will with a wide variety of mares .\nin a thrilling stretch run, i' ll have another got to bodemeister in the red zone and edged him to win by a neck .\ni remember roy he told everyone to bet gem and how hes the best blah, blah. and i remember saying i will stick with i' ll have another. i never gave up on him after his saratoga flop and i wasn' t going to stop in the triple crown .\nhe' ll be my hero forever ,\ngutierrez said .\nwhat i' ll have another did for me is so amazing. he brought happiness to my life .\npurchased for$ 35, 000 as a 2 - year - old in training, i’ll have another is by flower alley, winner of the 2005 travers stakes. i’ll have another is the first stakes winner out of arch’s gal edith, a 10 - year - old mare by arch .\nsince then, 11 very talented colts have come to belmont with the same hopes as i' ll have another. but they all have fallen short of the challenge from the\ntest of the champion .\ni' ll have another was physically capable of competing on saturday, reddam and o' neill said, but it would not have been in the horse' s best interest .\no' neill said i' ll have another was being retired because he developed swelling in his left front tendon that was the beginning of tendinitis .\nabove: the next morning, i' ll have another was a bit tired... or maybe a bit bored with the surrounding hubbub .\npaul reddam and doug o' neill (right) console each other after announcing i' ll have another will not run in the belmont stakes .\no’neill said i’ll have another would return to his base at hollywood park on monday. his connections will sort out stallion plans at a later date .\nthough confident his horse could beat i’ll have another, dale romans, trainer of dullahan, said it was “devastating” that he’s not in the field .\nthings began unraveling for triple crown hopeful i' ll have another a day after the colt' s thrilling win in the preakness three weeks ago .\noverall, the quality of i’ll have another’s distaff line is solid, but not spectacular. the runners they produce are sound claiming / allowance types .\nat post time bettors made bodemeister the $1. 70 - 1 favorite over i' ll have another at$ 3. 20 - 1 .\ni’ll have another pulled off another win in dramatic come - from - behind fashion. the three - year - old colt overtook bodemeister in the final inches of the preakness on saturday afternoon .\nas far as i' m concerned i have confidence in enda kenny' s leadership .\ni’ll have another joins burgoo king (1932) and bold venture (1936) as the only horses to have won the kentucky derby and preakness, but not compete in the belmont .\ni' ll have another will be going for the elusive triple crown, but he will have to tame 10 throughout 1. 5 miles around the long belmont oval to achieve this .\nhe' ll be my hero forever ,\na somber gutierrez said .\nwhat i' ll have another did for me is so amazing. he brought happiness to my life .\ni' ll have another, winner of the kentucky derby and the preakness, came up with tendinitis in his left front leg and will not race .\nabove: marco carrillo, jonny garcia, beto gomez, davey meah, jack sisterson and tyler cerin follow i' ll have another around the paddock .\ni' ll have another cut loose on the home stretch to run down bodemeister and earn the first kentucky derby wins for his rider and trainer saturday .\nkentucky derby winner i' ll have another embarks on a journey to become the first triple crown winner in 34 years. up next: the preakness .\nthe scratch of i’ll have another will likely leave dullahan, the third - place finisher from the kentucky derby, as the probable favorite for the belmont .\no' neill declared i' ll have another\nfit and ready to go ,\nwhich obviously wasn' t the case as the day unfolded .\nsports fans were shocked today as i' ll have another was scratched from the belmont stakes on the eve of his historic run for the triple crown .\nowner j. paul reddam bought i' ll have another for just $35k at the 2010 september yearling sale as part of the brookdale sales consignment .\ntheir task was to ensure that shigeyuki okada, the farm’s owner, got the most out of i’ll have another, whom he bought for$ 10 million after the horse’s racing career ended in 2012. i’ll have another started only seven races, five of them wins, and earned $2. 7 million .\nproblems: i' ll have another is tended to after a bath at belmont park in elmont, n. y on june 7. i' ll have another' s bid for a triple crown ended with the shocking news that the colt was out of the belmont stakes due to a swollen left front tendon\nthey didn' t believe (i' ll have another) could have made it this far ,\ngutierrez said .\nbut even if they wanted me to pick (any horse in the field), i would have stayed with him .\ni’ll have another has been a steady stud who may ultimately justify the price okada paid for him. but his early exit from racing is a reminder of the fickle nature of the sport and the difficulty of winning three top races in five weeks. if i’ll have another had won the triple crown, he probably would not have ended up here .\nas a result, we were able to fully record i' ll have another' s historic run. that fate would not allow i' ll have another a chance at the last jewel of the triple crown was a frustrating footnote, to be certain - but, when he shone, no one was brighter .\nabove / below: doug o' neill, too, watched i' ll have another' s bath... and snapped a shot or two .\nbelow: by early afternoon, this was the scene at the barn when - in a shocker - i' ll have another' s retirement was announced .\ni' ll have another' s trainer will begin his 45 - day suspension, handed down by the california horse - racing authorities, on july 1 .\nlarry bramlage, the on - call veterinarian for the american association of equine practitioners, said by running in the belmont i’ll have another would exacerbate the injury .\nin an incredibly close final stretch between the three horses, i' ll have another prevailed by a nose over creative cause and half - length over blueskiesnrainbows .\nit was validation time for i' ll have another as he was able to win yet again, answering the challenge with everything going bodemeister' s way .\n“i’m afraid history is going to have to wait for another day, ” j. paul reddam, owner of i’ll have another, said at a somber press conference on the belmont backstretch. “we tried to be quiet, but i really thought he was going to run off and really show something. ”\n“the japanese have been big fans of flower alley really throughout his career, ” said case clay, president of three chimneys farm, where i’ll have another’s sire, flower alley, stands. “in the last two years, japanese breeders have been buying some very nice mares from america, and i’m guessing that he’ll get some very good mares. i think he’ll fit in quite nicely there. ”\no' neill said i' ll have another would return to his home base at betfair hollywood park in inglewood, calif. , in the next few days .\nmario gutierrez celebrates atop i' ll have another after winning the 138th running of the kentucky derby at churchill downs on may 5, 2012 in louisville, kentucky .\nabove: a near - collision between a loose horse, isleta, and i' ll have another on may 31 prompted a change in morning routines ...\ni' ll have another came out of a losing effort in the hopeful stakes at saratoga last september with shin problems and took the rest of the year off .\nscratched: triple crown hopeful i' ll have another at barn 2 following workouts at belmont park on friday, june 8, 2012 in elmont, n. y\ni’ll have another won his debut at hollywood park on july 3, before finishing second to creative cause in the grade 2 best pal at del mar in august .\nedwards told abc news that last minute injuries were not uncommon in horse racing, and after observing i' ll have another during training runs she is not surprised .\nlike their sire counterparts, certain distaff families produce more classic victors than others. i’ll have another is a member of family 23 - b (turk mare) .\ni' ll have another had won the robert b. lewis (g2) and was a far second betting choice ($ 4. 80 - 1) .\nthis year, six foals have been born to i’ll have another, including one with pisa no sunday, a descendant of sunday silence, who also won the first two legs of the triple crown .\ndullahan, union rags, paynter and street life will most likely have a say in this before the race is over. they are the top four challengers that i' ll have another will face .\ni' ll have another suffers a leg injury and won' t race in saturday' s belmont stakes, meaning the kentucky derby and preakness stakes winner will not have a shot at the triple crown .\ni' ll have another, with a finish of 2: 01: 83, earned nearly $1. 5 million of the$ 2. 2 million purse .\nretired racehorse those wer the days, a half - brother to i' ll have another shown winning at saratoga in 2011, is set to be offered for adoption .\nthere’s no doubt the major stud farms are courting i’ll have another’s owner paul redam and we’ll read the announcement within the next few months as to which stud farm will receive the honor of standing the son of flower alley .\njockey mario gutierrez rides i' ll have another to victory in the 138th kentucky derby horse race at churchill downs saturday, may 5, 2012, in louisville, ky .\nafter the news of i' ll have another' s scratch, new york racing association chairman steven duncker said he was disappointed for fans and the sport of thoroughbred racing .\nas friday’s press conference began, i’ll have another was led out of the barn by o’neill to be seen by the press. he later grazed as o’neill and reddam spoke .\n“when he first arrived, there were days that i couldn’t sleep and my stomach was upset, ” said kimura, one of five people dedicated to i’ll have another. “there was a lot of pressure. ”\ni kept telling everybody, from the first time i met him, i knew he was the one. i knew he was good .\nabove: but the mood was much more subdued friday morning. here, i' ll have another is hosed at 6: 30 a. m. , after a gallop .\ni' ll have another' s bid for a triple crown ended with the shocking news that the colt was out of the belmont stakes because of a swollen left front tendon .\nthe decision to scratch i' ll have another came after doug o' neill had called an audible and sent the horse out for a final gallop in secrecy early friday morning .\nby flower alley—arch' s gal edith (arch), i' ll have another entered stud in japan after being sold by owner j. paul reddam for $10 million .\nin the spring of 2012, half - brothers i’ll have another and those wer the days were riding high. i’ll have another was a dual classic winner on the brink of becoming the first triple crown winner since affirmed in 1978. meanwhile, those wer the days was riding a five - race winning streak of his own. but the story soon unraveled .\ni' ll have another has taken on his sire' s ability to stalk the pace and run with a target upfront. he has made it to 10 furlongs just fine .\nmario gutierrez comes down the front stretch atop i' ll have another to win the 138th running of the kentucky derby at churchill downs on may 5, 2012 in louisville, kentucky .\n“none of this yelling and screaming bothered him, ” said reddam, who has not visited i’ll have another in japan. “one of the great things about him was his temperament. ”\nwe prayed he kind of hit himself and that it was a little bit of skin irritation ,\nhe said as i' ll have another grazed in the grass behind him .\ni’ll have another was the odds - on favorite to win the grueling 1 - 1 / 2 mile (2, 414 meter) belmont stakes and end the 34 - year drought .\nnow optimizer and my adonis are this year' s middling horses. they face the same situation i' ll have another faced entering the kentucky derby a little over a month ago .\nconformation wise, i’ll have another is an average sized, yet powerfully built stallion who resembles his sire. his pasterns are a little long, but overall, he has good bone .\nnot many believed that the santa anita derby winner i’ll have another could become the first horse to win the kentucky derby from the no. 19 post, yet he went off at odds of 15 - 1, mainly because of bettors’ attraction to his name. after the victory, enthusiastic requests of “i’ll have another! ” were heard at bars from kentucky to new york .\ni' ll have another was trained by doug o' neill, who had a history of violations in california and was suspended 45 days in may after one of his horses was found to have an excessive level of carbon dioxide .\ni' ll have another is set to return to hollywood park on sunday or monday. the next step will be to plan for his stud career, o' neill and reddam said .\nabove: one team drf shooter, emily shields, was an i' ll have another fan from the get - go. she keyed in on him as he rounded the first turn .\n' i’ll have another is officially out of the belmont,' o' neill said on the dan patrick show this morning.' it’s not tragic, but it’s a huge disappointment.'\non his first trip to new york, i’ll have another finished sixth in the grade 1 hopeful run over a sloppy track at saratoga, a race from which he emerged with bucked shins .\ndoug o’neill went on the dan patrick show and said he’d likely rest i’ll have another for three months, and there was a chance the 3 - year - old will never race again .\ni’ll have another had a perfect record this year with four wins, all in stakes, including the grade 2 robert lewis stakes in february and the grade 1 santa anita derby in april .\n“i don’t blame you for everything—i blame dad for some things, too. ”\nthe last horse to come close was big brown in 2008, who had a dismal showing at the belmont after capturing the first two legs of the triple crown. can i' ll have another succeed where so many others have failed ?\nwhen i' ll have another returned to the barn after his friday gallop, he had inflammation in the same area, but again seemed to respond well in treatment, o' neill said .\ni’ll have another with hiroshi kimura, a handler at big red farm, which is hoping the horse will rival northern taste and sunday silence, two of the most productive sires in japanese history .\nabove: ... and a special window of time was allotted for belmont trainees only. here, i' ll have another gallops past the throng of media members as atigun stands out .\ni' ll have another – the winner of both the kentucky derby and the preakness stakes – will not race in the 2012 belmont stakes, according to his trainer, doug o' neill .\ni' ll have another was scheduled to break from the no. 11 post saturday and had been made the 4 - 5 morning - line favorite for the 144th running of the belmont stakes .\nin the same 2007 crop as sharp humor and any given saturday, i’ll have another’s sire flower alley got off to a slower start at stud. he has only six stakes winners from 126 runners. i’ll have another is a typical example of flower alley’s offspring, improving with age and racing. currently, his oldest crop are three year olds, so we should see more stakes winners as they grow into four and five year olds. only time will tell if flower alley will become a solid sire of older horses or if i’ll have another will be his only home run hit .\nat the top of the stretch creative cause was leading i' ll have another by a head and both had aim at a feisty blueskiesnrainbows, who didn' t want to surrender the lead .\no' neill said the horse could have rested for several months and got started again. but he said i' ll have another has\ndone so much that it was unanimous\namong the owners and trainers\nto retire him .\nand while i’m not entirely convinced, i suspect the right winner—like smarty jones—would have given the sport a much - needed bump .\ni’ll have another now has a chance to become the first triple crown winner since affirmed in 1978. his rival bodemeister will not race in the belmont stakes, set for june 9 at belmont park .\ndoug o' neill and owner j. paul reddam immediately gave i' ll have another two months off leading up to the santa anita derby, which he won by a nose on april 12 .\nfriday’s stunning announcement that i’ll have another was sidelined with tendinitis and not only would not be running in saturday’s belmont stakes but would also be retiring sent shockwaves through the racing community and the general public .\nbut gutiérrez did more than keep i’ll have another’s triple crown hopes alive with saturday’s win. the victory also gives the sport the much - needed hook it needs to maintain the interest of the masses .\nif you' re going to get a pet, get a winner. literally, you can probably afford a thoroughbred racehorse like i' ll have another, which reportedly sold for$ 10 million .\nunder a strong urging during the stretch, i' ll have another was able to catch bodemeister just after the final half - furlong pole and drew away to win clear by 1. 5 lengths .\ni' ll have another will face 10 contenders at the long distance of 1. 5 miles. it is an unknown distance for all of them, so what is equal is not an advantage .\nthen, track stewards said that for the belmont, i' ll have another would have to go without the nasal strip he wore in races this year, and exercise rider jonny garcia had visa problems and had to be replaced for several days .\nspectacular bid, alysheba, sunday silence, silver charm, smarty jones and big brown, as good as they were, didn' t win the triple crown. the question is, what chance does i' ll have another have, then ?\ni’ll have another’s scratch from the belmont also means that thoroughbred racing’s triple crown will go unclaimed for a 34th consecutive year. affirmed, in 1978, was the sport’s 11th and most recent triple crown champion .\ni' ll have another' s injury eliminated this year' s most prominent storyline and adjusted the odds at the last second. other than that, things are status quo in the horse racing world .\nbeside his big wins with i' ll have another, his other big wins are the g3 wilshire handicap in hollywood park this year and the 2009 g3 ballerina and 2007 g3 premiers, both at hastings .\ni' ll have another, under the thoroughbred radar all week, rallied to win the 138th kentucky derby going away in front of a record crowd of 165, 307 on a humid day in bluegrass country .\ni’ll have another is the most popular and valuable of the 240 horses at big red farm, too. the staff members, many of whom never saw him race, know they are caring for a champion .\ni' ll have another was\nlightly raced\nand competed in only two prep races leading up to the derby. he competed in the shadow of bodemeister, who was predicted to win the kentucky derby .\ni’ll have another’s trainer doug o’neill said the three - year - old looked fine after a final workout early friday but his leg started to swell after he cooled down and scans revealed the early onset of tendonitis .\ni' ll have another, who trains at hollywood park, was given his name by owner j. paul reddam, but not for the reason you would think. reddam doesn' t drink but does have an affection for his wife' s cookies .\ndespite his years away from the track, i’ll have another continues to have a strong following. a stream of fans, including some from the united states, visit him at the farm. he has more than 14, 000 likes on his facebook page .\nhis jockey is mario gutierrez, 25, who is certainly young and inexperienced but calm, cool and collected like the top veteran money riders. you wouldn' t know if you have only seen him on all four wins with i' ll have another .\nabout two hours before the press conference, o’neill, in a brief phone interview with daily racing form, called the injury to i’ll have another “a huge disappointment. at the same time what a horse, what a run. though it’s heartbreaking, it’s not tragic. we’ll be back with another one, hopefully next year. ”\ni' ll have another won the derby on may 5 and the preakness two weeks later - both with stirring stretch drives - to set up the highly anticipated belmont stakes and a triple try. only 11 horses have won the triple crown and the wait for another now stretches to 35 years - the longest drought ever .\ni' m afraid history is going to have to wait for another day ,\nsaid j. paul reddam, the colt' s owner .\ni’ll have another overhauled a tiring bodemeister to win by 1 ½ lengths. he paid $32. 60,$ 13. 80 and $9. he ran 1 ¼ miles in 2: 01. 83 .\nmaking his derby debut at 25, gutierrez got his chance to ride i' ll have another after trainer doug o' neill and owner j. paul reddam happened to see him at santa anita in southern california .\ni' ll have another overhauled a tiring bodemeister to win by 1½ lengths. he paid$ 32. 60, $13. 80 and$ 9. he ran 1¼ miles in 2: 01. 83 .\ni' ll have another' s bid for the first triple crown in 34 years ended stunningly friday when the chestnut colt was retired on the eve of the belmont stakes with an injury to his left front tendon .\nwhen i' ll have another powered his way into the national spotlight at churchill downs may 5, 2012, he also powered his way into my - and countless other - hearts. the preakness cemented the deal .\nabove: mario gutierrez hopped aboard i' ll have another in the winner' s circle. team o' neill gave a' tip of the hat' to their home track by donning yellow santa anita caps .\ntoday: i' ll have another, left, with exercise rider jonny garcia, accompanied by stablemate lava man, trains at belmont park, on friday, june 8, 2012, in elmont, n. y\nmay 5, 2012; louisville, ky usa; mario gutierrez aboard i' ll have another crosses the finish line to win the kentucky derby at churchill downs race track. mandatory credit: mark zerof - us presswire\ni' ll have another, the 12th horse to take the derby and preakness since 1978, will seek to avoid their fates. history may smile on i' ll have another' s duel with bodemeister, second in both triple crown races this year, as it recalls affirmed' s famed clash with alydar. bodemeister is the first horse since alydar to place second to a horse that took both the kentucky derby and preakness stakes .\ni' ll have another, seen here in the kentucky derby, also won the preakness and was seeking to becoming only the 12th triple crown einner before being retired prior to the belmont stakes due to a tendon injury .\nmeanwhile, i’ll have another was comfortably galloping along behind the blazing speed. gutierrez angled his colt clear on the final turn and took dead aim at bodemeister, who was clearly in front at the top of the stretch .\ni' ll have another' s grooms will lead him to the paddock about an hour before the running of the belmont, then to the winner' s circle where trainer doug o' neill will remove his saddle .\njockey mario gutierrez reacts after riding i' ll have another to victory in the 138th kentucky derby horse race at churchill downs saturday, may 5, 2012, in louisville, ky. (ap photo / mark humphrey )\nbut he was never accused of doing anything illegal to i' ll have another, and the colt, along with the other 11 belmont stakes entries, all came back negative in testing done wednesday by the state board .\ni’ll have another was retired with a tendon injury on the eve of the belmont stakes and was subsequently sold to japan for stud duty. those wer the days lost his final start before a knee injury ended his career .\nowner paul reddam said friday that a deal has been reached with shigeyuki okada’s big red farm on the island of hokkaido to stand i’ll have another beginning with the 2013 breeding season. financial terms were confidential, reddam said .\ntrainer doug o' neill leads i' ll have another out of his stable to announce the triple crown hopeful' s sudden retirement at belmont park on june 8. (kevin hagen / for new york daily news )\neleven horses were entered wednesday to take on i' ll have another in his bid to win the triple crown for the first time since affirmed swept the derby, preakness and belmont in 1978. only 11 horses have accomplished the feat, while 19 have been tripped up in the belmont after winning the first two legs .\nnow saturday' s race is largely irrelevant to casual viewers who would have watched in the hopes of seeing history in the making. dullahan, who ran third in the derby, was installed as the new 9 - 5 favorite after i' ll have another was scratched .\n“i never really dreamed i would be in a position to own racehorses, but i got very lucky in my life and it happened, ” said reddam, president and founder of cashcall inc. “i guess i’m still lucky. ”\n“i think he’ll be okay, ” she said. “time will tell. he’s super - sound now. ”\ni’ll have another made his way to the starting gate accompanied by his stable pony, lava man, another cheap purchase turned into a career winner of more than $5 million by o’neill. the trainer has made his name predominantly in southern california, although he’s won three breeders’ cup races .\nthe preakness horses are on the track and warming up. nothing out of the ordinary. the derby winner, i’ll have another, looks calm. bode baffert looks nervous. bodemeister is still the favorite at 2 - 1 .\nit typically takes a horse three to six months to recover from such an injury, but o' neill and j. paul reddam, i' ll have another' s owner, they will retire the horse to stud .\ni' ll have another, the winner of this year' s kentucky derby and preakness stakes, is out of saturday' s belmont stakes because of a leg injury and has been retired from racing, his team said .\ni’ll have another proved that at churchill downs. he backed it up at pimlico. now, everyone will be watching – and wagering - - to see if he and gutiérrez can cross the finish line first one more time .\nmoments after i' ll have another registered a rousing, come - from - behind victory in the 138th running of the kentucky derby, the horse' s trainer doug o' neill was already talking about the triple crown .\nreddam and trainer doug o’neill said that i’ll have another would need three to six months off before he could resume training. further, there was no guarantee that he would be able to return to the top level of competition .\nnew york (reuters) - i’ll have another was retired from racing after suffering a freak injury on the eve of saturday’s$ 1 million belmont stakes, ending his bid to win the elusive triple crown of american thoroughbred racing .\ninstead, i' ll have another now becomes only the third horse to win both the derby and the preakness and not compete at belmont. bold venture did not particpate in 1936 and burgoo king skipped the race in 1932 .\nboth wickedly perfect and i’ll have another were purchased as a result of the way dennis o’neill shops for horses and why the obs april sale fits his program. “i guess you could say i approach buying horses backwards, ” said dennis. “the [ under tack ] preview is number one, followed by conformation and finally i worry about pedigree. i was attracted to i’ll have another by his long, smooth stride and his pedigree was good enough. he breezed with that same stride you saw in the kentucky derby. to tell the truth, he was such a nice mover i thought he’d sell for more money. for me, a nice way of going is the most important part. ”\nwe' ll be there and we' ll be rooting ,\no' neill said .\ni won' t tell you who we will be rooting for .\nmeanwhile, i' ll have another was comfortably galloping along behind the speedsters. gutierrez angled his colt clear on the final turn and took dead - aim at bodemeister, who was clearly in front at the top of the stretch .\nhe also said i’ll have another communicated well with his jockey — “he would go when it was time to go” — and had a will to win. reddam said he hoped that the horse would pass that on to his progeny .\na series of minor setbacks for the horse and his handlers culminated with the biggest shocker of all: i' ll have another' s sudden retirement on the eve of the belmont stakes with an injury to his left front tendon .\nbefore i’ll have another was injured and withdrawn from the belmont stakes, people who care about horse racing hoped he could win the triple crown and give the sport an exciting and positive story. it hasn’t had many of those lately .\ni' ll have another, who captured the imagination of the horse racing world after winning the first two legs of the triple crown this year then abruptly pulling out of the belmont stakes, has found a new home in japan .\ni’ll have another stormed out of post no. 19 — the first winner from there in 138 runnings of the derby — and bided his time back in mid - pack while bodemeister set a blistering pace on a hot, muggy afternoon .\ni' ll have another, who won the kentucky derby and the preakness stakes with stirring stretch drives, was the 4 - 5 early favorite to win the belmont and become the 12th triple crown winner and first since affirmed in 1978 .\nreddam said he spoke to i' ll have another' s young jockey, mario gutierrez, to tell him and said\nhe reacted with sadness about the horse' s condition. then he asked if he could go home .\nvictor davila, now an exercise rider for eisaman equine in williston, sold i' ll have another in 2011 for $35, 000 at the ocala breeders' sales co. after breaking and training him at his bosses' farm .\ndoug o' neill said the decision to bring i' ll have another to the track shortly after 5: 30 a. m. on friday was to avoid congestion around the detention barn housing the 12 horses entered for the belmont .\ntriple crown hopeful i' ll have another is walked into barn 9 after a press conference announcing that he will be scratched from the belmont stakes at belmont park in elmont, new york, june 8, 2012. reuters / shannon stapleton\nfor the second straight race, the kentucky derby winner i’ll have another ran down the pace - setter bodemeister in deep stretch, winning the preakness stakes, the second leg of the triple crown, on saturday at pimlico race course in baltimore .\nridden by derby rookie mario gutierrez, i' ll have another caught front - runner bodemeister with a sixteenth of a mile left in the 1 1 / 4 - mile race and drew off to a win by a length and a half .\nmario gutierrez (l) comes down the final stretch atop i' ll have another ahead of bodemeister ridden by mike smith during the 138th running of the kentucky derby ahead of at churchill downs on may 5, 2012 in... more\nit looks like half of the field is talented enough to challenge i' ll have another on saturday. the unknown distance and the mere history of the triple crown suggests he would surely suffer an upset, and it could very likely happen .\n“i’m not asking for your hand in marriage—i’m asking you to pull me up off the floor. ”\nwith the two - year - old season winding down, what are his plans for the “offseason? ” i’m going to play a lot of golf, ” he said with a laugh. “i bought 15 or 16 horses this year, and i’ll spend the summer watching them develop with doug. he’s got about 60 horses in training at hollywood and i’ll have the babies at santa anita. ”\nwhile i’ll have another was getting ready for his date with destiny at churchill downs, dennis o’neill was back in ocala at the april sale, buying seven two - year - olds at prices ranging from$ 25, 000 to $100, 000, and true to his theory only the hundred grander worked as fast as: 10 flat. we caught up to him a day before he would catch a plane to baltimore and reunite with team i’ll have another for the preakness on saturday .\ni' ll have another' s improbable run has now come to an unexpected end. the horse was sold as a yearling in 2010 for$ 11, 000 and faced 15 - to - 1 odds in the derby before becaming the first winner ever to have started from post no. 19 .\nbut the tendon injury that prompted the immediate retirement of i’ll have another underscored the more banal truth: thoroughbred racehorses are fragile and injuries to them are commonplace. they have been bred for three centuries to produce maximum speed and stamina by carrying a powerful body on spindly, delicate underpinnings. their ankles, knees and legs are always vulnerable. i’ll have another was a different case only because his injury made front - page headlines and because it made more sense to retire a colt with future stud value than to bring him back to competition next year .\nobviously we' ll be having a parliamentary party meeting next week where i would assume this issue would be discussed .\nmario gutierrez (l) comes down the final stretch atop i' ll have another ahead of bodemeister ridden by mike smith during the 138th running of the kentucky derby ahead of at churchill downs on may 5, 2012 in louisville, kentucky. less\nniikappu - gun, japan — it was just after noon on a recent day at big red farm, one of japan’s largest horse breeders, time for hiroshi kimura to take the 5 - year - old stallion i’ll have another for a walk .\nat least for now, i’ll have another seems off to a good start in his new life. in the corner stall of the nicest stable on the 670 - acre farm, he welcomes visitors with a curiosity and playfulness befitting his relative youth." ]
{ "text": [ "i 'll have another ( foaled april 1 , 2009 ) is a north american thoroughbred race horse , bred in kentucky , owned by canadian businessman j. paul reddam and trained by doug o'neill .", "in may 2012 , ridden by mario gutierrez , he won the first two legs of the triple crown by taking the kentucky derby with a time of 2:01.83 .", "and the preakness stakes in 1:55.94 .", "on the day before the belmont stakes , he was scratched due to tendonitis , ending his chances of winning the triple crown , and retired from racing . " ], "topic": [ 22, 14, 0, 14 ] }
"i'll have another (foaled april 1, 2009) is a north american thoroughbred race horse, bred in kentucky, owned by canadian businessman j. paul reddam and trained by doug o'neill. in may 2012, ridden by mario gutierrez, he won the first two legs of the triple crown by taking the kentucky derby with a time of 2:01.83. and the preakness stakes in 1:55.94. on the day before the belmont stakes, he was scratched due to tendonitis, ending his chances of winning the triple crown, and retired from racing."
[ "i'll have another (foaled april 1, 2009) is a north american thoroughbred race horse, bred in kentucky, owned by canadian businessman j. paul reddam and trained by doug o'neill. in may 2012, ridden by mario gutierrez, he won the first two legs of the triple crown by taking the kentucky derby with a time of 2:01.83. and the preakness stakes in 1:55.94. on the day before the belmont stakes, he was scratched due to tendonitis, ending his chances of winning the triple crown, and retired from racing." ]
"animal-train-11"
"animal-train-11"
"2662"
"ptocheuusa paupella"
{ "text": [ "ptocheuusa paupella , the light fleabane neb , is a moth of the gelechiidae family .", "it is found from central and southern europe to the ural mountains .", "it is also found in turkey and india .", "the wingspan is 10 – 12 mm .", "the ground colour is buff , streaked with whitish and with darker speckling .", "adults are on wing in june and again from august to september .", "the larvae feed in the seedheads of pulicaria dysenterica , centaurea nigra and inula crithmoides . " ], "topic": [ 2, 20, 20, 9, 1, 8, 8 ] }
"ptocheuusa paupella, the light fleabane neb, is a moth of the gelechiidae family. it is found from central and southern europe to the ural mountains. it is also found in turkey and india. the wingspan is 10 – 12 mm. the ground colour is buff, streaked with whitish and with darker speckling. adults are on wing in june and again from august to september. the larvae feed in the seedheads of pulicaria dysenterica, centaurea nigra and inula crithmoides."
[ "ptocheuusa paupella, the light fleabane neb, is a moth of the gelechiidae family. it is found from central and southern europe to the ural mountains. it is also found in turkey and india. the wingspan is 10 – 12 mm. the ground colour is buff, streaked with whitish and with darker speckling. adults are on wing in june and again from august to september. the larvae feed in the seedheads of pulicaria dysenterica, centaurea nigra and inula crithmoides." ]
"animal-train-12"
"animal-train-12"
"2663"
"neobarbara"
{ "text": [ "neobarbara is a genus of moths belonging to the tortricidae family .", "it contains only one species , neobarbara olivacea , which is found in china ( qinghai ) .", "the wingspan is about 10 mm .", "the forewings are olive-green with cream white tips of the scales .", "the hindwings are light greyish brown .", "the larvae feed on picea asperata , picea purpurea and picea wilsonii .", "the larvae have a cream-yellow body and dark brown head . " ], "topic": [ 26, 26, 9, 1, 1, 3, 23 ] }
"neobarbara is a genus of moths belonging to the tortricidae family. it contains only one species, neobarbara olivacea, which is found in china (qinghai). the wingspan is about 10 mm. the forewings are olive-green with cream white tips of the scales. the hindwings are light greyish brown. the larvae feed on picea asperata, picea purpurea and picea wilsonii. the larvae have a cream-yellow body and dark brown head."
[ "neobarbara is a genus of moths belonging to the tortricidae family. it contains only one species, neobarbara olivacea, which is found in china (qinghai). the wingspan is about 10 mm. the forewings are olive-green with cream white tips of the scales. the hindwings are light greyish brown. the larvae feed on picea asperata, picea purpurea and picea wilsonii. the larvae have a cream-yellow body and dark brown head." ]
"animal-train-13"
"animal-train-13"
"2664"
"agama planiceps"
{ "text": [ "the namib rock agama ( agama planiceps ) is a species of agamid lizard that is native to granite rocky outcrops in northwestern namibia and southwestern angola . " ], "topic": [ 29 ] }
"the namib rock agama (agama planiceps) is a species of agamid lizard that is native to granite rocky outcrops in northwestern namibia and southwestern angola."
[ "the namib rock agama (agama planiceps) is a species of agamid lizard that is native to granite rocky outcrops in northwestern namibia and southwestern angola." ]
"animal-train-14"
"animal-train-14"
"2665"
"sphaeroma terebrans"
{ "text": [ "sphaeroma terebrans is a mangrove-boring isopod that was first documented in the united states as early as 1897 .", "it is 8 – 10 millimetres ( 0.31 – 0.39 in ) long , and is thought to have been introduced by wooden-hulled ships .", "the isopod is found throughout the gulf of mexico mainly in mangrove swamps of louisiana and florida .", "s. terebrans will also bore into boats , wooden pilings and other wooden structures .", "the burrowing activities of sphaeroma terebrans hinder the growth of mangroves , and its wood boring activities limits mangroves to the upper limits of the intertidal zone . " ], "topic": [ 24, 17, 24, 6, 18 ] }
"sphaeroma terebrans is a mangrove-boring isopod that was first documented in the united states as early as 1897. it is 8 – 10 millimetres (0.31 – 0.39 in) long, and is thought to have been introduced by wooden-hulled ships. the isopod is found throughout the gulf of mexico mainly in mangrove swamps of louisiana and florida. s. terebrans will also bore into boats, wooden pilings and other wooden structures. the burrowing activities of sphaeroma terebrans hinder the growth of mangroves, and its wood boring activities limits mangroves to the upper limits of the intertidal zone."
[ "sphaeroma terebrans is a mangrove-boring isopod that was first documented in the united states as early as 1897. it is 8 – 10 millimetres (0.31 – 0.39 in) long, and is thought to have been introduced by wooden-hulled ships. the isopod is found throughout the gulf of mexico mainly in mangrove swamps of louisiana and florida. s. terebrans will also bore into boats, wooden pilings and other wooden structures. the burrowing activities of sphaeroma terebrans hinder the growth of mangroves, and its wood boring activities limits mangroves to the upper limits of the intertidal zone." ]
"animal-train-15"
"animal-train-15"
"2666"
"pycnosteus"
{ "text": [ "pycnosteus is an extinct genus of jawless fish from the devonian .", "it is thought to have cruised through vegetation , eating small invertebrates which it knocked loose . " ], "topic": [ 26, 12 ] }
"pycnosteus is an extinct genus of jawless fish from the devonian. it is thought to have cruised through vegetation, eating small invertebrates which it knocked loose."
[ "pycnosteus is an extinct genus of jawless fish from the devonian. it is thought to have cruised through vegetation, eating small invertebrates which it knocked loose." ]
"animal-train-16"
"animal-train-16"
"2667"
"dichomeris heriguronis"
[ "species dichomeris heriguronis - black - edged dichomeris - hodges # 2309 - bugguide. net\ndichomeris heriguronis (matsumura, 1931) replaces 2309 dichomeris picrocarpa. formerly a synonymy of dichomeris oceanis meyrick, 1920, this species has been elevated back to full species status and includes as a synonym 2309 dichomeris picrocarpa of authors (not meyrick, 1913) .\nmicrolepidoptera of hong kong: taxonomic study on the genus dichomeris hübner, 1818, with descriptions of three new... li, h. h. , h. zhen, r. c. kendrick & m. j. sterling. 2010. shilap revista de lepidopterología. 38 (149): 67 - 89 .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd xhtml 1. 0 transitional / / en\nurltoken\nupcoming events 2018 bugguide gathering in virginia july 27 - 29: registration and discussion photos of insects and people from the 2015 gathering in wisconsin, july 10 - 12 photos of insects and people from the 2014 gathering in virginia, june 4 - 7. photos of insects and people from the 2013 gathering in arizona, july 25 - 28 photos of insects and people from the 2012 gathering in alabama photos of insects and people from the 2011 gathering in iowa photos from the 2010 workshop in grinnell, iowa photos from the 2009 gathering in washington\nadult - forewing narrow, light orangish - brown with 4 or 5 black spots or short streaks in median area, and outer margin bordered by broad black band; fringe orange or yellowish; labial palps dark gray or black, long and sickle - shaped, curving over head .\ninternationally the larvae feed on prunus yedoensis, p. persica, p. pseudocerasus, p. mume (ponomarenko, 1997) .\nmeyrick, e. 1913. descriptions of indian micro - lepidoptera 16. journal of the bombay natural history society, 22 (1): 182\nchecklist of gelechiidae (lepidoptera) in america north of mexico lee s. , hodges r. w. , brown r. l. 2009. zootaxa 2231: 1–39 .\npeterson field guide to moths of northeastern north america david beadle and seabrooke leckie. 2012. houghton mifflin .\nthe moths of america north of mexico: fascicle 7. 1, revision of north american gelechiidae family and... hodges, r. w. 1986. the wedge entomological research foundation .\ndisclaimer: dedicated naturalists volunteer their time and resources here to provide this service. we strive to provide accurate information, but we are mostly just amateurs attempting to make sense of a diverse natural world. if you need expert professional advice, contact your local extension office .\ncontributors own the copyright to and are solely responsible for contributed content. click the contributor' s name for licensing and usage information. everything else copyright © 2003 - 2018 iowa state university, unless otherwise noted .\nphotographs are the copyrighted property of each photographer listed. contact individual photographers for permission to use for any purpose .\nhodges, r. w. , 1986. moths of america north of mexico, fascicle 7. 1, p. 119; pl. 3. 23. order\nlee, s. , r. w. hodges, & r. l. brown, 2009, . checklist of gelechiidae (lepidoptera) in america north of mexico. zootaxa, 2231: 1 - 39 .\njavascript is disabled on your browser. please enable javascript to use all the features on this page .\nin a study of material of microlepidoptera in north korea that was collected during the zoological expeditions (1970s–1980s) conducted under a scientific agreement between polish and north korean academies of science, 17 species belonging to the superfamily gelechioidea are recognized. of the total, 11 species of gelechiidae, two species of oecophoridae, and two species of coleophoridae are newly reported from north korea. scrobipalpa atriplicella (fisher von rölslerstamm, 1841) of gelechiidae is reported for the first time from the korean peninsula. images of adults and genitalia of all species are given .\npeer review under responsibility of national science museum of korea (nsmk) and korea national arboretum (kna) .\n© 2016, national science museum of korea (nsmk) and korea national arboretum (kna). production and hosting by elsevier .\ncopyright © 2018 elsevier b. v. or its licensors or contributors. sciencedirect ® is a registered trademark of elsevier b. v." ]
{ "text": [ "the black-edged dichomeris or black-edged carbatina ( dichomeris heriguronis ) is a moth of the gelechiidae family .", "it is found in the north-eastern united states , korea , japan , china , taiwan and india .", "it has also been recorded in the netherlands , where it is an exotic species .", "the length of the forewings is 7.5-8.5 mm .", "the larvae feed on prunus species in korea . " ], "topic": [ 2, 20, 8, 9, 8 ] }
"the black-edged dichomeris or black-edged carbatina (dichomeris heriguronis) is a moth of the gelechiidae family. it is found in the north-eastern united states, korea, japan, china, taiwan and india. it has also been recorded in the netherlands, where it is an exotic species. the length of the forewings is 7.5-8.5 mm. the larvae feed on prunus species in korea."
[ "the black-edged dichomeris or black-edged carbatina (dichomeris heriguronis) is a moth of the gelechiidae family. it is found in the north-eastern united states, korea, japan, china, taiwan and india. it has also been recorded in the netherlands, where it is an exotic species. the length of the forewings is 7.5-8.5 mm. the larvae feed on prunus species in korea." ]
"animal-train-17"
"animal-train-17"
"2668"
"epermenia parasitica"
{ "text": [ "epermenia parasitica is a moth in the family epermeniidae .", "it was described by meyrick in 1930 .", "it is found on java .", "the wingspan is 8 – 9 mm .", "the forewings are grey-whitish , with the apex of scales dark grey , forming a close rather irregular striolation , more or less largely suffused ochreous-brown except anteriorly .", "there are three small black dots in a longitudinal row in the disc from one-fourth to three-fourths and several dark grey transverse spots from the costa , as well as a black apical dot .", "the hindwings are grey . " ], "topic": [ 2, 5, 20, 9, 1, 1, 1 ] }
"epermenia parasitica is a moth in the family epermeniidae. it was described by meyrick in 1930. it is found on java. the wingspan is 8 – 9 mm. the forewings are grey-whitish, with the apex of scales dark grey, forming a close rather irregular striolation, more or less largely suffused ochreous-brown except anteriorly. there are three small black dots in a longitudinal row in the disc from one-fourth to three-fourths and several dark grey transverse spots from the costa, as well as a black apical dot. the hindwings are grey."
[ "epermenia parasitica is a moth in the family epermeniidae. it was described by meyrick in 1930. it is found on java. the wingspan is 8 – 9 mm. the forewings are grey-whitish, with the apex of scales dark grey, forming a close rather irregular striolation, more or less largely suffused ochreous-brown except anteriorly. there are three small black dots in a longitudinal row in the disc from one-fourth to three-fourths and several dark grey transverse spots from the costa, as well as a black apical dot. the hindwings are grey." ]
"animal-train-18"
"animal-train-18"
"2669"
"antaeotricha binubila"
{ "text": [ "antaeotricha binubila is a moth in the depressariidae family .", "it was described by philipp christoph zeller in 1854 .", "it is found in brazil ( amazonas ) and surinam .", "the wingspan is 24-25 mm .", "the forewings are white , the dorsal half suffused with whitish-fuscous .", "there are two suffused transverse dark fuscous blotches on the dorsum in the middle and towards the tornus , reaching nearly half across the wing , the apex of the second giving rise to a short inwardly oblique streak of faint fuscous suffusion .", "a faint curved inwardly oblique fuscous shade from the tornus is more or less indicated for about half the breadth of the wing , in males continued by two or throe faint dots directed towards three-fourths of the costa .", "two or three fuscous marginal dots are found around the apex .", "the hindwings in males are whitish tinged with grey on the posterior half , in females light grey or whitish .", "the costal margin in males is somewhat expanded to beyond the middle , with moderate projection of hairscales suffused with grey beneath , and a long whitish subcostal hairpencil lying beneath the forewings . " ], "topic": [ 2, 5, 20, 9, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ] }
"antaeotricha binubila is a moth in the depressariidae family. it was described by philipp christoph zeller in 1854. it is found in brazil (amazonas) and surinam. the wingspan is 24-25 mm. the forewings are white, the dorsal half suffused with whitish-fuscous. there are two suffused transverse dark fuscous blotches on the dorsum in the middle and towards the tornus, reaching nearly half across the wing, the apex of the second giving rise to a short inwardly oblique streak of faint fuscous suffusion. a faint curved inwardly oblique fuscous shade from the tornus is more or less indicated for about half the breadth of the wing, in males continued by two or throe faint dots directed towards three-fourths of the costa. two or three fuscous marginal dots are found around the apex. the hindwings in males are whitish tinged with grey on the posterior half, in females light grey or whitish. the costal margin in males is somewhat expanded to beyond the middle, with moderate projection of hairscales suffused with grey beneath, and a long whitish subcostal hairpencil lying beneath the forewings."
[ "antaeotricha binubila is a moth in the depressariidae family. it was described by philipp christoph zeller in 1854. it is found in brazil (amazonas) and surinam. the wingspan is 24-25 mm. the forewings are white, the dorsal half suffused with whitish-fuscous. there are two suffused transverse dark fuscous blotches on the dorsum in the middle and towards the tornus, reaching nearly half across the wing, the apex of the second giving rise to a short inwardly oblique streak of faint fuscous suffusion. a faint curved inwardly oblique fuscous shade from the tornus is more or less indicated for about half the breadth of the wing, in males continued by two or throe faint dots directed towards three-fourths of the costa. two or three fuscous marginal dots are found around the apex. the hindwings in males are whitish tinged with grey on the posterior half, in females light grey or whitish. the costal margin in males is somewhat expanded to beyond the middle, with moderate projection of hairscales suffused with grey beneath, and a long whitish subcostal hairpencil lying beneath the forewings." ]
"animal-train-19"
"animal-train-19"
"2670"
"muticaria"
{ "text": [ "muticaria is a genus of small , air-breathing land snails , terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family clausiliidae , the door snails , all of which have a clausilium . " ], "topic": [ 11 ] }
"muticaria is a genus of small, air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family clausiliidae, the door snails, all of which have a clausilium."
[ "muticaria is a genus of small, air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family clausiliidae, the door snails, all of which have a clausilium." ]
"animal-train-20"
"animal-train-20"
"2671"
"xiphopenaeus"
{ "text": [ "xiphopenaeus is a genus of crustaceans in the suborder dendrobranchiata , the shrimps and prawns .", "two species are in this genus : xiphopenaeus kroyeri xiphopenaeus riveti likely , more species have not yet been described and named .", "these were previously considered to be two names for the same species , but genetic analysis confirms they are two distinct species .", "x. kroyeri occurs in the atlantic ocean , while x. riveti lives in the pacific .", "x. kroyeri , the seabob shrimp , is a very important food species fished off the coast of brazil . " ], "topic": [ 7, 11, 6, 13, 17 ] }
"xiphopenaeus is a genus of crustaceans in the suborder dendrobranchiata, the shrimps and prawns. two species are in this genus: xiphopenaeus kroyeri xiphopenaeus riveti likely, more species have not yet been described and named. these were previously considered to be two names for the same species, but genetic analysis confirms they are two distinct species. x. kroyeri occurs in the atlantic ocean, while x. riveti lives in the pacific. x. kroyeri, the seabob shrimp, is a very important food species fished off the coast of brazil."
[ "xiphopenaeus is a genus of crustaceans in the suborder dendrobranchiata, the shrimps and prawns. two species are in this genus: xiphopenaeus kroyeri xiphopenaeus riveti likely, more species have not yet been described and named. these were previously considered to be two names for the same species, but genetic analysis confirms they are two distinct species. x. kroyeri occurs in the atlantic ocean, while x. riveti lives in the pacific. x. kroyeri, the seabob shrimp, is a very important food species fished off the coast of brazil." ]
"animal-train-21"
"animal-train-21"
"2672"
"parktown prawn"
[ "right but surely the parktown prawn is named after the common prawn. crickets / wetas look a like weird prawns .\ni’m brave only in certain areas. the parktown prawn is not one of them .\nthe parktown prawn is capable of large jumps when threatened, often ejecting an offensive black fecal liquid .\na member of the king cricket family, aka the parktown prawn, is found across the southern hemisphere .\nparktown prawn - libanasidus vittatus - not actually a prawn, this species of king cricket is of the family anostostomatidae. it is not a true cric… | pinteres…\nthe parktown prawn (libanasidus vittatus) is – of course – not a prawn at all, but actually a six - legged insect belonging to the king cricket family, anastostomatidae. today, the first discovered parktown prawn is housed in the natural history museum of london .\nso there you have it. parktown prawns in a nutshell. or rather, parktown prawns in an exoskeleton .\n, three birds in the urban habitat that are able to take on the considerable size of the parktown prawn .\nparktown prawn - relationship with humans... parktown prawns seem to be more active at night... the parktown prawn is capable of large jumps when threatened, often ejecting an offensive black fecal liquid... by the johannesburg newspaper the star, tells that the parktown prawn was actually the result of an escaped genetic experiment by students from the university of the witwatersrand in the 1960s (thus ...\nmadam & eve on twitter :\nfor those unfamiliar with the\nparktown prawn\n... urltoken # doom…\ndie antwoord' s video fatty boom boom, featuring a\nprawn star\n, was released in october 2012. artwork for the video features a parktown prawn covered in vaginal mucus .\njohannesburg newcomers often ask me about parktown prawns, joburg’s most legendary insect. what do parktown prawns look like, people want to know. how big are they? do parktown prawns really exist ?\na fancied resemblance to a prawn accounts for its name. the parktown prawn is held in low regard by some, while gardeners value them for controlling garden snail populations and attracting the hadeda ibis .\na fancied resemblance to a prawn accounts for its name. the parktown prawn is held in low regard by some, while gardeners value them for controlling garden snail populations and attracting the hadeda ibis .\nthis post is dedicated to martina in jozi. martina, you will always be the queen of the parktown prawn blog. i miss you .\nthe purpose of this story is to convey just how petrifying a parktown prawn can be, even to a person like me who is relatively “brave” .\nthis time it includes pulling a parktown prawn from lady gaga’s vagina before the poor unfortunate superstar gets mauled and killed by a lion in downtown jozi .\nbrave enough to box in hillbrow, too craven to photograph a prawn… interesting .\ndie antwoord' s video for\nfatty boom boom\nfeatures a semen - coated parktown prawn living in lady gaga' s vagina. [ 8 ]\ntil that the prawns in the movie district 9 are not called that because of shrimp but are in reference to the parktown prawn which is a cricket native to south africa .\ndiscovered by william forsell kirby in 1899 in baberton, mpumalanga, parktown prawns became synonymous with the suburb (parktown in johannesburg) after the 1960’s, when they expanded rapidly in ‘prawn count’. this insect has a preference for the lush, leafy region of johannesburg .\nparktown prawns divide the people of joburg into two distinct groups: 1) prawn - lovers, who are fond of parktown prawns and praise their talent for controlling the population of snails in the garden; and 2) prawn - haters, who fear and loathe partown prawns more than any other animal on earth. i obviously fall into the second group .\nyep, definitely one thing in jozi i could do without. parktown prawns and traffic .\nused parktown prawns as part of an extended parody of south african politics of the time .\nso we’re thinking of opening an “old johannesburg” styled (think converted home, pressed ceilings, gas stoves, colonial decor) seafood restaurant in trendy parktown north, you guessed it “the parktown prawn”. call me if you’re interested in the franchise, we’re talking pp’s nationwide !\nas eminently depicted in district 9, and much to the fear of local residents, johannesburg is home to the loathsome and most terrifying insect of them all – the parktown prawn .\ntil that the prawns in the movie district 9 are not called that because of shrimp, but are in reference to the parktown prawn which is a cricket native to south africa .\nat face value the play tells the story of the encounter of a man called hennie with an insect — the notorious parktown prawn that terrorises the wealthy residents of this johannesburg suburb .\nthe enemy he was describing as something out of a true - life horror flick was the so - called parktown prawn, a giant insect that plagues johannesburg residents this time of year .\nunfortunately we don’t have a recording of the sound that a parktown prawn makes – perhaps you can try looking for videos on the matter? what i can tell you though is that when parktown prawns are distressed, they produce hissing sounds by rubbing their hind legs against their abdomen .\ndon’t squish the parktown prawn. don’t spray it with insecticide – you are wasting your money anyway. it is so many thousands times bigger than a mosquito that the poison will take ages to act – that is, if the prawn doesn’t metabolise it to a harmless compound first .\nthe parktown prawn aka parkmore prawn aka parkhurst prawn, libanasidus vittatus, is a monotypic species of king cricket found in southern africa. although a member of the cricket order orthoptera, it is placed in the family anostostomatidae, separate from that of the true crickets, gryllidae. the insect gets its english name from the suburbs of parktown, parkmore and parkhurst in johannesburg, south africa where they are frequently found. in angola, it is found in the southern savanna and semi - arid regions, whereas in namibia it is found throughout the territory. the parktown prawn is also related to the new zealand tree weta which is also in the family anostostomatidae .\nthe parktown prawn has a number of features which generally intimidate the average householder. on closer examination it’s clear that these features are evolutionary adaptations to its lifestyle as a big, solitary invertebrate .\ntil that the prawns in the movie district 9 are not called that because of shrimp, but are in reference to the parktown prawn which is a cricket native to south africa. : todayilearned\nneill blomkamp' s film district 9 features an alien race some humans disparagingly refer to as prawns. some film critics have speculated that the appearance of the aliens was inspired by the parktown prawn .\nneill blomkamp' s film district 9 features an alien race some humans disparagingly refer to as prawns. some film critics have speculated that the appearance of the aliens was inspired by the parktown prawn .\non a related note, i have a recent prawn shot from my bathroom, if you would like it. i used a looooooong zoom, and made stuart dispose of the prawn. yuk .\nthe parktown prawn, when burrowing a home, burrows head first and uses its spined hind legs to kick out the debris. the spined hind legs are also used to fend off competitors and predators .\nalthough the parktown prawn has been known for over 100 years, not much is known about these creatures. little is known about their act of courtship, except that it takes place in their burrows .\nmy childhood in johannesburg included diving under my bed while playing hide and go seek to find myself face to face with the biggest mole cricket (parktown prawn) i had ever seen. still have ptsd .\nlucky returned a few minutes later, prawn wrapped safely in the bag. and he brought me this .\na small boy is terrorised by a cooked prawn in suburbian australia whilst his sister laughs at his misfortune .\ni’m not scared of parktown prawns. i won’t handle them, but i find them interesting to look at .\nwe live in parktown, and now that the rains are here, these buggers are springing up everywhere. cheers\nthe parktown prawn is thought to have originated in the forests north and east of johannesburg, making it to the big city a few decades ago, perhaps clinging to the roots of a plant destined for a suburban garden .\nparktown prawn - libanasidus vittatus - not actually a prawn, this species of king cricket is of the family anostostomatidae. it is not a true cricket as true crickets are of the family gryllidae. this insect is endemic to southern africa and can reach a length of almost 3\n( 7. 62 cm) - image: © paul venter\n, has a dry climate, which was unsuitable habitat for the parktown prawn. with the arrival of suburban dwellers, cultivation provided lush, forest - like gardens, an environment more suited to the crickets which helped the insect thrive .\nthe parktown prawn' s jumping ability is not surprising, since it is actually a cricket. its scientific name is libanasidus vittatus, and it is one of 300 species of king crickets found in south africa, australia and new zealand .\nthe parktown prawn is south africa’s most famous king cricket. however, the ‘monstrous cricket’, described 200 years ago is an even more spectacular animal. to find out more about these exciting and unusual animals and the controversies surrounding them read on. did parktown prawns come from space or barberton – which is scarier? do king crickets sing love songs at night ?\nwow. you have really done a lot of research on parktown prawns. this post is unbelievably awesome. well done .\nthe parktown prawn, libanasidus vittatus', is a monotypic species of king cricket found in southern africa. although a member of the cricket order orthoptera, it is placed in the family anostostomatidae, separate from that of the true crickets, gryllidae. the insect gets its english name from the suburb of parktown in johannesburg, south africa where they are frequently found. in angola, it is found in the southern savanna and semi - arid regions, whereas in namibia it is found throughout the territory. the parktown prawn is also related to the new zealand tree weta which is also in the family anostostomatidae .\nalthough parktown prawns are depicted as menacing creatures they definitely play an important role in natural pest control as mentioned in the blog .\npeople that live closer and closer to me have been telling me their prawn stories, until someone that lives just two doors down said that their cat had caught one. nooooo! now the final straw – my friend just sent me a photo of a dead parktown prawn that she saw outside my house. i think i am going to faint / puke / run away screaming\nshe finds herself in a doctor’s surgery, where the doctor, played by comedian kagiso lediga, examines her and pulls a parktown prawn from her vagina. a healed lady gaga then leaves the surgery, only to be attacked by a lion and killed .\nif a prawn gets into your house, you must either find a prawn - lover who knows how to safely remove it, or run screaming from the room and just hope it’s gone when you come back. (i use the latter option. )\nnicely penned, when i was around 16 i woke up to discover a huge parktown prawn ensnared in my long curly hair and spent 20 horrifying minutes trying to pull \\ cut it out. i haven’t had long hair or slept under an open window since .\ni’ve been wanting to write a prawn post for years. even though they are not actually indigenous to this area, parktown prawns have become a part of joburg’s culture and folklore. part cricket - on - steroids, part giant cockroach, park prehistoric monster, parktown prawns — much like this massive city that they have adapted to so well — are one - of - a - kind .\nthe problem is, i don’t like to write blog posts without pictures and i don’t like to download pictures from the internet. but there is no way in hell that i will ever get close enough to a parktown prawn to properly photograph it. and even if i were brave enough to try, parktown prawns normally show up in my house at night, when good photography is impossible .\nparktown prawn is the familiar term south africans use for libanasidus vittatus, a monotypic king cricket species found in south africa, belonging to the anostostomatidae family. it is not considered a true cricket. adults are usually around 4 to 5 centimeters in length, with an antennae of 2 cm. parktown is an affluent suburb in johannesburg, where these crickets are commonly found, hence the name .\nin truth, libanasidus vittatus is no prawn, nor is it confined to parktown, a section of northern johannesburg. it is a king cricket. but it does avoid poorer neighborhoods, which tend to be dry, preferring the wet, leafy gardens of elegant old mansions .\ninsect of the year for the year 2000 may be the millennium bug. but here in the shady gardens (and sometimes the quiet bedrooms) of the northern suburbs, 1999 belongs to the real chitinous - skeletoned thing, the tiny scourge of johannesburg known as the parktown prawn .\nthe first parktown prawn was officially discovered in south africa in 1899 in a small mining town called barberton, east of johannesburg. their spread and rise to fame has in some ways mirrored that of johannesburg, which seems to have become their adopted home, over the intervening years .\ni noted above that parktown prawn is a misnomer. in fact, the original name was parkmore prawn, after a suburb in sandton. because parktown is so much better known than parkmore, that name came to be substituted, but that was definitely not the original name. i can confirm this both through a sunday times press cutting from 1980 that i came across and because i myself once lived in parkmore and can assure you that the place was swarming with the buggers. it was ill - advised to walk at night without shoes, even inside the house .\ni’ll never forget the first time i encountered a parktown prawn. it was a rainy night and i was sitting on the sofa. i turned slightly to my left and saw a prawn standing in the middle of the living room floor. i jumped up, shrieked, ran past the prawn and into the kitchen, and leapt onto the counter. i sat up there, shaking with terror, for about 30 minutes. i texted lucky, who wasn’t home. “throw a towel over it, ” he responded. “i’ll take it out when i come home. ”\ni went outside and found lucky, who came in to remove the prawn. i told lucky how i’d tried and failed to photograph it .\nas if the idea of a super - sized fighter cricket is not enough, i know of a grown man who, trembling under the watch of a parktown prawn is able to travel from a standing to a sitting - on - the - table position in under 0. 2 seconds !\nparktown prawn pub company limited was founded on 07 aug 2014 and has its registered office in cardiff. the organisation' s status is listed as\ndissolved\n. it had one director at the time it closed. the company' s first directors were lee david woolls, nicholas leith .\nthe answer to the last question is a definitive yes. you can read all about parktown prawns on wikipedia. definitely check it out because it’s a particularly entertaining wiki entry. my favorite line is: “accordingly they [ parktown prawns ] frighten nervous persons and they may chew carpets and fabrics. ”\nthey are named as such because parktown prawns are a hated large cricket which at times seem unkillable. and of course the aliens look like them .\nduring the 19th century and early 20th century henicus monstrosus was probably south africa’s best known king cricket, and was the only species discussed by skaife in the 1953 version of african insect life. this species has now undoubtedly lost its position as the best known species in southern africa to the “parktown prawn” .\nadult parktown prawns don’t sing to each other in the same way that the males of true crickets call to the females to advertise their availability and gene quality. instead, parktown prawns leave smellograms, scent marking their burrows to advertise their sex and maturity. so, the foul smelling goo that the agitated creature leaves on your sofa as you try to swat it with your newspaper doubles up as chanel no. 5 in the intimate world of prawn sex .\nmale and female parktown prawns live retiring lives in shallow spherical burrows, which they leave only to wander around our gardens in search of food and fellowship .\ni raced to the bedroom, slammed the door, pushed the towel under it, and quickly scanned the room for the prawn. the room seemed clear. but just in case, i grabbed my wooden club and held it aloft, standing in the middle of the room for several minutes. when i finally felt confident the prawn was not in the room with me, i settled in for a fitful night’s sleep. i never saw that prawn again .\ni, for one, have never heard of anything called a parktown prawn. when you google about moving to south africa, you get all kinds of results about crime – rape, murder, car jacking, home invasion etc. there are lots of articles about corruption and politics. i even googled about snakes and scorpions as a friend had written on her blog that she had almost trodden on a scorpion here. what i didn’t know about were these parktown prawns .\nthe “parktown prawn” has captured the imagination of the general public living in johannesburg and surrounding areas to such an extent that it has stimulated numerous articles in the local and international media, and has featured in publications such as time and the economist and has appeared on bbc and cnn international news broadcasts. they are also popular subjects for school projects. this species already has its own website, and two rampant parktown prawns have featured on a billboard advertising a local radio station .\n3) don’t ever try to squash a prawn. as explained on wikipedia: “the insects can jump actively and often eject offensive black fecal liquids when threatened” .\nbut this prawn is actually doing its level best to convince the terrified man that he needs to join the creatures communalist congress, which is trying to do battle with a prawn called hennie monster who is hell - bent on world domination. unfortunately all hennie the man wants to do is kill the messenger, literally .\nsouth africa’s notorious parktown prawn gets its name from the leafy johannesburg suburb where it has flourished and spread since migrating to the city from the moist eastern forests of the country’s lowveld escarpment. it is a large insect with a reddish colour and bristling legs, mouthparts and antennae, which might have been responsible for its nickname .\nin the 1980s, andrew buckland' s acclaimed play the ugly noo noo used parktown prawns as part of an extended parody of south african politics of the time .\nalthough doom and gloom surrounds the parktown prawn, they feed on garden snails, vegetable matter, and fallen fruit, thus implementing their own form of pest control. unfortunately for us, they also like to feed on rugs and textiles, wooden elements such as floor boards and furniture as well as pet food and dry oatmeal .\nprawn are apparently interested in a vicious faunal battle ring that functions in a manner similar to cockfights, which they produce using a species apparently indigenous to their homeworld .\nthe resilience and strength of the parktown prawn allowed two cartoon versions to become objects of humour in the well known south african cartoon strip madam & eve, inspiring fear in gwen anderson and eve sisulu. in the cartoons, the parktown prawns get' high' on insecticide (in reference to their size and how much poison is required to kill them), and produce two cricket - shaped indentations on the bottom of a frying pan with which they are swatted, in reference to their hard exoskeletons .\nthe resilience and strength of the parktown prawn allowed two cartoon versions to become objects of humour in the well known south african cartoon strip madam & eve, inspiring fear in gwen anderson and eve sisulu. in the cartoons, the parktown prawns get' high' on insecticide (in reference to their size and how much poison is required to kill them), and produce two cricket - shaped indentations on the bottom of a frying pan with which they are swatted, in reference to their hard exoskeletons .\nprawn is the south african name for shrimp that are caught off the coast of mozambique and famed for their large size. parktown is a suburb of johannesburg that gave its name to these creatures when they began appearing there a few years ago, though nearby neighborhoods - - parkhust, parkmore - - also claim it as an alliterative appendage .\ni thought\nprawn\nwas a racial slur name for a group of people irl. the\nnews footage\nat the beginning are real people talking about them ?\nthe parktown prawn is a cold - blooded insect, and therefore is very much a dozy creature on a cold day. it has a soft, but brittle exoskeleton or shell and opposed to popular belief can be killed when trodden on. (although entomologists would prefer to have them donated alive for public display or for their habitual studies) .\nit is basically a large cricket, hence it’s called the king cricket (common name parktown prawn). they can grow larger then 10cm with a red head and thorax, orange and black striped abdomen and large spiky orange legs. they have large mandibles which are capable of devouring just about everything. they are found in northern south africa and in angola .\n- they jump unpredictably and squirt nasty stuff all over the place! this is usually accompanied by equal amounts of' eeking' and jumping of the person trying to catch the prawn .\nmy name is pipa, i am a portuguese expat living in jhb for 1 month an a half. i have seen the parktown prawn when i went to view a house to let with my husband and daughter. the prawn was in the pool and i asked the real estate agent what that was. she said it was a garden keeper, it eats the snails and other insects. we ended up renting the house and we are moving in 2 weeks time. i just hope i don’t find one inside the house since they are attracted to light !\nto be honest, i always thought they were an introduced species, but according to wiki (yes there actually is a wiki entry for parktown prawns !) they’re actually from the barberton area .\nparktown prawns possess similar “ears” – located on their front legs – to those of crickets and long - horned grasshoppers. parktown prawns are orange to brown in colour, with darker brown to black stripes across their abdomen and are around 6 - 7 cm’s in size (or in some cases – even larger !) with antennae the size of their body. male parktown prawns have large tusk - like mandibles with which they grip and throw their prey over their shoulders! females on the other hand, possess a finely honed ovipositor of around 19mm, with which they lay around 80 to 200 eggs .\nextinction can' t come too soon for some people. jenny crwys - williams, a talk show host on radio 702, occasionally encourages listeners to call in and describe their worst prawn days .\nthis morning though, i walked into my spare bedroom and found myself face to face with a large prawn. as per usual, i screamed like a little girl and ran from the room .\ni hear that they are from madagascar and came over to the northern suburbs via cartons of bananas. they thrived as a result of the abundance of well watered gardens in joburg. but then hadedas came on to the scene in bigger numbers around 1995. they have a great liking for the parktown prawn. i used to shoot parktown prawns with my bsa air rifle, the rest of my family taking cover behind me. the best method to take care of them if you don’t want them excreting the smelly stuff. i know live in cape town and do not miss the hiss in the night .\nnow, i’m a bit of a bad - ass when it comes to looking after myself. i have prided myself on it for years, and it often frustrates rob that i just do certain things for myself that apparently a man is meant to do for me. well i can promise you one thing rob, you can sort out the parktown prawn when our paths cross. i’m being a huge girl about this thing\nthe basic parktown prawn nightmare is to wake up in the middle of the night with a 3 - inch insect gripped firmly to your bedclothes, refusing to let go and run away like any other self - respecting bug when confronted with an enormous human being. then, as your flailing grows more desperate, it lets loose its load of stinking goo. there goes one good night' s sleep and maybe several more .\nunfortunately parktown prawns do possess several distressing attributes, which cause many householders to think of them as disgusting creatures. they are frequently attracted to light and wander into houses, where they have even been discovered in beds .\na popular urban legend, fuelled by april fools' day articles published by the johannesburg newspaper the star, tells that the parktown prawn was actually the result of an escaped genetic experiment by students from the university of the witwatersrand in the 1960s (thus explaining the insects' sudden arrival in johannesburg at that time). the insect' s unusual strength, vivid orange colouring and size are seen to' confirm' this urban legend .\na popular urban legend, fuelled by april fools' day articles published by the johannesburg newspaper the star, tells that the parktown prawn was actually the result of an escaped genetic experiment by students from the university of the witwatersrand in the 1960s (thus explaining the insects' sudden arrival in johannesburg at that time). the insect' s unusual strength, vivid orange colouring and size are seen to' confirm' this urban legend .\nsince their diet includes both animal and plant material they can be described as omnivorous. in most gardens where these insects are now found, the garden snail has ceased to be a pest, so interestingly enough, the prawn\nthe pharmacist' s recollection of a hiss from his fearless prawn was not just a product of his overworked imagination. they make such a noise by rubbing their hind legs against their abdomens when disturbed or seeking a mate .\non youtube, fatty boom boom is described as “a bright and colourful african adventure, complete with wild animals, zef savages singing and dancing in the streets, and a special guest appearance by a sneaky little prawn star” .\nsince there is great interest in these insects there is also a great opportunity for public education by making appropriate information available. one opportunity for public awareness was the centenary of the description of l. vittatus in 1999. when the idea of celebrating the centenary of the parktown prawn was first suggested, some people thought this was a joke, but even this was part of the process of attracting attention. once one has an audience, the opportunity exists to provide information about crucial issues in museology and biodiversity. issues such as the biodiversity crisis, the age of collections and the need to collect and care for specimens, declining funding and even repatriation can be addressed (the holotype or primary specimen of the parktown prawn is an adult female collected in barberton and housed in the british museum - natural history). it is thought that this is the first time that the centenary of any insect has been celebrated .\ni just want to know about parktown prawns that are they dangerous. is it containing poison like snake or scorpion or it contains lightly poision. also i want to know is this creature can bite u or can effect u some how. i have lots of questions on my mind abt this ugly bt god creation prawn. well i will be waiting for ur answer althoug i can go to librery nd search nice book abt this prawn bt its nt my nature hehehe i mean i hate to read long storry and waist my time in short cut the long story short. please let me know as soon as possible for u. u can send me mail always with kind of knowledge. thanks\n2003 was the bicentenary of the description of the “monstrous cricket” henicus monstrosus (herbst), from the western cape province of south africa by herbst back in 1803. this was also the first king cricket (anostostomatidae) ever described. king crickets are best known in south africa as relatives of the “ parktown prawn “, libanasidus vittatus. forty four species of king cricket have already been described from south africa and there are many more that need to be described .\nprawns\nis the derogatory term that humans use for a sapient species of extraterrestrial insectoids that, for unknown reasons, stopped running upon the arrival on the planet earth. the term\nprawn\nhas led to a bit of confusion for some, as they are in fact not called this due to a resemblance to prawns, but instead this name was given to them by the local people of johannesburg, south africa, due to their resemblance to a species of pest from that area, known as the parktown prawn, a species of king cricket as opposed to a crustacean. their homeworld has seven moons. it is also possible that the species' true name is\npoleepkwa\n.\nthe prawn' s tough hide makes it newspaper - and slipper - resistant. at up to three inches long, it has enough body mass to shake off most household insecticides - - the first shot just makes it more jumpy .\nin truth, professor crump said, parktown residents should be grateful that it migrated here. given their druthers, prawns will eat garden snails all night long rather than hop into the dog dishes where they are often found on wet summer mornings .\nstories of their\nnight of the living dead\n- like resilience abound. one television report claimed that a prawn survived being flushed down a toilet, reappearing at a most delicate moment, much to the shock of a seated homeowner .\ni jump out of the window and run across the road to the neighbors house until my family returns. when i see the car pull in we all go inside. but the demon - hell - prawn is nowhere to be found .\nunfortunately we didn’t think to put anything next to the prawn for scale. but wiki says prawns grow to 7 - 8 centimeters (2. 8 inches), which is approximately the length of a man’s thumb. i’d say that’s about right .\nas much as the film’s message is about difference and tolerance, it is also about the aliens’ attempts – as e. t. (1982) might put it –' to go home'. at best, the prawns are viewed as ‘pests’ by the humans as they have inhabited their world. this, of course, is why wikus’ is tasked with overseeing the mass eviction of the alien prawns from the town to a huge camp out - of - town. unlike the parktown prawn though they do more than infest the home, they overrun the structures of social order and social categorisation as well. it is only when wikus begins metamorphosing into a prawn himself does he begin to understand these beings and begin to understand that social categories of place, space, home and alien are malleable, constantly shifting and, most importantly, socially generated. during his metamorphosis, and of possible interest to douglas, wikus also begins to see the humans with their powerful weaponry and interest in acquiring the alien weaponry as more dangerous than the prawns. just as the parktown prawn is mischaracterised as a prawn (they are actually king crickets), wikus, realises he has mischaracterised the district 9 aliens. they are more than bottomfeeders - they too have a society, and they too have families. most importantly, they too have homes, and the slums they are forced to inhabit on earth are not brought under control enough for the prawns' liking so as to appropriately function as a new' home' .\nthey are considered pests by some south africans, and held in high regard by others. they are most visibly prevalent after rain during summer, which is when they are most likely to be found indoors. parktown prawns seem to be more active at night .\nthen i reconsidered. i fetched my phone and crept back into the room. i got within four feet of the prawn. he moved one of his long tentacles, slightly. that hint of a movement was enough to send me screaming away again .\nfemale parktown prawns on the other hand can be easily identified by the long spear - shaped tip of their abdomen. this is not a sting, but rather an ovipositor, the device she uses to insert her eggs into the soil where they hatch into nymphs .\nthey are also known to chew on wooden floor boards and wooden furniture. gardens that have a high population of parktown prawns will have almost no snails, thus, they can be considered an effective and natural form of pest control. among their natural predators are the\nhi! nice post, great read. and i am also enjoying your blog a lot. 🙂 just a biologist’s note: they are not tentacles, but antennas! and yeah, i admit i would fit right into the prawn lovers’ group. 😛 nuno\nhi bili, no, parktown prawns are not poisonous and i don’t think they bite. they will, however, spray you with smelly fecal liquid. i’ve only heard about this – it’s never actually happened to me. otherwise they are totally harmless – just really disgusting .\nsomething that reminds me very much of parktown prawns, and which i’ve come across often in the klaserie (hoedspruit / kruger park) area are red romans… urltoken equally freaky and panic - inducing. something to check out with the locals, if you’re ever in that area .\nparktown prawn has strongly developed mandibles which are present in the final juvenile stage, and reach their growth peak in the adult stage. one of the largest males collected measures 53 millimetres (just over two inches) from the tip of the mandibles to the rear of the abdomen and 157 millimetres from the tip of the antennae to the hindfeet. the actual function of the mandibles of the males is at present unknown, although it has been noted that the males defend themselves by gripping and throwing the offender over its shoulder with the use of these strong mandibles .\nmy mom used to live in parktown in the 70s. she still recounts stories of the fokken prawns in the alleys after a night out, massive bloody things. she hates going back to jhb now, but i think that' s more to do with the crims in the alleys .\ntiny little parktown prawns are born which look just like mum and dad but without the spear or tusks. they will moult and grow, avoiding predators such as birds and rodents. that is until they reach maturity and go through the gamut of sex to get their genes into the next generation .\nbut, say the prawn' s defenders, why kill them? they are $h harmless and, if you get them back out into your garden, will go about their useful job of getting rid of pesky snails and generally cleaning the place up like some small - scale vulture .\ni visited south africa once and the owner of the bed and breakfast i was staying in owned two baby meerkats. he allowed me to play with them for a few hours and i saw them eat a fair number of parktown prawns; it wasn' t pretty but it sure as hell was cute .\nnicole maritz is an online marketing executive at rentokil initial in johannesburg. although she is in love with nature and its elements, the creepy crawlies do sometimes get to her - especially jo' burg' s repulsively large, hissing parktown prawns! follow nicole on twitter for updates on the weird and the wonderful .\nhi pipa, welcome to joburg! i can’t believe you saw a prawn as soon as you arrived! it took me months to finally see one in real life. i think it is just something that we have to get used to…hopefully not too frequently though! good luck settling into your new home 🙂\nby far the best known king cricket species in south africa is libanasidus vittatus, otherwise known as the parktown prawn, a reference to the fact that they often stumble into swimming pools in the affluent suburbs of johannesburg, south africa. the natural habitat for this genus is in and around forests in mpumalanga, northern province and probably also zimbabwe. during the day they can be found in burrows or under logs. specimens have also been collected in gardens in johannesburg, randburg and pretoria. a few articles have been written on the biology these insects, but very little is known about any other species of african king crickets .\nsome years ago, i proposed that “proteas” was a namby - pamby name for our national cricket team and that we should simply call our team the king crickets affectionately known as the parktown prawns. think about it — they’re nimble, they’re quick, they’re scary, they will look great on tee shirts and bumper stickers…\nyou know what grossed me out even more? our cat brought a caterpillar type thing, half dead, but alas not all dead, to our doorstep. i think it might have been the embryo form of that prawn, it was so fat and green and ugly. now that really freaked me out !\nparktown prawns are actually king crickets – a large family of flightless insects found across the southern hemisphere including south america, australia and new zealand. in new zealand, they are known as wetas and fill a variety of ecological niches – possibly including that of mice, which were absent from the local fauna before humans arrived .\ni pop my head out of the shower again. try to see what could be causing it and start to climb out of the shower to get a better angle. as i put out my left leg i see the mother of all parktown prawns shoving the door open in arrogance, strutting into the bathroom like an angry bulldog .\nthese disgusting pests – featured as alien prawns in the movie, district 9 –are known to jump up to a distance of around a meter into the air when they are cornered, and also tend to excrete revolting black faecal liquids when threatened. furthermore, parktown prawns produce hissing sounds by rubbing their hind legs against their abdomen when they are distressed (\nshe worries that they may be threatened. another south africa native that has adapted to urban gardens, the hadeda ibis, enjoys prawn dinners. fat gray hadedas, named for their raucous'' hah - dee - dah'' cries, are on the increase and prawns'' are getting harder to find each year,'' professor crump said sadly .\nthe parktown prawn is one of the larger insects found in johannesburg homes. a large specimen may grow to be 10 cm (3. 9 in) or more, with long whip - like antennae extending to 10 cm (3. 9 in), but are usually around 4 cm (1. 6 in) to 5 cm (2. 0 in) in length, with 2 cm (0. 79 in) antennae. the exoskeleton is orange to light brown, with darker brown or black stripes along the thorax and abdomen, which gives it a toxic look to would - be aggressors. the legs have downward - facing hooked barbs, which allow it climb up walls and trees. a large specimen can jump more than a metre high .\na couple of years ago, i saw a star billboard with the legend, “where have all the parktown prawns gone? ” or something to that effect. well, so far as i can see, they’re still with us. in rainy weather, they emerge quite frequently around my fairmount home. even then, though, they are not nearly as numerous as they were in parkmore .\nif there are any current parkmore residents reading this, i’d be interested to learn whether the suburb is still prawn city. also a point of interest — are these creatures unique to south africa? i read somewhere that they mutated in the eastern cape and somehow found their way up to jo’burg. maybe there is someone out there who can go beyond the urban myth and tell us .\nfemale parktown prawns, on the other hand, possess a well - developed ovipositor, through which they lay their eggs (between 80 to 200 eggs). one of the largest females researched measures 64 millimetres from the front of its head to the tip of its ovipositor. the ovipositor is 19 millimetres long and the total length of the insect, including legs and antennae, is an astonishing 166 millimetres (six and a half inches) .\nwondering how to get rid of parktown prawns? as humans find these crawling insects (or should we say – ‘jumping insects! ’) to be hideously scary, hadidas seem to think they make the perfect mid - morning snack. these unsung heroes may help the casual intruder from entering your home but if you do encounter a more serious infestation of the third kind, contact the pest control experts for a solution to eliminate these critters from your home .\ni think that they [ the prawn ] do have a home planet, it' s pretty far away probably in the andromeda galaxy, but what i like is that they' ll live on the ship for thousands of years. obviously, there' s much more of a population on the main planet, but the ships will go out and get the minerals and the ore and whatever resources they need and then bring them all back home .\nfew americans - - even few new yorkers, who can keep their cool around cockroaches the size of the villain of'' men in black'' - - have heard of parkies. they are lucky. johannesburg is rife with stories of locals who have leapt shrieking from their beds, flung shoes out windows and nearly crashed their cars, all because they found themselves mandible to mandible with a big orange wiggly - antennaed, barbed - leg prawn .\nkorinkriek, once when i was in namibia i was approached by a huge yellow and black korinkriek. i was busy shovelling coals into the braai fire. i chopped the cricket in half with the spade upon which the front part of the beast turned around and started to eat the back half. self cannibalism was something i had never thought of before but here it was. sadly i did not photograph it for the scientists to comment on. about snails though, we still have plenty of snails in the garden so that is why i think that pp’s prefer themselves to snails? ? i don’t know if hadedas eat snails? ? one evening when i was out on a business visit, i received a desperate cry for help from my wife via cell phone. there was a prawn in the passage and she could not get from the bedroom into the kitchen. i was to come home immediately and save her. i agreed and two and a half hours later i arrived back at home to find her sitting on a stool, with her feet up in the air, waiting to be rescued whilst the prawn was sitting quietly in a corner. i figured that the prawn would just wonder off so i did not rush home. have never been forgiven. this is turning into an interesting topic. perhaps we should get 702 to have a session on pp’s ?\nuntil about 1965 the “prawn” was almost unknown in johannesburg, but then the populations increased for some unknown reason, and they started to become notorious. in 1985 it was suggested that they could have been introduced into johannesburg from somewhere near barberton, but we now know that these insects were already present in pretoria in january 1955, because there is a specimen in the transvaal museum, collected by george van son, who was curator of entomology at the time." ] { "text": [ "\" parktown prawn \" is a common name for libanasidus vittatus , a species of king cricket endemic to southern africa .", "it is unrelated to prawns , libanasidus being insects in the order orthoptera – crickets , locusts and similar insects .", "the king crickets are not really crickets either : they belong to the family anostostomatidae , whereas true crickets are in the gryllidae .", "the insect gets its english name from the suburb of parktown in johannesburg , south africa where they are common .", "in angola , it is found in the southern savanna and semi-arid regions , whereas in namibia it is found throughout the territory .", "the parktown prawn is related to the new zealand tree weta , which is also in the family anostostomatidae .", "the parktown prawn is held in low regard by many householders , but gardeners value them for controlling garden snail populations and attracting the hadeda ibis .", "the animal is omnivorous , with a diet that includes snails , other invertebrates , and vegetable matter .", "in urban environments , they will readily take food made available by suburban dwellers , including cat food and dog food and their droppings . " ], "topic": [ 25, 12, 28, 25, 20, 26, 23, 8, 15 ] } "" parktown prawn " is a common name for libanasidus vittatus, a species of king cricket endemic to southern africa. it is unrelated to prawns, libanasidus being insects in the order orthoptera – crickets, locusts and similar insects. the king crickets are not really crickets either: they belong to the family anostostomatidae, whereas true crickets are in the gryllidae. the insect gets its english name from the suburb of parktown in johannesburg, south africa where they are common. in angola, it is found in the southern savanna and semi-arid regions, whereas in namibia it is found throughout the territory. the parktown prawn is related to the new zealand tree weta, which is also in the family anostostomatidae. the parktown prawn is held in low regard by many householders, but gardeners value them for controlling garden snail populations and attracting the hadeda ibis. the animal is omnivorous, with a diet that includes snails, other invertebrates, and vegetable matter. in urban environments, they will readily take food made available by suburban dwellers, including cat food and dog food and their droppings." [ "\" parktown prawn \" is a common name for libanasidus vittatus, a species of king cricket endemic to southern africa. it is unrelated to prawns, libanasidus being insects in the order orthoptera – crickets, locusts and similar insects. the king crickets are not really crickets either: they belong to the family anostostomatidae, whereas true crickets are in the gryllidae. the insect gets its english name from the suburb of parktown in johannesburg, south africa where they are common. in angola, it is found in the southern savanna and semi-arid regions, whereas in namibia it is found throughout the territory. the parktown prawn is related to the new zealand tree weta, which is also in the family anostostomatidae. the parktown prawn is held in low regard by many householders, but gardeners value them for controlling garden snail populations and attracting the hadeda ibis. the animal is omnivorous, with a diet that includes snails, other invertebrates, and vegetable matter. in urban environments, they will readily take food made available by suburban dwellers, including cat food and dog food and their droppings." ] "animal-train-22" "animal-train-22" "2673" "round island burrowing boa" [ "native to round island, a tiny island off the coast of mauritius, the round island burrowing boa preferred to live on the topsoil layers of ...\nthe round island burrowing boa (bolyeria multocarinata) is a species of snake that went extinct in 1975. the boa was native to a small island off the coast of mauritius called round island .\njones, c. g. (1988). round island boa eats serpent island gecko .\ncousin, the round island burrowing boa has not been seen since 1996 and is believed to be extinct. more\nthe round island burrowing boa is classified as extinct (ex), there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died .\nwikipedia article copyright notice: this article is licensed under the gnu free documentation license. it uses material from the wikipedia article\nround island burrowing boa\n.\nnative to round island, a tiny island off the coast of mauritius, the round island burrowing boa preferred to live on the topsoil layers of volcanic slopes. it was once found on several other islands around mauritius, but its population had dwindled by the 1940s, and it could only be found on round island after 1949. it was last seen in 1975 .\nkorsós z, trócsányi b, 2006. the enigmatic round island burrowing boa (bolyeria multocarinata): survival in the wild remains unconfirmed. african herp news 40: 2 - 7 .\nglenn, c. r. 2006 .\nearth' s endangered creatures - round island burrowing boa facts\n( online) - licensed article from wikipedia: the free encyclopedia. accessed\nfacts summary: the round island burrowing boa (bolyeria multocarinata) is a species of concern belonging in the species group\nreptiles\nand found in the following area (s): indian ocean (mauritius). this species is also known by the following name (s): round island bolyeria boa .\nin the mascarene islands with a description of the distinctive population on round island .\ndaszak, p. (1995). prevalence of endoparasites in round island reptiles .\nthe round island burrowing boa, or bolyeria, was a reptile native to the round island in mauritius. the reptile endemic to hardwood forest and palm savanna had a small habitat, ranging about 1. 5 to 2 square km. limited distribution had already made it vulnerable to extinction. more\nvinson, j. - m. (1975). notes on reptiles of round island .\ne) measure tail length, body length, weight and contemplate its essence, its zen, its remarkable burrowing boa - ness .\nfound only on round island off the north coast of mauritius in the indian ocean (5) .\nembed this arkive thumbnail link (\nportlet\n) by copying and pasting the code below. < a href =\nurltoken\ntitle =\narkive species - round island keel - scaled boa (casarea dussumieri )\n> < img src =\nurltoken\nalt =\narkive species - round island keel - scaled boa (casarea dussumieri )\ntitle =\narkive species - round island keel - scaled boa (casarea dussumieri )\nborder =\n0\n/ > < / a >\nalthough originally placed in the genus boa, this species differs so greatly from seemingly - related snakes that is now classified in its own genus and family (bolyeridae). the family’s only other member, the round island burrowing boa (bolyeria multacarinata), has not been seen since 1975 and is presumed extinct .\ncundall d, irish fj, 1989. the function of the intramaxillary joint in the round island boa, casarea dussumieri. journal of zoology 217: 569 - 598 .\nthe introduction of rabbits and goats to the island in 1840 resulted in damage to the vegetation, consequently causing soil erosion on the volcanic slopes and deterioration of palm forest habitat. this decline in habitat quality is thought to have been the main reason for the extinction of the round island burrowing boa .\nanother group of reptiles, the snakes, are so secretive that countless species have probably gone extinct without our even knowing that they existed in the first place. others that we were aware of have disappeared. a snake known as the round island burrowing boa was last reported from the island in the indian ocean in the 1970s. goats and rabbits brought to the small island by settlers are the presumed cause of its disappearance. like that of the dodo and the giant tortoise, the fate of the round island burrowing boa adds another mournful note to the sad ballad of human - caused extinction .\nd) ban all further travel to the island so that other burrowing boas, if they exist, can live in peace; whether it thrives will be a new mystery for the island .\nbolyeria multocarinata was formerly restricted to round island, a 151 ha volcanic islet approximately 0. 25 ha nne of mauritius .\nthe round island boa is now confined to round island, a tiny speck of habitat where perhaps 500 - 1, 000 individuals survive. a single wild population and limited number of captives place it at continued risk of extinction. the new population to be established on another mauritian island (where the snake formerly lived) is a vital step towards ensuring the species’ survival .\njustification: formerly restricted to round island, mauritius, this species has not been recorded since 1975. soil erosion and a general decline in habitat quality have been blamed for the extinction of this boa .\nthe island selected for the new round island boa population has been cleared of the introduced black rats, goats and rabbits that previously destroyed the habitat and prey base. the snake’s primary food, the telfair’s skink (leiolopisma telfairi), was released on the island in 2007 and is now well - established. like other mauritian reptiles, telfair’s skink has been eliminated from much of its range, but survives on round island and at the durrell wildlife trust .\nthe round island burrowing boa reached a length of about 1 m (39 in). preserved specimens have reported total lengths of 54 - 140 cm (boullenger 1893; vinson 1949; vinson 1975; bullock 1977). vinson (1949) even claimed that its maximum size was 1, 8 m. more\nmaisano ja, rieppel o, 2007. the skull of the round island boa, casarea dussumieri schlegel, based on high - resolution x - ray computed tomography. journal of morphology 268: 371 - 384 .\ncause of extinction: the introduction of non - native species of rabbits and goats to the island destroyed vegetation and upset the boa’s habitat .\nbullock, d. j. (1986). the ecology and conservation of reptiles on round - island and gunner quoin, mauritius .\nfor my present project of writing stories about extinct species, my challenge has been to figure out how to tell the story in such a way that the reader appreciates what has been lost. like a eulogy, the intention is to celebrate the species. round island is 22 kilometers north of mauritius, the former home of the dodo, and suffered from the introduction of rabbits and goats in the 19 th century, which destroyed the burrowing boa’s habitat. there is a recovery plan for the burrowing boa and it contains a poignant line that i used in the preamble: “staff on round island cherish the hope that the burrowing boa is not extinct, and it will be encountered some day. ” i was so touched by that dedication and love that i thought the rest of the recovery plan should reflect it, so i modified the plan into the present piece .\nthe boas to be reintroduced were collected from round island, and will first be monitored to assure that they are genetically diverse and disease - free .\nthe round island boa’s preferred habitat – forest and palm - dotted savannah – has been largely reduced to brushy scrub by agricultural development, introduced rabbits and goats. rat predation on young snakes and skinks has contributed to the species’ drastic decline .\nthe round island boa is oviparous, and changes in color from bright orange to grayish - brown as it matures. there are some indications that females remain with their eggs for a time. unique scalation lends the alternative common name of keel - scaled boa. juveniles and some adults (especially females) appear to be largely arboreal .\na) pay proper respects. its ancestors have lived on round island since it first boiled out of the ocean off the north coast of mauritius thousands of years ago .\nbloxam, q. m. c. b. and tonge, s. j. (1986) the round island boa casarea dussumieri breeding programme at the jersey wildlife preservation trust. dodo. j. jersey wildl. preserv. trust, 23: 101 - 107 .\nthis fossorial boa was found in the palm groves of mid - altitude top - soil layers on volcanic slopes .\nthe emptiness gapes at us. once there was a mystery barely glimpsed in a century and now there is a void that expands by the day. time is a labyrinth with myriad secret passages and what we wouldn’t give to find the one that undoes the sins of our fathers. that being what it is, the staff on round island cherish the hope that the burrowing boa is not extinct, and it will be encountered one day .\nd) note time, place, weather, any other animals present near resight. tune in to the boa’s zeitgeist .\nvinson, j. (1953). some recent data on the fauna and flora of round and serpent islands .\nhabitat loss has been rife throughout the mascarene islands. vast tracts of native forest (over 90 %) have been cleared to make way for agriculture and on round island the introduction of rabbits and goats has further damaged native flora (7); however, these were removed during the 1980’s. perhaps 500 adults remain (with a total population of approximately 1000 individuals) on the 159 - hectare round island (1) .\n]) and endangered (e. g. , the balearic island lilford’s wall lizard, [\nnorth, s. g. , bullock, d. j. , & dulloo, m. e. (1994). changes in the vegetation and reptile populations on round - island, mauritius, following eradication of rabbits .\nthe round island keel - scaled boa is one of the world' s rarest snakes (2). this slender snake may reach up to 1. 5 metres in length, the upper surface is generally dark brown whilst the underside is lighter with very dark spots. the body is covered in small, keeled scales that give rise to the species' common name (2) .\nhistorically inhabited tropical hardwood forest and palm savannah, but since the introduction of goats and rabbits to the island much of this habitat has been destroyed. as a result of habitat degradation the boa currently persists in degraded palm savannah and shrub layer vegetation (1) .\n) on barro colorado island. panama conserv genet. 2009, 10 (2): 347 - 358 .\nmcalpine df, 1983. correlated physiological color change and activity patterns in an indian ocean boa (casarea dussumeri). journal of herpetology 17: 198 - 201 .\nhallermann j, glaw f, 2005. evidence for oviparity in the extinct bolyeriid snake bolyeria multocarinata (boie, 1827). herpetozoa 19: 82 - 85. korsós z, trócsányi b, 2002. herpetofauna of round island, mauritius. biota 3: 77 - 84 .\nsmith bj: boa: an r package for mcmc output convergence assessment and posterior inference. j stat softw. 2007, 21 (11): 1 - 37 .\nthe durrell wildlife trust became the first institution to breed the round island boa, and maintains most of the captive population. founded by legendary conservationist and author gerard durrell, this unique organization focuses on critically endangered animals and plants, especially those overshadowed by pandas, rhinos and other “charismatic mega - vertebrates”. the trust was the first to breed the giant jumping rat, lesser antilles iguana, flat - tailed tortoise and scores of others (please see article below) .\nmac arthur rh, wilson eo: the theory of island biogeography. 1967, princeton university press, princeton, n. j\nbiber e: patterns of endemic extinctions among island bird species. ecography. 2002, 25 (6): 661 - 676 .\na) rejoice that for now, the burrowing boa has avoided slipping into legend like the many other mascarene species, including the dodo, giant tortoise, night - heron, rail, red rail, solitaire, gallinule, hoopoe starling, gray parrot, owl, kestrel, blue pigeon, giant skink, day gecko, shelduck, and flightless ibis. announce it to the wind, write a message in a cloud, commission a cantata for the prodigal serpent, so oblivious to its precarious fate .\ngroombridge j: genetics and extinction of island endemics: the importance of historical perspectives. anim conserv. 2007, 10 (2): 147 - 148 .\njamieson ig: has the debate over genetics and extinction of island endemics truly been resolved? . anim conserv. 2007, 10 (2): 139 - 144 .\njamieson ig: role of genetic factors in extinction of island endemics: complementary or competing explanations? . anim conserv. 2007, 10 (2): 151 - 153 .\n]) that are considered as least concern. moreover, the values are also lower to those reported for island squamate species described as vulnerable (e. g. , the komodo dragon, [\ngillespie rg, claridge em, roderick gk: biodiversity dynamics in isolated island communities: interaction between natural and human - mediated processes. mol ecol. 2008, 17 (1): 45 - 57 .\nbloor p, de laguna ihb, kemp sj: highly polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite loci for the eastern canary island lizard, gallotia atlantica. mol ecol notes. 2006, 6 (3): 737 - 739 .\nmauritius, an island nation off the coast of southeast africa, is best known to naturalists as the site of the dodo bird’s extinction (mauritius also is, in a sense, the reason i was hired by the bronx zoo and spared life as a lawyer – see article below for the story !). herp enthusiasts, however, know it as the habitat of several unique reptiles, all of which are now very rare or extinct. but we can delight in some news just released by the durrell wildlife trust – a new population of the round island or keel - scaled boas, casarea dussumieri, will soon be established in the wild. this unusual snake disappeared from nearly all of its range in the 1860’s, and its return is the culmination of 40 years’ worth of captive breeding and habitat restoration efforts .\nb) suggests that the species inhabited most of the island of la gomera from the coast throughout the xerophilic region (except in the laurisilva subtropical forest area at high altitudes) prior to the arrival of humans (ca. 2, 500 years ago) [\n. each of these three species of giant lizards is endemic to a single island, el hierro, tenerife, and la gomera, respectively. because of their restricted distribution, these three giant lizards are highly threatened and for many years they were thought to be extinct (figure\nmourer - chauviré, c. , r. bour, s. ribes, and f. moutou. 1999. the avifauna of réunion island (mascarene islands) at the time of the arrival of the first europeans. smithsonian contributions to paleobiology 89: 1 - 38 .\n]. yet, the extraordinary biodiversity of islands is relatively fragile. because island endemics have evolved in an environment protected by isolation, they are particularly susceptible to ecological threats (e. g. , predation by or competition with invasive species, habitat loss, and human pressure) [\none group of reptiles that clearly seem to have gone extinct are some of the giant tortoises that once lived on oceanic islands visited by early european adventurers. take, for example, the island of mauritius. less than a century after it was discovered by european explorers, one of its avian denizens, the dodo bird, had completely disappeared, and by the early 1700s the mauritian tortoise that inhabited the island had also been driven to extinction. the demise of the tortoises on mauritius and other islands is believed to have been the result of overexploitation by the first human visitors to the region .\n]. genetic data could allow discriminating between either alternative hypotheses by estimating whether population decline predated or not the arrival of humans to the island. moreover, the combination of ancient natural processes and more recent anthropogenic activities may have had a synergetic effect that could best explain the current threatened status of the species .\nlist of all endangered animals. list of all endangered plants. list of all endangered species (animals & plants). by species group (mammal, birds, etc)... united states endangered species list. browse by country, island, us state... search for an endangered species profile .\nin a family of their own. other lizard - eating snakes have analogous adaptations for grasping their hard - bodied prey, but no group takes this adaptation to such extremes as the bolyeriids. but think - on an island with no mammals and few birds, with little else but lizards to eat, selection is stronger than anywhere else for adaptations to saurophagy .\njustification of ecoregion delineation the mascarene islands are composed of three main islands: réunion, mauritius, and rodrigues, and some islets. although each island contains distinct flora and fauna, they were included in a single ecoregion due to their possession of some shared endemic species, their similar volcanic history and geophysical characteristics, and their wide separation by sea from other land masses .\ndescription location and general description this ecoregion covers the three main islands, réunion, mauritius, and rodrigues, and a number of smaller islets of the mascarene islands. the largest islands are the french dependent territory of réunion (2, 500 km2), and the island of mauritius (1, 900 km2), which together with rodrigues (110 km2) forms the single independent nation of mauritius. the nearest landmass is madagascar, 680 km northwest of réunion .\nthe giant lizard of la gomera (gallotia bravoana), is an endemic lacertid of this canary island that lives confined to a very restricted area of occupancy in a steep cliff, and is catalogued as critically endangered by iucn. we present the first population genetic analysis of the wild population as well as of captive - born individuals (for which paternity data are available) from a recovery center. current genetic variability, and inferred past demographic changes were determined in order to discern the relative contribution of natural versus human - mediated effects on the observed decline in population size .\nclearly, dinosaurs are not the only reptiles that have gone extinct; extinction in modern times has occurred. of course, the likelihood of people discovering a new island and subsequently causing the extinction of its native wildlife is close to nil. but a far greater threat exists: environmental complacency - - the mistaken belief that the world' s animals and plants are doing fine. they are not. and the time to protect the environment and preserve natural habitats is not when a specific plant or animal is endangered or borders on extinction. the time to act is now .\nafter its rediscovery, a conservation programme (within the framework of two eu life projects) was established on the island, focused mainly on captive breeding and on census monitoring of the natural population. for the captive breeding programme, nine founders (five females and four males) were captured in the wild between 1999 and 2000, and used to found the captive population. the founders reproduced successfully for the first time in 2001 at the recovery centre of la gomera giant lizard, resulting in about 40 captive - born offspring by 2005, and 121 captive - born individuals by 2010 [\npopulations since at least 13, 000 years ago, which could be related to environmental disturbances such as past climatic changes or volcanic eruptions. however, shorter generation time priors supported instead that the onset of the decline would be related to the human arrival to the islands about 2, 500 years ago. in fact, the 95% high posterior densities associated to the estimates were relatively large and thus, it is not possible to fully discriminate among competing scenarios, as well as to discard a synergetic effect of human activities and lon - term environmental or genetic factors in the decline of the giant lizard populations on the island .\nthe vegetation of the islands was originally quite diverse, ranging from coastal wetlands and swamp forests, through lowland dry forest, rain forest, and palm savanna to montane deciduous forests and finally (on réunion) to heathland vegetation types on the highest mountains. most of the original vegetation is now destroyed. moreover, almost all remaining native plant communities are badly degraded by introduced species (wwf and iucn 1994). major plant families include sapotaceae, ebenaceae, rubiaceae, myrtaceae, clusiaceae, lauraceae, burseraceae, euphorbiaceae, sterculiaceae, pittoscoraceae, and celastracea. on réunion much of the island has been reforested and now contains almost 40 percent forest cover (henkel and schmidt 2000) .\nlizards are another group of reptiles in which some species have disappeared in modern times. as if extinction of the dodo and the tortoise were not enough to lay at the feet of mauritius' s discoverers, a lizard known as the mauritianus giant skink disappeared during the 1600s. virtually all lizard species confirmed to have gone extinct have not been seen in at least a half century and most not since the 1800s. some were once found on caribbean islands, including jamaica and navassa island near haiti. the introduction of mongooses to jamaica is considered by some authorities to be a contributing factor in the demise of several lizard species. specimens of the now - extinct lizards were preserved in museums long ago thus confirming that they once existed .\ncurrent status mauritius has one of the highest human population densities in the world, 634 persons / km2 (cia 2000). on all of the mascarene islands, there has been a vast loss of the original forest habitat (stuart et al. 1990). on réunion, it is estimated that less than 40 percent of the island is covered with natural vegetation; on mauritius, only about 5 percent of the natural vegetation survives; and on rodrigues, the natural vegetation covers around 1 percent of the total land area. different agents have caused this loss of habitat. on réunion, forest and other habitat is cleared for agriculture and degraded through the introduction of alien plants. on mauritius, sugar cane, tea, and conifer plantations have replaced the natural vegetation. on rodrigues, the effects of feral animals and shifting cultivation have changed the forest habitats to a savanna with scattered trees, and introduced plants have then taken over the remaining habitats .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd xhtml 1. 0 strict / / en\nurltoken\nthank you for taking the time to provide feedback on the iucn red list of threatened species website, we are grateful for your input .\ngland, switzerland, 5 july 2018 (iucn) – australia’s unique reptiles – including lizards and snakes – face severe threats from invasive species and climate change, with 7% of th ...\nthe value of medicinal and aromatic plant trade has increased three - fold in the past 20 years, but traditional harvesting practices are being replaced by less sustainable alternatives... .\na recently released iucn technical brief recommends increasing investments in sustainable land management practices, as well as better cooperation between agriculturalists and conservationists to conse ...\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd html 4. 01 transitional / / en\nurltoken\nmcdiarmid, roy w. , jonathan a. campbell, and t' shaka a. touré\nsnake species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, vol. 1\ndisclaimer: itis taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. however, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. while every effort has been made to provide the most reliable and up - to - date information available, ultimate legal requirements with respect to species are contained in provisions of treaties to which the united states is a party, wildlife statutes, regulations, and any applicable notices that have been published in the federal register. for further information on u. s. legal requirements with respect to protected taxa, please contact the u. s. fish and wildlife service .\nto make use of this information, please check the < terms of use > .\nbaillie, j. and groombridge, b. (eds). 1996. 1996 iucn red list of threatened animals. pp. 378. international union for conservation of nature, gland, switzerland and cambridge, uk .\ngroombridge, b. 1992. global biodiversity: status of the earth’s living resources. report compiled by the world conservation monitoring centre. chapman and hall, london .\ngroombridge, b. (ed .). 1994. 1994 iucn red list of threatened animals. iucn, gland, switzerland and cambridge, uk .\niucn. 1979. red data book vol 3: amphibia and reptilia. international union for the conservation of nature and natural resources, switzerland .\niucn. 1990. iucn red list of threatened animals. iucn, gland, switzerland and cambridge, uk .\niucn conservation monitoring centre. 1986. 1986 iucn red list of threatened animals. iucn, gland, switzerland and cambridge, uk .\niucn conservation monitoring centre. 1988. iucn red list of threatened animals. iucn, gland, switzerland and cambridge, uk .\ncan' t find a community you love? create your own and start something epic .\ndaniel hudon, originally from canada, is an adjunct lecturer in astronomy, physics, math, and writing in boston. he is the author of a nonfiction book, the bluffer’s guide to the cosmos (oval books, uk) and a chapbook of prose and poetry ,\nevidence for rainfall\n( pen and anvil). he has recent work appearing in written river, the chattahoochee review, { ex } tinguished and { ex } tinct: an anthology of things that no longer { ex } ist, clarion, riprap, paragraphiti, toad, and canary. some of his writing links can be found at urltoken he lives in boston, ma .\nb) preserve in pure ethyl alcohol for the curious to see that somewhere in the world, a single specimen of the species, not seen since 22. 08. 1975 and representing a lineage that is 150 million years old, exists .\nc) notify the international union for conservation of nature about the specimen, and that, contrary to our greatest fears, the species may not be extinct .\nb) capture in a cloth bag. lure with words from emily dickinson or elizabeth bishop. boas are suckers for short, sinuous lines .\nc) take photographs of complete body, head, scale, and cloacal pattern. make sure to get its best side .\nf) release animal and follow from a distance to observe behavior and movement. note its stealthy silence, its rapid sidewinding and concertina motions. once they are free, boas never look back .\nin the event of non - rediscovery, notify the wailing women and the griots. add a stone to the life cairn. the world we know is disappearing but try to cope as best you can .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd xhtml 1. 0 strict / / en\nurltoken\nthis dutch butterfly a subspecies of the alcon blue was found mainly in the grasslands of the netherlands. while closely related species (pi ...\nthe stunning madeiran large white butterfly was found in the valleys of the laurisilva forests on portugal’s madeira islands. the butterfly & ...\nthe reintroduced population will be closely monitored by durrell wildlife trust staffers and other conservation organizations. in addition to establishing a new population, the project may serve as a template for future herp recovery efforts. i’ll post updates as they become available .\nthere are many other success stories, as well as failures. please post your own thoughts and examples below so that i can share them with readers and researchers. thanks .\nbeing born with a deep interest in animals might seem unfortunate for a native bronxite, but my family encouraged my interest and the menagerie that sprung from it. jobs with pet stores and importers had me caring for a fantastic assortment of reptiles and amphibians. after a detour as a lawyer, i was hired as a bronx zoo animal keeper and was soon caring for gharials, goliath frogs, king cobras and everything in - between. research has taken me in pursuit of anacondas, orinoco crocodiles and other animals in locales ranging from venezuela’s llanos to tortuguero’s beaches. now, after 20 + years with the bronx zoo, i am a consultant for several zoos and museums. i have spent time in japan, and often exchange ideas with zoologists there. i have written books on salamanders, geckos and other “herps”, discussed reptile - keeping on television and presented papers at conferences. a master’s degree in biology has led to teaching opportunities. my work puts me in contact with thousands of hobbyists keeping an array of pets. without fail, i have learned much from them and hope, dear readers, that you will be generous in sharing your thoughts on this blog and web site. for a complete biography of my experience click here .\nthatpetblog: hi snakie mom! i hope to answer some of your questions, and ...\nsnakiemommie: i have been told a few conflicting things that i want to kno ...\npms214: hi, i' ve thoroughly enjoyed reading this blog. very informat ...\nwildathart: neat article! !! i' m mostly commenting because callisoma scru ...\neyeballkid: for anyone having difficulty keeping an uromastyx healthy, i ...\nthat reptile blog is designed to help promote knowledge of the pet hobby. if you wish to reference or cite specific information from a blog post, we ask that you provide a link back to the original. the content on that reptile blog is copyright protected and may not be duplicated without written permission. if you have any questions on this policy, feel free to send us an email at blogs @ thatpetplace. com. © copyright 2013, all rights reserved .\neryx multocarinata boie 1827: 513 tortrix pseudo - eryx schlegel 1837: 19 bolyeria pseudo - eryx — gray 1842: 46 platygaster multicarinatus — duméril & bibron 1844: 497 (emendation) bolyeria multicarinata — gray 1849: 106 platygaster multicarinatus — jan 1861 platygaster multicarinatus — jan 1862: 247 bolieria multicarinata — boulenger 1893: 122 bolyeria multocarinata — stimson 1969: 4 bolyeria multocarinata — mcdiarmid, campbell & touré 1999: 213 bolyeria multocarinata — wallach et al. 2014: 108 bolyeria multomaculata — bauer 2017 (in error )\nconservation: may be extinct now (fide glaw, pers. comm .) type species: tortrix pseudoeryx schlegel 1837 is the type species of the genus bolyeria gray 1842 .\nbauer, a. m. 2017. book review: los anfibios y reptiles extinguidos. herpetofauna desaparecida desde el año 1500. herpetological review 48 (2): 467 - 468\nbauer, a. m. and r. günther 2004. on a newly identified specimen of the extinct bolyeriid snake bolyeria multocarinata (boie, 1827). herpetozoa 17 (3 / 4): 179 - 181 - get paper here\nboie, f. 1827. bemerkungen über merrem' s versuch eines systems der amphibien, 1. lieferung: ophidier. isis van oken 20: 508 - 566. - get paper here\nboulenger, g. a. 1893. catalogue of the snakes in the british museum (nat. hist .) i. london (taylor & francis), 448 pp. - get paper here\nduméril, a. m. c. and g. bibron. 1844. erpetologie générale ou histoire naturelle complete des reptiles. vol. 6. libr. encyclopédique roret, paris, 609 pp. - get paper here\ngoin, c. j. , goin, o. b. & zug, g. r. 1978. introduction to herpetology, 3rd ed. w. h. freeman & co. , san francisco\ngray, j. e. 1849. catalogue of the specimens of snakes in the collection of the british museum. edward newman, london, i - xv; 1 - 125. - get paper here\nguibé, j. & roux - estève, r. 1972. les types de schlegel (ophidiens) présents dans les collections du muséum national d' histoire naturelle de paris. zoologische mededelingen 47: 129 - 134 - get paper here\nhallermann, j. & glaw, f. 2006. evidence for oviparity in the extinct bolyeriid snake bolyeria multocarinata (boie, 1827) [ short note ]. herpetozoa 19: - get paper here\njan, g. 1862. ueber die familien der eryciden und tortriciden. archiv für naturgeschichte 28 (1): 238 - 252 - get paper here\njan, g. 1864. iconographie générale des ophidiens. 3. livraison. j. b. bailière et fils, paris - get paper here\nmcdiarmid, r. w. ; campbell, j. a. & touré, t. a. 1999. snake species of the world. vol. 1. herpetologists’ league, 511 pp .\nschlegel, h. 1837. essai sur la physionomie des serpens. partie descriptive. la haye (j. kips, j. hz. et w. p. van stockum), 606 s. + xvi - get paper here\nseung hoon, cha 2012. snake, the world most beautifull curve [ in korean ]. hownext, 304 pp. [ isbn 978 - 89 - 965656 - 7 - 3 ] - get paper here\nwallach, van; kenneth l. williams, jeff boundy 2014. snakes of the world: a catalogue of living and extinct species. taylor and francis, crc press, 1237 pp .\nthis database is maintained by peter uetz (database content) and jakob hallermann, zoological museum hamburg (new species and updates) .\noops. a firewall is blocking access to prezi content. check out this article to learn more or contact your system administrator .\nstand out and be remembered with prezi, the secret weapon of great presenters .\nneither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again .\nreset share links resets both viewing and editing links (coeditors shown below are not affected) .\nclassified as endangered (en - d) on the iucn red list 2002 (3), and listed on appendix i of cites (4) .\ninformation authenticated (12 / 6 / 03) by richard gibson, curator of herpetology, zoological society of london. urltoken\narboreal living in trees. endemic a species or taxonomic group that is only found in one particular country or geographic area. keel a structure that resembles the keel of a ship either in function or in shape. an example is the breastbone of flying birds, which have deep keels onto which the large breastbones attach .\nrichard gibson curator of herpetology zoological society of london regents park london nw1 4ry united kingdom richard. gibson @ urltoken http: / / www. urltoken\nterms of use - the displayed portlet may be used as a link from your website to arkive' s online content for private, scientific, conservation or educational purposes only. it may not be used within apps .\nmyarkive offers the scrapbook feature to signed - up members, allowing you to organize your favourite arkive images and videos and share them with friends .\nteam wild, an elite squadron of science superheroes, needs your help! your mission: protect and conserve the planet’s species and habitats from destruction .\nwildscreen is a registered charity in england and wales no. 299450 wildscreen usa is a registered 501 (c) (3) non - profit organisation in the usa\ngenetic analyses indicate that the only known natural population of the species shows low genetic diversity and acts as a single evolutionary unit. demographic analyses inferred a prolonged decline of the species for at least 230 generations. depending on the assumed generation time, the onset of the decline was dated between 1200 - 13000 years ago. pedigree analyses of captive individuals suggest that reproductive behavior of the giant lizard of la gomera may include polyandry, multiple paternity and female long - term sperm retention .\nthe current low genetic diversity of g. bravoana is the result of a long - term gradual decline. because generation time is unknown in this lizard and estimates had large credibility intervals, it is not possible to determine the relative contribution of humans in the collapse of the population. shorter generation times would favor a stronger influence of human pressure whereas longer generation times would favor a climate - induced origin of the decline. in any case, our analyses show that the wild population has survived for a long period of time with low levels of genetic diversity and a small effective population size. reproductive behavior may have acted as an important inbreeding avoidance mechanism allowing the species to elude extinction. overall, our results suggest that the species retains its adaptive potential and could restore its ancient genetic diversity under favorable conditions. therefore, management of the giant lizard of la gomera should concentrate efforts on enhancing population growth rates through captive breeding of the species as well as on restoring the carrying capacity of its natural habitat .\n] have shown that, after severe bottlenecks, some species have been able to persist for long periods of time with depleted heterozygosity levels. ecological factors, such as the quality of the habitat, environmental stability, the purging effect of selection, and specific life history traits (e. g. , mating systems and generation lengths) could counteract the impact of declines on population genetic variation [\n( arnold 1973) (subfamily gallotiinae) includes seven living lacertid species endemic to the canary islands that diversified upon colonization from the continent back in the early miocene, ca. 20 million years ago (mya) [\n] that is found in france, the iberian peninsula and maghreb. a recent phylogeny based on mitochondrial (mt) dna sequence data [\n, which inhabits eastern canary islands (fuerteventura and lanzarote), and a clade that includes all species living in western canary islands. this latter clade is divided into two monophyletic groups, one of small - bodied lizards ,\ndistribution of the small - bodied (sb) and the giant (g) lizards. the species classified as “critically endangered” by the iucn (2012) are also indicated with asterisks .\n]. field surveys in 2009 revealed that the whole population included ca. 160 individuals that inhabited isolated patches of < 20 km\n), and yet very little is known about the genetics and demography of its only known population .\nand it’s currently restricted geographical distribution. however, the possibility that decline could be the result of environmental stochastic processes such as ancient climate changes or geological (volcanic) events producing long - term fragmentation and isolation cannot be discarded [\ngiven the critical conservation status of the species, the study of its genetic variation was necessary to establish the best management strategy. in particular, it was important to determine whether observed reduction in population size was accompanied by depletion in levels of genetic diversity as well as to detect genetic signatures of past demographic changes (e. g. , bottlenecks) and date them. moreover, genetic data could help clarifying how historical processes (e. g. , sustained population isolation and genetic drift) and more recent events (e. g. , human pressure), coupled with the effect of life - history traits (e. g. , mating behavior), contributed to the evolutionary history of the species .\nhere, we analyze microsatellite data of g. bravoana for a total of 99 individuals (covering more than half of the total wild population and all 2001 - 2005 captive - born individuals) to estimate the overall amount of genetic variability of the species, and the allele frequency distribution between wild and captive individuals. different coalescence - based methods were applied to examine major population demographic changes and to estimate their timing. in addition, we combined information on pedigree and genetic data of captive animals from the breeding program to perform paternity analyses and gain insights on the mating system of the species. altogether, results presented here provide the genetic background needed for understanding the recent evolutionary history of g. bravoana and for implementing successful management and conservation plans for the species .\nwere monomorphic in wild samples. allele frequency homogeneity tests indicated that the probability of detecting population structure with the eight polymorphic microsatellites was relatively high (the overall power estimate from all runs was 0. 714 and 0. 628 for the chi - square and fisher exact tests, respectively), and statistically significant (data not shown). when\nwas set to zero (simulating no divergence among samples), the proportion of false significances (α error of type i) was in all cases lower than the intended value of 5% . only one (\n< 0. 05, results not shown), and therefore all loci were consequently regarded as independent from each other. the majority of loci showed an overall departure from hwe due to significant heterozygote deficiency when all 99 samples were analyzed together (table\n= allelic richness standardized to the smallest sample size using the rarefaction method of fstat 2. 9. 3 [\n1 bold f is values are significant probability estimates after q - value correction (* p < 0. 05) .\n= - 0. 039 ± 0. 024). the number of wild populations (and the assignment of individuals to each population) was estimated using bayesian inferences. our results indicate that in all cases the highest posterior probability value was found at\nthe wilcoxon test failed to detect recent bottlenecks under any kind of mutation model (iam, tpm and smm) of microsatellite evolution (p = 0. 156, p = 0. 156 and p = 0. 109, respectively). moreover, the allele frequency distribution obtained from the mode - shift indicator test followed a normal l - shape, indicating a larger proportion of low frequency allele classes in g. bravoana, and thus also supporting the absence of a recent genetic bottleneck .\nwere 70, 794 and 13, respectively. this corresponds to a reduction in effective population size (\n) of around 5, 400 times and that only 0. 02% of the original effective population survives at present. the decline was estimated to have occurred around 221 - 246 generations before present, and the time estimation of the onset of the decline varies depending on the generation time prior but not on the four time periods analyzed. for a\n) effective population size represented on a log10 scale. the colors of posterior densities represent three different assumed generation times in years for the prior set analyzed, which is represented by a gray dotted line .\n), calculated using msvar v1. 3, for the four prior sets analyzed. the colors of posterior densities represent the three different assumed generation times in years for the four prior sets analyzed, which are represented by gray dotted lines. the black vertical dashed line represents the four time periods tested (from left to right): 100; 500; 2, 500 and 10, 000 years (y) .\n). multiple paternity cases never involved more than two males. interestingly, in genetically monogamous pairings, a relatively high number of parental mismatches were detected i. e. , in five cases the assigned male did not correspond with the putative father. in two out of these five cases, the obtained genotype coincided with that of the male of the previous year’s crossing, in another two cases the genotype was of one of the founder males not involved in the breeding experiment, and in another case the proposed genotype did not match any of the males used for breeding (table\nm: monogamous, p: polygynous, ?: unknown. f is = wright’s statistics .\n, which shows an extremely reduced population number (ca. 160 individuals in the wild) and a severely reduced geographical distribution (< 20 km\n]. some of the methodological limitations related to the natural small population size were overcome by maximizing sampling effort in order to cover more than half of the wild population diversity of the species, and by using powerful statistical tools based on coalescence .\noverall, the eight polymorphic species - specific microsatellite loci used in this study showed no significant linkage disequilibrium, but otherwise very low levels of genetic diversity. the observed overall departure from hwe could be explained in terms of admixture of genetically distinct cohorts (whalund effect) given that the pattern of hwe departures changed completely when only the samples from the wild were analysed (only the\nb). levels of heterozygosity in the wild and captive populations were similar indicating that the captive population could be considered a sound representation of the genetic variability found in the wild. heterozygosity values herein reported are lower than those previously estimated for\n]). they are also lower to the values reported for critically endangered species such as e. g. , the reunion cuckoo shrike [\n]. however, given the large values of variance obtained, interpretation of the results should be taken cautiously, and a larger number of individuals need to be included in further analyses .\nwe failed to detect any population structure based on the bayesian clustering analysis, which suggests that individuals intermix freely in the single population of la mérica cliff. in fact, we observed that the wild population was in hwe suggesting random mating and gene flow between individuals. altogether, results indicate that g. bravoana is capable of actively dispersing across the different altitudinal patches despite the orographic difficulties of the steep terrain of la mérica cliff .\n]). the results of the coalescent analysis showed a long - term decline and estimated a strong reduction to a current effective population size of 13, what is congruent with the present day effective size of the population (as estimated through census monitoring campaigns). although the different coalescent analyses agreed on the number of generations since the decline of the population (around 230), dating the onset of the decline was more difficult and strongly dependent on what generation time was used as a prior. the longest generation time prior favored the hypothesis of a continuous decline of\nthe canary islands giant lizards are characterized by their larger body size, longer life span, and lower reproductive rates compared to small - bodied lizards. these are all life - history traits that contribute to genetic drift in small populations and eventually may lead to extinction. for instance, the longer generation times of the giant lizards would contribute to the overlapping of generations, and following the moran model [\n] for genetic drift, this would accelerate the genetic drift process in small populations. it would also contribute to a reduction in the fixation of mutations that could lead to higher fitness and adaptation and as well as a reduction in genetic diversity, the effective population size and allele frequencies. deleterious mutations under inbreeding could become fixed to a load untenable for the population and lead to extinction such as in the case of the giant skink of cape verde [\n]. however, genetic drift is stochastic in nature, and the process does not necessarily need to end in extinction, as is the case of the giant lizard of la gomera. the combined input of both genetic and ecological factors on population viability may explain long - term persistence of\n], evidence is accumulating for the capacity of many species (e. g. , the raso lark [\n,) to pass through historical bottlenecks and persist with small population sizes and low genetic diversity. moreover, it has been shown that minimal management and conservation actions for these threatened species were enough to enhance population growth rates [" ] { "text": [ "the round island burrowing boa ( bolyeria multocarinata ) is an extinct species of snake in the family bolyeriidae , in the monotypic genus bolyeria , which was endemic to mauritius .", "the species was last seen on round island in 1975 .", "no subspecies are currently recognized . " ], "topic": [ 26, 12, 5 ] } "the round island burrowing boa (bolyeria multocarinata) is an extinct species of snake in the family bolyeriidae, in the monotypic genus bolyeria, which was endemic to mauritius. the species was last seen on round island in 1975. no subspecies are currently recognized." [ "the round island burrowing boa (bolyeria multocarinata) is an extinct species of snake in the family bolyeriidae, in the monotypic genus bolyeria, which was endemic to mauritius. the species was last seen on round island in 1975. no subspecies are currently recognized." ] "animal-train-23" "animal-train-23" "2674" "brachycephalus fuscolineatus" [ "its texture can also be found on brachycephalus fuscolineatus, which has yellow skin and a green - and - brown stripe on its back .\nbrachycephalus fuscolineatus. santa catarina: morro do baú, municipality of ilhota dzup 159 (holotype), dzup 158, 160, 401–5 (all paratypes) .\nbrachycephalus olivaceus is a greenish - brown, while brachycephalus auroguttatus has a bright - yellow head a colour that fades to brown on its limbs .\nbrachycephalus olivaceus is a greenish - brown colour (left), while brachycephalus leopardus sports yellow skin and dark spots (right). the first species of brachycephalus was described in 1842 by the famous german naturalist johann baptist von spix\neach of the frogs come in a variety of flashy, bright colours, likely meant to warn predators of the neurotoxins in the frogs' skin. on the right, the tiny frog brachycephalus fuscolineatus has yellow skin and a dark green - and - brown stripe running down its back\nbrachycephalus leopardus, as its name suggests, has yellow skin covered with dark spots .\nrecords of brachycephalus spp. altitude is provided in meters (above sea level) .\npie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. nov. 1” )\nsiqueira et al. (2011; as “ brachycephalus sp. ”), (siqueira, vrcibradic & rocha, 2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. nov. ” )\nthe warty brachycephalus verrucosus is orange with brownish - green bumps, and shares its uneven complexion with brachycephalus fuscolineatus, which has yellow skin and a dark green - and - brown stripe down its back. brachycephalus leopardus gets its name from its yellow skin covered with dark spots; researchers observed one of these frogs piggybacking on another as part of the mating process called amplexus in which the male climbs onto the female' s back so he can fertilize her eggs as she releases them into the water .\nbrachycephalus nodoterga. são paulo: reserva biológica tamboré, municipality of santana de parnaíba mzusp 147711–6 .\nbrachycephalus pitanga. são paulo: sp 125, municipality of são luís do paraitinga dzup 407–9 .\nbrachycephalus ferruginus. paraná: olimpo, serra do marumbi, municipality of morretes mhnci 125, 128 .\nbrachycephalus hermogenesi. são paulo: ubatuba zuec 9715 (holotype), zuec 9716–25 (paratypes) .\nthis study, mhnci, pie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. 3” )\nsilva, campos & sebben (2007; as “ brachycephalus cf. vertebralis ”), campos, silva & sebben (2010; as “ brachycephalus cf. vertebralis ”), campos (2011 )\nthe new brachycephalus mariaeterezae, for example, is bright orange with light - blue splotches along its backbone .\nthat isolation has produced 21 known species of brachycephalus frog - and the new arrivals push that count to 28 .\nas a group, brachycephalus, have been known to inhabit the cloud forests of southern brazil since the 1880s .\nhow small can a frog get? a new species of brachycephalus from brazil is dwarfed by a human fingertip .\nthis study, dzup, pie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. nov. 1” )\nthe new brachycephalus mariaeterezae, for example, is bright orange with light - blue splotches along its backbone. brachycephalus olivaceus, true to its name, is the color of a greenish - brown olive. brachycephalus auroguttatus sports a bright - yellow head and coloration that fades to brown limbs (\naurogattatus\ntranslate to\ngold drop\nin latin) .\nbrachycephalus coloratus: urn: lsid: zoobank. org: act: d45d8c67 - 0f74 - 459e - 8fc6 - 048748ed254b .\npie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. nov. 5”), pie & ribeiro (2015 )\ncunha, oliveira & hartmann (2010; as “ brachycephalus aff. hermogenesi ”), oliveira et al. (2011; as “ b. hermogenesi ”), pie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. nov. 1” )\npie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. nov. 7”), ribeiro et al. (2015 )\ncampos, silva & sebben (2010; as “ brachycephalus sp. 3”), campos (2011; as “bcu sp2” )\nbrachycephalus tridactylus. paraná: serra do morato, reserva natural salto morato, municipality of guaraqueçaba dzup 493–7, mhnci 10294, 10729–30 .\nfirkowski (2013; without species identification), pie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. nov. 1” )\nfirkowski (2013; without species identification), pie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. nov. 2” )\nfirkowski (2013; without species identification), pie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. nov. 4” )\nfirkowski (2013; without species identification), pie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. nov. 3” )\nbrachycephalus brunneus. paraná: caratuva, serra dos órgãos, municipality of campina grande do sul mhnci 1919–20, mnrj 40289–91 (paratypes) .\nresearchers found a pair of brachycephalus leopardus during part of their mating process called amlexus (right). the left image shows their habitat in brazil\nfinally, brachycephalus boticario is orange with darker, bumpy flanks. all of the frogs were found living in leaf litter on the forest floor .\nbrachycephalus “not identified” from “serra do salto, malhada district, municipality of são josé dos pinhais, pr” (firkowski et al. , 2016 )\nbrachycephalus pombali. paraná: morro dos padres, pico da igreja, municipality of guaratuba cfbh 8042 (holotype), 8043–53 (paratypes) .\npereira m dos s, candaten a, milani d, oliveira fb de, gardelin j, rocha cfd, vrcibradic d. brachycephalus hermogenesi .\nbrachycephalus mariaeterezae. the intensity of the light of the ﬂash during photography led the light - blue coloration along their vertebral column to become less apparent .\nthis study, dzup, firkowski (2013; without species identification), pie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. 2” )\nsuch high success in uncovering new species might indicate that the total number of brachycephalus is still underestimated ,\npie and his colleagues write in peerj .\npombal jr & izecksohn (2011; as “ b. ephippium ”), pie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. 1” )\nover the course of five years of fieldwork, the team of researchers has provided the largest addition to the known diversity of brachycephalus, with seven new species .\nbrachycephalus auroguttatus. santa catarina: pedra da tartaruga, municipality of garuva dzup 375 (holotype), dzup 373–4, 376–85, 387–89 (all paratypes) .\nbrachycephalus ephippium. rio de janeiro: parque nacional serra dos órgãos mzusp 104140–7; vale de revolta mcz a–108655. são paulo: municipality of cotia mhnci 2611–16 .\nbrachycephalus quiririensis. santa catarina: serra do quiriri, municipality of campo alegre dzup 172 (holotype), dzup 171, 173–6, 524–30 (all paratypes) .\nbrachycephalus verrucosus. santa catarina: morro da tromba, municipality of joinville mhnci 9819 (holotype), mhnci 9820 (paratype), dzup 464–78 (paratypes) .\nvegetation at the type locality of brachycephalus coloratus, at 1, 144 m a. s. l. characterized by high - elevation forest (floresta ombrófila altomontana) .\nfirkowski (2013; without species identification), pie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. nov. 5”), pie & ribeiro (2015 )\nbrachycephalus fuscolineatus pie, bornschein, firkowski, belmonte - lopes, and ribeiro in ribeiro, bornschein, belmonte - lopes, firkowski, morato, and pie, 2015, peerj, 3 (e1011): 18. holotype :\ndzup 159, by original designation. type locality :\nmorro do baú (26° 47′ 58″ s, 48° 55′ 47″ w; 680ma. s. l .), municipality of ilhota, state of santa catarina, southern brazil\n. urn: lsid: zoobank. org: act: 037b088c - aaa2 - 4bd4 - b6e9 - dfff7b753d8e\n, titled\nseven new microendemic species of brachycephalus (anura: brachycephalidae) from southern brazil ,\nwas published today in peerj, a peer - reviewed open access journal .\nfirkowski (2013; without species identification), pie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. nov. 9”), ribeiro et al. (2015 )\nfirkowski (2013; without species identification), pie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. nov. 4”), ribeiro et al. (2015 )\nfirkowski (2013; without species identification), pie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. nov. 6”), ribeiro et al. (2015 )\nfirkowski (2013; without species identification), pie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. nov. 7”), ribeiro et al. (2015 )\nfirkowski (2013; without species identification), pie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus sp. nov. 8”), ribeiro et al. (2015 )\npart of the brachycephalus family, these tiny frogs are among the smallest terrestrial vertebrates on earth, with adults usually no bigger than 1cm (0. 3 inches) in length .\nthe first species of brachycephalus was described in 1842 by the famous german naturalist johann baptist von spix, yet most species in the genus have been discovered only in the past decade .\npombal jr jp, izecksohn e 2011 uma nova especie de brachycephalus (anura, brachycephalidae) do estado do rio de janeiro. papeis avulsos de zoologia (sao paulo) 51 :\nbrachycephalus verrucosus has orange - hued skin covered with brownish - green bumps. it was found in morro da tromba, municipality of joinville, in the state of santa catarina, southern brazil\nbrachycephalus izecksohni. paraná: torre da prata, serra da prata, on the border between the municipalities of morretes, paranaguá, and guaratuba cfbh 7381–2, 7384 (all paratypes) .\nribeiro et al. (2015), seven new microendemic species of brachycephalus (anura: brachycephalidae) from southern brazil. peerj 3: e1011; doi 10. 7717 / peerj. 1011\nalves et al. (2009), campos, silva & sebben (2010; as “ brachycephalus sp. 2”), campos (2011), pie et al. (2013 )\nbrachycephalus mariaeterezae. santa catarina: reserva particular do patrimônio natural caetezal, top of the serra queimada, municipality of joinville mhnci 9811 (holotype), dzup 372, 393–9 (all paratypes) .\ngarey mv, lima amx, hartmann mr, haddad cfb 2012 a new species of miniaturized toadlet, genus brachycephalus (anura: brachycephalidae), from southern brazil. herpetologica 68: 266 - 271 .\nbrachycephalus albolineatus. santa catarina: morro boa vista, on the border between the municipalities of jaraguá do sul and massaranduba mhnci 10290 (holotype), mhnci 10295–10300, mnrj 90349 (all paratypes) .\npie mr, ribeiro le 2015 a new species of brachycephalus (anura: brachycephalidae) from the quiriri mountain range of southern brazil. peerj 3: e1179; doi 10. 7717 / peerj. 1179 .\npombal j, gasparini 2006 a new brachycephalus (anura: brachycephalidae) from the atlantic rainforest of espitrito santo, southeastern brazil. south american journal of herpetology. 1 (2): 87 - 93 .\nbrachycephalus leopardus. paraná: serra do araçatuba, municipality of tijucas do sul dzup 490 (holotype), dzup 478–89, 491–2 (all paratypes); morro dos perdidos, municipality of guaratuba dzup 274–83 .\nbrachycephalus didactylus. rio de janeiro: municipality of engenheiro paulo de frontin zuec 10825, mzusp 94621; sacra família do tinguá, municipality of engenheiro paulo de frontin zuec 1132–3, mzusp 13613–20, 64810–1, 94621 .\nsilva, campos & sebben (2007; as “ b. nodoterga ”), campos, silva & sebben (2010; as “ brachycephalus sp. 1”), campos (2011; as “bbm sp1” )\nunderstanding the ecological limits, geographical distributions, and altitudinal ranges of brachycephalus species is of considerable importance, particularly to direct more effective conservation actions. in the present study, we address the aforementioned aspects by reviewing the geographical and altitudinal distribution of brachycephalus based on records compiled from literature and museum specimens. in particular, expanding a previous effort by pie et al. (2013), we now include the entire literature on brachycephalus, which nearly tripled the number of sources in relation to that study. we analyze the geographical distribution and altitudinal amplitude of occurrence of the genus as a whole, as well as separately based on their species groups .\npie et al. (2013; as “ brachycephalus nodoterga ”), abbeg et al. (2015; as “clearly refers to another species (than b. nodoterga of pie et al. 2013) ” )\nfor animals like the brachycephalus frogs that are particularly sensitive to their environment, even the temperature change from mountain to valley forms a barrier. that leaves the population on each mountain top to slowly develop into a separate species .\ncondez th, clemente - carvalho rbg, haddad cfb, dos reis sf 2014 a new species of brachycephalus (anura: bracheycephalidae) from the highlands of the atlantic forest, southeastern brazil. herpetologica 70: 89 - 99 .\nbrachycephalus boticario. santa catarina: morro do cachorro, on the border between the municipalities of blumenau, gaspar, and luiz alves dzup 440 (holotype), dzup 414–5, 438–9, 444–5, 459 (all paratypes) .\nalves acr, sawaya rj, dos reis sf, haddad cfb 2009 new species of brachycephalus (anura: brachycephalidae) from the atlantic rain forest in sao paulo state, southeastern brazil. j. herpetology 43: 212 - 219 .\nclemente - carvalho rbg, giaretta aa, condez th, cfb haddad, dos reis sf 2012 a new species of miniaturized toadlet genus brachycephalus (anura: brachycephalidae) from the atlantic forest of southeastern brazil. herpetologica 68: 365 - 374 .\nafter nearly 5 years of exploration in mountainous areas of the southern brazilian atlantic rainforest, a team of researchers has uncovered seven new species of very tiny, brightly colored frogs from the genus known as brachycephalus. none are bigger than an adult thumbnail .\nhaddad cfb, alves acr, clemente - carvalho rbg, dos reis sf 2010. a new species of brachycephalus from the atlantic rain forest in sao paulo state, southeastern brazil (amphibia: anura: brachycephalidae). copeia 2010: 410 - 420 .\nbrachycephalus pernix. paraná: anhangava, serra da baitaca, municipality of quatro barras mnrj 17349 (holotype), cfbh 2597–8 (paratypes), mhnci 1818–9, 3000–4 (all paratypes), mhnci 1820, zuec 9433–7 (paratypes), dzup 539–55 .\nizecksohn (1971; as “ b. ephippium ”), pombal jr (2001; as “ brachycephalus cf. ephippium ”), pombal jr & izecksohn (2011), pie et al. (2013; as “ b. ephippium ” )\nribeiro (2006; as “ brachycephalus sp. aff. nodoterga ”), pombal jr & izecksohn (2011), pie et al. (2013), abegg et al. (2015), clemente - carvalho et al. (2016 )\nthe geographical distribution of brachycephalus coloratus is a new example among the few known cases of distinct species occurring in a single mountain range (“ serras ”). in this case, b. coloratus occurs in the serra da baitaca together with b. pernix .\nbrachycephalus olivaceus. santa catarina: base of the serra queimada, municipality of joinville mhnci 9813 (holotype), dzup 371 (paratype); castelo dos bugres, municipality of joinville mhnci 9814–8 (paratypes); morro do boi, municipality of corupá mhnci 10288–9 .\nbrachycephalus curupira (a, dorsal view and b, ventral view, from the left: mhnci 10292, mhnci 10287, holotype, mhnci 10286 paratypes) in contrast with the most morphologically similar congener, b. brunneus (c, dorsal view and d, ventral view, from the left: mhnci 10729 - 32). specimens were chosen to represent the most extreme variation in our sample of preserved specimens. inset: comparison between eye color in brachycephalus curupira (e, holotype) and b. brunneus (f, mhnci 10733) .\nseven adorable species of frog - each smaller than a thumbnail - have been discovered in the brazilian atlantic rainforest. part of the brachycephalus family, these tiny frogs are among the smallest terrestrial vertebrates, with adults usually no bigger than 1cm (0. 3 inches) in length\nspecies description: pie, bornschein, firkowski, belmonte - lopes & ribeiro in: ribeiro et al. (2015), seven new microendemic species of brachycephalus (anura: brachycephalidae) from southern brazil. peerj 3: e1011; doi 10. 7717 / peerj. 1011\nthe most obvious differences between brachycephalus species, including the seven new ones, is their skin. this can vary quite a lot in how bumpy and rough it is, and quite dramatically in its colour - with more vibrant tones normally reflecting higher levels of the deadly chemical tetrodotoxin .\nthis frog has warts: brachycephalus verrucosus has orange - hued skin covered with brownish - green bumps. an adult female of the species was collected on jan. 25, 2011, at morro da tromba, municipality of joinville, in the state of santa catarina, southern brazil .\n( 1) b. tridactylus, (2) b. brunneus, (3) b. pernix, (4) b. ferruginus, (5) b. coloratus, (6) b. pombali, (7) b. izecksohni, (8) b. curupira, (9) b. leopardus, (10) b. auroguttatus, (11) b. quiririensis, (12) b. olivaceus, (13) b. mariaeterezae, (14) b. verrucosus, (15) b. albolineatus, (16) b. boticario, and (17) b. fuscolineatus. the geographical locations of the new species are indicated in red .\nin the brachycephalus pernix group according to the original publication. condez, monteiro, and haddad, 2017, zootaxa, 4290: 395–400, suggested that this form requires taxonomic reassessment due to problems in the original diagnosis and description; see response from pie, ribeiro, and bornschein, 2017, zootaxa, 4350: 587–589 .\nalves, a. c. r. , l. f. ribeiro, c. f. b. haddad, and s. f. dos reis. 2006. two new species of brachycephalus (anura: brachycephalidae) from the atlantic forest in parana state, southern brazil. herpetologica v. 62: 221 - 233 .\nthe brightly colored little frogs are all part of the genus brachycephalus, a group known since the 1800s to inhabit the cloud forests of southern brazil. suspecting that more of these frogs might be hiding in the southern part of the atlantic forest, researchers led by marcio pie of the universidade federal do paraná hiked into the remote, misty rainforest in the states of parana and santa catarina. [ see photos of the tiny, colorful frogs from brazil ]\nbrachycephalus coloratus (( a) dorsal view, (b) ventral view, from the left: mhnci 10276, holotype, mhnci 10275 and mhnci 10277 paratypes) in contrast with the nearest congener, b. pernix (( c) dorsal view, (d) ventral view, from the left: mhnci 9806 - 07, mhnci 10157, mhnci 10160). specimens were chosen to represent the most extreme variation in our sample of preserved specimens .\nremarks. the type locality of brachycephalus coloratus is 7. 3 km distant in a straight line from the type locality of b. pernix (both species occur in the serra da baitaca). this geographical proximity between them could indicate that they represent sister species. indeed, preliminary genetic data seems to confirm this hypothesis (mj nadaline, pers. comm. , 2016). more detailed mapping of their distributions are still necessary to determine the extent to which these species are allopatric .\nbrachycephalus sulfuratus. são paulo: base of the serra água limpa, municipality of apiaí dzup 362. paraná: caratuval, near the parque estadual das lauráceas, municipality of adrianópolis dzup 139; corvo, municipality of quatro barras dzup 150–7; fazenda thalia, municipality of balsa nova dzup 221–4; mananciais da serra, municipality of piraquara mhnci 10302; recanto das hortências, municipality of são josé dos pinhais dzup 463; salto do inferno, rio capivari, municipality of bocaiúva do sul mhnci 9800 .\nbrachycephalus fitzinger is a genus of miniaturized diurnal toadlets (usually < 2. 5 cm in snout - vent length) that inhabit the forest floor of montane regions along the atlantic rainforest of southeastern and southern brazil (izecksohn, 1971; giaretta & sawaya, 1998; pombal jr, wistuba & bornschein, 1998; napoli et al. , 2011; pie et al. , 2013; see rocha et al. (2000) and pombal jr & izecksohn (2011) for reports of nocturnal activity). brachycephalus presents direct development and a reduction in the number and size of digits (hanken & wake, 1993; pombal jr, 1999; yeh, 2002). some species are aposematic (yellow, orange or yellow with light red), of which some were confirmed as harboring neurotoxins (tetrodotoxin and analogues; sebben et al. , 1986; pires jr et al. , 2002; pires jr et al. , 2003; schwartz et al. , 2007) .\nbrachycephalus curupira had a patchy distribution throughout approximately 700 m of transect along trails and within the forest in the type locality. it is possible that the abundance of the species is regulated by the quality of the leaf litter, which in turn is partly affected by vegetation and slope. we found higher abundance (one individual per ∼2–3 m 2) in areas dominated by chusquea sp. , whereas lower abundances (one individual each ∼6–7 m 2 and ∼15–16 m 2) were estimated in sites where chusquea sp. was less common .\nis the color of a greenish - brown olive. the first species of brachycephalus was described in 1842 by the german naturalist johann baptist von spix. but most species in the genus have been discovered only in the past decade. that' s due to their extremely remote habitats, which are difficult to reach .\nalthough getting to many of the field sites is exhausting, there was always the feeling of anticipation and curiosity about what new species could look like ,\nsaid marcio pie, a professor at the universidade federal do paraná, who led the project .\nin the present study, we describe two new species of brachycephalus from the state of paraná, southern brazil and assign them to the b. pernix group. this discovery is part of a continuing effort to investigate montane anurans of southern brazil (see bornschein et al. , 2015; pie & ribeiro, 2015; ribeiro et al. , 2015; bornschein et al. , 2016a; bornschein et al. , 2016b). these species are diagnosed through a combination of coloration patterns, morphological traits, genetic distances, and genealogical information from phylogenetic analyses (firkowski et al. , 2016) .\nthe area of occurrence of brachycephalus coloratus is within a land development (estância hidroclimática recreio da serra), more specifically in a region where a road is planned to be constructed, which raises severe concerns regarding the preservation of the species. on the other hand, contacts with a local resident indicated that areas above 1, 000 m a. s. l. will not be occupied, despite the original plans when the enterprise was approved by the municipality. furthermore, we obtained record of the new species at 130 m from the border of a state park—the parque estadual da serra da baitaca—and the potential occurrence of the species in this park should be a priority to design a conservation initiative. we suggest that the species should be considered as data deficient (sensu iucn, 2012) given the limited available information .\nseven new species of tiny frog have been discovered on seven different mountains in south - eastern brazil .\nthe cool\ncloud forests\nof this region have a unique climate, separated by warmer valleys that isolate the peaks like islands .\nthey are all less than 1cm long and many have colourful, poisonous skin to help them avoid becoming tiny meals .\nthe newly discovered species, reported in the open - access journal peerj, are the fruit of five years of expeditions into the wilderness .\nmarcio pie, a professor at the federal university of parana in nearby curitiba, said he had climbed more mountains than he can remember .\nit' s really exhausting ,\nhe told the bbc .\nthe mountains are not that high - most of them are 1, 000m to 1, 500m - it' s just that the trails are not particularly well marked .\nthese high forests near brazil' s southern atlantic coast are a fertile place for ecologists to explore, prof pie said, yielding more different species per square km than the amazon .\nthe little creatures are rather restricted in terms of just how different they can become. as some of the very smallest land - dwelling vertebrates, much of their anatomy is optimised to this tiny scale. for example, they typically have three toes and two fingers, instead of the five toes and four fingers found in most frogs .\npredicting what a new species might look like became a bit of a game for prof pie and his colleagues .\nit' s a really exciting experience, because we have a good expectation that each mountain top will have a new species, but we don' t know what it' s going to look like ,\nhe said .\nso we play around while we plan each trip, and try to anticipate what the species is going to look like .\nafter catching enough specimens, which usually involved rifling through leaf litter with their bare hands, prof pie' s team also did genetic tests to describe each new species .\nfinding them in the first place was probably the biggest challenge, he said .\nit takes a lot of practice and sometimes it' s very frustrating, to go up the mountain for many hours and come back empty - handed .\none of the frogs, b. olivaceus, was rather less colourful, making it even harder to find in the forest\noften the researchers would hear the frogs long before they saw them, but the creatures, whose principal predators are probably snakes, tend not to give away their location easily .\nyou can hear them singing and there' s probably hundreds of them, but you simply can' t catch them! because once you get closer, just from the vibration in the ground, they keep silent for, say, 20 minutes or half an hour. and then you have to go through the leaf litter very carefully with your hands ,\nprof pie said .\ntiptoeing scientists are the least of the frogs' worries, however. the unique climatic pockets of the cloud forests are vulnerable .\nthe researchers even spotted b. leopardus in the act of mating or\namplexus\nthe presence of these frogs with such small geographical ranges suggests to us that this particular area has been pretty stable for last the past 500, 000 years, in terms of the climate .\nif it had got warmer, probably the environment that characterises the cloud forests would have disappeared and would have led these species to extinction. whereas if it had changed in the other direction, probably they would have moved across the valleys and we would find these species together .\nbut at this point we' ve never found more than one species at each site .\nprof pie and his colleagues warn that keeping this remarkable variety of species alive may require captive breeding, as well as efforts to protect their habitat from invasive plant and animal species, logging, and other threats .\nmeanwhile, the effort to catalogue the frogs' diversity goes on. the team has already come across another four species, whose details they are yet to publish, and more mountain expeditions are planned .\nwe are very confident that we' re going to find even more species ,\nprof pie said .\nthere are many other locations where you tend to find a very similar climate and so probably the frogs are going to be there as well .\nben tapley, the team leader of herpetology at zsl london zoo, said the discovery was noteworthy .\nthe description of one, let alone seven species, is always extremely exciting ,\nmr tapley said .\namphibians are facing catastrophic and global decline and it is likely that many species have become extinct before they have even been described by science. species descriptions can inform conservation management and help prioritise much needed conservation action .\nthe president' s nomination, if confirmed by congress, could shape the us legal system for a generation .\n* will not find nomina inquirenda; use basic search (above) for that purpose .\nwill find all uses of\nhyl ...\nanywhere in a record: e. g. , hylarana, hyla, hylidae, hylinae, hylaedactyla .\nwill find all uses of\n... hyla\nanywhere in a record: e. g. , hyla, hylidae, plectrohyla, ptychadena hylaea, adenomera hylaedactyla\nwill find all records that contain stand - alone uses of hyla: e. g. , hyla, hyla arenicolor\ninterprets this as\nlithobates or pipiens\nso will find the union of all records that contain either\nlithobates\nor\npipiens\n: e. g. , lithobates omiltemanus, hylorana pipiens\ninterprets this as\nlithobates and pipiens\nso will return all records that have the character string\nlithobates pipiens\nanywhere within a record: e. g. , all members of the lithobates pipiens complex .\nknown only from the type locality (morro do baú, municipality of ilhota, state of santa catarina, southern brazil, 640 to 790 m elevation) .\nplease note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the american museum of natural history. we are not responsible for their content .\nfor access to available specimen data for this species, from over 350 scientific collections, go to vertnet .\ncopyright © 1998 - 2018, darrel frost and the american museum of natural history. all rights reserved .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd xhtml 1. 0 transitional / / en\n/ / urltoken\nadults are usually no bigger than 1cm (0. 3 inches) in length\nseven adorable species of frog - each smaller than a thumbnail - have been discovered in the brazilian atlantic rainforest .\nthe miniature frogs live on cloudy mountaintops in the isolated forests, making them vulnerable to threats such as climate change and deforestation .\nhas yellow skin and a green - and - brown stripe on its back .\nthey each come in a variety of flashy, bright colours, likely meant to warn predators of the neurotoxins in the frogs' skin .\nhoping that more of these frogs live in the southern part of the atlantic forest, researchers led by marcio pie of the universidade federal do paraná visited the rainforest in the states of parana and santa catarina .\n' although getting to many of the field sites is exhausting, there was always the feeling of anticipation and curiosity about what new species could look like', said professor pie .\nmeet' hellboy', the long - lost relative of triceratops with a ...\nwhat' s remarkable is not just their tiny size, but also their stunning markings .\nduring the course of their studies, researchers spotted one of these frogs piggybacking on another as part of the mating process, according to a report in livescience .\nthe frogs' are so diverse in their appearance because of their isolated, mountainous habitat. separated from other species, the frogs end up interbreeding in their own community, creating distinct markings that make them stand out from other frogs in the same genus\nthe frogs' are so diverse in their appearance because of their isolated, mountainous habitat .\nseparated from other species, the frogs end up interbreeding in their own community, creating distinct markings that make them stand out from other frogs in the same genus .\nluiz ribeiro, a research associate to the mater natura institute for environmental studies, is optimistic about the prospects for future studies .\n' this is only the beginning, especially given the fact that we have already found additional species that we are in the process of formally describing.'\ngunman blasts car driven by woman, 51, three times as she ...\n' this is what we call a miracle': baby boy is found alive ...\n' go back to your country': mexican grandfather, 92, is ...\n' this is the brexit that is in our national interest': ...\n# where' sboris? boris johnson' s stunning resignation as ...\nbeauty queen who was gang - raped as a teen gives back her ...\n' you wouldn' t look so good with your b * * * * * * s in your ...\nnew hair, don' t care! roseanne barr smiles as she debuts ...\nbody of canadian man, 62, is found half - eaten by his ...\n' it is made of rocket parts & named wild boar after kids' soccer team': elon musk shares footage of the ...\nchinese government start - up expands its plans to use powerful facial recognition technology to spy on ...\nbritain' s broadband speeds are so poor they are down to 35th in the world, lagging behind the likes of ...\nstarbucks will charge all uk customers a 5p paper cup levy in a bid to reduce waste as it reveals it will ...\nopen - plan offices make people chat less because employees stare at their screens in an effort to look busy ...\nfrom a lizardfish with male and female sex organs to the' deep sea dumpling', noaa reveals the weirdest ...\ngroundbreaking study using dna from 8, 000 - year - old skeletons reveals modern southeast asians descend from ...\ntwitter shares plunge after report says it has suspended 70 million fake accounts, fueling concerns around ...\napple launches ios 11. 4. 1 with' usb restricted mode' that prevents cops from cracking suspect' s iphones\nworld' s first floating nation begins selling its own' vayron' cryptocurrency ahead of 2022 launch in the ...\nbeing rich and successful really is in your dna: being dealt the right genes determines whether you get on ...\nthe pink planet: world' s oldest color pigments extracted from 1. 1 billion - year - old rocks deep beneath the ...\nrihanna has very tense exchange with hassan jameel on holiday in mexico... one month after singer' dumped saudi businessman'\nkristin cavallari and husband jay cutler list magnificent seven - bed nashville mansion for$ 7. 9m\nthe 19, 000 - square - foot home sits on 8. 5 acres\nkylie jenner flaunts new smaller pout... before making her lips bigger again with lipstick\nhailey baldwin confirms engagement to' incredible person' justin bieber... but has a condition for their highly - anticipated wedding\nkim kardashian shares cute video of daughter chicago... after the game said that she should run for president in 2020\nbritish boxer amir khan baffles fans as he points out' white stuff' on his nose while posing with 50 cent in la nightclub... before deleting the caption\ng - eazy turned away at canadian border and forced to cancel headlining gig... after cocaine arrest in sweden\n' you' re the love of my life... i' ll lead our family with honor': justin bieber confirms engagement and hints at baby fever while hailey flashes new band\nkylie jenner flashes underboob and her derriere in sheer orange ensemble... one day after revealing she took her lip filler out\nhailey baldwin' s ring from justin bieber is similar to blake lively' s $2m rock... and that may be because the model tweeted in 2012 she liked it\ntyra banks confirms life size 2 movie sequel starring francia raisa... as it appears lindsay lohan won' t return\nlucy hale flashes her toned midriff in a sports bra... as she remembers her grandma with new tattoo\nhailey baldwin and justin bieber passionately kiss in the bahamas... as news of engagement spreads\nselena gomez is seen with same mystery man she was with in may... after news her ex justin bieber is engaged to hailey baldwin\nkhloe kardashian reveals she stopped breast - feeding daughter true... three months after giving birth\ngiuliana rancic takes a hike with bill... as the couple vacation with friends ahead of her return to e! news\nkhloe kardashian shows off neon sign in true' s nursery... as she reveals it' s kris jenner' s handwriting\nciara and husband russell wilson dance as they head to south africa for their honeymoon... two years after wedding\nrapper del the funky homosapian falls off stage during gorillaz set... but he reassures fans he' s' alright' as he recovers in hospital\nmakeup artist joyce bonelli reaches out to the kardashian clan on instagram... after the famous family' fire' and unfollow her on social media\ndaddy daycare! jared kushner takes kids back to d. c. after weekend in new jersey - as ivanka dons a short dress for visit to a nyc asphalt company\nsofia richie, 19 poses in a bikini top just after scott disick' s ex kourtney kardashian, 39, did the same... and fans call her out for it\nnaomi campbell wows in flamboyant feathered gown... while ashley graham sizzles in plunging lace dress as they walk in dolce & gabbana show in italy\nnaya rivera sells her five - bedroom la home for a cool$ 3. 55 million after finalizing her divorce from ryan dorsey\nmel b' is unable to pay her back taxes amid ongoing divorce battle with stephen belafonte... as it' s estimated the pair owe up to $650k' to the irs\nkylie jenner rocks curve - clinging attire as she shows off body... and considers going back to blonde\ndakota johnson dons striped wrap dress in la... after calling co - star chris hemsworth' spectacular'\ncardi b hits back at troll who mocked her baby shower... as she shows off naked baby bump for photoshoot\nbuy your own celebrity hideaway! castle adored by michael douglas and jack nicholson goes on sale for$ 5. 2m (and even comes with treehouse )\nant - man and the wasp soars to $76 million on opening weekend... beating its prequel by$ 19 million\nliam payne and cheryl split: carefree 1d star returns to stage for first time since break - up... as he poses happily with his backing dancers in france\ntristan thompson goes house hunting alone as he checks out $2m property in la with its own basketball court... just minutes from khloe' s mansion\nchris hemsworth kicks off filming for the star - studded men in black spin - off as he cuts a sharp figure in london... 21 years after the first film hit screens\njill zarin admits she' s ready to date again after being spotted with handsome businessman... following beloved husband bobby' s death\ndj khaled cancels wireless performance due to' travel issues' just hours before his slot... as fans rage over his' vacation' snap\n13 reasons why villain justin prentice says he' s not bothered by social media trolls... and that getting attacked online means he' s doing his job as an actor\nfarm heroes saga, the # 4 game on itunes. play it now !\nit' s eye - wateringly expensive at$ 2, 999, but naim' s uniti atom is a revelation, an integrated amplifier than makes it easy to stream music at a quality you' ve probably never heard before .\nafter a day with the iphone x, while face id isn' t perfect, and the' notch' is an annoyance, the iphone x is a glimpse into the future of phones and the best handset of the market by a long way .\nthey aren' t cheap, but shinola' s $595 foray into headphones are the perfect accessory for design obsessives looking to upgrade their listening habits .\nwith the pixel xl, google has created a handset that is not only the best android device out there, but arguably matches the iphone 8 in terms of design and feel .\napple' s watch will free you from your phone - while making sure you don' t suffer the fear of missing out. it' s a huge step forward, and a compelling reason for the average user to buy a smartwatch .\nwhile the iphone x may have stolen the headlines, in fact the iphone 8 could be the sleeper hit of apple' s new range, offering the same power as the x but with features and a design users trust .\nwhile the design is impressive and easy to use, the game line up is disappointing .\nnaim' s incredible mu - so qb takes you back to the good old days - where the music captivates and enthralls, rather that simply being something in the background .\nit might not be a name familiar to the us market, but naim is a legendary british brand hoping to make a splash with the american launch of its$ 1499 mu: so speaker .\npeloton' s hi - tech bike lets you stream live and on demand rides to your home - and it' s one of the best examples of fitness technology out there - at a price .\nseven new species of miniature frogs, each fitting onto the tip of a thumb, have come out of hiding in the brazilian atlantic rainforest, scientists report in the journal peerj. the teeny - tiny frogs live on isolated mountaintops in cloud forests. here' s a look at the colorful cuties. [ read full story on the tiny frogs from brazil ]\nhas yellow skin and a dark green - and - brown stripe running down its back. it was discovered in october 2010 in the municipality of ilhota, state of santa catarina, southern brazil .\nsports yellow skin covered with dark spots (hence it' s\nleopardus\nspecies name) .\nduring part of their mating process called amlexus. the male climbs onto the female' s back and while piggybacking he fertilizes the eggs she releases into the water .\nwas found living in the leaf litter on the floor of patches of the cloud forest. the researchers spotted an adult male on oct. 29, 2012, at morro do cachorro, on the border between the municipalities of blumenau, gaspar, and luiz alves, state of santa catarina, southern brazil. this species is orange with darker, bumpy flanks .\nis the color of a greenish - brown olive. researchers collected an adult female of this species at the base of the serra queimada mountain in santa catarina' s municipality of joinville, on jan. 23, 2011 .\nsky islands\nin the southern brazilian atlantic forest. species evolve in isolation on these mountaintops, meaning most can be found only on one or two peaks .\nbefore becoming managing editor, jeanna served as a reporter for live science and urltoken for about three years. previously she was an assistant editor at scholastic' s science world magazine. jeanna has an english degree from salisbury university, a master' s degree in biogeochemistry and environmental sciences from the university of maryland, and a science journalism degree from new york university. follow jeanna on google + .\ndon' t sneeze - - you might blow away a newly discovered species .\nscientists have uncovered seven new species of teeny - tiny frogs, each smaller than a thumbnail, in the brazilian atlantic rainforest. the miniature frogs live on isolated mountaintops in the cloud forests .\nthe mountaintop habitats are like isolated islands, making the frogs vulnerable to threats such as climate change. illegal deforestation and cattle ranching also threaten the frogs' habitat, researchers report thursday in the journal peerj .\nthere, they discovered multiple new frog species, including the seven reported in their new paper. all of the frogs are less than 0. 4 inches (1 centimeter) long, and they come in a jellybeanlike array of bright colors. (the flashy hues are likely meant to warn predators of the neurotoxins in the frogs' skin, the researchers note. )\nthe frogs' mountainous habitat is key to their diversity. separated by valleys that the frogs cannot traverse, the pipsqueaks end up living in isolated communities, interbreeding until they evolve into completely separate species from the frogs a mountaintop over .\nthis is only the beginning ,\nstudy researcher luiz ribeiro of the mater natura institute for environmental studies said in a statement ,\nespecially given the fact that we have already found additional species that we are in the process of formally describing .\na group of\ntorrent frogs\nhas been documented using higher - pitched calls than most other frogs in the world .\nphoto: the frog huia cavitympanum, from the island of borneo, has evolved calls to be heard over the noise of rushing water. credit: professor t. ulmar grafe / university of brunei darussalam some frogs have evolved ultrasonic mating calls so they can be heard above the background rumble of the fast - flowing streams they depend on, say researchers .\nbiologist dr sandra goutte of sorbonne university in paris and her and colleagues studied the calls of a group of\ntorrent frogs\nin borneo, indonesia, malaysia, china and cambodia .\nthey discovered the frogs all had higher pitched calls than most other frogs in the world, and a few species even had ultrasonic calls .\nyou can see the frog calling but you cannot hear it ,\nsaid dr goutte, who carried out the research for her phd research .\nthe call of torrent frogs has most probably been constrained by the environment they live in - which is the torrents - that are really noisy .\nmale torrent frogs generally put out mating calls while sitting in vegetation next to fast - flowing streams. females lay their eggs on rocks and then the tadpoles thrive in the oxygen - rich waters nearby .\nthe problem is falling water makes a low pitched rumble of about 2 kilohertz that would mask the pitch of most frog mating calls, which are generally under 5 kilohertz .\ndr goutte and colleagues measured the call pitch of 70 species of torrent frogs, that range in size from 2 to 15 centimeters in body length .\nthey found that, on average, most of the frogs had calls that ranged between 4 and 10 kilohertz .\na few species had calls that consisted of frequency above 20 kilohertz, which is in the ultrasonic range, above the human range of hearing .\nfor example, the hole - in - the - head frog (huia cavitympanum), which is found in borneo, has purely ultrasonic calls .\nas a result we don' t hear anything, but the frogs do ,\nsaid dr goutte .\nwhile the large odorous frog (odorrana graminea), a species found in china, had partially ultrasonic calls .\nwe hear only a part of the call ,\nsaid dr goutte .\nco - author dr jodi rowley of the australian museum research institute said the calls of the large odorous frog vary in frequency from very low to extremely high - up to 44 kilohertz .\nthey' re much more like bird songs than most frog songs in their complexity and frequency modulation ,\nshe said .\nthere' s only a few other frogs known to call ultrasonically and they are all torrent dwelling .\nthe tiny amphibians live in mountain top regions in the southern brazilian atlantic rainforest that are extremely isolated. since their habitat is so limited they are extremely vulnerable to extinction. shown is the species\nfrogs in this genus have been known since the 1800s, but these seven species hadn' t previously been identified. these tiny frogs generally have three toes and two fingers, instead of the five toes and four fingers found in most frogs. all of the frogs are less than 0. 4 inches in length. they vary mostly in their skin color and texture. shown is the rough - skinned species\nthe frogs were all found living among leaves on the forest floor. their home - - cloud forests - - are highly sensitive to climatic changes .\nhas yellow skin with a greenish - brown stripe running down its back. the researchers believe there may be even more species of the frogs in the remote regions .\nthis is only the beginning, especially given the fact that we have already found additional species that we are in the process of formally describing ,\nsaid luiz ribeiro, a research associate to the mater natura institute for environmental studies, in a press release." ]
{ "text": [ "brachycephalus fuscolineatus is a species of frogs in the brachycephalidae family .", "it is very tiny and was one of seven new species described by lf ribeiro and a team of scientists from the mater natura - instituto de estudos ambientais in brazil .", "like all species in its genus , it is found in a very small strip of atlantic forest in the southeastern coast of the country , and has a vibrant colour pattern .", "the speciation seen in this genus is thought to be a byproduct of the rift between the valley versus mountain terrain and its particular microclimates , to which they are adapted .", "it might be in population decline due to habitat loss .", "its name is derived from the latin fuscus , meaning \" dark \" or \" swarthy \" , and lineatus , meaning \" of a line \" , alluding to the characteristic dark stripe across the dorsum of this species . " ], "topic": [ 29, 5, 23, 13, 17, 25 ] }
"brachycephalus fuscolineatus is a species of frogs in the brachycephalidae family. it is very tiny and was one of seven new species described by lf ribeiro and a team of scientists from the mater natura - instituto de estudos ambientais in brazil. like all species in its genus, it is found in a very small strip of atlantic forest in the southeastern coast of the country, and has a vibrant colour pattern. the speciation seen in this genus is thought to be a byproduct of the rift between the valley versus mountain terrain and its particular microclimates, to which they are adapted. it might be in population decline due to habitat loss. its name is derived from the latin fuscus, meaning " dark " or " swarthy ", and lineatus, meaning " of a line ", alluding to the characteristic dark stripe across the dorsum of this species."
[ "brachycephalus fuscolineatus is a species of frogs in the brachycephalidae family. it is very tiny and was one of seven new species described by lf ribeiro and a team of scientists from the mater natura - instituto de estudos ambientais in brazil. like all species in its genus, it is found in a very small strip of atlantic forest in the southeastern coast of the country, and has a vibrant colour pattern. the speciation seen in this genus is thought to be a byproduct of the rift between the valley versus mountain terrain and its particular microclimates, to which they are adapted. it might be in population decline due to habitat loss. its name is derived from the latin fuscus, meaning \" dark \" or \" swarthy \", and lineatus, meaning \" of a line \", alluding to the characteristic dark stripe across the dorsum of this species." ]
"animal-train-24"
"animal-train-24"
"2675"
"mylossoma duriventre"
{ "text": [ "mylossoma duriventre , the silver mylossoma , is a species of freshwater serrasalmid fish endemic to tropical and subtropical south america .", "it grows to a maximum length of about 25 cm ( 10 in ) and a weight of 1 kg ( 2.2 lb ) .", "it is the subject of a local fishery , being known as palu in brazil and palometa in venezuela ( names it shares with several relatives ) . " ], "topic": [ 22, 0, 15 ] }
"mylossoma duriventre, the silver mylossoma, is a species of freshwater serrasalmid fish endemic to tropical and subtropical south america. it grows to a maximum length of about 25 cm (10 in) and a weight of 1 kg (2.2 lb). it is the subject of a local fishery, being known as palu in brazil and palometa in venezuela (names it shares with several relatives)."
[ "mylossoma duriventre, the silver mylossoma, is a species of freshwater serrasalmid fish endemic to tropical and subtropical south america. it grows to a maximum length of about 25 cm (10 in) and a weight of 1 kg (2.2 lb). it is the subject of a local fishery, being known as palu in brazil and palometa in venezuela (names it shares with several relatives)." ]
"animal-train-25"
"animal-train-25"
"2676"
"bicyclus dentata"
[ "bicyclus ephorus weymer, 1892; stettin ent. ztg 53 (4 - 6): 79\nbicyclus auricruda; [ bow ]: pl. 115, f. 2; [ nhm card ]\nbicyclus anynana; [ bk ]: 271, pl. 29, f. 419; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus vansoni condamin, 1965; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 27: 1101\nbicyclus similis condamin, 1963; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 25: 902\nbicyclus sylvicolus condamin, 1961; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 23: 788\nbicyclus nachtetis condamin, 1965; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 27: 1104\nbicyclus maesseni condamin, 1970; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 32: 1071\nbicyclus xeneoides condamin, 1961; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 23: 791\nbicyclus howarthi condamin, 1963; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 25: 908\nbicyclus sambulos cyaneus condamin, 1961; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 23: 783\nbicyclus sambulos unicolor condamin, 1970; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 32: 1068\nbicyclus campina; [ bow ]: pl. 115, f. 3; [ nhm card ]; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus campinus carcassoni condamin, 1963; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 25: 1164\nbicyclus matuta idjwiensis condamin, 1965; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 27: 1440\nbicyclus sanaos melas condamin, 1965; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 27: 1442\nbicyclus sophrosyne overlaeti condamin, 1965; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 27: 1103\nbicyclus smithi eurypterus condamin, 1965; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 27: 1445\nbicyclus ignobilis acutus condamin, 1965; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 27: 1447\nbicyclus xeneas occidentalis condamin, 1965; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 27: 1108\nbicyclus trilophus jacksoni condamin, 1961; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 23: 796\nbicyclus saussurei angustus condamin, 1970; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 32: 1073\nbicyclus suffusa ituriensis condamin, 1970; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 32: 1076\n= bicyclus denina; lamas, 2010, shilap revta. lepid. 38 (150): (197 - 204 )\nbicyclus is a butterfly genus from the subfamily satyrinae in the family nymphalidae. the species are found in the afrotropical ecozone .\nbicyclus moyses condamin & fox, 1964; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 26: 629\nbicyclus ignobilis eurini condamin & fox, 1963; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 25: 1166\nbicyclus kenia; [ bafr ], 169; [ bk ]: 266, pl. 28, f. 403; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus mandanes; [ bafr ], 169; [ bk ]: 267, pl. 28, f. 404; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus vulgaris; [ bafr ], 170; [ bk ]: 267, pl. 28, f. 406; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus sandace; [ bafr ], 170; [ bk ]: 267, pl. 28, f. 407; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus ena; [ bafr ], 170; [ bk ]: 268, pl. 29, f. 409; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus buea; [ bafr ], 172; [ bk ]: 269, pl. 29, f. 411; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus golo; [ bafr ], 174; [ bk ]: 270, pl. 29, f. 416; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus safitza; [ afrl ]; larsen & vane - wright, 2012, shilap revta. lepid. 40 (157): 85\nbicyclus campus; [ bafr ], 178; [ bk ]: 271, pl. 29, f. 421; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus milyas; [ bafr ], 179; [ bk ]: 272, pl. 30, f. 423a; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus pavonis; [ bafr ], 179; [ bk ]: 272, pl. 30, f. 423; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus funebris; [ bafr ], 179; [ bk ]: 273, pl. 30, f. 424; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus sophrosyne sophrosyne; [ bafr ], 173; [ bk ]: 269, pl. 29, f. 413; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus smithi smithi; [ bafr ], 174; [ bk ]: 270, pl. 29, f. 415; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus xeneas; [ afrl ]; [ bow ]: pl. 117, f. 6 (text only); [ nhm card ]\nbicyclus safitza safitza; [ bafr ], 178; [ bk ]: 271, pl. 29, f. 420; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus mesogena mesogena; [ bafr ], 168 (text); [ bk ]: 266, pl. 28, f. 402; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus rileyi condamin, 1961; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 23: 792; tl: cameroun, bitje - ja\nbicyclus jefferyi; [ bk ]: 268, pl. 28, f. 408; [ nhm card ]; [ bafr ], 170; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus istaris; [ bk ]: 269, pl. 29, f. 412; [ nhm card ]; [ bafr ], 172; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus mollitia; [ nhm card ]; [ bafr ], 173; [ bk ]: 269, pl. 29, f. 414; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus saussurei angustus; [ nhm card ]; [ bafr ], 177; [ bk ]: 270, pl. 29, f. 418; [ afrl ]\nbicyclus taenias; [ bow ]: pl. 118, f. 2 (text only); [ nhm card ]; [ bafr ], 179; [ afrl ]\ndicothyris karsch, 1893; berl. ent. z. 38 (1 / 2): 203; ts: mycalesis sambulos hewitson\nw. nigeria, cameroun, gabon, congo republic, zaire, equatorial guinea. see [ maps ]\nhewitsonii nyongensis (birket - smith, 1960) (mycalesis); bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 22: 550\nephorus bergeri condamin, 1965; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 27: 1099\nmycalesis graueri rebel, 1914; ann. mus. wien. 28: 256\ns. nigeria - cameroun, gabon, fernando póo (macías nguema i .). see [ maps ]\nidiomorphus zinebi butler, 1869; ann. mag. nat. hist. (4) 3 (13): 19, pl. 9, f. 4; tl: gold coast\nkenya, e. zaire, uganda (toro). see [ maps ]\nmesogena mesogenina grünberg, 1912 ²; ergeb. dt. z. - afr. exped. 3 (zool. 1): 509\nmycalesis sambulos hewitson, 1877; ill. exot. butts [ 4 ] (mycalesis & idiomorphus): [ 65 ], pl. [ 34 ], f. 63 - 64; tl: gaboon\nc. kenya (highlands), loita, mau hills, n. tanzania, n. lake victoria, s. sudan. see [ maps ]\nmycalesis (?) kenia rogenhofer, 1891; ann. mus. wien 6 (3): 462, pl. 15, f. 8\nsenegal - w. kenya, tanzania (forests), uganda, zaire, gabon, angola. see [ maps ]\ngambia - angola, uganda, tanzania, w. kenya. see [ maps ]\nmycalesis tolosa plötz, 1880; stettin ent. ztg 41 (4 - 6): 197; tl: abo, aburi und victoria\nburundi, rwanda, tanzania, zaire, uganda, w. kenya. see [ maps ]\nmycalesis sandace hewitson, 1877; ill. exot. butts [ 4 ] (mycalesis & idiomorphus): [ 65 ], pl. [ 34 ], f. 65; tl: fernando po\nzululand - swaziland, e. transvaal, rhodesia - kenya, uganda. see [ maps ]\nmoçambique, rhodesia, zambia, zimbabwe - zaire, e. kenya. see [ maps ]\nrhodesia, mozambique, malawi, zambia, s. tanzania, s. zaire (shaba )\ne. tanzania (usambara mts. - iringa). see [ maps ]\nmycalesis albocincta rebel, 1914; ann. mus. wien. 28: 260, pl. 21, f. 33 - 34\nmycalesis neustetteri rebel, 1914; ann. mus. wien. 28: 257, pl. 21, f. 29 - 32\nmycalesis matuta karsch, 1894; ent. nachr. 20 (14 / 15): 228\nmycalesis persimilis joicey & talbot, 1921; bull. hill mus. 1 (1): 76, pl. 13, f. 38 - 40; tl: ruwenzori, western slopes\nw. tanzania (kungwe - mahale mts .). see [ maps ]\nmycalesis (monotrichtis) buea strand, 1912; archiv naturg. 77 (suppl. 4): 109; tl: buea; musake\nbrunnea (jackson, 1951) (monotrichtis); proc. r. ent. soc. lond. (b) 20: 97\nw. kenya, uganda, e. zaire, s. zaire. see [ maps ]\nmycalesis abnormis dudgeon, 1909; bull. ent. soc. lond. 1909: lii\nmycalesis fernandina schultze, 1914; ent. rundsch. 31 (9): 49; tl: fernando po\nsmithi poensis condamin, 1963; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 25: 906\nmycalesis technatis hewitson, 1877; ill. exot. butts [ 4 ] (mycalesis & idiomorphus): [ 66 ], pl. [ 34 ], f. 67; tl: gaboon\ne. nigeria - cameroun, gabon, congo republic. see [ maps ]\nmycalesis nobilis aurivillius, 1893; ent. tidskr. 14: 269, pl. 6, f. 1 - 2\nmycalesis ignobilis butler, 1870; trans. ent. soc. lond. 1870 (1): 124; tl: gold coast\nmycalesis alboplaga rebel, 1914; ann. mus. wien. 28: 257, pl. 21, f. 27 - 28\nmycalesis elionas hewitson, 1866; ill. exot. butts [ 4 ] (mycalesis vii - viii): [ 59 ], pl. [ 31 ], f. 41 - 42; tl: old calabar\nmycalesis dekeyseri condamin, 1958; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 20: 1348\nghana - cameroun, s. zaire (shaba), uganda. see [ maps ]\nmycalesis dubia aurivillius, 1893; ent. tidskr. 14: 270, f. 4\nzaire, uganda, rwanda, burundi, w. tanzania, kenya (montane). see [ maps ]\nburundi, rwanda, e. zaire (kivu), uganda, nw. tanzania, w. kenya (mt. elgon )\nmycalesis saussurei suffusa riley, 1921; trans. ent. soc. lond. 1921 (1 - 2): 240; tl: nw. rhodesia, solwezi\nrhodesia, moçambique, natal, swaziland - ethiopia, s. somalia, kenya, uganda, e. zaire, comoros, socotra. see [ maps ]\nmycalesis anynana var. neglecta thurau, 1903; berl. ent. z. 48: 119 [ dry - season ]\nkenya - tanzania, zambia, malawi, mozambique, rhodesia, botswana, s. africa, comoro is .\nanynana centralis condamin, 1968; bull. i. f. a. n. (a) 30: 603\nmycalesis safitza ab. semicoeca strand, 1910; soc. ent. 25 (2): 6; tl: usambara\nsw. tanzania (mpanda), zambia, malawi, n. rhodesia. see [ maps ]\nn. zambia, s. zaire (shaba), s. tanzania, w. tanzania. see [ maps ]\nsenegal - ethiopia, w. kenya - mozambique, zimbabwe. see [ maps ]\nw. africa, cameroun, c. a. r. , n. zaire, sudan, uganda, ethiopia\nmycalesis milyas hewitson, 1864; ill. exot. butts [ 4 ] (mycalesis v - vi): [ 57 ], pl. [ 30 ], f. 34; tl: white nile\nmycalesis pavonis butler, 1876; ann. mag. nat. hist. (4) 18: 481; tl: abyssinia\nfunebris orientalis (ungemach, 1932) (mycalesis); mém. soc. sci. nat. phys. maroc 32: 50\nguinea, sierra leone - gabon, c. zaire (kasai). see [ maps ]\nmycalesis uniformis bethune - baker, 1908; ann. mag. nat. hist. (8) 2 (12): 470; tl: makala - beni\nmycalesis hyperanthus bethune - baker, 1908; ann. mag. nat. hist. (8) 2 (12): 469; tl: makala; beni - mawambe\nnigeria, cameroun - gabon, congo republic, c. zaire. see [ maps ]\nmycalesis sciathis hewitson, 1866; ill. exot. butts [ 4 ] (mycalesis vii - viii): [ 62 ], pl. [ 32 ], f. 55 - 56; tl: old calabar\nguinea - nigeria, zaire, w. uganda (bwamba). see [ maps ]\nmycalesis feae aurivillius, 1910; ann. mus. stor. nat. genova (3) 4 / 44: 516; tl: moca, 1400m\nmycalesis analis aurivillius, 1895; ent. tidskr. 16: 113, f. 1; tl: camerun, yaunde\nmycalesis mildbraedi gaede, 1915; int. ent. zs. 9 (13): 71; tl: bezirk jaunde, cameroons\nmycalesis kenia var. inocellata gaede, 1915; ent. rundsch. 32: 50; tl: kitumu, s. kenya\nmycalesis (monotrichtis) hintzi strand, 1912; archiv naturg. 77 (suppl. 4): 110; tl: musake\nmycalesis campides strand, 1912; archiv naturg. 77 (suppl. 4): 110\nmycalesis owassae schultze, 1914; ent. rundsch. 31 (9): 49; tl: o - wassa, fernando - poo\nmycalesis noblemairei janet, 1894; bull. soc. ent. fr. 1894: cclvi; tl: french congo, niari\nmycalesis langi holland, 1920; bull. am. mus. nat. hist. 43 (6): 139, pl. 10, f. 10 (preocc. mycalesis langi de nicéville, 1883); tl: congo\nmycalesis erysichton ehrmann, 1894; j. n. y. ent. soc. 2: 77; tl: piquinini sess, liberia, west africa\nmycalesis eleutheria rebel, 1911; ann. mus. wien. 24: 412, pl. 14, f. 7 - 8\nmycalesis completa gaede, 1915; int. ent. zs. 9 (13): 71; tl: bezirk jaunde, cameroon\nmycalesis chapini holland, 1920; bull. am. mus. nat. hist. 43 (6): 140, pl. 7, f. 9; tl: congo\nmycalesis benitonis strand, 1913; archiv naturg. 79 a (7): 147; tl: alen\nmycalesis bibundensis strand, 1913; archiv naturg. 79 a (7): 148; tl: w. africa, bibundi in kamerun\nmycalesis subignobilis strand, 1913; archiv naturg. 79 a (7): 149; tl: spanish guinea, alen\nchecklist of afrotropical papilionoidea and hesperoidea; compiled by mark c. williams, 7th ed. (2008) (april 2007) ;\n[ ² ] this may require parentheses or not. i don' t have the necessary information for this taxon .\nverzeichniss einer von dem herren missionären e. laman und w. sjöholm bei mukinbungu am unteren congo zu sammengebrachten schmetterlings sammlung\nzoological results of the swedish expedition to central africa 1921. insecta 12. lepidoptera 1\nresults from the danish expedition to the french cameroons (1949 - 1950) xxvii. - lepidoptera\non lepidoptera recently collected in british east africa by mr. g. f. scott elliot\ndescription d' une espèce nouvelle de mycalesis (lep satyridae) (mission p. l. dekeyser et b. holas au libéria, 1948 )\nthe genera of diurnal lepidoptera, comprising their generic characters, a notice of their habitats and transformations, and a catalogue of the species of each genus; illustrated with 86 plates by w. c. hewitson\ndescriptions of some new species of diurnal lepidoptera, collected by mr. harold cookson, in northern rhodesia, in 1903 and 1904\nreise der österreichischen fregatte novara um die erde in den jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den behilfen des commodore b. von wüllerstorf - urbair. zoologischer theil. band 2. abtheilung 2. lepidoptera. rhopalocera\n- 120, (inhalts - verz .) 1 - 9 (pl. 1 - 74), (felder & rogenhofer, 1874), (5): pl .\na list of the butterflies collected by mr. william bonny on the journey with mr. stanley from yambuya on the aruwimi river through the great forest of central africa; with descriptions of nine new species\nillustrations of new species of exotic butterflies selected chiefly from the collections of w. wilson saunders and william c. hewitson\na list of butterflies taken on the march to coomassie by lieutenant alwin s. bell, of the 2nd west - india regiment, between mansu and the river prah, with description of new species\nlepidoptera of the congo. being a systematic list of the butterflies and moths collected by the american museum of natural history congo expedition together with descriptions of some hitherto undescribed species\nnotes on some new or rare rhopalocera from eastern africa. revisional notes and descriptions of some new east african rhopalocera .\nnew lepidoptera collected by mr. t. a. barns, in east central africa. new forms of rhopalocera\ninsekten von baliburg (deutch - westafrika) gesammelt von herrn dr. eugen zintgraff\ndie insecten der berglandschaft adeli im hinterlande von togo (westafrika). 1. abtheilung: apterygota, odonata, orthoptera saltatoria, lepidoptera rhopalocera\nverzeichniss der von professor dr. r. bucholz in west - africa gesammelten schmetterlinge\nwissenschaftliche ergebnisse der expedition r. grauernach. zentralafrika. 1909 - 1911. lepidoptera\ndescriptions of two new species of lepidoptera collected by dr. w. j. ansorge in east africa\na list of the lepidoptera collected by mr. arthur h. neumann, in neumann, a. h. , elephant hungting in east equatorial africa in neumann ,\nneue tagfalter - formen aus usambara, gesammelt von herrn prof. dr. j. vosseler\nzoologische ergebnisse der expedition des herrn g. tessmann nach sud - kamerun und spanisch - guinea. lepidoptera\nneue rhopaloceren aus ost afrika. ergebnisse der nyassa - see - un kenya - gebirgs - expedition der hermann und elise geb. heckmann - wentzel - stiftung\ncontribution à l' étude des lépidoptères d' abyssinie (pt. 1, rhopalocères )\nweymer, 1892 exotische lepidopteren vi stettin ent. ztg 53 (4 - 6): 79 - 125\nif you have corrections, comments or information to add into these pages, just send mail to markku savela keep in mind that the taxonomic information is copied from various sources, and may include many inaccuracies. expert help is welcome .\neol content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. as a result, from time to time you may find pages on eol that are confusing .\nto request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. thank you !\n© 2016, butterfly conservation society, ghana - african butterfly research institute - icom ltd .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd xhtml 1. 0 transitional / / en\nurltoken\nwarning: the ncbi web site requires javascript to function. more ...\nformat summary genbank genbank (full) fasta asn. 1 xml insdseq xml tinyseq xml feature table accession list gi list gff3\nopens the highlight feature bar and highlights feature annotations from the features table of the record. the highlight feature bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. links in the features table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. more ...\nfinds sub - sequences or patterns in the sequence and highlights the matching regions. the tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match prosite patterns in protein sequences. more ...\nfinds sub - sequence or patterns in the sequence and highlights the matching region. the tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match prosite patterns in protein sequences. more ...\nthis article is issued from wikipedia - version of the 7 / 18 / 2016. the text is available under the creative commons attribution / share alike but additional terms may apply for the media files." ]
{ "text": [ "bicyclus dentata , the dentate bush brown , is a butterfly in the nymphalidae family .", "it is found in western and central kenya , western uganda , tanzania , rwanda , burundi and the democratic republic of the congo .", "the habitat consists of semi-montane and montane forests .", "adults are attracted to fermenting fruit . " ], "topic": [ 21, 20, 24, 8 ] }
"bicyclus dentata, the dentate bush brown, is a butterfly in the nymphalidae family. it is found in western and central kenya, western uganda, tanzania, rwanda, burundi and the democratic republic of the congo. the habitat consists of semi-montane and montane forests. adults are attracted to fermenting fruit."
[ "bicyclus dentata, the dentate bush brown, is a butterfly in the nymphalidae family. it is found in western and central kenya, western uganda, tanzania, rwanda, burundi and the democratic republic of the congo. the habitat consists of semi-montane and montane forests. adults are attracted to fermenting fruit." ]
"animal-train-26"
"animal-train-26"
"2677"
"sea cucumber as food"
[ "sea cucumber in desserts, soaps move over konnyaku jelly as the famed sea cucumber from noto sea worms in .\nthe scale worm arctonoe pulchra may occur as a commensal on the red sea cucumber .\nwhitehouse mw, fairlie dp. anti - inflammatory activity of a holothurian (sea cucumber) food supplement in rats .\nthe enhancements will enable the company to increase the capacity of its cucumber - drying operation as well and undergo the canadian food inspection agency accreditation process .\nadditional information about sea cucumber management can be found on our commercial sea cucumber dive fisheries webpage .\nsome believe that the white sea cucumber possesses healing powers that can cure diseases such as cancer .\na caesar salad has layers of saltiness, from anchovies and cheese, as well as salt .\nsaito m, kunisaki n, urano n. collagen as the major edible component of sea cucumber .\nevaluating rotational harvest strategies for sea cucumber fisheries. an mse of the qld east coast sea cucumber fishery .\nsea cucumbers are not only rich in vitamins and minerals, but can also be a great food source .\nfood and agriculture organization of the united nations; rome, italy: 2004. advances in sea cucumber aquaculture and management; p. 425 .\nif you' re mad about japanese food or in the food and beverage business, you are likely to be captivated by this exhibition showcasing products from nearly every corner of japan .\nfood and agriculture organization of the united nations; rome: 2004. pp. 163–171 .\nchen j. overview of sea cucumber farming and sea ranching practices in china .\noverfishing of sea cucumbers may be a modern problem, though the fishery itself is more than 1, 200 years old. sea cucumbers have been harvested since as early as 800 ce. in the 1700s, indonesians traveled as far as australia to harvest sea cucumbers for trade with chinese merchants .\nfrom the modern medical viewpoint, sea cucumber is a valuable source of several kinds of substances that can serve as natural health products, and, perhaps, be developed as drugs. since sea cucumber is consumed as a food by a very small segment of the population outside east asia, most people do not have access to its beneficial components. thus, extracts of desired sea cucumber materials are put into easy - to - consume formats, such as capsules (hard and soft gelatin) and tablets .\nyaacob hb, kim kh, shahimi m, aziz ns, sahil sm. malaysian sea cucumber (gamat): a prospect in health food and therapeutic. proceeding of asian food technology seminar; kuala lumpur, malaysia. 6–7 october 1997; p. 6 .\nfrom the nutritional viewpoint, sea cucumber is an ideal tonic food. it is higher in protein (at 55 %) than most any other food except egg whites (at 99 %) and it has 10 - 16% mucopolysaccharides, substances that are used to build the cartilage. sea cucumber is lower in fat than most other foods .\nit can grow up to 7 feet long and has small tentacles around its mouth that bring in food .\ngreen tea is not only a popular tea but also a popular ingredient used in many food items nowadays .\na fruit jam made with white fungus (l) and milk pudding and porridge, both made with sea cucumber, are among the dazzling array of items in japan food 2016 .\nchosen as a symbol of the united states in 1782, the bald eagle represents virtues such as strength, courage, and freedom .\nwhich have many applications in pharmaceutical industry and also the cosmetics [ and food industry ] ,\nhe said .\nthe sea cucumber is an oblong shaped, gelatinous creature that is distantly related to starfish and sea urchins. the sea cucumber comes by its name honestly: it is indeed shaped like a cucumber. in fact, you could say it has a distinctly phallic appearance, which may account for its reputation as an aphrodisiac. another distinguishing feature is the tentacles around its mouth, which it uses to take in food .\n. the newly studied molecules were able to stimulate nerve cell growth in rat cells in the laboratory. the researchers revealed that similar molecules are also present in nine other species of the sea cucumber, as well as the eggs of sea urchins [\nif sea cucumber fishing resumes, you can say goodbye to the fish, the penguins and the flightless cormorants ,\nwarned dr. blanton, director of the charles darwin research station here, referring to the sea cucumber' s essential position in local food chains .\nas sea cucumbers are important for the health of lagoons, several south pacific countries have closed sea cucumber fisheries to protect stocks in recent years. (photo by jeff yonover )\ndescribed below are the important biological attributes and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers as given in the literature .\nfisheries experts say that as far as they know, there has been no sustainable harvesting of sea cucumbers for at least 50 years. citing experiences on other pacific islands, conservationists predict that the sea cucumber population here would not recuperate after intensive harvesting .\nin japan, the insides of sea cucumbers are treated as separate food items called konowata. they are served on gunkan, which is a type of sushi. others prefer to pickle it. the naamako chaburi is a sea cucumber that has been marinated in tea and then served with vinegar on it .\nas far as we know, previously no comprehensive review article as such has ever been published covering the detailed nutritional, medicinal and pharmacological aspects of sea cucumbers. this review is an attempt to mainly compile an inclusive report covering the description of high - value components and bioactives as well as biological and medicinal properties of these multipurpose marine invertebrates, as one of the potential sources for functional foods and nutraceuticals. an updated overview of the distribution, fishery and trade of sea cucumbers is also presented, worldwide .\nthe chinese name for sea cucumber - hai shen - translates roughly into\nsea ginseng .\nit & apos; s unclear whether this is in recognition of the sea cucumber & apos; s reputation as an aphrodisiac, or because it is considered to be quite healthful. it may also have something to do with its slippery feel, as the texture of food weights more heavily in chinese cooking than other cuisines. in any event, the chinese have been harvesting sea cucumbers for centuries .\nthe color of a sea cucumber will depend on which species it belongs to .\n“the export market for wild sea cucumber species is expected to grow, ” said david moore, president of the canada sea cucumber processors association in a statement .\nfindlay ja, daljeet a, moharir ye. some constituents of the sea cucumber\nsea cucumbers are animals that live on the ocean floor and is a popular japanese food. the japanese and chinese people tend to like them because of their unique texture, but most westerners have a hard time eating this type of sea creatures. the same goes for the sea urchin, they are both considered the strangest food to eat for many .\nthere are various sub - species of sea cucumbers. some of them are harvested for food while others for medicinal purposes. also sea cucumbers have many health benefits, click here to read more .\nsea cucumber, having a cartilagenous body, serves as a rich source of mucopolysaccharides, mainly chondroitin sulfate, which is well - known for its ability to reduce arthritis pain, especially that of osteoarthritis as little as 3 grams per day of the dried sea cucumber has been helpful in significantly reducing arthralgia. chondroitin' s action is similar to that of glucosamine sulfate, the main building block of chondroitin .\n1st ed. blackwell publishing; oxford, uk: 2006. an overview of dietary supplements and functional food; pp. 1–35 .\nfood and agriculture organization of the united nations; rome, italy: 1990. p. 143. fao fisheries technical paper 2722 .\nuthicke s, purcell s. preservation of genetic diversity in restocking of the sea cucumber\nmojica ere, merca fe. lectin from the body walls of black sea cucumber (\nyamana y, hamano t, goshima s. seasonal distribution pattern of adult sea cucumber\nzhang s, yi y, tang h. bioactive triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber\nwhat they can’t do is flee. all fishers need to start plucking them from the seafloor is a bucket. at the same time, they have a powerful incentive to harvest as many as they can. dried sea cucumber can sell for as much as us $100 per kilogram, koike notes. “it’s a highly lucrative fishery, ” she says. “it’s equivalent to abalone or shark fin. ”\nsilchenko as, avilov sa, kalinin vi, kalinovsky ai, dmitrenok ps, fedorov sn, stepanov vg, dong z, stonik va. constituents of the sea cucumber\nhawa i, zulaikah m, jamaludin m, zainal abidin aa, kaswandi ma, ridzwan bh. the potential of the coelomic fluid of sea cucumber as an antioxidant .\none of the sea cucumber saponins, representative of the structures commonly found in these organisms .\nliu hh, ko wc, hu ml. hypolipidemic effect of glycosaminoglycans from the sea cucumber\ncollin pd. inhibition of angiogenesis by sea cucumber fractions. 5, 985, 330 .\nyang said they could not precisely estimate the white sea cucumber' s market price in future, due to the uncertainty of the animals' nutrition and health as they develop .\nlawrence aj, afifi r, ahmed m, khalifa s, paget t. bioactivity as an options value of sea cucumbers in the egyptian red sea .\na question - and - answer sheet provided by atlantic sea cucumber ltd. says the resource has an enormous market in eastern and southeast asia where it is viewed as a delicacy .\n“innovative canadian processors are developing and positioning sea cucumber products for wholesale and retail customers globally. ”\nconand c, byrne m. a review of recent developments in the world sea cucumber fisheries .\njian j, bao - ling y. studies on resources and bioactive substances of sea cucumber .\n) report that there has been no recovery in catch levels or catch rates of commercial fisheries since that time, but their analysis does not include collection fisheries, such as sea cucumber .\nrepresented at the annual food japan show at suntec city convention centre are 300 exhibitors offering a collective guide to the wide - ranging specialties from 40 prefectures .\nfollow nyt food on facebook, instagram, twitter and pinterest. get regular updates from nyt cooking, with recipe suggestions, cooking tips and shopping advice .\nthe asian demand for sea cucumber has been so high that these have been collected from the u. s. and other countries (e. g. , australia, philipines) to get an adequate supply. the atlantic sea cucumber, cucumaria frondosa, has been collected primarily for food, but has recently been researched as a source of medicinal components, thanks to the efforts of coastside bio resources in maine, headed by peter collin .\nsome defend themselves by excreting a chemical known as holothurin. this chemical is not harmful to humans but it’s toxic to other sea - life creatures within the area. one particular predator of the sea cucumber is the haddock fish .\nthese marine invertebrates play many roles, from bottom - dwelling filter feeders to illicit delicacies. sea cucumbers are farmed and imported in large numbers in asia, where their demand as food has fueled a thriving black market. (find out why smuggling of this ocean creature may skyrocket. )\ncollin pd. process for obtaining medically active fractions from sea cucumber. 5, 876, 762 .\nfu x, cui z. anti - fatigue effects of lower polypeptide from sea cucumber on mice .\nfood and agriculture organization of the united nations; rome, italy: 2007. [ accessed on 18 may 2011 ]. capture production 1950–2005. available online :\nalthough there are many cultured and harvestable sea cucumber species, but around 20 species are reported with relatively high economic and food value. sea cucumbers, usually processed into a dried product know as “bêche - de - mer”, are valued as an important seafood, particularly in asian countries. commercially, the product “bêche - de - mer” can be graded into low, medium or high economic value depending upon several aspects such as species, appearance, abudance, color, odor, thickness of the body wall, and market trends and demands [ 23 ]. they are widely consumed by people in china, japan and south asia [ 70 ]. as a food commodity and medicinal cure, sea cucumbers are famous as bêche - de - mer or trepang over many centuries. they are valued as a nutritious dish among the aboriginal people of south east aisa [ 7, 20 ]. from nutritional view - point, sea cucumbers are ideal tonic and have an impressive profile of high - value nutrients such as vitamin a, vitamin b1 (thiamine), vitamin b2 (riboflavin), vitamin b3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc [ 22, 53 ] .\nas well as being able to load content faster than ever before, you' ll now find it' s much easier to find all the content you need about the asian business world .\nthe pacific sea cucumber (stichopus species and other members of the family holothurioidea) has been revered by chinese cooks since ancient times. in particular, sea cucumber meals have been offered on special occasions, especially new year celebrations. an ancient confucian recipe, translated roughly as\nthe eight immortals crossing the sea\nand made with sea cucumber, shark' s fin, and 5 kinds of fish and shellfish, is one of the classic banquet dishes. the sea cucumber is valued - along with several other delicacies, such as shark' s fin, ginseng, cordyceps, and tremella - as a disease preventive and longevity tonic. it was listed as a medicinal agent in the bencao congxin (new compilation of materia medica) by wu yiluo in 1757. the popular chinese name for sea cucumber is haishen, which means, roughly, ginseng of the sea. it is often known in medical literature as fangcishen (fang = four - sided, ci = thorny; referring to the spiky protrusions that emanate from four sides) or, in abbreviated form, fangshen .\nfield guide to the echinoderms (sea cucumbers and sea stars) of malaysia .\nusage of by - products in food to improve their health promoting properties is a potential field. in this case, isolation and production of compounds from sea cucumber, in high class purity, could lead to develop functional foods. it has been proven that by - products from echinoderms as well as sea cucumbers contain considerable amounts of different nutritiously important components. therefore, efforts should be devoted to explore the potential uses of sea cucumber - based biological wastes for value - addition. the magnitude / volume of sea cucumbers currently in use for medicinal, pharmaceutical, cosmoceutical and nutraceutical purposes is still not reflected in the literature and needs to be documented .\nsea cucumber harvested in the wild off nova scotia have a higher value than product farmed in asia as it is said to have more flavour, better texture, and a higher protein and nutrient content .\nsea cucumbers are one of the marine animals which are important as human food source, particularly in some parts of asia [ 7 ]. they are usually soft - bodied echinoderms comprising a diverse group of flexible, elongated, worm - like organisms, with a leathery skin and gelatinous body, looking like a cucumber. habitually, they tend to live on the sea floor in deep seas [ 8 ] .\nsoaring demand for the sea cucumber, a seabed dwelling invertebrate also known as beche - de - mer and trepang, is driving record prices in china' s luxury food market. one species, the pacific sandfish, was selling recently in hong kong for$ 1, 668 a kilo, while the japanese spiky sea cucumber can go for $2, 950 a kilo. other species sell for between$ 15 and $385 a kilo, depending on size and condition .\ntremblay, , sylvie .\nthe benefits of sea cucumber\nlast modified june 26, 2018. urltoken\ncollin pd. tissue fraction of sea cucumber for the treatment of inflammation. 5, 770, 205 .\nhamel jf, mercier a. early development, settlement, growth, and spatial distribution of the sea cucumber\nsun p, yi yh, li l, tang hf. studies on chemical constituents from the sea cucumber\nwu p, chen y, fang j, su w. studies on the chemical constituents from sea cucumber\ndolmatova ls, eliseikina mg, romashina vv. antioxidant enzymatic activity of coelomocytes of the far east sea cucumber\nin addition to being caught for food, sea cucumbers are prized for medicinal purposes. one study found that a protein extracted from a sea cucumber slowed the growth of the malaria parasite. it is also said that the animals can help cure impotence and increase longevity, but there is little evidence to support these claims .\nmany asian stores also carry dried sea cucumber, which resembles a piece of dried cement (fortunately it & apos; s not as heavy !) it also needs to be soaked for several hours before cooking .\nmost cultures in east and southeast asia consider the cucumbers as a delicacy. quite a number of dishes can be prepared with sea cucumbers. some of the most common ingredients that go with sea cucumber dishes include dried scallop, shitake mushroom and chinese cabbage .\n) is widely used in fisheries as a decision support tool for evaluating the consequences of a range of management strategies, while acknowledging system uncertainty. briefly, it involves developing a model to describe the fishery, with a focus on identification and modeling of uncertainties as well as portraying different representations of resource dynamics (\nprofessor mair was part of a recent south australian government trip to china where he visited huge sea cucumber farms .\nkumar r, chaturvedi ak, shuklab pk, lakshmia v. antifungal activity in triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber\nrodriguez j, castro r, riguera r. holothurinosides: new antitumor non sulphated triterpenoid glycosides from the sea cucumber\nthere are a series of other bioactive and antiagent substances in sea cucumbers, such as triterpene glycosides, enzymes, amyloses, fatty acids, cytotoxins, etc. with potential capabilities to increase immunity, resist tumor and cruor, protect nerve tissue, ease pain and resist epiphyte as well as contribute to immunopotentiation, anticancer and anticoagulation [ 71, 76 ] .\nthere are several other studies being conducted with the sea cucumber. a patent has been submitted for the process of centrifuging collagen from sea - cucumber flesh into layers to be used in artificial corneal transplants, and the connective tissue of sea cucumbers might be perfect as replacements for torn tendons in humans. even certain cells, believed to be responsible for the regenerative healing process of the sea cucumber, are being isolated and tested to see if they can help speed up our own healing .\nit is a common species distributed from mexico to southeast alaska and has been observed at least as far west and north as the alaska peninsula, aleutian islands, and bering sea. the abundance of sea cucumbers in southeast alaska is greatest in the southern and western portions in protected bays and inlets .\nsylvie tremblay holds a master of science in molecular and cellular biology and has years of experience as a cancer researcher and neuroscientist. based in ontario, canada, tremblay is an experienced journalist and blogger specializing in nutrition, fitness, lifestyle, health and biotechnology, as well as real estate, agriculture and clean tech .\n“with the opening of our new plant in hackett’s cove, we’re pleased to be contributing to the vitality and growth of the sea cucumber processing industry in nova scotia. sea cucumbers from cold atlantic waters are a high - calibre export and we’re committed to educating asian consumers on their many merits as we grow these markets, ” said sam gao, ceo of atlantic sea cucumber ltd .\nwhen first caught, sea cucumber requires an extensive amount of preparation before making the transition from the ocean floor to your dinner plate. the complicated procedure takes place over several days and involves slitting open the belly and removing the guts, as well as washing and boiling the animal several times. fresh sea cucumber that has already been cleaned and soaked is sometimes available in asian markets, usually in the cold foods section or in containers of water .\nsea cucumber can be tricky to prepare. it' s mild flavor and fishy scent mean you' ll need to work with other ingredients to balance its flavors. start small by including some rehydrated and thoroughly cleaned sea cucumber in noodle soup, adding shiitake mushrooms, bok choi and chili oil for well - rounded flavor. as you get more experienced cooking with sea cucumber, try using it to make sushi, or braising it with your favorite vegetables .\npurcell sw, et al. sea cucumber fisheries: global analysis of stocks, management measures and drivers of overfishing .\nafter a yearlong moratorium on sea cucumber fishing, the controversy flared anew in september, when trade ministry officials recommended that ecuador' s president, sixto duran ballen, allow a six - month annual harvesting season for the sea cucumber .\nmojica ere, merca fe. isolation and partial characterization of a lectin from the internal organs of the sea cucumber (\nchludil hd, muniain cc, seldes am, maier ms. cytotoxic and antifungal triterpene glycosides from the patagonian sea cucumber\nzhong y, ahmad khan m, shahidi f. compositional characteristics and antioxidant properties of fresh and processed sea cucumber (\nkalinin vi, silchenko as, avilov sa, stonik va, smirnov av. sea cucumbers triterpene glycosides, the recent progress in structural elucidation and chemotaxonomy .\nthere are hundreds of varieties of sea cucumber found in oceans throughout the world. depending on where you travel, you & apos; ll find it called everything from the romantic sounding beche de mer to the somewhat less attractive sea rat. it is also sometimes referred to as a sea slug, somewhat confusing since the real sea slug is another animal entirely .\naccording to analysis by principles of traditional chinese medicine, the sea cucumber nourishes the blood and vital essence (jing), tonifies kidney qi (treats disorders of the kidney system, including reproductive organs), and moistens dryness (especially of the intestines). it has a salty quality and warming nature. common medicinal uses of sea cucumber in china include treating: weakness, impotence, debility of the aged, constipation due to intestinal dryness, and frequent urination. the sea cucumber properties may be compared with certain other common chinese tonics that are used in food therapy, such as cordyceps (dongchong xiacao; which tonifies yang and is less moistening) and tremella (yiner; which nourishes yin and is moistening, but is less effective as a blood tonic). for yin and blood deficiency, especially manifesting as intestinal dryness, sea cucumber is combined with tremella to make a soup. for impotence, frequent urination, and other signs of kidney deficiency, sea cucumber is cooked with mutton. for nourishing essence and blood in persons who suffer from emaciation, it is combined in soup with pork .\nmarukome, a popular miso paste brand, has revealed the secrets of restaurants to the public with two food marinades made with fermented rice and / or soy beans called' koji' .\nbesides, the main trade for the food purposes, there are perhaps hundreds of thousands of sea cucumbers that are marketed for aquarium industry; however information on species, their exact quantities and source countries are rarely available [ 12 ] .\nantonov as, avilov sa, kalinovsky ai, anastyuk sd, dmitrenok ps, kalinin vi, taboada s, bosh a, avila c, stonik va. triterpene glycosides from antarctic sea cucumbers. 2. structure of achlioniceosides a1, a2, and a3 from the sea cucumber\ngelcich s, et al. territorial user rights for fisheries as ancillary instruments for marine coastal conservation in chile .\nkaswandi ma, hing hl, sahalan az, farah f, ridzwan bh, samsudin mw, yasin msm, ali am. saponin from sea cucumber stichopus badionotus sluiter as potential cytotoxic agent on cem - ss t - lymphoblastic cell .\ndrazen jc, phleger cf, guest ma, nichols pd. lipid, sterols and fatty acid composition of abyssal holothurians and ophiuroids from the north - east pacific ocean: food web implications .\nmuniai c, centurion r, careaga vp, maier ms. chemical ecology and bioactivity of triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber\nkalinin vi, aminin dl, avilov sa, silchenko as, stonik va. triterpene glycosides from sea cucucmbers (holothurioidea, echinodermata). biological activities and functions .\nboris johnson has resigned as british foreign minister. look back on his outlandish stunts and undiplomatic moments with our quiz .\nhamaguchi p, geirsdottir m, vrac a, kristinsson hg, sveinsdottir h, fridjonsson oh, hreggvidsson go. in vitro antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of icelandic sea cucumber (cucumaria frondosa). presented at ift 10 annual meeting & food expo; chicago, il, usa. 17–20 july 2010; presentation no. 282–04 .\nmost of the currently available functional foods and therapeutic agents are derived either directly or indirectly from naturally occurring sources, especially, the terrestrial food plants and marine species [ 2 – 4 ]. due to the rich oceanic biodiversity, marine organisms are valuable sources of nutritious foods as well as represent novel reservoirs of biologically active components, in particular bioactive peptides, and antimicrobial, anti - inflammatory and anticancer agents [ 4 – 6 ] .\nalthough it is mainly a trade exhibition (oct 27 - 28), it is open to the public on saturday (oct 29 - till 4. 30pm). just like in big japanese food fairs for consumers, you' re likely to chance upon surprising products such as common foods with a quirky twist .\nto prepare the sea cucumber after it is collected, the internal organs are removed, and dirt and sand are washed out of the cavity. it is then boiled in salty water and dried in the air to preserve it. when readied for use in making food, the hard, dried sea cucumber is softened. the process is quite lengthy, which is why this food tends to appear at special dinners and banquets more so than in day - to - day cuisine. to soften the dried sea cucumbers, the instructions are: place the sea cucumbers in a pot and add cold water to cover; soak for at least 12 hours; then cook over low heat for 1 to 2 hours; add more water, as necessary, to make sure that the water always covers the cucumbers; remove from heat and let cool to room temperature, then drain .\ntremblay, , sylvie .\nthe benefits of sea cucumber .\nhealthy eating | sf gate, urltoken 26 june 2018 .\na new processing plant at hackett’s cove will allow nova scotia to grab a bigger share of the lucrative asian sea cucumber market .\nhan h, yi y, xu q, la m, zhang h. two new cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber\nwu m, xu s, zhao j, kang h, ding h. free - radical depolymerization of glycosaminoglycan from sea cucumber\nsu y, liu s, wu c. optimization of the preparation procedure and the antioxidant activity of polypeptide from sea cucumber .\nas officials and conservationists soon found out, hawai‘i was only the latest in a long string of coastal communities hit hard by a global sea cucumber fishery that has grown into a voracious, fast - moving, highly organized—and, at times, devastating—industry .\naside from the sea cucumbers themselves, the fishers may be the most vulnerable actors in the supply chain. while harvesting sea cucumbers may start out as an easy and lucrative operation, it doesn’t stay that way for long .\nan earlier version of this article mischaracterized maldon sea salt. it is not a solar sea salt .\nshe said globally, cucumaria frondosa — the main species of sea cucumber harvested off nova scotia — has been serially depleted through overfishing .\npurcell sw. managing sea cucumber fisheries with an ecosystem approach. in: lovatelli a, vasconcellos m, yimin y, editors .\nthe california sea cucumber, found from alaska to california, is one of 66 species harvested worldwide. photo by stuart westmorland / corbis\nsan miguel - ruiz je, garcía - arrarás je. common cellular events occur during wound healing and organ regeneration in the sea cucumber\nmurray ap, muniaín c, seldes am, maier ms. patagonicoside a: a novel antifungal disulfated triterpene glycoside from the sea cucumber\nhan h, xu q, tang h, yi y, gong w. cytotoxic holostane - type triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber\nglobally, sea cucumber trade specifically intended for the food market has been mostly controlled by china hong kong sar (special administrative region), singapore and taiwan province of china. china hong kong sar have the largest entrepot controlling with contribution of 80 percent of the global import - export sea cucumber trade which might be attributed to the ability of the regions to serve as a corridor for goods to the hinterland of mainland china [ 68, 69 ]. traditionally, the lower value products have often been shipped to china hong kong sar for their re - export to china [ 11, 68 ] .\n“we didn’t have a good, solid baseline prior to this, ” sparks says. “it’s not like sea cucumbers were on our radar screen as an imminent fisheries concern. ”\nin this recently shot video, vitaly bazarov filmed what seems like an interminably long sea cucumber seen while he was diving in the red sea in egypt. the species is likely synapta maculata —a snake - like type of sea cucumber that is among the world’s longest, known to reach lengths of seven to 10 feet .\nthe total number of presently existing sea cucumber species is about 1250; however, recently, some new species have also been studied from the indo - pacific ocean, being popular as a center for rich biodiversity of holothuroidea. besides, there are several undescribed larger sea cucumber species living in shallow water which have not yet been systematically identified because there are rather a small number of holothurian taxonomists [\nwhile most people probably aren' t that interested in eatching one, humanity as a whole is certainly ready to benefit from the potentially live - saving technology currently being derived from the lowly sea cucumber. even if it does mean sticking them in your brain .\neriksson h, byrne m. the sea cucumber fishery in australia' s great barrier reef marine park follows global patterns of serial exploitation .\nhan h, yi y, li l, liu b, pan m, yan b, wang x. triterpene glycosides from sea cucumber\nogushi m, yoshie - stark m, suzuki t. cytostatic activity of hot water extracts from the sea cucumber in caco - 2 .\nwang h, yin h, jin h, ha j. the study of anti - fatigue effects of sea cucumber polypeptide on mice .\nchenghui l, beiwei z, xiuping d, liguo c. study on the separation and antioxidant activity of enzymatic hydrolysates from sea cucumber .\nthe sustainable management of natural resources is a fundamental challenge in the face of increasing human population and related demand for food, limited research and management capacity, and the drive for short - term economic development. benthic organisms that are shallow and have limited motility can be particularly susceptible to overharvesting, especially, such as in the case of sea cucumbers, when they are comparatively valuable and easy to harvest and store and where communities rely on these resources for food and income (1, 2). the value and demand for sessile marine resources, such as sea cucumber, are rising (3), resulting in the general overexploitation and even high extinction risk for some sea cucumber populations globally (3, 4), even in seemingly well - managed fisheries, such as in the great barrier reef marine park (gbrmp) (5, 6). globally, there is a need to assess fishery sustainability to meet increasingly stringent requirements for ecological sustainability, particularly in regions with high conservation value. however, gathering and analyzing suitable fishery - dependent and - independent data are often beyond the financial and logistical capacities of the fishery, particularly for multispecies fisheries .\nit is revealed that certain chemical compounds namely chondroitin, mucopolysaccharides and glucosamine, occurring in sea cucumbers, have beneficial effects in arthritis disorders. researchers have shown that usage of sea cucumber is beneficial in maintaining prostaglandins balance thus helping out in the treatment of musculo - skeletal inflammatory disorders such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and spinal arthritis [ 85 – 87 ]. two types of fucan sulfates have been isolated from sea cucumber (stichopus japonicus) body wall using chloroform / methanol solvent system. both types of fucan sulfates tested inhibited the osteoclastogenesis in an in vitro assay. this suggests that these compounds derived from sea cucumber are strong inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis [ 85 ]. therefore, sea cucumber - derived chondroitin sulfate and other related marine compounds can be a useful folk remedy for curing joint - pain and arthritis. the intake of dried sea cucumber is medicinally effective in suppressing arthralgia [ 85 – 87 ] .\nmat jam, mcculloch r, croft k. fatty acid and amino acid composition in haruan as a potential role in wound healing .\nthere are several research groups engaged in conducting preliminary studies on anti - angiogenic, anticoagulant, anticancer, ace inhibitory, anti - inflammatory and antitumor, etc. , activities of the sea cucumber. it is important to identify, isolate and elucidate the structure of related bioactives and the mechanisms involved for all such medicinal effects using more spectrochemical evidences and activity directed protocols as well as clinical human models. the antinutritional factors, if any, related to the underutilized or unexplored sea cucumber species should be appraised. there is also prompt need for authentication of nomenclature of many such underutilized or newer sea cucumber species. most importantly, sea cucumbers dietary intake and nutraceutical / medicinal dosages should be standardized on human clinical basis for attaining optimum functionality and physiological benefits .\nanother class of compounds is saponins, commonly identified as holothurins, from sea cucumber. the structural features of these compounds are quite comparable to those of the bioactives from ganoderma, ginseng, and other medicinally popular tonic herbs [ 22 ]. they have displayed a wide spectrum of biological effects such as hemolytic, cytostatic, antineoplastic, anticancer and antitumor activities [ 24, 90 – 93 ]. also, one recent study revealed that sea cucumber dietary saponins have shown preventive effect in alleviating the orotic acid - induced fatty liver in rats [ 94 ] .\ntremblay, , sylvie. (2018, june 26). the benefits of sea cucumber. healthy eating | sf gate. retrieved from urltoken\nduring the past three to four decades many efforts have been devoted to isolating numerous biologically active novel compounds from marine sources. many of such naturally occurring compounds are of great interest for potential drug development as well as an ingredient of new leads and commercially successful products for various industrial applications, especially, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, functional foods and nutraceuticals [ 4 ]. sea cucumbers are one of the potential marine animals with high food and medicinal value. the medicinal properties of these animals are ascribed to the presence of functional components with promising multiple biological activities .\nin summary, we use a quantitative modeling approach to show the advantages of a spatial rotational harvest strategy to improve management of australia’s gbr sea cucumber fishery. we find an improvement in biological and economic performance when implementing an rzs compared with no rzs as well as with increasing time between harvests up to 6 y. this result is robust across a suite of different species with different life history characteristics and fishing pressures, and it is supported by empirical observations of increases in average catches of most species and an increase in the average catch rate of white teatfish and prickly redfish over the 8 - y period since implementation of an rzs as well as the results from other systems on species, such as scallops and abalone. these findings suggest that the benefits of an rzs might apply to marine benthic resources globally. the greatest improvement was obtained for slow - growing species and species under higher fishing intensity. moreover, we show that these results are robust to a number of uncertainties in model parameterization and important structural assumptions, such as uncertain recruitment patterns, as well as under stochastic variability. our results support the use of rotational harvests to better manage sessile marine resources that are often severely overexploited but highly important to many communities worldwide .\ncomparison of risk performance statistics (defined as the probability of biomass being reduced below 40% of the comparable no fishing scenario) for nine major species targeted in the absence of an rzs compared with different cycle times of rzs implementations as indicated and for the same catch .\nin addition, the sea cucumber oil contains two anti - inflammatory fractions. one fraction has fatty acids characteristic of those found in fish; they can be used as a substitute for fish oil in reducing inflammatory byproducts of fat metabolism, and to nourish the brain and heart. the main compounds of interest in fish oil are epa (eicosapentaenoic acid also found in sea cucumber, and dha (docosahaenoic acid), unique to fish :\natlantic sea cucumber ltd. celebrated the grand opening of the facility on thursday, thanks in part to a$ 500, 000 loan from acoa .\nplaganyi ee, skewes td, dowling na, haddon m. risk management tools for sustainable fisheries management under changing climate: a sea cucumber example .\nvieira rp, mulloy b, mourão pa. structure of a fucose - branched chondroitin sulphate from sea cucumber. evidence for the presence of 3 -\nzeng m, xiao f, li b, zhao y, liu z, dong s. study on free radical scavenging activity of sea cucumber (\nmost of the sea cucumber exports from the latin america and the caribbean regions are from peru (26. 1 %) followed by ecuador (25. 9 %), chile (14. 1 %) and cuba (10. 1 %). about 14. 0% of sea cucumber exports are derived from countries where either this fishery is banned such as panama and costa rica or have no proper record (colombia) [\nthere are around 1, 700 species of sea cucumber, of which 66 are used for food. boiled and dried, the animal becomes known by its french name, beche - de - mer - - a dish rich in protein, minerals and fatty acids. in china the animal is a traditional remedy for hypertension, asthma, rheumatism, cuts and burns, impotence and constipation .\ndr steven purcell - urltoken aciar sea cucumber post harvest processing project for best methods to process sea cucumbers into high quality beche - de - mer that will attract the best prices from exporters. training, videos and village placed workshops have been developed for managing sea cucumbers\nsuggesting the uses of these multipurpose marine invertebrates as platform for the development of antileishmanial drugs from some other potential marine resources. some important pharmacological and medicinal properties of sea cucumbers - derived bioactives are presented in\ncite this article: ilima loomis “the sea cucumber’s vanishing act, ” hakai magazine, mar 30, 2016, accessed july 10th, 2018, urltoken .\nsteven purcell, a sea cucumber expert at australia' s southern cross university, said pacific stocks had\nall declined considerably\nover a decade. purcell and six other scientists said in a recent article in the academic journal fish and fisheries that sea cucumber stocks may have\nsuccumbed to pandemic overfishing .\nzhao y, li b, zeng m, dong s, liu z. study on antihypertensive activity of a lower - value sea cucumber protein hydrolysate .\nogushi m, yoshie - stark m, suzuki t. apoptosis - inducing activity of hot water extracts from the sea cucumber in human colon tumor cells .\nwu j, yi yh, tang hf, wu hm, zou zr, lin hw. nobilisides a–c, three new triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber\nwu j, yi yh, tang hf, wu hm, zhou zr. hillasides a and b, two new cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber\nthough it' s one of the most perfectly named living things on this planet, the sea cucumber, on first glance, isn' t among the most exciting aquatic species. distantly related to starfish and sea urchins, the sea cucumber in appearance lacks the brio and allure of its cousins, and except for a few variations among subspecies, the general body plan of the cucumber basically resembles a large, leathery sausage crawling along the ocean floor. yum .\njames beard, the father of modern american cookery, once asked, “where would we be without salt? ” i know the answer: adrift in a sea of blandness. salt has a greater impact on flavor than any other ingredient. learn to use it well, and food will taste good .\nas they move into deeper and deeper water, the collectors need a mask and fins and then, eventually, scuba gear—often rented from the traders they sell to. “on good days, they’ll earn a lot of money, but on bad days they can’t pay off the rent, ” erikkson says. “they get trapped in this credit arrangement with the traders. ” the work becomes increasingly dangerous, with some fishers diving as deep as 50 meters in pursuit of the increasingly scarce sea cucumbers .\nwhile much of the western world forgets about them or regards them with disgust because of their slimy, squishy texture, sea cucumbers are a delicacy in many parts of asia, often known as bêche - de - mer. they exist all over the world—from the poles to the tropics and from coastal shallows to the deep ocean floor—in a spectrum of sizes, textures, and colors. of roughly 1, 700 species, 66 are targeted for food .\ngold candy sprinkling real gold flakes onto food is nothing new, but this old - school candy drop from the ancient city of nara makes you wonder how maker ogontoh managed to produce such a resplendent - looking confection with only sugar and sugar syrup .\nanother group of functional substances namely, mucopolysaccharides and chondroitins, have also been identified in sea cucumbers. it has been seen that people suffering from arthritis and connective tissue disorders, are often devoid of these compounds. as such, sea cucumber - derived chondroitin sulfate can be exploited as a nutraceutical to ease joint - pain and arthritis like disorders [ 84 ]. it is for this reason that about 3 g / day serving of the dried sea cucumbers is medicinally effective in reducing arthralgia to a significant level [ 22 ]. the mechanism of action of chondroitin sulfate is considered to be similar to that of glucosamine sulfate; the latter compound is currently in use as therapeutic agent for easing osteoarthritis [ 85 – 87 ] .\nmany of these are gathered for human consumption and some species are cultivated in aquaculture systems. the harvested product is variously referred to as trepang, bêche - de - mer or balate. sea cucumbers serve a useful purpose in the marine ecosystem as they help recycle nutrients, breaking down detritus and other organic matter after which bacteria can continue the degradation process .\nthe crude extracts and pure fractions isolated from holothuria polii (a mediterranean sea cucumber), have shown concentration - dependent antifungal activity against some molds and yeasts as described by ismail et al. (2008) [ 150 ]. according to the data generated, the strains of aspergillus fumigatus were more sensitive to the tested fractions and extracts, whereas those from trichophyton rubrum were less responsive. besides the extracts, different bioactive compounds, most of them known as triterpene glycosides, have been isolated from sea cucumber offering antimicrobial activity. one of these bioactives, namely patagonicoside a, isolated from sea cucumber (psolus patagonicus) [ 118 ], is identified as disulfated tetrasaccharide using 1d and 2d nmr spectral information. furthermore, it is reported that patagonicoside a has good antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus (cladosporium cucumerinum). two newly identified sulfated triterpene glycosides, hemoiedemosides a and b, from the patagonian sea cucumber (hemoiedema spectabilis) exhibited considerable antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungus (cladosporium cucumerinum), while the semi - synthetic desulfated derivative hemoiedemosides a was relatively less active [ 151 ] .\nzou z, yi y, wu h, wu j, liaw c, lee k. intercedensides a–c, three new cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber\nmamelona j, pelletier em, lalancette kg, legault j, karboune s, kermasha s. quantification of phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity of atlantic sea cucumber ,\nkariya y, watabe s, kyogashima m, ishihara m, ishii t. structure of fucose branches in the glycosaminoglycan from the body wall of the sea cucumber\nli z, wang h, li j, zhang g, gao c. basic and clinical study on the antithrombotic mechanism of glycosaminoglycan extracted from sea cucumber .\ntradeoff curve between median risk performance (defined as probability of biomass being reduced below 40% of the comparable no fishing scenario; + 1 sd encompasses variation across nine species) and total revenue (million dollars) for rzss with the different cycle times (year) as indicated on the symbols .\na multitude of harvestable sea cucumbers species have been exploited with growing global demand due to their food and pharmaceutical uses [ 9 – 13 ]. the dehydrated sea cucumber is commercially sold, especially in asian markets with main business in china, followed by korea and indonesia and then japan. on the other hand, these are also exported in appreciable quantities to parts of the united states and northern australia [ 14, 15 ]. according to food and agriculture organization of the united nations (fao) report beche - de - mer production and apostichopus japonicas (selenka, 1867) catches by various countries for the period 1992–2001 was estimated to be 12, 331 t (metric ton) (dry weight) [ 16 ] .\n1 faculty of food science and technology, universiti putra malaysia, serdang, selangor 43400, malaysia; e - mails: moc. liamy @ rabdrob _ aras (s. b .); moc. oohay @ rawnaqf (f. a. )" ]
{ "text": [ "sea cucumbers are marine animals of the class holothuroidea .", "they are used in fresh or dried form in various cuisines .", "in some cultural contexts the sea cucumber is thought to have medicinal value .", "the creature and the food product are commonly known as bêche-de-mer in french , from portuguese \" bicho do mar \" ( literally \" sea worm \" ) , trepang ( or trīpang ) in indonesian , namako in japanese , balatan in tagalog and loli in hawaiian .", "in malay , it is known as the gamat .", "most cultures in east and southeast asia regard sea cucumbers as a delicacy .", "a number of dishes are made with sea cucumber , and in most dishes it has a slippery texture .", "common ingredients that go with sea cucumber dishes include winter melon , conpoy , kai-lan , shiitake mushroom , and chinese cabbage . " ], "topic": [ 2, 13, 2, 29, 27, 2, 17, 14 ] }
"sea cucumbers are marine animals of the class holothuroidea. they are used in fresh or dried form in various cuisines. in some cultural contexts the sea cucumber is thought to have medicinal value. the creature and the food product are commonly known as bêche-de-mer in french, from portuguese " bicho do mar " (literally " sea worm "), trepang (or trīpang) in indonesian, namako in japanese, balatan in tagalog and loli in hawaiian. in malay, it is known as the gamat. most cultures in east and southeast asia regard sea cucumbers as a delicacy. a number of dishes are made with sea cucumber, and in most dishes it has a slippery texture. common ingredients that go with sea cucumber dishes include winter melon, conpoy, kai-lan, shiitake mushroom, and chinese cabbage."
[ "sea cucumbers are marine animals of the class holothuroidea. they are used in fresh or dried form in various cuisines. in some cultural contexts the sea cucumber is thought to have medicinal value. the creature and the food product are commonly known as bêche-de-mer in french, from portuguese \" bicho do mar \" (literally \" sea worm \"), trepang (or trīpang) in indonesian, namako in japanese, balatan in tagalog and loli in hawaiian. in malay, it is known as the gamat. most cultures in east and southeast asia regard sea cucumbers as a delicacy. a number of dishes are made with sea cucumber, and in most dishes it has a slippery texture. common ingredients that go with sea cucumber dishes include winter melon, conpoy, kai-lan, shiitake mushroom, and chinese cabbage." ]
"animal-train-27"
"animal-train-27"
"2678"
"pilot whale"
{ "text": [ "pilot whales are cetaceans belonging to the genus globicephala .", "the two extant species are the long-finned pilot whale ( g. melas ) and the short-finned pilot whale ( g. macrorhynchus ) .", "the two are not readily distinguishable at sea , and analysis of the skulls is the best way to distinguish between the species .", "between the two species , they range nearly worldwide , with long-finned pilot whales living in colder waters and short-finned pilot whales living in tropical and subtropical waters .", "pilot whales are among the largest of the oceanic dolphins , exceeded in size only by the killer whale .", "they and other large members of the dolphin family are also known as blackfish .", "pilot whales eat squid primarily , and also fish .", "they are highly social , and studies suggest that both males and females remain in their mother 's pod , an unusual trait among mammals , also found in certain killer whale communities .", "short-finned pilot whales are one of the few mammal species in which females go through menopause , and post-reproductive females may contribute to the survival of younger members of their pods .", "pilot whales are notorious for stranding themselves on beaches , and are among the most common cetacean stranders .", "several theories have been proposed to account for this behavior .", "the conservation status of neither species has been determined , but they are subject to both direct and indirect bycatch in fisheries .", "whalers in a few countries continue to hunt pilot whales . " ], "topic": [ 26, 19, 10, 13, 19, 26, 19, 19, 19, 19, 19, 17, 19 ] }
"pilot whales are cetaceans belonging to the genus globicephala. the two extant species are the long-finned pilot whale (g. melas) and the short-finned pilot whale (g. macrorhynchus). the two are not readily distinguishable at sea, and analysis of the skulls is the best way to distinguish between the species. between the two species, they range nearly worldwide, with long-finned pilot whales living in colder waters and short-finned pilot whales living in tropical and subtropical waters. pilot whales are among the largest of the oceanic dolphins, exceeded in size only by the killer whale. they and other large members of the dolphin family are also known as blackfish. pilot whales eat squid primarily, and also fish. they are highly social, and studies suggest that both males and females remain in their mother's pod, an unusual trait among mammals, also found in certain killer whale communities. short-finned pilot whales are one of the few mammal species in which females go through menopause, and post-reproductive females may contribute to the survival of younger members of their pods. pilot whales are notorious for stranding themselves on beaches, and are among the most common cetacean stranders. several theories have been proposed to account for this behavior. the conservation status of neither species has been determined, but they are subject to both direct and indirect bycatch in fisheries. whalers in a few countries continue to hunt pilot whales."
[ "pilot whales are cetaceans belonging to the genus globicephala. the two extant species are the long-finned pilot whale (g. melas) and the short-finned pilot whale (g. macrorhynchus). the two are not readily distinguishable at sea, and analysis of the skulls is the best way to distinguish between the species. between the two species, they range nearly worldwide, with long-finned pilot whales living in colder waters and short-finned pilot whales living in tropical and subtropical waters. pilot whales are among the largest of the oceanic dolphins, exceeded in size only by the killer whale. they and other large members of the dolphin family are also known as blackfish. pilot whales eat squid primarily, and also fish. they are highly social, and studies suggest that both males and females remain in their mother's pod, an unusual trait among mammals, also found in certain killer whale communities. short-finned pilot whales are one of the few mammal species in which females go through menopause, and post-reproductive females may contribute to the survival of younger members of their pods. pilot whales are notorious for stranding themselves on beaches, and are among the most common cetacean stranders. several theories have been proposed to account for this behavior. the conservation status of neither species has been determined, but they are subject to both direct and indirect bycatch in fisheries. whalers in a few countries continue to hunt pilot whales." ]
"animal-train-28"
"animal-train-28"
"2679"
"ancylostoma duodenale"
[ "[ iron - deficiency anemia related to ancylostoma duodenale infection among ethiopian immigrants to israel ] .\npolymerase chain reaction - based differential diagnosis of ancylostoma duodenale and necator americanus infections in humans in northern ghana .\nancylostoma duodenale infection: a study of serum immunoglobulin g4 response to the excretory secretory antigen of adult worm .\n[ iron - deficiency anemia related to ancylostoma duodenale infection among ethiopian immigrants to israel ]. - pubmed - ncbi\nadult ancylostoma duodenale worm. anterior end with mouth parts visible. image courtesy of patrick w hickey, md .\nepidemiological evidence for a differential effect of hookworm species, ancylostoma duodenale or necator americanus, on iron status of children .\nparasitic hookworms cause these infections. the two major types of hookworms that cause infection are necator americanus and ancylostoma duodenale .\npolymerase chain reaction - based differential diagnosis of ancylostoma duodenale and necator americanus infections in humans in northern ghana. - pubmed - ncbi\nancylostoma duodenale infection: a study of serum immunoglobulin g4 response to the excretory secretory antigen of adult worm. - pubmed - ncbi\nepidemiological evidence for a differential effect of hookworm species, ancylostoma duodenale or necator americanus, on iron status of children. - pubmed - ncbi\nconsidering taking medication to treat hookworm infection caused by ancylostoma duodenale? below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of hookworm infection caused by ancylostoma duodenale. follow the links to read common uses, side effects, dosage details and read user reviews for the drugs listed below .\nnote: description of ancylostoma caninum (dog hookworm) can be found here .\nthe hookworms, ancylostoma duodenale and necator americanus, cause significant gastrointestinal blood loss. in clinical studies, greater blood losses have been reported with a. duodenale. however, there has been no evidence that endemic a. duodenale infection has greater impact than n. americanus infection on the iron status of populations .\n. teeth of ancylostoma on the left and cutting plates of necator on the right .\nhuman hookworm disease is a common helminth infection that is predominantly caused by the nematode parasites necator americanus and ancylostoma duodenale; organisms that play a lesser role include ancylostoma ceylonicum, ancylostoma braziliense, and ancylostoma caninum. hookworm infection is acquired through skin exposure to larvae in soil contaminated by human feces (see the image below). soil becomes infectious about 9 days after contamination and remains so for weeks, depending on conditions .\nto cite this page: fetouh, n. 2003 .\nancylostoma duodenale\n( on - line), animal diversity web. accessed july 10, 2018 at urltoken\namong the ethiopian immigrant population, ancylostoma duodenale infection is a common cause of iron deficiency anemia. in young patients it should be ruled out before invasive and expensive investigations are performed .\nhookworm eggs examined on wet mount. eggs of ancylostoma duodenale and necator americanus cannot be distinguished morphologically. image courtesy of division of parasitic diseases, centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) .\nhookworm infection in humans is usually caused by one of two species of nematodes (roundworms) - necator americanus or ancylostoma duodenale. n. americanus is most common human - specific hookworm worldwide, distribution of a. duodenale is geographically more restricted. both n. americanus and a. duodenale are found in africa, asia and the americas. necator americanus predominates in the americas and australia, while only a. duodenale is found in the middle east, north africa and southern europe .\n42. 8% infection rate of predominantly n. americanus although with some a. duodenale infection\nsymptoms can take weeks or months to develop depending on the severity of infection, and the amount of iron in an infected person’s diet. ancylostoma duodenale can stay dormant in the body for eight months .\nhookworm is an intestinal parasite of humans. the larvae and adult worms live in the small intestine can cause intestinal disease. the two main species of hookworm infecting humans are ancylostoma duodenale and necator americanus .\namong the diseases imported by the ethiopian immigrants to israel are many parasite infections. hookworm infections, caused by the nematodes necator americanus and ancylostoma duodenale, involve the gastrointestinal tract, causing iron - deficiency anemia .\nthe hookworms, ancylostomo duodenale and necator americanus, cause significant gastrointestinal blood loss. in clinical studies, greater blood losses have been reported with a. duodenale. however, there has been no evidence that endemic a. duodenale infection has greater impact than n. americanus infection on the iron status of populations .\na duodenale is more geographically restricted than n americanus and is one of several anthropophilic members of the genus ancylostoma. it primarily infects humans and is responsible for classic hookworm disease. a duodenale resembles n americanus in appearance but is somewhat larger, with adult males measuring 8 - 11 mm and adult females measuring 10 - 13 mm .\nhumans can also become infected with the dog hookworm, ancylostoma caninum. however, this species is infertile in humans .\nthe mcdonnell genome institute and collaborators are sequencing the human hookworm, ancylostoma duodenale. hookworm diseases are extremely common in the tropics and sub - tropics, with a disease burden comparable to measles and exceeding that of diabetes and lung cancer .\ntaxonomic classification: all hookworms infecting humans are class nematoda, order strongylidea, family ancylostomatidae, and genera ancylostoma and necator .\nhsu y, lin j. intestinal infection with ancylostoma ceylanicum. new england journal of medicine 2012; 366: e20 .\nhookworm is a common, chronic, parasitic infection that is caused by the worms necator americanus and ancylostoma duodenale in human being. human beings are the main vectors of n. americanus and a. duodenale, and it is estimated that around 20% of the world population carries this parasite and suffer a huge volume of daily blood loss (approximately seven million liters) .\nanterior: note the ventral teeth in the buccal capsule of a. duodenale. n. americanus has ventral cutting plates .\nthe geographic distributions of the hookworm species that are intestinal parasites in human, ancylostoma duodenale and necator americanus, are worldwide in areas with warm, moist climates and are widely overlapping. necator americanus was widespread in the southeastern united states until the early 20th century .\nmonti jr, chilton nb, qian bz, gasser rb. specific amplification of necator americanus or ancylostoma duodenale dna by pcr using markers in its - 1 rdna, and its implications. molecular and cellular probes 1998; 12 (2): 71 - 78 .\nthe species give similar clinical manifestations of the infection, although a. duodenale can lead to a greater blood loss and anemia .\nneither necator nor ancylostoma multiplies within the host. if the host is not reexposed, the infection disappears after the worm dies. the natural life span for an adult a duodenale is about 1 year, and that for an adult n americanus is 3 - 5 years .\nsixty patients (64 %) had evidence of a. duodenale infection. the mean hemoglobin level was 11. 92. 3 g / dl in the ancylostoma group and 13. 81. 6 g / dl in the control group (p = 0. 0001). analyzing the data according to the patient' s sex revealed significant differences in the hemoglobin levels between the ancylostoma group and the control group. patients infected with a. duodenale had significantly lower mean corpuscular volume (mcv) and serum iron, and were likely to have eosinophilia and hypoalbuminemia .\nsignificant microscopic features: species of adult hookworms can be identified by the appearance of their mouths. structures are bilaterally symmetrical (mirror image on each side). ancylostoma duodenale has 2 prominent pointed ventral teeth and rarely a very tiny third tooth (fig. 2) ancylostoma ceylanicum has a cutting plate with a sharp dorsal end that looks like a tooth and a less distinct sharp ventral end (fig. 3). ancylostoma caninum has three prominent pointed ventral teeth (fig. 4) necator americanus is completely different and has a rounded ventral cutting plate (fig. 5) .\nhookworm is a soil - transmitted helminth (sth) and is one of the most common roundworm of humans. infection is caused by the nematode parasites necator americanus and ancylostoma duodenale. hookworm infections often occur in areas where human feces are used as fertilizer or where defecation onto soil happens .\nwalterspiel, j. n. , schad, g. a. , & buchanan, g. r. (1984). direct transfer of adult hookworms (ancylostoma duodenale) from dog to child for therapeutic purposes. journal of parasitology, 70 (2), 217 - 219 .\ninfection with n. americanus can occur only through skin penetration by l3 larvae. a. duodenale can infect humans upon swallowing of the larvae .\nsome a. duodenale larvae, following penetration of the host skin, can become dormant (in the intestine or muscle). in addition, infection by a. duodenale may probably also occur by the oral and transmammary route. n. americanus, however, requires a transpulmonary migration phase .\nfig. 2: apical view of the mouth of a. duodenale showing the 2 prominent pointed ventral teeth on each side. image from urltoken .\nalbonico m, stoltzfus rj, savioli l, tielsch jm, chwaya hm, ercole e, et al. epidemiological evidence for a differential effect of hookworm species, ancylostoma duodenale or necator americanus, on iron status of children. int j epidemiol. 1998 jun. 27 (3): 530 - 7. [ medline ] .\nverweij jj, brienen ea, ziem j, yelifari l, polderman am, van lieshout l. simultaneous detection and quantification of ancylostoma duodenale, necator americanus, and oesophagostomum bifurcum in fecal samples using multiplex real - time pcr. am j trop med hyg. 2007 oct. 77 (4): 685 - 90. [ medline ] .\non microscopy, n americanus can be differentiated from a duodenale on the basis of the cutting plates that it possesses in place of teeth (see the images below). [ 15 ]\n: humans are the only known reservoir of a. duodenale and n. americanus. the majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic due to low worm burden; however, eggs can be passed in feces\nfrom the above it can be seen that n. americanus is primarily a parasite of the tropical regions of the world, whereas a. duodenale is usually the lone species in temperate climates and has a spotty distribution in the tropics. the variations in distribution of these parasites are in large part due to the way the tropics were colonized by different groups of people who brought their parasites with them, as well as the fact that necator tolerates higher temperatures better than ancylostoma. it should be noted also that ancylostoma is a natural parasite of carnivores, whereas necator parasitizes herbivores. man has become the unwitting host of both species through his association with both types of animals .\nhookworm is an endemic in many tropical and subtropical areas, especially in areas where human feces are not disposed off in a sanitary manner. ancylostomiasis is the most prevalent hookworm infection and is second only to ascariasis in infections by parasitic worms. necator americanus is most common in the americas, central and south africa, south asia, indonesia, australia and pacific islands. ancylostoma duodenale is the dominant species in the mediterranean region and north asia .\na. duodenale is a human parasite that lives in the intestine. it is difficult to study in a laboratory setting and is particularly harmful to children, causing chronic anemia, stunting growth and imparing intellectual development .\nhuman infection with a duodenale or n americanus is estimated to affect approximately 439 million people worldwide. [ 17 ] these parasites drain the equivalent of all the blood from approximately 1. 5 million people every day .\nin the 492 children with hookworm positive faecal cultures, haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations decreased with increasing proportions of a. duodenale. among children with only n. americanus larvae, the prevalence of anaemia was 60. 5% and the prevalence of ferritin < 12. μ / l was 33. 1% , while in children with ≥50% a. duodenale larvae, the respective prevalences were 80. 6% and 58. 9% . when children were grouped by the prevalence of a. duodenale at the school level, children from high prevalence (≥20 %) schools had signficantly worse iron deficiency and anaemia than children from low prevalence schools .\nhaas, w. , haberl, b. , syafruddin, idris, i. , kallert, d. , kersten, s. , stiegeler, p. , & syafruddin. (2005). behavioural strategies used by the hookworms necator americanus and ancylostoma duodenale to find, recognize and invade the human host. parasitology research, 95 (1), 30 - 39. doi: 10. 1007 / s00436 - 004 - 1257 - 7\nschad, g. a. , murrell, k. d. , fayer, r. , el naggar, h. m. s. , page, m. r. , parrish, p. k. , & stewart, t. b. (1984). paratenesis in ancylostoma duodenale suggests possible meat - borne human infection. transactions of the royal society of tropical medicine and hygiene, 78 (2), 203 - 204 .\nin the 492 children with hookworm positive faecal cultures, haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations decreased with increasing proportions of a. duodenale. among children with only n. americanus larvae, the prevalence of anaemia was 60. 5% and the prevalence of ferritin < 12 microg / l was 33. 1% , while in children with > or = 50% a. duodenale larvae, the respective prevalences were 80. 6% and 58. 9% . when children were grouped by the prevalence of a. duodenale at the school level, children from high prevalence (> or = 20 %) schools had significantly worse iron deficiency and anaemia than children from low prevalence schools .\nsoil - transmitted helminths (sth) refer to intestinal worms that are transmitted to humans through contaminated soil. the three main species that infect humans are ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), trichuris trichiura (whipworm), and necator americanus and ancylostoma duodenale (two species of hookworm). soil - transmitted helminths live in the intestines, where they produce thousands of eggs a day that are then passed in the feces of infected persons, contaminating the soil in areas where sanitation is poor .\nboth necator and ancylostoma species have worldwide distribution. a duodenale predominates in the mediterranean region, in northern regions of india and china, and in north africa. a ceylonicum is found in focally endemic areas in southern asia. n americanus predominates in southern china, southeast asia, the americas, most of africa, and parts of australia. this differential distribution is not absolute, and mixed infections may occur in individual patients. coinfection with ascaris or trichuris is common in many parts of the world .\nalthough n americanus infects only percutaneously, a duodenale can also infect by means of ingestion; however, in su ancylostoma may also lie dormant in tissues and later be transmitted through breast milk. this ability to enter dormancy in the human host may be an adaptive response evolved to increase the chances of propagation. if all larvae were to mature promptly during dry seasons of the year, females would release eggs onto inhospitable soil. eggs produced and released during the wet season have a much greater chance of encountering optimal soil conditions for further development .\nin addition, because a duodenale consumes more blood per worm than n americanus does, the severity of anemia may differ as a factor of the hookworm species that is causing the infection. severe anemia affects intellectual and physical development in children and cardiovascular performance in adults .\nhookworm eggs are passed in the feces of an infected person. if an infected person defecates outside (near bushes, in a garden, or field) or if the feces from an infected person are used as fertilizer, eggs are deposited on soil. they can then mature and hatch, releasing larvae (immature worms). the larvae mature into a form that can penetrate the skin of humans. hookworm infection is transmitted primarily by walking barefoot on contaminated soil. one kind of hookworm (ancylostoma duodenale) can also be transmitted through the ingestion of larvae .\nfig. 5: apical view of the mouth of n. americanus showing the rounded ventral cutting plate. image from urltoken. (the parasite named\na. duodenale\nat this site has 3 prominent pointed ventral teeth and is more likely to be a. caninum) .\nafter 2 moltings the parasites mature into adults and mate; intestinal blood loss begins just before egg production and continues for the life of the worm (up to 5 years); to ensure blood flow, adults release anticlotting agents (the agents were isolated and applied in therapeutics to block blood coagulation in several diseases); adult females: 10 to 13 mm (a. duodenale), 9 to 11 mm (n. americanus); adult males: 8 to 11 mm (a. duodenale), 7 to 9 mm (n. americanus )\na. duodenale and n. americanus infective larvae (il3) have different morphologies and these species can be identified from the il3 obtained after 7 days from a faecal culture (fig. 7). there appears to be no description of the morphology of the il3 of a. ceylanicum .\nduring this part of the migration, the larvae undergo 2 further molts, developing a buccal capsule and attaining their adult form. the buccal capsule of an adult a duodenale has teeth to facilitate attachment to mucosa, whereas an adult n americanus has cutting plates instead. a muscular esophagus creates suction in the buccal capsule .\nanybody can get hookworm. however, agricultural workers in endemic areas have a higher risk of being infected. the illness can be more serious in babies, children, pregnant women and people with poor diets. people can become infected with hookworm by walking bare foot on soil that contains infective larvae. other infection routes include drinking water or eating food contaminated with larvae. cases of mother to baby transfer of the hookworm ancylostoma duodenale have also been reported. hookworm larvae are capable of penetrating the skin in a few seconds. hence even sunbathing in the beaches or bathing / swimming / wading in pools, reservoirs or contaminated waters in the epidemic areas can quickly contract the larvae .\nin endemic areas, the highest prevalences are reported among school - aged children and adolescents, possibly because of age - related changes in exposure and the acquisition of immunity. [ 20 ] once infected, children are more vulnerable to developing morbidity because dietary intake often fails to compensate for intestinal losses of iron and protein, especially in developing countries. a fulminant form of acute gi hemorrhage associated with acute ancylostoma infection has been described in newborns .\nthe l3 larvae are 500 - 700 µm long (barely visible to the naked eye) and are capable of rapid penetration into normal skin, most commonly on the hands or feet. transmission occurs after 5 or more minutes of skin contact with soil that contains viable larvae. the skin penetration may cause a local pruritic dermatitis, also known as ground itch. ground itch at the site of penetration is more common with ancylostoma than with necator .\nhookworms ingest and digested some of the blood from the injured mucosa by means of a multienzyme cascade of metallohemoglobinases. each necator worm ingests 0. 03 ml of blood daily, whereas each ancylostoma worm ingests 0. 15 - 0. 2 ml of blood daily. inhibited host coagulation due to a series of anticoagulants directed against factor xa and the factor viia–tissue factor (tf) complex, as well as against platelet aggregation, further exacerbates blood loss .\nthe timing of anemia onset depends on the patient’s preexisting iron stores. in a study involving 492 children, the prevalence of anemia and the prevalence of ferritin levels lower than 12 μg / l were 60. 5% and 33. 1% , respectively, in those with n americanus infection, compared with 80. 6% and 58. 9% , respectively, in those with a duodenale infection. [ 22 ]\neach day in the intestine, a mature female a duodenale worm produces about 10, 000 - 30, 000 eggs, and a mature female n americanus worm produces 5000 - 10, 000 eggs (see the image below). after deposition onto soil and under appropriate conditions, each egg develops into an infective larva. these larvae are developmentally arrested and nonfeeding. if they are unable to infect a new host, they die when their metabolic reserves are exhausted, usually in about 6 weeks .\nin the search for possible vaccine targets, investigators have focused on hookworm molecular inhibitors of coagulation factors xa and viia - tf and metalloproteases that degrade hemoglobin and intestinal mucosal cells. the sabin vaccine institute has developed a 2 antigen human hookworm vaccine comprising recombinant necator antigens na - gst - 1 and na - apr - 1, each of which is required for hookworm use of host blood. [ 11 ] another antigen, ancylostoma - secreted protein 2 (asp - 2), appears necessary for chemokine receptor binding and invasion and has shown some promise in animal vaccine trials. the 3 - dimensional structure of na - asp - 2 has recently been reported and identified as a conserved tandem histidine motif necessary for catalytic or proteolytic activity. [ 12 ] unfortunately, this vaccine produced urticarial reactions among previously infected recipients, and its development was halted. [ 13 ]\nafter the l3 larvae have successfully entered the host, the larvae then travel through the subcutaneous venules and lymphatic vessels of the human host. eventually, the l3 larvae enter the lungs through the pulmonary capillaries and break out into the alveoli. they will then travel up the trachea to be coughed and swallowed by the host. after being swallowed, the l3 larvae are then found in the small intestine where they molt into the l4, or adult worm stage. the entire process from skin penetration to adult development takes about 5 - 9 weeks. the female adult worms will release eggs (n. americanus about 9, 000 - 10, 000 eggs / day and a. duodenale 25, 000 - 30, 000 eggs / day) which are passed in the feces of the human host. these eggs will hatch in the environment within several days and the cycle with start anew [ 15 ] .\naccording to the world health organization, approximately 1. 5 billion people worldwide are infected with soil - transmitted helminths .\nmorbidity resulting from sth infection is directly related to worm burden: light sth infection usually has no symptoms, while heavy infection contributes to anemia, malnutrition, growth stunting and low birth weight. moderate to heavy sth infection also leads to impairment of physical and mental growth, delayed educational advancement, and a negative impact on economic development .\ncurrently, the world health organization (who) estimates that 267. 5 million preschool - aged children and 568. 8 million school - aged children require treatment across 103 countries endemic to sth .\nthe greatest burden of disease for sth occurs among the populations in areas that lack access to clean water and sanitation .\nmoderate to high intensity infections can cause a range of symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal pain, general malaise and weakness, which can then lead to impaired cognitive and physical development .\nthe highest rates of infection occur among pre - school aged children, school - aged children, women of childbearing age, and adults in high - risk occupations such as tea - pickers or miners .\nthe impact of sth infection on women of childbearing age includes maternal anemia, low birth weight and high infant mortality .\ncontrol of soil - transmitted helminth infections can be achieved through regular mass drug administration (mda) with a single dose albendazole or mebendazole .\nthe who recommended strategy for sth control is to conduct regular periodic treatment of all at - risk populations in endemic areas, without previous individual diagnosis .\ncurrently, usaid provides technical and financial support to 19 sth endemic countries in their efforts to control sth infection. control efforts for sth within agency - supported countries have benefited from an integrated mda strategy, which treats multiple ntds simultaneously through the combined distribution of safe and effective donated drugs .\nthis strategy has resulted in significant gains of scaling up mda and reducing prevalence over the last decade of the agency program. looking to the future, the primary focus of agency support will be to continue to assist countries in maintaining these gains with sustainable sth programs .\nthe successes achieved to date in the control of sth could not have been achieved without dynamic public - private partnerships. the agency works closely with a broad range of public and private partners dedicated to the global control of sth. among these partners are the pharmaceutical companies johnson & johnson and glaxosmithkline, who provide mebendazole and albendazole through their global donation program to national ministries of health .\nguideline: preventive chemotherapy to control soil - transmitted helminth infections in at - risk population groups [ pdf, 1. 6mb ]\nhelminth control in school - aged children: a guide for managers (who) [ pdf, 2. 7mb ]\nconducting a school deworming day: a manual for teachers [ pdf, 1. 5mb ]\nhuman hookworms are found in tropical and subtropical regions between 30° north and south of the equator .\nis found in the mediterranean region, southeast asia, and scattered in the southern americas .\n( beigal, et al. , 2000; changhua, et al. , 1999; roberts and janovy jr. , 2000 )\n, where it may remain for intervals of time until it reaches the definitive host. in the paratenic host it may survive in the muscles where it is then transferred to humans via undercooked meat, including rabbit, lamb, beef, and pork. the eggs of\nare still within the muscle and are ingested with the meat, allowing for the adults to develop within the intestinal tract .\njuveniles of the species reside in the warmer regions of the world where the soil is preferably humus and loose with reasonable water drainage and good aeration. oxygen is necessary for the development of the eggs, whose metabolism is aerobic .\nhookworm eggs derive their nutrition from the host feces via absorption. therefore they must live in areas with soils of neutral phs and in shady areas, such as coffee, banana, and sugar plantations where the feces will remain intact long enough for them to develop into juveniles. they are extremely sensitive to sunlight, which can ultimately kill the juveniles. juveniles are also sensitive to high salt concentrations and acidic phs of soils .\nafter penetrating the skin, juveniles attach to blood vessels and begin to feed until reaching the adult stage. adult females remain attached and the males detach to find their mates. continual reinfection is promoted by repeated defecation by infected individuals in the same locals where they were originally infected. this may even lead to epidemics of\n( chilton and gasser, 1999; roberts and janovy jr. , 2000 )\nis an s - shaped worm because of its flexure at the frontal end. the worm is pinkish - white. adult male hookworms range in size from 8 - 11 mm long, whereas adult females range in size from 10 - 13 mm long. this species is dimorphic, with the males having bursa characteristics and needle - like spicules with small tips, which are distally fused. females have a vulva located approximately one - third of the body length from the posterior end. both male and female hookworms have two powerful ventral teeth in the adult forms of the parasite, one along each side of the buccal capsule; smaller pairs of teeth are located deeper in the capsule .\n, large paired sensilla on each side of the mouth, which allow them to locate their host. the larvae are rod - shaped and are about 0. 004 cm long .\n( ashton, et al. , 1999; carson - dewitt, 1999; d. w. , 1980; roberts and janovy jr. , 2000; williams, 1969 )\nthe hookworm life cycle is composed of seven steps, which are as follows. first, the\neggs are passed into the feces of the host. second, the embryo passes via and develops within the feces. the first stage rhabditiform juvenile then hatches once the egg is outside of the host. next, the filariform or infective juvenile develops after two molts. this stage is characterized by an arrest in development until a new host is reached. humans may be infected via the oral cavity by ingestion of undercooked meat. filiform juveniles infect by directly penetrating the skin of the host, usually a human. fifth, the juveniles then migrate through the circulatory system until they reach the lungs. sixth, once they have reached the lungs, the juveniles leave the circulatory system by finding their way into the alveoli and then migrating to the small intestine via the trachea. it takes about 5 - 6 weeks for the hookworm to reach the small intestine from the lungs. finally, the adult worms develop in the small intestine where they mate, and produce eggs that are sent off in the feces of the host to begin the process once more. adults form about 6 weeks after the initial infection .\na possible alternate root of infection may occur if juveniles are swallowed and develop normally without moving into the lungs. however, this is a very rare occurrence .\n( beigal, et al. , 2000; d. w. , 1980; roberts and janovy jr. , 2000 )\nboth males and females attach to the intestinal walls during their life span, but the male leaves at one point to search for a female to mate with. the average female life span is about one year, during which it may lay from 10, 000 - 30, 000 eggs a day during its adult life .\na female with his curved area over the female genital pore. the gubernaculum, made of cuticle tissue, guides spicules which extend through the cloaca and anus. males use spicules to hold the female during copulation .\n( barnes, 1987; beigal, et al. , 2000; d. w. , 1980; roberts and janovy jr. , 2000 )\nthe juvenile stages of the parasite move around in the outside environment prior to locating the host. the adult worms can move from one place to another along the intestine once inside of the host, thus increasing blood loss through the wounds that are left behind in the intestinal linings .\nthe larvae of the infective stage are usually stationary, until they sense vibrations in the soil as heat or carbon dioxide. they use environmental signals to flag their host and prepare for ingestion during their third larval stage. they do so by using neurons with dendritic processes that resemble cilia, which are mechanosensory, thermosensory and chemosensory. adult human hookworms move by flowing within the bloodstream from one local to another and then attach to the intestinal walls where they feed .\n( ashton, et al. , 1999; roberts and janovy jr. , 2000; williams, 1969 )\nthe larvae of the infective stage are usually stationary, until they sense vibrations in the soil as heat or carbon dioxide. they use environmental signals to flag their host and prepare for ingestion during their third larval stage. they do so by using neurons with dendritic processes that resemble cilia, which are mechanosensory, thermosensory and chemosensory .\nthe definitive host is where the parasite reaches sexual maturity. humans are the definitive hosts of\n. recent research shows that other definitive hosts may exist because of the ability to cross - infect different hosts. for example ,\nhookworm eggs gain nutrition via the host feces. after penetrating the skin, juveniles attach to blood vessels and begin to feed .\nthe larval stage is free - living where there is independent existence in the soil. they then penetrate the host' s skin by the secretion of digestive enzymes that dissolve the skin .\nyoung and adult worms feed on blood from the walls of the host' s intestine by attaching to the intestinal lining via their sharp buccal cavity teeth, which they also use to break open small blood vessels so that they can suck the blood from them .\npossess anticoagulant substances that are secreted to prevent blood clotting to the blood flowing from the wound .\n( brinksworth, et al. , 2000; chilton and gasser, 1999; d. w. , 1980; roberts and janovy jr. , 2000 )\nthese parasites are probably not preyed on directly, but are ingested from host to host. larval mortality is high as most of the parasites do not reach appropriate hosts .\n, where it may remain for intervals of time until it reaches the definitive host .\ninfected individuals are susceptible to malnutrition, protein and iron drain from the diet. other effects include stunted growth and below - average intelligence in developing children, lowered antibody response to infectious agents, and anemia due to heavy blood loss and iron - deficiency among other side - effects. in some cases, heavy infestations may lead to fatalities because of infection of other worms or malaria as well as excess blood loss and other types of complications. infants were recently recognized in the field of public health as being vulnerable. hookworm disease is more prevalent in females than males .\ntourists visiting areas where local sanitation is a problem should be careful of infestation, especially in regions with humid climates .\ntreatment is fairly simple with mebendazole, albendazole, and levamisole. the use of dietary supplementation is important to compensate for the loss in nutrients .\n( beigal, et al. , 2000; bennett and guyatt, 2000; changhua, et al. , 1999; roberts and janovy jr. , 2000; sen - hai, et al. , 1995 )\nnagla fetouh (author), university of michigan - ann arbor, teresa friedrich (editor), university of michigan - ann arbor .\nliving in sub - saharan africa (south of 30 degrees north) and madagascar .\nliving in the nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the new world. this includes greenland, the canadian arctic islands, and all of the north american as far south as the highlands of central mexico .\nliving in the southern part of the new world. in other words, central and south america .\nhaving body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror - image halves. animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. synapomorphy of the bilateria .\nan animal which directly causes disease in humans. for example, diseases caused by infection of filarial nematodes (elephantiasis and river blindness) .\nforest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality .\nhaving a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature .\n( as keyword in perception channel section) this animal has a special ability to detect heat from other organisms in its environment .\nfound in the oriental region of the world. in other words, india and southeast asia .\nreproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother' s body .\nrainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal .\nthe region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23. 5 degrees north to 23. 5 degrees south .\na terrestrial biome. savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical africa and south america, and in australia .\na grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. see also tropical savanna and grassland biome .\na terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (> 23. 5° n or s latitude). vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. fire and grazing are important in the long - term maintenance of grasslands .\nliving in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity .\nashton, f. , g. schad, j. li. 1999. chemo - and thermosensory neurons: structure and function in animal parasitic nematodes .\nbeigal, y. , z. greenburg, i. ostfeld. 2000. letting the patient off the hook .\nbennett, a. , h. guyatt. 2000. reducing intestinal nematode infection: efficacy of albendazole and mebendazole (review) .\nbrinksworth, r. , s. harrop, p. prociv, p. brindley. 2000. host specificity in blood feeding parasties: a defining contribution by haemoglobin - degrading enzymes? .\nchanghua, l. , z. xiaorong, q. dongchuan, x. shuhua, p. hotez. 1999. epidemiology of human hookworm infections among adult villagers in hejiang and santai counties, sichuan province, china .\nchilton, n. , r. gasser. 1999. sequence differences in the internal transcribed spacers of dna among four species of hookworm .\nsen - hai, y. , j. ze - xiao, x. long - qi. 1995. infantile worm disease in china .\ndisclaimer: the animal diversity web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. adw doesn' t cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. while adw staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control .\nthis material is based upon work supported by the national science foundation grants drl 0089283, drl 0628151, due 0633095, drl 0918590, and due 1122742. additional support has come from the marisla foundation, um college of literature, science, and the arts, museum of zoology, and information and technology services .\nloukas et al. (2006) discussed the need for and prospects of developing a human hookworm vaccine. hotez et al. (2004) provide a broad review of issues related to human hookworm infection .\neol content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. as a result, from time to time you may find pages on eol that are confusing .\nto request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. thank you !\ntogether, the hookworms infect an estimated 576 - 740 million individuals today of which 80 million are severely infected .\nthe morbidity associated with severe infection includes intestinal blood loss, anemia, and protein malnutrition .\nthe burden of infection is concentrated mostly among the world’s poorest who live on less than $2 a day .\na particularly vulnerable population is children in low and middle income countries as infection with hookworm can stunt growth and physical fitness and impair and intellectual and cognitive development .\nthe tragic irony of the situation is that there are readily available and cheap resources for treatment which often cost less than 2 cents per pill .\nthroughout this paper, we will explore the biological, epidemiological, and public health concepts associated with hookworm .\nfor example, it is imperative to understand the lifecycle of hookworm not just for the sake of knowing it but to understand critical points of intervention with treatment, vaccination, and public health campaigns .\ntogether, the sections all build towards the final goal of elimination of hookworm from many parts of the world .\nhookworm infection has numerous synonyms including acanthocheilonemiasis, ancylostomiasis, necatoriasis, and uncinariasis [ 1 ] .\ndocumentation of hookworm dates as early as the third - century b. c. when the authors of the hippocratic corpus referred to a disease characterized by intestinal distress, a yellow - green complexion, and a tendency to eat dirt .\nthe first definitive observations of hookworm, however, were not made until 1838 when angelo dubini discovered hookworm during an autopsy .\nreports of hookworm then began to increase throughout the world, first in egypt in 1846 and then in brazil in 1865 .\nby 1878, giovanni b. grassi and his colleagues had announced a method of diagnosis via microscopic examination of the feces for hookworm eggs .\nin 1880, edoardo perroncito first noted the correlation between hookworms and anemia among miners digging the st. gottard tunnel in the alps .\nsoon thereafter in 1881, the first antihelminthic drug, thymol, was developed and used as the drug of choice until the 1920’s .\nin 1898, arthur looss determined the life cycle of hookworm while charles w. stiles identified\nit was stiles who convinced the rockefeller foundation to initiate its$ 1 million campaign against hookworm in the united states using treatment, education, and latrine - building programs .\nalthough the campaign was unsuccessful in eliminating hookworm from the united states, the campaign has become a significant model in the history of hookworm elimination for its goal and size [ 2 ] .\nhookworm infection is generally considered to be asymptomatic, but as norman stoll described in 1962, hookworm is an extremely dangerous infection because its damage is “silent and insidious” [ 3 ] .\nthere are general symptoms that an individual may experience soon after infection. ground - itch, which is an allergic reaction at the site of parasitic penetration and entry, is common in patients infected with\nadditionally, cough and pneumonitis may result as the larvae begin to break into the alveoli and travel up the trachea. once the larvae reach the small intestine of the host and begin to mature, the infected individual may suffer from diarrhea and other gastrointestinal discomfort [ 5 ] .\nhowever, the “silent and insidious” symptoms referred to by stoll are really only related to chronic, heavy - intensity hookworm infections. major morbidity associated with hookworm is caused by intestinal blood loss, iron deficiency anemia, and protein malnutrition [ 6 ] .\nthey result mainly from adult hookworms in the small intestine ingesting blood, rupturing erythrocytes, and degrading hemoglobin in the host [ 7 ] .\nthis long - term blood loss can manifest itself physically through facial and peripheral edema; eosinophilia and pica caused by iron deficiency anemia are also experienced by some hookworm - infected patients [ 8 ] .\nrecently, more attention has been given to other important outcomes of hookworm infection that play a large role in public health .\nit is now widely accepted that children who suffer from chronic hookworm infection can suffer from growth retardation as well as intellectual and cognitive impairments [ 9 ] .\nadditionally, recent research has focused on the potential of adverse maternal - fetal outcomes when the mother is infected with hookworm during pregnancy .\nis transmitted orally, the early migrations of the larvae cause wakana disease which is characterized by nausea, vomiting, pharyngeal irritation, cough, dyspnea, and hoarseness [ 10 ] .\nprimarily infects dogs, but humans can be dead - end hosts that prevent the larvae from completing their life cycle [ 11 ] .\nthe incubation period can vary between a few weeks to many months and is largely dependent on the number of hookworm parasites with which an individual is infected [ 12 ] .\nworms are grayish white or pinkish with the head slightly bent in relation to the rest of the body .\nthis bend forms a definitive hook shape at the anterior end for which hookworms are named .\nthey possess well developed mouths with two pairs of teeth (figure 1) .\nwhile males measure approximately one centimeter by 0. 5 millimeter, the females are often longer and stouter .\nadditionally, males can be distinguished from females based on the presence of a prominent posterior copulatory bursa [ 13 ] .\nwith males usually 5 to 9 mm long and females about 1 cm long .\npossesses a pair of cutting plates in the buccal capsule (figure 1) .\njohn, david t. and william a. petri, jr. markell and voge’s medical parasitology: ninth edition. st. louis: saunders elsevier, 2006 .\nhotez, peter j. , simon brooker, jeffrey m. bethony, et al. “current concepts: hookworm infection. ” the newengland journal of medicine 351 (2004): 799 - 807 .\nhotez p, bethony j, bottazzi me, brooker s, buss p (2005) hookworm: “the great infection of mankind”. plos med 2 (3): e67\neggs can be found in warm, moist soil where they will eventually hatch into first stage larvae, or l1. l1, the feeding non - infective rhabditoform stage, will feed on soil microbes and eventually molt into second stage larvae, l2. l2, which is also in the rhabditoform stage, will feed for approximately 7 days and then molt into the third stage larvae, or l3. l3 is the filariform stage of the parasite, that is, the non - feeding infective form of the larvae. the l3 larvae are extremely motile and will seek higher ground to increase their chances of penetrating the skin of a human host. the l3 larvae can survive up to 2 weeks without finding a host. it is important to note that while\ndiagnostics of hookworm relies mainly on the recovery of the eggs from the stools .\nthe egg is unsegmented or in an early segmentation stage when passed, but sometimes when specimens have been allowed to stand at room temperature for a long period of time, a larva may be observed within the egg .\nit is rare that eggs hatch and that free larvae are found in the stool .\nrecent research has focused on the development of dna - based tools for diagnosis of infection, specific identification of hookworm, and analysis of genetic variability within hookworm populations [ 17 ] .\nbecause hookworm eggs are often indistinguishable from other parasitic eggs, pcr assays could serve as a molecular approach for accurate diagnosis of hookworm in the feces [ 18, 19 ] .\nthe most common treatment for hookworm are benzimidazoles (bzas), specifically albendazole and mebendazole .\nbzas kill adult worms by binding to the nematode’s beta - tubulin and subsequently inhibiting microtubule polymerization within the parasite [ 20 ] .\nin certain circumstances, levamisole and pyrantel pamoate may be used [ 21 ] .\nthey found that the efficacy of single - dose treatments for hookworm infections were as follows: 72% for albendazole, 15% for mebendazole, and 31% for pyrantel pamoate [ 22 ]. this substantiates prior claims that albendazole is much more effective than mebendazole for hookworm infections. also noteworthy is that the world health organization recommends anthelmintic treatment in pregnant women after the first trimester [ 23 ] .\nit is also recommended that if the patient also suffers from anemia ferrous sulfate (200mg) be administered three times daily at the same time as anthelmintic treatment; this should be continued until hemoglobin values return to normal which could take up to 3 months [ 24 ] .\nother important issues related to the treatment of hookworm are reinfection and drug resistance .\nit has been show that reinfection after treatment can be extremely high. some studies even show that 80% of pretreatment hookworm infection rates can be seen in treated communities within 30 - 36 months [ 25 ]." ]
{ "text": [ "ancylostoma duodenale is a species of the roundworm genus ancylostoma .", "it is a parasitic nematode worm and commonly known as the old world hookworm .", "it lives in the small intestine of hosts such as humans , cats and dogs , where it is able to mate and mature .", "ancylostoma duodenale and necator americanus are the two human hookworms that are normally discussed together as the cause of hookworm infection .", "they are dioecious .", "ancylostoma duodenale is abundant throughout the world , including in the following areas : southern europe , north africa , india , china , southeast asia , some areas in the united states , the caribbean , and south america . " ], "topic": [ 3, 3, 4, 3, 0, 14 ] }
"ancylostoma duodenale is a species of the roundworm genus ancylostoma. it is a parasitic nematode worm and commonly known as the old world hookworm. it lives in the small intestine of hosts such as humans, cats and dogs, where it is able to mate and mature. ancylostoma duodenale and necator americanus are the two human hookworms that are normally discussed together as the cause of hookworm infection. they are dioecious. ancylostoma duodenale is abundant throughout the world, including in the following areas: southern europe, north africa, india, china, southeast asia, some areas in the united states, the caribbean, and south america."
[ "ancylostoma duodenale is a species of the roundworm genus ancylostoma. it is a parasitic nematode worm and commonly known as the old world hookworm. it lives in the small intestine of hosts such as humans, cats and dogs, where it is able to mate and mature. ancylostoma duodenale and necator americanus are the two human hookworms that are normally discussed together as the cause of hookworm infection. they are dioecious. ancylostoma duodenale is abundant throughout the world, including in the following areas: southern europe, north africa, india, china, southeast asia, some areas in the united states, the caribbean, and south america." ]
"animal-train-29"
"animal-train-29"
"2680"
"olivella columellaris"
[ "worms - world register of marine species - olivella columellaris (g. b. sowerby i, 1825 )\nolivella columellaris - olividae - ecuador seashell - 9. 2mm - lot 3 on ebid united kingdom | 137295364\nwhat can we learn from confusing olivella columellaris and o. semistri\nby allison i. troost, samantha d. rupert et al .\nwhat can we learn from confusing olivella columellaris and o. semistriata (olivellidae, gastropoda), two key species in panamic sandy beach ecosystems ?\nwhat can we learn from confusing olivella columellaris and o. semistriata (olivellidae, gastropoda), two key species in panamic sandy beach ecosystems ?\nwhat can we learn from confusing olivella columellaris and o. semistriata (olivellidae, gastropoda), two key species in panamic sandy beach ecosystems ?\narticle: what can we learn from confusing olivella columellaris and o. semistriata (olivellidae, gastropoda), two key species in panamic sandy beach ecosystems ?\ndetails - what can we learn from confusing olivella columellaris and o. semistriata (olivellidae, gastropoda), two key species in panamic sandy beach ecosystems? - biodiversity heritage library\n- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - species: olivella columellaris (g. b. i sowerby, 1825) - id: 2012000040\nolivella, pachyoliva, panamic faunal province, sandy beach intertidal, shell growth (allometry), suspension feeder .\nresumen: el gasterópodo olivella columellaris habita las playas arenosas del pacífico oriental tropical. estos caracoles suelen realizar migraciones mareales ya que se alimentan de partículas en suspensión en la zona de resaca que se mueve con la marea. aunque este comportamiento posiblemente esté regulado por un reloj endógeno que sigue los ritmos mareales, o. columellaris fácilmente puede modificarlo. por ejemplo, cuando se crean pequeños canales que drenan el agua de las pozas (naturales o artificiales) generadas en marea baja, la alimentación suspensívora continúa mientras el agua esté corriendo, retrasándose así la migración mareal. dicha plasticidad en el comportamiento cuestiona la importancia de los ritmos endógenos en la regulación de las migraciones mareales de o. columellaris .\nallison i. troost, samantha d. rupert, ariel z. cyrus, frank v. paladino, benjamin f. dattilo, and winfried s. peters (2012). what can we learn from confusing olivella columellaris and o. semistriata (olivellidae, gastropoda), two key species in panamic sandy beach ecosystems? . biota neotropica. 12 (2). urltoken\nty - jour ti - what can we learn from confusing olivella columellaris and o. semistriata (olivellidae, gastropoda), two key species in panamic sandy beach ecosystems? t2 - biota neotropica ur - urltoken py - 2012 - 06 - 01 au - troost, alison i. au - rupert, samantha d. au - cyrus, ariel z. au - paladino, frank v. au - dattilo, benjamin f. au - peters, winfried s. kw - olivella kw - pachyoliva kw - panamic faunal province kw - sandy beach intertidal kw - shell growth / allometry kw - suspension feeder er -\n@ article { bhlpart109026, title = { what can we learn from confusing olivella columellaris and o. semistriata (olivellidae, gastropoda), two key species in panamic sandy beach ecosystems? }, journal = { biota neotropica }, url = urltoken publisher = { }, author = { troost, alison i. and rupert, samantha d. and cyrus, ariel z. and paladino, frank v. and dattilo, benjamin f. and peters, winfried s. }, year = { 2012 - 06 - 01 }, keywords = { olivella | pachyoliva | panamic faunal province | sandy beach intertidal | shell growth / allometry | suspension feeder | }, }\ntroost, a. i. ; rupert, s. d. ; cyrus, a. z. ; paladino, f. v. ; dattilo, b. f. ; peters, w. s. (2012). what can we learn from confusing olivella columellaris and o. semistriata (olivellidae, gastropoda), two key species in panamic sandy beach ecosystems? . biota neotropica. 12 (2): 101 - 113. , available online at urltoken [ details ]\nafter more than 2 years of preparations, the diatombase portal is now officially launched... .\nlast week - on may 30 and 31st – 8 thematic experts on talitridae came together for the first time during a lifewatch - worms sponsored workshop. the workshop took place at the hellenic centre for marine research in crete, where it was organized back - to - back with the 8th international sandy beaches symposium (isbs). the group focused on identifying relevant traits for the talitridae, and adding this data through the amphipoda species database... .\non 23 april 2018, a number of editors of the world register of introduced species (wrims) started a three day workshop in the flanders marine institute (vliz). these three days were used to evaluate, complete and improve the content of this worms thematic register (tsd)... .\nthe 2nd worms early career researchers and 3rd worms achievement award were granted respectively to françois le coze and geoff read. congratulations! ...\nin 2018, to celebrate a decade of worms' existence, it was decided to compile a list of our top marine species, both for 2017 and for the previous decade... .\nthe scleractinian corals are now accessible though their own list portal. this world list contains over 1 500 accepted names of extant species and is one of the most complete existing resources for scleractinian taxa ...\nsowerby i, g. b. (1825). a catalogue of the shells contained in the collection of the late earl of tankerville. london, privately published. vii + 92 + xxxiv pp. , available online at urltoken page (s): p. xxxiv [ details ]\nif you are generating a pdf of a journal article or book chapter, please feel free to enter the title and author information. the information you enter here will be stored in the downloaded file to assist you in managing your downloaded pdfs locally .\nthank you for your request. please wait for an email containing a link to download the pdf .\nsign up to receive the latest bhl news, content highlights, and promotions .\nbhl relies on donations to provide free pdf downloads and other services. help keep bhl free and open !\nthere was an issue with the request. please try again and if the problem persists, please send us feedback .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd xhtml 1. 0 strict / / en\nurltoken\nthe star system calculates the number of pieces that were handled by conchology, inc. in the last 15 years :\nwe want to point out that the star system is only very reliable for philippine shells only, as we handle very few foreign shells in general. as time goes, the system will become more and more performant .\nenter your email address and we will send you an email with your username and password .\ne - mail jecilia sisican if you do not receive your email with your username and password .\n© 1996 - 2018 guido t. poppe & philippe poppe - conchology, inc. (0. 001 seconds. )\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd html 4. 01 transitional / / en\njavascript is required to use this web site. please turn it on before proceeding .\nallison i. troost, indiana university - purdue university fort wayne samantha d. rupert ariel z. cyrus, indiana university - purdue university fort wayne frank v. paladino, indiana university - purdue university fort wayne follow benjamin f. dattilo, indiana university - purdue university fort wayne follow winfried s. peters, indiana university - purdue university fort wayne follow\n© 2009 indiana university–purdue university fort wayne 2101 e. coliseum blvd. | fort wayne, in 46805 - 1499 | 260 - 481 - ipfw (4739 )\ntroost, alison i. rupert, samantha d. cyrus, ariel z. paladino, frank v. dattilo, benjamin f. peters, winfried s .\nhtml public\n- / / w3c / / dtd html 4. 01 transitional / / en\nthis amount includes applicable customs duties, taxes, brokerage and other fees. this amount is subject to change until you make payment. for additional information, see the global shipping program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab\nthis amount includes applicable customs duties, taxes, brokerage and other fees. this amount is subject to change until you make payment. if you reside in an eu member state besides uk, import vat on this purchase is not recoverable. for additional information, see the global shipping program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab\ndelivery time is estimated using our proprietary method which is based on the buyer' s proximity to the item location, the shipping service selected, the seller' s shipping history, and other factors. delivery times may vary, especially during peak periods .\nany international shipping and import charges are paid in part to pitney bowes inc. learn more - opens in a new window or tab\ninternational shipping and import charges paid to pitney bowes inc. learn more - opens in a new window or tab\ninternational shipping paid to pitney bowes inc. learn more - opens in a new window or tab\nany international shipping is paid in part to pitney bowes inc. learn more - opens in a new window or tab\n$1. 00 shipping for each additional eligible item you buy from shellmama .\nthis item will be shipped through the global shipping program and includes international tracking. learn more - opens in a new window or tab\nthere are 2 items available. please enter a number less than or equal to 2 .\n* estimated delivery dates - opens in a new window or tab include seller' s handling time, origin zip code, destination zip code and time of acceptance and will depend on shipping service selected and receipt of cleared payment - opens in a new window or tab. delivery times may vary, especially during peak periods .\nqualifying purchases could enjoy no interest if paid in full in 6 months on purchases of$ 99 or more. other offers may also be available .\ninterest will be charged to your account from the purchase date if the balance is not paid in full within 6 months. minimum monthly payments are required. subject to credit approval. see terms - opens in a new window or tab\nif the item differs greatly from the description or photos your money will be happily refunded. none specified\nshell / coral round 12 - 12. 9 mm size jewelry making beads ,\nunbranded shell / coral 12 - 12. 9 mm size jewelry making beads ,\ncopyright © 1995 - 2018 ebay inc. all rights reserved. accessibility, user agreement, privacy, cookies and adchoice\nthe photos in our gallery are in most cases just a sample from our stock, except when only one specimen is offered. we try to match the original color but it can vary if your screen is not correctly adjusted (gamma correction) .\nin order to give you the best experience, we use cookies and similar technologies for performance, analytics, personalisation, advertising, and to help our site function. by using ebid, you agree to our use of cookies to enhance your experience in accordance with our updated privacy policy of 25th may 2018. want to know more? view our privacy policy .\nitem is from australia, bids are aud (a ), gbp (£) prices are estimates .\nmeasure 9. 2mm - with full data except for date f + + / gem... a beautiful and rare shell !\naustralian customers can pay by direct bank deposit (preferred), paypal or cheque. overseas customers please pay by paypal unless other arrangements have been made\nprices quoted below are for regular airmail. please note that we can register and / or insure on larger orders. please enquire .\ncombining items in the one package is the most economical way to buy as postage stays the same up to 500grams .\nas postage figures vary dramatically from state to state and country to country please message us if you need an accurate quote .\nwe offer a money - back guarantee if not happy with the item. money will be refunded once the item has been returned in its original condition. return postage is the buyers responsibility .\nthis is a single item listing. if an auction is running, the winning bidder will be the highest bidder .\nebid has paid for another holiday\n- why? let' s take june 2014 as an example - sales £799. 09, invoice £16. 47... overall my sales on ebid in the last 12 months have given me a total of £99. 36 in fees. on ebay that would have been £496. 80. thats my families holiday accommodation paid for this year in savings .\n45 created tue 10 jul 2018 10: 41: 52 (bst). copyright © 1999 - 2018 ebid ltd\noops. a firewall is blocking access to prezi content. check out this article to learn more or contact your system administrator .\nneither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again .\nreset share links resets both viewing and editing links (coeditors shown below are not affected) .\nfor full functionality of researchgate it is necessary to enable javascript. here are the instructions how to enable javascript in your web browser .\nthe intertidal gastropod hydrobia ulvae was subjected experimentally in undisturbed core samples to different combinations of the presence or absence of light and of cover by seawater. as displayed in the field, a greater proportion of snails were active in the dark than in the light, and when covered by water as opposed to being provided only with a damp sediment surface. a slight, but... [ show full abstract ]\ndistribution and migrations of two cerithid snails on a sand flat in bermuda; ii. factors determinin ...\ntwo species of cerithid prosobranchs, baiillaria minima and cerithium lutosum, live on a sand flat in bermuda. the two species execute complex vertical migrations, but they respond differently to light intensity and to water level. this ensures that in the course of tidal and diurnal cycles their maxima of vertical distribution are sometimes in the same, sometimes in different layers of... [ show full abstract ]\nfloating of mud snailshydrobia ulvae in tidal waters of the wadden sea, and its implications in dist ...\njuvenile mud snailshydrobia ulvae disperse by floating at the water surface in summer. the routes of dispersal are determined by the hydrography of the specific area and can be successfully predicted by a hydrographic model. along these routes, juveniles may aggregate in temporary “satellite” sites. turnover of organisms was high at these sites. on average, an individual only stayed for 2 days... [ show full abstract ]\na crepuscular rhythm of locomotor activity in the freshwater prosobranch, melanoides tuberculata (mü ...\nmelanoides tuberculata, entrained to a l: d 12: 12 regimen, exhibits a crepuscular pattern of locomotor activity which persists for 6 to 7 days in both constant light and constant relative darkness at a period which deviates only slightly from 24 h, showing the rhythms to be endogenous. in constant conditions, the activity peaks drift relative to the times of the zeitgebers, but retain the... [ show full abstract ]\nwe use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. by continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. you can change your cookie settings at any time .\nariel z. cyrus, jennifer swiggs, pilar santidrian tomillo, frank v. paladino, winfried s. peters; cannibalism causes size - dependent intraspecific predation pressure but does not trigger autotomy in the intertidal gastropod agaronia propatula, journal of molluscan studies, volume 81, issue 3, 1 august 2015, pages 388–396, urltoken\nautotomy, the active shedding of a body part, is a dramatic action some animals take to escape a predator' s attack. understanding the balance of benefit and costs of losing a body part in order to survive is a persistent problem in evolutionary ecology (maginnis, 2006). while the widely known shedding of tails in lizards represents the paradigmatic, most thoroughly studied example (bateman & fleming, 2009), autotomy is particularly common in various invertebrate taxa, where a variety of morphological structures are affected (fleming, muller & bateman, 2007) .\nin s. c. caliginosa, the predators against which autotomy is effective are specialized snail - eating snakes that attack the snails through the aperture of their shells. when determinate growth ceases, mature snails develop a constricted shell aperture which restricts the snakes' access to fully withdrawn snails (hoso & hori, 2008). therefore, most mature individuals survive snake attacks without having to shed their ‘tails’, although snake - induced autotomy does occur occasionally in mature snails. immature individuals are more vulnerable as they lack the protective constriction and therefore have relatively wide shell apertures. nonetheless, about half of the attacked young snails survive, mostly because they autotomize more readily than mature ones (hoso, 2012). the other subspecies of s. caliginosa, s. c. picta, lives on an island without snail - eating snakes; it does not develop apertural constrictions (hoso & hori, 2008) and autotomizes rarely (hoso, 2012) .\nwhat triggers autotomy in a. propatula in the wild remains obscure. cannibalistic attacks of larger specimens on smaller ones have been documented (rupert & peters, 2011; cyrus et al. , 2012), but no predation on a. propatula other than intraspecific aggression has yet been reported. this led rupert & peters (2011) to hypothesize that autotomy serves in the defence against cannibalism, although cannibalism - induced autotomy has not been directly observed in the wild. in this study, we further evaluated the effects of cannibalism in our costa rican study population of a. propatula. we estimated the frequency of autotomy and the proportion of cannibalism among all predation events, determined the role of body size for the success of cannibalistic attacks and conducted a direct test of the hypothesis that cannibalism triggers autotomy .\nspecimen was carefully lifted up by the shell without touching the soft body. snails treated in this manner do not retreat into their shell but continue to probe the air around them in what seems to be an attempt to reach solid ground (\n). the behaviour of hunter and bait was recorded (attack or no attack, success of attack, attempt to escape by burrowing or crawling away, etc. ;\n= 116), either until one had completely enclosed the other in its metapodial pouch, or until both moved away in different directions. finally, hunter and bait were photographed next to a ruler with a digital camera (sony cybershot dsc - h20) and shell lengths were measured on the photographs using imagej v. 1. 45s (\n) to establish the dependence of the success rate of predation attempts on the size ratio between hunter and bait .\nmorphological indicators of previous autotomy events and their distribution across the size spectrum of the study population of agaronia propatula. a. living snails viewed from below, showing a normal, uniformly coloured sole (left), a pink ‘tail’ (centre) and an incompletely regenerated white ‘tail’ (right). in bicoloured feet (centre and right), the border between the colours is always sharp and coincides with the darkly pigmented autotomy zone. b. size spectrum (shell length in classes 2 mm wide) and distribution of foot colourations in the active population. the median shell length (30. 4 mm) is indicated by a vertical line. unhatched portions of columns represent uniformly coloured feet, which were grey or pink as colour - coded. hatched portions represent bicoloured feet with white or pink tails as colour - coded. asterisks on top stand for individuals with incompletely regenerated, short and thin white ‘tails’ (as on the right in a) .\nduring the course of this project, we documented 108 successful predation events at our study site. predation events either were directly observed as successful attacks (29% of all cases), or\nsailing down the beach slope in the backwash with filled metapodial pouches were caught and examined (71% of all cases). in the latter case, several hours may have passed since the successful attack took place (\n( 68. 5% of the total); shell lengths of animals captured ranged from 7. 0 to 19. 3 mm, corresponding to predator - to - prey shell length ratios from 1. 47 to 5. 13. in six predation events (5. 6% of the total) victims were smaller\n( 22. 0 to 32. 1 mm shell length) and predator - to - prey shell length ratios ranged from 1. 45 (practically identical to the lower limit for\nprey) to 2. 14. in one of these six instances, about half of the victim was found consumed and, in another, only a small amount of tissue remained in the apex of the victim' s shell. these observations suggested that incompletely consumed prey was kept in the metapodial pouch as a food reserve. the remaining four victims of intraspecific predation were alive and active immediately after their rescue from the metapodial pouches; none had autotomized. intriguingly, two of the live victims had inflated metapodial pouches themselves, but these contained sand only. in no case was the prey' s shell damaged, indicating that\n). in four of these instances, both animals retreated after a more or less violent struggle in which they attempted to wrap their metapodia around the opponent. no animal involved ever withdrew into its shell; it rather seemed that the snails expanded their feet to maximum size, which evidently reduced the danger of being enclosed by the opponent' s foot. on two occasions the animals were submerged when the attack occurred; in both cases, the attacked snail rapidly assumed the sailing posture and moved away with the flow, leaving its opponent behind .\ntaken together, our field observations indicated that ‘tail’ autotomy on one hand, and intraspecific aggression as well as cannibalism on the other, occur at significant rates in a. propatula at our study site. thus, the hypothesis that autotomy serves as a defence mechanism against intraspecific predation appeared plausible. however, the hypothesis was not supported by direct observation of the process in the field .\nsince we had failed to observe cannibalism - induced autotomy in the field, we attempted to trigger it experimentally by ‘hunter - bait’ experiments. in these experiments, one active individual, the ‘bait’, was placed in the path of another, the ‘hunter’ (\n). without exception, the bait snail, irritated by being lifted up from the substrate briefly, started to burrow immediately. in 99 out of 116 trials (i. e. 85 %) the hunter attacked the burrowing bait, trying to seize it from above with the anterior foot and push it into the metapodial pouch. the bait, however, always attempted to escape by rapid burrowing or forceful movement to the side and only 40 attacks (35% of all trials) ended with the successful entrapment of the bait in the hunter' s pouch. most importantly, the bait never autotomized in these tests, even when almost subdued. snails that could not escape by moving rapidly or burrowing expanded their feet maximally in what looked like desperate attempts to exceed the opponent' s metapodial pouch in size (fig .\n) in its metapodium, whereas the ‘bait’ struggles to burrow while keeping its foot expanded .\nplot of 116 trials with hunter and bait sizes (shell lengths) as coordinates; dashed isolines mark equal size ratios. different symbols represent successful captures of the bait, unsuccessful attacks on the bait and no responses, as defined at top left. all attempted captures in which the size ratio was ≥1. 46 were successful, while all attempts with size ratios < 1. 18 were unsuccessful (with one exception); these two critical ratios are highlighted as solid lines. the distribution of hunter / bait size ratios in this experiment is not representative of natural cannibalistic events in the population, as hunters were intentionally selected to cover the widest possible size range more or less homogeneously .\nplotting bait versus hunter shell lengths revealed a clear dependence of the success rate of capturing attempts on the size ratio (fig. 2 b). when the hunter was at least 1. 46 times larger than the bait, the attack never failed (19 cases). this relation was practically identical to the minimum predator - to - prey size ratios that we had found in naturally occurring cannibalism events (1. 45) and in the predation on o. semistriata (1. 47; see above). in contrast, the bait almost always escaped (in 36 of 37 cases) when the hunter was less than 1. 18 times larger than the bait (fig. 2 b). when the size ratio was between these values, attacks were successful or not at about equal rates. it should be emphasized that the size ratio determined the success rate of the attacks, but had little effect on the decision to attack: in 79% of the trials in which the bait actually was larger than the hunter (size ratio < 1), the hunter attacked anyway (fig. 2 b) .\nwe inferred that if autotomy occurred in a. propatula as a response to cannibalistic attack, it would not be triggered during early stages of intraspecific aggressive interactions. moreover, we concluded that hunting a. propatula tend to attack conspecifics they encounter regardless of size, but that the success of intraspecific predation attempts depends on the size ratio between predator and prey. consequently, cannibalism must be common in a. propatula populations. the frequency of successful cannibalistic predation attempts in a population must be a function of population density since encounters are random, and also of the size spectrum of the population because success rates depend on size ratios (fig. 2 b) .\nwe concluded that a. propatula kills its prey in a process that takes several hours, with slow suffocation in the metapodial pouch being the most obvious candidate mechanism. due to enclosed sediment and water, the volume of the closed pouch can be much larger than that of the victim alone, which may explain the prolonged survival of the prey. our results confirmed that a. propatula approaches its shelled gastropod prey through the aperture without damaging the shell. the most important finding, however, was that all victims died without autotomizing, refuting the hypothesis that a. propatula performs autotomy in defence against cannibalistic attack .\nin his review of cannibalism in gastropods, baur (1992) concluded that among marine species, cannibalism occurs in opportunistic but not in specialized predators (compare paine, 1963; hughes, 1985), that the intraspecific predator usually is larger than its prey in shelled snails but not necessarily in shell - less slugs (compare leonard & lukowiak, 1984) and that the occurrence of cannibalism might correlate with environmental constraints such as limited periods for foraging activities. evidently, a. propatula fits this description .\nwhile we have not determined the absolute frequency of cannibalistic events in the study population, a rough estimate of the effects of cannibalism can be derived from the finding that 5. 6% of all predation events observed were cannibalistic. defining t as the average period between two successful hunts, and assuming that t is the same for all kinds of prey, the population will have a cannibalism - induced half - life period of 12 t. if t equals 5 d, for example, the original population will be halved in 2 months due to cannibalism alone. this assumption appears conservative; we have not observed t for cannibalism, but t for predation on o. semistriata probably is about 1 d as consumption was completed in less than 14 to 16 h in our tests. thus, cannibalism is a potentially significant factor in the population dynamics of a. propatula .\nto establish an arbitrary but intuitive unit of intraspecific predation pressure, we set the probability to be cannibalized when meeting a conspecific for a snail of median size (30. 4 mm shell length) to 1. the relationship between size and relative intraspecific predation pressure is given in figure 3 b. the odds for the smallest a. propatula found on our test beach to meet dangerously sized conspecifics are about nine times higher than those for individuals of median size, while the risk for the largest animals in the population approaches zero. the relative predation pressure on snails at the end of the 10th percentile (shell length 21. 3 mm) and the beginning of the 90th percentile (shell length 37. 7 mm) of the study population differs by a factor of 90! this strongly skewed distribution of predation risk confirms that large and small a. propatula play distinct trophic roles in a functionally size - structured population .\nwork in the parque nacional marino las baulas was conducted under research permits act - or - d - 015 and act - or - dr - 064 to w. s. p. from the costa rican ministerio de ambiente y energia. fieldwork in 2013 / 2014 was facilitated by a sabbatical leave granted to w. s. p. by indiana / purdue university fort wayne. we thank lucia delbene for assistance in the production of the\nnatural history observations of prophysaon andersoni (j. g. cooper), with special reference to amputation\noxford university press is a department of the university of oxford. it furthers the university' s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide\nfor full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription .\nerror. page cannot be displayed. please contact your service provider for more details. (32 )" ] { "text": [ "olivella columellaris is a species of small sea snail , a marine gastropod mollusk in the family olivellidae , the dwarf olives .", "with the very similar olivella semistriata it forms the subgenus pachyoliva .", "both species are suspension feeders .", "they use unique appendages of the propodium ( front part of the foot ) to deploy mucus nets which capture suspended particles from the backwash on sandy beaches of the tropical eastern pacific . " ], "topic": [ 2, 26, 12, 17 ] } "olivella columellaris is a species of small sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family olivellidae, the dwarf olives. with the very similar olivella semistriata it forms the subgenus pachyoliva. both species are suspension feeders. they use unique appendages of the propodium (front part of the foot) to deploy mucus nets which capture suspended particles from the backwash on sandy beaches of the tropical eastern pacific." [ "olivella columellaris is a species of small sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family olivellidae, the dwarf olives. with the very similar olivella semistriata it forms the subgenus pachyoliva. both species are suspension feeders. they use unique appendages of the propodium (front part of the foot) to deploy mucus nets which capture suspended particles from the backwash on sandy beaches of the tropical eastern pacific." ] "animal-train-30" "animal-train-30" "2681" "yellow - tailed black cockatoo" [ "yellow - tailed black - cockatoo at... - cockatoo wingtag | facebook\ncarnaby’s black cockatoo, carnaby’s cockatoo, mallee cockatoo, ngoolark, short - billed black cockatoo, short - billed black - cockatoo, slender - billed black - cockatoo, slender - billed cockatoo, white - tailed black cockatoo, white - tailed black - cockatoo, white - tailed cockatoo .\nthe yellow - tailed black cockatoo competes with the palm cockatoo as australia’s largest cockatoo species. yellow - tailed black cockatoos reach a greater length, but palm cockatoos are heavier .\nalthough the yellow - tailed black cockatoo is one of six species of black cockatoo in australia, it is the only black cockatoo found in tasmania .\na yellow - tailed black cockatoo in sydney’s centennial park. photo: peter rae\na yellow - tailed black cockatoo in sydney' s centennial park. photo: peter rae\ncommon names include baudin' s black cockatoo or long - billed black cockatoo .\nmy experience with the yellow - tailed black cockatoos. it all started in 1984 when i purchased a pair of yellow - tailed black cockatoos .\nresearchers john martin and jessica rooke fit a gps tracker to a yellow - tailed black cockatoo .\nthis information is important for the long - term conservation of the yellow - tailed black - cockatoo population .\nthis and carnaby' s black cockatoo were known collectively as the white - tailed black cockatoo until formally classified as separate species .\ndescription of adults: not to be confused with the red tailed black cockatoo .\nthe yellow tailed black cockatoo has a beak adapted for digging into branches and trunks of trees to extract insect larvae .\nresearchers john martin and jessica rooke fit a gps tracker to a yellow - tailed black cockatoo. photo: peter rae\nsaunders, denis a (1979) .\ndistribution and taxonomy of the white - tailed and yellow - tailed black - cockatoos\nthe yellow - tailed black cockatoo is a large black cockatoo with round yellow marking on ear. the tail has pale yellow panels. the male has dark grey upper bill and pink ring round eye. the female has a paler bill and grey ring round eye .\nsaunders, denis a (1974) .\nsubspeciation in the white - tailed black cockatoo ,\nthe yellow - tailed black - cockatoo is a large (to 680mm) cockatoo clearly distinguished by its mostly black plumage, yellow cheek patch and yellow panels on the tail. the body feathers are edged with yellow giving a scalloped appearance. it has a short, mobile crest on the top of its head .\nportrait of a female yellow - tailed black - cockatoo (photo courtesy of b. hensen) [ bruny island, tas, march 2016 ]\nthe yellow - tailed black - cockatoo is found in south - eastern australia, from eyre peninsula, south australia to south and central eastern queensland .\nlateral view of a male yellow - tailed black - cockatoo (photo courtesy of m. eaton) [ ravensbourne np, qld, june 2016 ]\nfrontal view of a preening female yellow - tailed black - cockatoo (photo courtesy of m. eaton) [ cooroy, qld, december 2017 ]\nwildlife ecologist john martin and researcher jessica rooke look for yellow - tailed black cockatoos in sydney' s centennial park .\nthe yellow - tailed black cockatoos have a long breeding season. both sexes construct the nest, which is a large\nuntil recently, the short - billed black - cockatoo, c. latirostris, found in south - western australia, was considered a subspecies of the yellow - tailed black - cockatoo. this species has white, instead of yellow, panels in the tail. another similarly sized black - coloured cockatoo is the red - tailed black - cockatoo, c. magnificus. this species overlaps with the range of the yellow - tailed black - cockatoo in south - eastern queensland. it has red panels in the tail, and spotting on the body and head. the smaller (48 cm) glossy black - cockatoo, c. lathami, also has red panels in the tail .\nuntil recently, the short - billed black - cockatoo, c. latirostris, found in south - western australia, was considered a subspecies of the yellow - tailed black - cockatoo. this species has white, instead of yellow, panels in the tail. another similarly sized black - coloured cockatoo is the red - tailed black - cockatoo, c. magnificus. this species overlaps with the range of the yellow - tailed black - cockatoo in south - eastern queensland. it has red panels in the tail, and spotting on the body and head. the smaller (48 cm) glossy black - cockatoo, c. lathami, also has red panels in the tail .\nwestern australia black cockatoo workshop (2008). proceedings of the western australia black cockatoo workshop, august 2008. perth, western australia .\nthe yellow - tailed black - cockatoo is one of six species of black - cockatoo in australia. in recent years it has been in rapid decline because of native habitat clearance, with a loss of food supply and nest sites .\nfemale yellow - tailed black cockatoo in australia. it is eating banksia integrifolia. . image by tim from ithaca - some rights reserved. (view image details )\nnear - lateral view of a female yellow - tailed black - cockatoo (photo courtesy of b. hensen) [ st. albans, nsw, november 2017 ]\ndorsal view of a female yellow - tailed black - cockatoo (photo courtesy of r. plumtree) [ ensay south, east gippsland, vic, january 2017 ]\nyellow - tailed black cockatoo' s, while not uncommon are no where near as visible as their cousins, the sulphur - crested cockatoo (which are a daily sighting in most major australian cities) .\nthe yellow - tailed black - cockatoo is a large cockatoo. it is easily identified by its mostly black plumage, with most body feathers edged with yellow, not visible at a distance. it has a yellow cheek patch and yellow panels on the tail. the female has a larger yellow cheek patch, pale grey eye - ring (pink in males), white upper bill (grey - black in males) and black marks in the yellow tail panels. young birds resemble the adult female, but young males have a smaller cheek patch .\nthe yellow - tailed black - cockatoo occurs in a variety of habitat types, including eucalypt woodland, heathlands, subalpine areas, pine plantations and occasionally in urban areas .\nthis story rare birds: project tracks wild yellow - tailed black cockatoos for the first time first appeared on the sydney morning herald .\ndamage done by a yellow - tailed black - cockatoo to a young tree; yellow - tailed black - cockatos are known to take grubs, such as e. g. witchety grubs, that may have caused the initial damage to the plant' s core [ jilliby sca, nsw, july 2013 ]\nmale yellow - tailed black - cockatoo pulling seeds out of a cone (photo courtesy of r. plumtree) [ ensay south, east gippsland, vic, december 2013 ]\nfemale yellow - tailed black - cockatoo pulling seeds out of a cone (photo courtesy of r. plumtree) [ ensay south, east gippsland, vic, march 2014 ]\nseed cones of an introduced conifer (left) and one chewed by a yellow - tailed black - cockatoo... [ near glen innes, nsw, may 2014 ]\nsaunders, d. a. (1979) distribution and taxonomy of the white - tailed and yellow - tailed black - cockatoos calyptorhynchus spp. emu, 79: 215 - 227 .\nfig. 3. crypsis in feather lice: the white louse (neopsittaconirums albus) is a parasite ofthe sulfur - crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita), the black louse (n. borgiolii) is a parasite of the yellow - tailed black cockatoo (calyptorhynchus funereus). photos of sulfur - crested cockatoo by fir0002 / flagstaffotos, yellow - tailed black cockatoo by david cook, and lice by s. e. bush. from bush et al. (2010) .\nwildlife ecologist john martin and researcher jessica rooke look for yellow - tailed black cockatoos in sydney' s centennial park. photo: peter rae\nyellow - tailed black - cockatoo\ntlc\n- female, right, grooming male, left (photo courtesy of m. eaton) [ cooroy, qld, december 2017 ]\never the practical joker... male yellow - tailed black - cockatoo having fun chewing on the bark of a eucalypt tree [ bald rock np, nsw, october 2007 ]\nthe yellow - tailed black - cockatoo is found in south - eastern australia, through south australia, with an isolated population on the eyre peninsula, to south and central eastern queensland .\njessica’s project focuses on the well known yellow - tailed black - cockatoo. however, not many people know that this iconic species has been largely understudied, and is in significant decline. the project’s objectives are to investigate the species habitat, foraging and breeding ecology, with an overall aim of creating a management plan to help conserve the yellow - tailed black - cockatoo .\nr. plumtree reports spotting yellow - tailed black - cockatoos, race\nfunereus\n, occasionally at ensay south, east gippsland, vic .\nb. hensen reports spotting yellow - tailed black - cockatoos, race\nxanthanotus\n, on bruny island, tas, in march 2016 .\nsaunders, d. a. (1979). distribution and taxonomy of the white - tailed and yellow - tailed black - cockatoos calyptorhynchus spp. emu. 79: 215 - - 227 .\nthere are six species of black - cockatoo endemic to australia. the yellow - tailed black - cockatoo is one of the largest species, and found from central / south eastern queensland down to the eyre peninsula in south australia. in recent years, there has been a significant decline in yellow - tailed black - cockatoo numbers on the east coast. moreover, birds have begun to inhabit urbanised areas and forage on introduced pines. around sydney, yellow - tailed black - cockatoos forage in bushland, parks and golf courses on pine cones and a range of native plants, including banksia and hakea seeds .\nmaintain the cockatoo care program and use other opportunities to promote the recovery of baudin’s cockatoo .\na large cockatoo, the yellow - tailed black - cockatoo may reach 65 cm in length with mostly black plumage. most body feathers are edged with yellow and it has large yellow cheek patch and yellow tail panels. females have brighter cheek patches, a pale - grey eye - ring and dark spotting in the tail panels. both sexes have a short, erectable crest. in flight, yellow - tailed black cockatoos flap with a distinctive slow, deep wingbeat. the contact call is a high - pitched and distinctive\nkee - ow” but they may utter a raucous screech if alarmed .\nif you hear the distinctive call of the yellow - tailed black cockatoo in the parklands, take heed as you will be in for a feast for the eyes as a flock wheels over you .\nyou may have seen them slowly flapping in small to large flocks, or heard their distinctive, loud call around sydney. but what do we know about the yellow - tailed black - cockatoo ?\nlateral view of a female yellow - tailed black - cockatoo launching itself into the air (photo courtesy of l. scott) [ roseberry creek valley, near toonumbar np, northern nsw, january 2017 ]\nresearch featured in the' state of australia' s birds 2015' headline and regional reports indicates a significant decline for the yellow - tailed black cockatoo (and some other parrot species) in the east coast .\ni was out walking and came across this pair of yellow - tailed black - cockatoos, unfortunately i didn' t have my camera on me out the time .\nthe breeding season of yellow - tailed black - cockatoos depends on geographic latitude. in the se of australia it is restricted to the period from oct to may .\nbohner, f. (1984). first breeding of the white - tailed black cockatoo. bird keeping in australia. 27: 17 - 18 .\nmale yellow - tailed black cockatoo at wamboin, nsw, australia. the red eye - ring indicates that it is a male. image by david cook wildlife photography - some rights reserved. (view image details )\nyellow - tailed black - cockatoos feed in small to large flocks. their favoured foods are wood - boring larvae and seeds of native and introduced trees and ground plants .\nyellow - tailed black - cockatoos, race\nxanthanotus\n, feasting on seeds (photo courtesy of b. hensen) [ bruny island, tas, march 2016 ]\nthe yellow - tailed black - cockatoo inhabits a variety of habitat types, but favours eucalypt woodland and pine plantations. small to large flocks can be seen in these areas, either perched or flying on slowly flapping wings .\nyellow - tailed black - cockatoos are not as common as other cockatoo species west of the great dividing range. the first time we spotted one bird of race\nfunereus\nwas 25 km west of narrabri in 2003 .\nthe yellow - tailed black cockatoo inhabits a variety of habitat types, but prefers eucalypt woodland and pine plantations. they are found in south - eastern australia, from eyre peninsula, south australia to south and central eastern queensland .\nbirds in my backyard / yellow - tailed black cockatoo feeding it’s young the yellow - tailed black cockatoos have arrived in my backyard. (as with the sulphur - crested cockatoos we only get a couple of them turn up to where we live .) this year they have a young one with them which is good to see. i was fortunate enough to catch the male feeding him / her .\nif you are in the southern part of western australia, they would have been one of the white - tailed black cockatoos: either baudin' s black - cockatoo (calyptorhynchus baudinii) or carnaby' s black - cockatoo (c. latirostris). the white - tailed black cockies have white cheek patches and (unsurprisingly) a white panel with little to no black in the tail. these may possibly be mistaken for pale yellow in certain circumstances. we are in the process of adding more fact sheets and images to the site, but unfortunately we don' t have any white - tailed cocky images at this point. try entering\nwhite tailed black cockatoo\ninto a search engine to see some images of these lovely birds. cheers, jaynia\nassociations baudin' s cockatoo sometimes associates with carnaby' s cockatoo and the forest red - tailed black cockatoo (calyptorhynchus banksii naso) at sites where food is abundant (higgins 1999; saunders 1974b), most likely in jarrah - marri forest on the darling plateau. breeding, foraging and roosting areas also overlap on the southern swan coastal plain. carnaby' s cockatoo is listed as endangered and the forest red - tailed black cockatoo is listed as vulnerable under the epbc act 1999 .\n— geltonuodegis kakadu statusas t sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. calyptorhynchus funereus angl. yellow tailed black cockatoo vok. gelbschwanz rußkakadu, m rus. траурный какаду, m pranc. cacatoès funèbre, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas… …\nwithin the genus, the two western australian white - tailed species, the short - billed and long - billed black cockatoo, together with the yellow - tailed black cockatoo of eastern australia form the subgenus zanda. the red - tailed and glossy black cockatoos form the other subgenus, calyptorhynchus. the two groups are distinguished by differing juvenile food begging calls and the degree of sexual dimorphism. males and females of the latter group have markedly different plumage, whereas those of the former have similar plumage. [ 4 ]\nthe baudin' s black cockatoo is one of two species of white - tailed black cockatoo endemic to south - western australia which were only separated taxonomically in 1948. it is closely associated with moist, heavily forested areas dominated by marri and is threatened by habitat destruction .\nyellow - tailed black - cockatoos can be very determined to [ literally ] get their grub (photo courtesy of m. eaton) [ ravensbourne np, qld, june 2016 ]\nyellow - tailed black - cockatoos large black - cockatoos that usually live in small to medium - sized flocks. their plumage is dimorphic, i. e. males and females are slightly different. both sexes have dull black plumage, with a small crest. grey edge lining of the feathers leads to a slightly scalloped appearance. male yellow - tailed black - cockatoos have small yellow ear patches, pink eye - rings, a dark - grey bill and two solid - yellow undertail panels. females have larger yellow ear patches, grey eye - rings, a light - grey bill and finely barred tail panels. the irises are dark, legs and feet are grey. juvenile and immature yellow - tailed black - cockatoos have a pinkish bill; they can be identified easily, because they are always begging for food with strident begging calls .\nthe forest red - tailed black cockatoo (calyptorhynchus banksii naso) also occurs within the range of baudin' s cockatoo, but baudin' s cockatoo is readily distinguished by the prominent whitish patch over the ear coverts, the white (as opposed to red) panels in the tail, and the distinctive contact call that is said to be very different from the harsh, metallic notes of the forest red - tailed black cockatoo (higgins 1999) .\ncarnaby’s black - cockatoo is often mistaken for the closely related baudin’s black - cockatoo (calyptorhynchus baudinii), and the two were previously considered to be the same species (4) (5). the only noticeable differences between the two species are that carnaby’s black - cockatoo produces a slightly longer contact call and has a shorter upper mandible, giving rise to its alternative common name of short - billed black - cockatoo (2) (3) (4) (5) (8) (9). carnaby’s black - cockatoo and baudin’s black - cockatoo also have slightly different feeding habits and habitat preferences (7) .\na pair of yellow - tailed black cockatoos flying at edithvale wetlands, melbourne, victoria, australia image by frankzed from melbourne, australia - some rights reserved. (view image details )\nthe yellow - tailed black cockatoo is found from central queensland to south australia' s eyre peninsula. it eats the seeds of native trees and pine cones but in urbanised areas is foraging on introduced pine cones in parks and on golf courses .\nnear - lateral view of a female yellow - tailed black - cockatoo - in this view one can clearly see the crossed alignment of the crest feathers (photo courtesy of b. hensen) [ st. albans, nsw, november 2017 ]\nsaunders, d. a. (1974c). the function of displays in the breeding of the white - tailed black cockatoo. emu. 74: 43 - 46 .\na fair number of yellow - tailed black - cockatoos, race\nfunereus\n, were also spotted at coolah tops np, 30 km east of coolah, nsw, in may 2009 .\nhere the cause of the damage: female yellow - tailed black - cockatoo pulling a grub out of the core of a branch of a white cedar tree (photo courtesy of b. hensen) [ st. albans, nsw, november 2017 ]\n55–60 cm; 610–900 g. male body plumage dusky black with upper body and wing - covert feathers finely edged buff; yellow ear - covert patch; broad yellow band in tail ...\ndescription: one of my favourite members of the parrot family would have to be the yellow - tailed black cockatoo. during autumn, these large black cockatoos form flocks that move around sydney in search of food. the males have a blackish bill, a red eye - ring and a dull yellow ear patch. the female has a whitish bill, a grey eye - ring and a bright yellow ear patch. both sexes have large yellow panels in a long tail that can be seen when the bird is in flight .\nnear - dorsal view of a male yellow - tailed black - cockatoo; note the skin - coloured eye ring and dark - grey bill, which distinguish it from females (photo courtesy of b. hensen) [ bruny island, tas, march 2016 ]\nthis species is conventionally accepted (christidis & boles 1994; sibley & monroe 1990). baudin' s cockatoo and carnaby' s cockatoo (calyptorhynchus latirostris) were formerly treated as a single species, the white - tailed black - cockatoo (c. baudinii) (higgins 1999; saunders 1979) .\nsaunders, d. a. (1974b). subspeciation in the white - tailed black cockatoo, calyptorhynchus baudinii, in western australia. australian wildlife research. 1: 55 - 69 .\nyellow - tailed black - cockatoos have been observed by us chomping on tree branches and young trees, apparently feeding on something under the bark, possibly in the (rotten ?) core, see below .\nhi dennis. given your locality and description, it is most likely that the birds you saw are yellow - tailed black - cockatoos. they only other black cockatoo in your area is the glossy black - cockatoo, however as yours were large with yellow on the cheeks and under the tail, it is very unlikely that they were glossies. yellow - tailed black - cockatopos are large, very impressive birds and have a gorgeous call, unlike the harsh screech of a sulphur - crested cockatoo. you can check out their call on the birds in backyards site at urltoken. yellow - tails forage for wood - boring insects by stripping bark and excavating holes in trees, hence the bits of falling branch you saw. they are also known to make a\ngrating\nnoise while they forage, which is probably the sound you heard. best regards, jaynia .\nchapman, t. (2008). forest black cockatoo (baudin' s cockatoo calyptorhynchus baudinii and forest redtailed black cockatoo calyptorhynchus banksii naso) recovery plan. department of environment and conservation, western australia. available from: urltoken. in effect under the epbc act from 21 - apr - 2011 .\nsorry dennis, i posted my last comment before it was finished! there are also red - tailed black - cockatoos in your area, however, it isn' t likely that they are what you saw if all your birds had yellow cheeks and yellow undertail panels. cheers, jaynia\n5th aug, 2010. approx 2 weeks ago i had the pleasure of two large glossy black cockatoos pecking at my tree after borers. i have tried to identify them by picture on the net but cannot find an identical likeness. it sounds like they are yellow tailed black cockatoos but the plumage on these birds was truly beautiful. glossy black but the tails were a soft yellow colour and the yellow was at the end of the tail feathers not mixed in with the black. the division of colour from black to yellow was very definate and almost scalloped across the span of the tail feathers. there was only two and the call was soft and inviting. sadly went for the camera but wasn' t quick enough. all other features seemed same as yellow tailed but cant find that elusive picture to prove it .\nforshaw, joseph m. & cooper, william t. 2002. yellow - tailed black - cockatoo calyptorhynchus funereus (shaw). pp 57 - 70 in: australian parrots / joseph m. forshaw; illustrated by william t. cooper alexander editions, robina, queensland .\nthe yellow - tailed black - cockatoo is found up to 2000m throughout south - eastern australia, from eyre peninsula to south and central eastern queensland. it is declining in numbers in parts of its range due to habitat fragmentation and loss of large trees used for breeding hollows .\nsaunders, d. a. (1974) subspeciation in the white - tailed black cockatoo, calyptorhynchus baudinii, in western australia. australian wildlife research, 1 (1): 55 - 69 .\nhi soraya. the identification depends on which state you saw the birds in. if you are in the eastern states of australia, then the birds were yellow - tailed black - cockatoos. when the tail is folded, sometimes the black in the panel is not visible; also, some birds don' t have a lot of black speckling. there is often a sharp distinction between the black and yellow. my guess is that this is most likely the species you saw .\nshephard, m. (1989). aviculture in australia: keeping and breeding aviary birds. melbourne: black cockatoo press .\nyellow - tailed black cockatoos are a little flighty around humans, which can make it difficult for scientists to capture them. but if you cruise up to one in a car, it won' t be particularly bothered .\nit is unclear whether such responses are adaptive or reflect resilience to habitat alteration. while some data are available, very little is known about the movements of yellow - tailed black - cockatoos and the mechanisms driving their behaviour .\nthis study will investigate yellow - tailed black - cockatoo movements around the sydney region, using gps tracking technology. additionally, diets will be investigated using isotopic analysis, given the probable importance of different types of foraging resources which drive the species’ distribution. overall, we have 4 main objectives :\nsaunders, d. a. (1974a). the occurrence of the white - tailed black cockatoo, calyptorhynchus baudinii, in pinus plantations in western australia. australian wildlife research. 1: 45 - 54 .\nyellow - tailed black - cockatoos feed in small to large, noisy flocks. the favoured food is seeds of native trees and pinecones, but birds also feed on the seeds of ground plants. some insects are also eaten .\nunlike the smaller sulphur - crested cockatoo, whose screech is like the sound of fingernails on a chalkboard, the yellow - tailed black cockatoo has a distinctive, almost mournful, cry. they are beautiful to watch in flight, dr martin said .\nit' s like they' re falling and they catch themselves; they really float along ,\nhe said .\nbyrne, m. , g. barrett, m. blythman, h. finn & m. williams (2015). the 2015 great cocky count: a community - based survey for carnaby' s black - cockatoo (calyptorhynchus latirostris) and forest red - tailed black - cockatoo (calyptorhynchus banksii naso). birdlife australia, floreat, western australia .\ndr martin, who works with the botanic gardens and centennial parklands, is part of the first study to track yellow - tailed black - cockatoos in the wild, which in sydney includes the eastern suburbs and industrial areas such as port botany .\nbirds australia (now birdlife australia) has been leading recovery efforts for the carnaby’s black - cockatoo, and in 2006 introduced the ‘great cocky count’, a survey completed by the community to map carnaby’s black - cockatoo abundance and estimate the population size (7) (15) .\nthere are three races of yellow - tailed black - cockatoos, all of which are endemic to australia. the range of yellow - tailed black - cockatoos extends along the south and east coast of australia, from about the tip of the eyre peninsula, sa, to about the tropic of capricorn in qld. especially in qld, but also in other areas, yellow - tailed black - cockatoos are also found in parts of the great dividing range, up to a few hundred km from the coastline. to the west of melbourne, vic, race\nwhiteae\nis found, whereas east of melbourne and up the east coast nominate race\nfunereus\nis found. race\nxanthanotus\npopulates all of tasmania and the islands along bass strait .\nis there anyone who doesn’t appreciate the sight of a flock of yellow - tailed black cockatoos (ytbc) flying overhead? it seems that very little is really known about them and you can help to change that and potentially influence planning for their conservation .\nlueka is a yellow - tailed black cockatoo. he is a wild - born bird who was donated to australia zoo by queensland parks and wildlife service. yellow - tailed black cockatoos can be found on the sunshine coast, so when you are visiting this beautiful area, keep an eye out for these guys in the sky. lueka is one of the' australian native' stars who appears in the daily crocoseum show. he is fantastic at carving up the sky with his acrobatics and is one of the craziest and most hyperactive birds that we have in the' bird show' .\ncarnaby’s black - cockatoo is legally protected in australia (2) (4), and international trade in this species should be strictly controlled under its listing on appendix ii of the convention on international trade in endangered species (cites) (6). a recovery plan has been prepared for carnaby’s black - cockatoo, and in 1999 a carnaby’s black - cockatoo recovery team was appointed to coordinate conservation efforts for this species (8) .\nyellow - tailed black - cockatoos can be found in various types of forest, from open to dense, often with cypress and / or black pine. they also go into areas with human activity (farms, parks) to feed on other seed cones, such as e. g. those of the white cedar tree .\nthe current recovery plan for the forest black cockatoos, which includes baudin’s cockatoo, includes a section on guidance for decision makers (chapman 2008) .\n- margins and patches of pale yellow in the tail. the male bird (illustrated at right) has a black bill, a dull yellow patch behind the eye, and a reddish eye - ring. females and immatures have a grey eye - ring, a light - coloured bill, and a brighter, more clearly - defined yellow cheek - patch .\nthe 2011 great cocky count suggested a worrying decline in the carnaby’s black - cockatoo population between 2010 and 2011. long - term monitoring is needed to better understand the population trends of this large but highly threatened cockatoo (15) .\nin flight, yellow - tailed black cockatoos flap with a distinctive slow, deep wingbeat. they are often seen flying in pairs, or trios comprising a pair and their young, although outside the breeding season they may coalesce into flocks of a hundred birds or more .\nthe clutch consisted of two eggs laid six days apart, which is normal for yellow - tails .\nfor information on surveys, see also the epbc act referral guidelines for three threatened black cockatoo species. note that the information provided below has, in part, been extrapolated from data on carnaby’s cockatoo, given the similarities in some behaviour .\nmore recently, marri and jarrah have experienced declines because of disease (marri canker), drought and extreme heat, leading to further degradation of forest red - tailed black cockatoo habitat (doherty et al. 2016; paap et al. 2012) .\ncarnaby’s black - cockatoo is classified as endangered (en) on the iucn red list (1) and is listed on appendix ii of cites (6) .\ncarnaby’s black - cockatoo (calyptorhynchus latirostris) is a large, black cockatoo endemic to south - western parts of western australia (2) (4) (7). its feathers are mainly black to brownish - black, with off - white edges, and it has a wide white band on the tail (2) (3) (4) (7) (8). carnaby’s black - cockatoo also has a whitish patch on the cheek, a short erectable crest on top of the head (2) (3), and a strong, curved bill, which has a flaky texture (4) (8) .\nbaudin' s black cockatoo (calyptorhynchus baudinii), also known as baudin' s cockatoo or long - billed black cockatoo, [ 2 ] is a large black cockatoo found in southwestern australia. the binomial commemorates the french explorer nicolas baudin. it has a short crest on the top of its head. its plumage is mostly greyish black and it has prominent white cheek patches and a white tail band. the body feathers are edged with white giving a scalloped appearance. adult males have a dark grey beak and pink eye - rings. adult females have a bone coloured beak, grey eye - rings and ear patches that are paler than those of the males .\nembed this arkive thumbnail link (\nportlet\n) by copying and pasting the code below. < a href =\nurltoken\ntitle =\narkive species - carnaby' s black - cockatoo (calyptorhynchus latirostris )\n> < img src =\nurltoken\nalt =\narkive species - carnaby' s black - cockatoo (calyptorhynchus latirostris )\ntitle =\narkive species - carnaby' s black - cockatoo (calyptorhynchus latirostris )\nborder =\n0\n/ > < / a >\n— taxobox | name = red tailed black cockatoo status = lc status system = iucn3. 1 status ref = [ iucn2006 | assessors = birdlife international | year = 2004 | id = 47938 | title = calyptorhynchus banksii | downloaded = 11 may 2006 database entry includes justification… …\nselection for habitat types on a larger scale. black rats in an area of\noutside of the breeding season, carnaby’s black - cockatoo generally moves to wetter coastal areas, where it feeds in heathlands and scrublands (4) (8) (10). plantations of introduced pines (pinus spp .) have also become important feeding and roosting sites for carnaby’s black - cockatoo during the non - breeding season (2) (4) (8). although many populations of carnaby’s black - cockatoo migrate, some may remain close to the breeding areas year - round (4) .\nthere are few records of the natural history of yellow - tailed black - cockatoos. further, locations of populations, particularly in new south wales, remain limited. if you have seen a bird or flock, or have any information relevant to this project, please help us by filling out the survey below :\nthe female has a larger, more defined yellow cheek patch than the male, pale grey eye - ring (pink in males) and a whitish upper bill (grey - black in males) .\nthe breeding habitat of carnaby’s black - cockatoo has also been extensively cleared (2) (4) (13). in addition, carnaby’s black - cockatoo is losing nesting sites as nesting trees are not regenerating, mainly due to grazing by sheep and rabbits (2) (3) (4) (8) (13). carnaby’s black - cockatoo is also facing increasing competition with other birds and with introduced bees for nest hollows. in particular, species such as the galah (cacatua roseicapilla) and the western corella (cacatua pastinator) are invading the range of carnaby’s black - cockatoo and out - competing it for resources (2) (4) (7) (8) (10) .\nyellow - tailed black cockatoos are raucous, noisy birds that are often heard before being seen. the usual call is a an eerie high - pitched wailing contact call ,\nkee - ow, kee - ow, kee - ow\n, made while flying or roosting. birds may also make a harsh screeching alarm call .\nyellow - tailed black - cockatoos have a long breeding season, which varies throughout their range, although in tasmania it is generally from october to february. both sexes build the nest in hollows of tall, mature trees, generally eucalypts. the hollow is lined with wood chips. the same tree may be used for many years .\nrowley, i. & boesman, p. (2018). yellow - tailed black - cockatoo (zanda funerea). in: del hoyo, j. , elliott, a. , sargatal, j. , christie, d. a. & de juana, e. (eds .). handbook of the birds of the world alive. lynx edicions, barcelona. (retrieved from urltoken on 10 july 2018) .\nthere are a number of small differences between the male and female carnaby’s black - cockatoo. the male has a dark greyish - black bill, a pink ring of skin around the eye and greyish - brown legs, whereas the female has a whitish bill, a grey eye ring and light grey to pinkish legs. the female carnaby’s black - cockatoo also has a slightly larger white cheek patch than the male (2) (3) (4) (8) .\nthe three species of the subgenus zanda have been variously considered as two, then as a single species for many years. in a 1979 paper, australian ornithologist denis saunders highlighted the similarity between the short - billed and the southern race xanthanotus of the yellow - tailed and treated them as a single species with the long - billed as a distinct species. he proposed that western australia had been colonised on two separate occasions, once by a common ancestor of all three forms (which became the long - billed black cockatoo), and later by what has become the short - billed black cockatoo. [ 5 ] however, an analysis of protein allozymes published in 1984 revealed the two western australian forms to be more closely related to each other than to the yellow - tailed, [ 6 ] and the consensus since then has been to treat them as three separate species. [ 4 ]\ninformation sheet baudin' s cockatoo calyptorhynchus baudinii (johnstone, r. , 2010b) [ internet ] .\nabk vol 11 issue 2. apr - may 1998 page 72 - 76 (black cockatoos )\nabk vol 9 issue 6. dec - jan 1997 page 267 - 270 (black cockatoos )\nsolar - powered gps tracking devices to 6 male and 6 female yellow - tailed black cockatoos. one of the aims of the project is to study the birds' foraging behaviour, habitat preferences and roosing locations, and examine how well they have adapted to the urban environment. the findings will be used to determine whether there is a need for a conservation program .\nlike basically all cockatoos, yellow - tailed black - cockatoos are primarily seed - eaters, where seeds include those in cones and nut - like fruit. the pair shown above showed a strong interest in the cones of a casuarina tree on which they were found sitting; if that is the case, it indicates that their bills are strong enough to crack those cones .\ndavies, s. j. j. f (1966). the movements of the white - tailed black - cockatoos (calyptorhynchus baudinii) in south - western australia. western australian naturalist. 10: 33 - - 42 .\nbaudin' s cockatoo is gregarious and is usually seen in trios or small groups. it occasionally gathers in flocks during the non - breeding season. it is easily confused with the very similar carnaby' s cockatoo. baudin' s cockatoo can be distinguished from carnaby' s cockatoo by its longer upper mandible and slightly shorter contact calls (higgins 1999; saunders 1974c). although there is some overlap between habitats, especially during the non - breeding season, baudin' s cockatoo occurs in wetter areas than carnaby' s cockatoo and generally avoids pine plantations, a habitat in which carnaby' s cockatoo is seen frequently. in addition, carnaby' s cockatoo mainly occurs in or near the wheatbelt eucalypt woodlands, especially those dominated by wandoo or salmon gum, and is only sometimes reported in forests of marri, jarrah or karri. conversely, baudin' s cockatoo mainly occurs in forests dominated by marri, jarrah and karri, and is only occasionally reported in wandoo woodland (higgins 1999; saunders 1974a, 1974b) .\nwe see yellow - tailed black - cockatoos, race\nfunereus\n, most regularly when going into the hills of the great dividing range, e. g. at bald rock np, northern nsw, in october 2007. also seen regularly between tamworth and gloucester, nsw, and e. g. in jilliby sca and watagans np, south of cessnock, nsw .\nvernes, k. , and mcgrath, k. (2009). are introduced black rats (\nsites identified by birdlife international as being important for baudin' s black cockatoo conservation are araluen - wungong, gidgegannup, jalbarragup, mundaring - kalamunda, north dandalup, the stirling range and the lakes. [ 10 ]\nyellow - tailed black - cockatoos have a long breeding season, which varies throughout their range. both sexes construct the nest, which is a large tree hollow, lined with wood chips. the female alone incubates the eggs, while the male supplies her with food. usually only one chick survives, and this will stay in the care of its parents for about six months .\nthe chick was reared and is now part of the establishment. those of you who have seen my video on breeding yellow - tailed blacks will remember\njackson\n, and yes, he might be older, but he still gets into all the mischief in the world! !\nyellow - tailed black - cockatoos, race\nfunereus\n, are also seen by us regularly along the nsw coastline, e. g. in royal np, 20 km south of sydney, some littoral rainforest and in other locations along the east coast of nsw and qld, including suburbs of major cities, but less frequently than in the major forests in the great dividing range .\ncale, b. (2003) carnaby’s black - cockatoo (calpytorhynchus latirostris) recovery plan 2002 - 2012. department of conservation and land management, western australian threatened species and communities unit, wanneroo. available at: urltoken\nbaudin' s black cockatoo is about 56 cm (22 in) long. it is mostly dark - grey with narrow vague light - grey scalloping, which is produced by narrow pale - grey margins at the tip of dark - grey feathers. it has a crest of short feathers on its head, and it has whitish patches of feathers that cover its ears. its lateral tail feathers are white with black tips, and the central tail feathers are all black. the irises are dark brown and the legs are brown - grey. its beak is longer and narrower than that of the closely related and similar carnaby' s black cockatoo. [ 7 ]\nhi all, i am new to this site and being interested to know the last week or so i came home in the afternoon and my husband signalling of be quiet. then we went under the tree and we saw 5 black yellow tailed bird we thought it must be a parrot or cockatoo who knows. anyway from that day we observed and it is a group of 5 large birds. my husband waited and saw them went to our small pond and the birds were having a drink. so from then on they are coming for morning and everning drinks in our little fish pond. time between 07: 00 to 07: 30 and 18: 00 - 20: 00 everyday. it feels so special to have these 5 birds in our front yard everyday. is this normal to come to a suburb? i would say it is black tailled yellow cockatoo after i have the information from the internet .\nthere has been little research published on yellow - tailed black cockatoos, ms rooke said .\na lot of people are under the false impression that the population is doing quite well ,\nshe said .\nbut some of the recent research has shown they' ve significantly declined along the east coast, so now more than ever we need to find out as much as we can about them .\nat curramore, awc is restoring forest cover to disturbed and cleared areas that have been invaded by lantana. awc’s active fire management program should also reduce the potential impacts of wildfires on rainforest and large hollow - bearing trees utilised by this species as breeding sites. a revegetation program has commenced at dakalanta, which is located on the eyre peninsula, which may eventually provide food and habitat for yellow - tailed black cockatoos .\nbanksia park bushcare volunteers recently observed some yellow - tailed black cockatoos boring into tea trees, apparently to extract wood - boring invertebrates. the group had intentionally planted hakeas and banksias to provide a food source for them so we were pleasantly surprised that the tea trees planted alongside were also providing food for the iconic species! jessica advises that literature suggests that yellow - tailed black cockatoos increase this behaviour during breeding time, and when juveniles are fledging (around june - july, although this is based on limited studies, and is said to change across their range). if your groups has any similar observation, please take the time to record them and upload the data to the easy to use survey. the more we can contribute to these citizen science type projects, the more chances we’ll have to help protect the habitat of the species being studied .\nwell i hope you enjoyed my little experience with yellow - tails. just remember - you could have a jackson waiting in the darkness just ready to pounce !\nhabitat fragmentation and loss is a major issue for this cockatoo, as land clearing contributes to loss of food plants and nesting hollows .\n— taxobox | name = glossy black cockatoo status = lc | status system = iucn3. 1 caption = c. l. halmaturinus on kangaroo island regnum = animalia phylum = chordata classis = aves ordo = psittaciformes familia = cacatuidae subfamilia = … …\ncarnaby’s black - cockatoo is endemic to southwest western australia, where it is mainly found between murchison river and esperance, and inland to coorow, kellerberrin and lake cronin (2) (3) (4) (8) (10) .\naustralian government - department of sustainability, environment, water, population and communities (2004) australian threatened species: carnaby’s black - cockatoo, calyptorhynchus latirostris. department of sustainability, environment, water, population and communities, canberra. available at: urltoken\naustralian government - department of sustainability, environment, water, population and communities (2004) australian threatened species: carnaby’s black - cockatoo, calyptorhynchus latirostris. department of sustainability, environment, water, population and communities, canberra. available at: urltoken\nrose, t. a. , and banks, p. b. (2007). impacts of black rats\nsince then we have seen yellow - tailed black - cockatoos, race\nfunereus\n, in the area a few times, e. g. on the northern edge of jack' s creek state forest, 20 km south of narrabri, following bohena creek into the pilliga scrub, and also 25 km west of narrabri and 20 km south - west of narrabri. the next sighting in the northern pilliga np came years later, in 2013 .\nthe epbc act referral guidelines for three threatened black cockatoo species includes baudin’s cockatoo and provide guidance on whether a proposed action is likely to have a significant impact and should be referred under the epbc act. the guideline includes information concerning surveys, habitat, significance and mitigation options. the referral guidelines should be considered in conjunction with the significant impact guidelines 1. 1 – matters of national environmental significance .\nthe glossy black cockatoo in an aviary situation prefer grey striped sunflower seed along with some fruits and vegetables. other seeds typically in a parrot mix are eaten in far less quantities. casuarina tree seed pod or nut should be offered to aviary birds if available .\na number of conservation measures are already in place for carnaby’s black - cockatoo. for example, a captive breeding programme is underway so that if extinction occurs in the wild, individuals are available for reintroductions. injured wild cockatoos are also rehabilitated and incorporated into the breeding programme. perth zoo is maintaining a stud book for captive carnaby’s black - cockatoos, and microchipping and dna analysis are being used to ensure that all captive birds have been legally obtained (2) (4) (8) (13). captive birds are also used to help educate the public about the threats to the carnaby’s black - cockatoo population (8) .\nthe following season i decided to pull some of her eggs and incubate them myself. this proved successful as after 30 days of incubation my first yellow tail chick hatched .\nto have had a devastating impact on native wildlife, especially in island ecosystems. black rat is likely to have arrived in\nwidespread. yet, its impacts on local wildlife have largely been overlooked. here, we review the potential for black rat\ndickman, c. r. , and watts, c. h. s. (2008). black rat ,\ndisease and competition, not just predation, as drivers of impacts of the black rat (rattus rattus) ...\nthe yellow - tailed black - cockatoo prefers seeds of native trees, ground plants and pine cones. some insects are also eaten. unlike other cockatoos, a significant proportion of the diet is made up of wood - boring grubs. birds place their ear against the surface of dead trees to listen for the sound of grubs beneath. if a grub is detected the bird will use their powerful bill to tear chunks from the tree to reach the grub, often leaving a small pile of woodchips at the base of the tree. such scarred, dead trees are a common sight in tasmanian forests .\n7th june, 2010 3. 30pm ish, canungra, queensland. saw 5 birds together, same description as for this bird, the yellow cheeks, the black coat was shiny black like a crow, the tail feathers showed horizontal blackish stripes across the yellowowish area, but the bird was twice the size of the yellow tail as described on site, well over 600 cm [ 2 ft ] maybe 3 foot in sitting position in heavy vine laden trees about 12 ft up. my home borders a sub tropical block, on canungra creek, the birds were not noisy, no bird sounds or squarks etc, just the opposite, and the noise they made that attracted my attention seems to sound like trees rubbing together and i sighted bits of branch falling from the area where they were perched. not good visual unfortunatly. they eventually dissapeared very quietley, i did not even sight them departing in flight. what were they if not the yellow tailed ?\ncarnaby’s black - cockatoo is very sociable and can often be seen in groups of three or more, and even in large flocks of hundreds or sometimes thousands of birds outside of the breeding season (2) (3) (4) (7) (8) .\nthe young carnaby’s black - cockatoo is initially brooded by the female for the first two weeks of life, after which both adults share in feeding it. after 10 to 12 weeks the young cockatoos fledge, but remain with the adults for up to a year, moving with them to the coast at the end of the breeding season to join larger flocks (4) (7) (8). carnaby’s black - cockatoo is a long - lived species that may potentially live for 40 to 50 years in the wild (4) (10)." ] { "text": [ "the yellow-tailed black cockatoo ( calyptorhynchus funereus ) is a large cockatoo native to the south-east of australia measuring 55 – 65 cm ( 22 – 26 in ) in length .", "it has a short crest on the top of its head .", "its plumage is mostly brownish black and it has prominent yellow cheek patches and a yellow tail band .", "the body feathers are edged with yellow giving a scalloped appearance .", "the adult male has a black beak and pinkish-red eye-rings , and the female has a bone-coloured beak and grey eye-rings .", "in flight , yellow-tailed black cockatoos flap deeply and slowly , and with a peculiar heavy fluid motion .", "their loud eerie wailing calls carry for long distances .", "the yellow-tailed black cockatoo is found in forested regions from south and central eastern queensland to southeastern south australia including a very small population persisting in the eyre peninsula .", "two subspecies are recognised , although tasmanian and southern mainland populations of the southern subspecies xanthanotus may be distinct enough from each other to bring the total to three .", "birds of subspecies funereus ( queensland to eastern victoria ) have longer wings and tails and darker plumage overall , while those of xanthanotus ( western victoria , south australia and tasmania ) have more prominent scalloping .", "unlike other cockatoos , a large proportion of the yellow-tailed black cockatoo 's diet is made up of wood-boring grubs , and they also eat seeds .", "they nest in hollows situated high in trees with fairly large diameters , generally eucalyptus .", "although , they remain common throughout much of their range , fragmentation of habitat and loss of large trees suitable for nesting has caused a population decline in victoria and south australia .", "in some places yellow-tailed black cockatoos appear to have adapted to humans and they can often be seen in parts of urban canberra , sydney , adelaide and melbourne .", "it is not commonly seen in aviculture , especially outside australia .", "like most parrots , it is protected by cites , an international agreement , that makes trade , export , and import of listed wild-caught species illegal . " ], "topic": [ 23, 23, 23, 23, 23, 23, 28, 23, 5, 23, 12, 28, 17, 23, 17, 17 ] } "the yellow-tailed black cockatoo (calyptorhynchus funereus) is a large cockatoo native to the south-east of australia measuring 55 – 65 cm (22 – 26 in) in length. it has a short crest on the top of its head. its plumage is mostly brownish black and it has prominent yellow cheek patches and a yellow tail band. the body feathers are edged with yellow giving a scalloped appearance. the adult male has a black beak and pinkish-red eye-rings, and the female has a bone-coloured beak and grey eye-rings. in flight, yellow-tailed black cockatoos flap deeply and slowly, and with a peculiar heavy fluid motion. their loud eerie wailing calls carry for long distances. the yellow-tailed black cockatoo is found in forested regions from south and central eastern queensland to southeastern south australia including a very small population persisting in the eyre peninsula. two subspecies are recognised, although tasmanian and southern mainland populations of the southern subspecies xanthanotus may be distinct enough from each other to bring the total to three. birds of subspecies funereus (queensland to eastern victoria) have longer wings and tails and darker plumage overall, while those of xanthanotus (western victoria, south australia and tasmania) have more prominent scalloping. unlike other cockatoos, a large proportion of the yellow-tailed black cockatoo's diet is made up of wood-boring grubs, and they also eat seeds. they nest in hollows situated high in trees with fairly large diameters, generally eucalyptus. although, they remain common throughout much of their range, fragmentation of habitat and loss of large trees suitable for nesting has caused a population decline in victoria and south australia. in some places yellow-tailed black cockatoos appear to have adapted to humans and they can often be seen in parts of urban canberra, sydney, adelaide and melbourne. it is not commonly seen in aviculture, especially outside australia. like most parrots, it is protected by cites, an international agreement, that makes trade, export, and import of listed wild-caught species illegal." [ "the yellow-tailed black cockatoo (calyptorhynchus funereus) is a large cockatoo native to the south-east of australia measuring 55 – 65 cm (22 – 26 in) in length. it has a short crest on the top of its head. its plumage is mostly brownish black and it has prominent yellow cheek patches and a yellow tail band. the body feathers are edged with yellow giving a scalloped appearance. the adult male has a black beak and pinkish-red eye-rings, and the female has a bone-coloured beak and grey eye-rings. in flight, yellow-tailed black cockatoos flap deeply and slowly, and with a peculiar heavy fluid motion. their loud eerie wailing calls carry for long distances. the yellow-tailed black cockatoo is found in forested regions from south and central eastern queensland to southeastern south australia including a very small population persisting in the eyre peninsula. two subspecies are recognised, although tasmanian and southern mainland populations of the southern subspecies xanthanotus may be distinct enough from each other to bring the total to three. birds of subspecies funereus (queensland to eastern victoria) have longer wings and tails and darker plumage overall, while those of xanthanotus (western victoria, south australia and tasmania) have more prominent scalloping. unlike other cockatoos, a large proportion of the yellow-tailed black cockatoo's diet is made up of wood-boring grubs, and they also eat seeds. they nest in hollows situated high in trees with fairly large diameters, generally eucalyptus. although, they remain common throughout much of their range, fragmentation of habitat and loss of large trees suitable for nesting has caused a population decline in victoria and south australia. in some places yellow-tailed black cockatoos appear to have adapted to humans and they can often be seen in parts of urban canberra, sydney, adelaide and melbourne. it is not commonly seen in aviculture, especially outside australia. like most parrots, it is protected by cites, an international agreement, that makes trade, export, and import of listed wild-caught species illegal." ] "animal-train-31" "animal-train-31" "2682" "giant cicada" [ "i caught a giant cicada! scratch that - - a giant wet cicada .\nthe giant cicada (クマキリ, kumakiri) is an uncommon insect found in animal crossing: new leaf .\nthe\nsong\nof a giant cicada, recorded in boerne, texas on august 30, 2009. the photo is of another giant cicada spotted near the same time, but it is unliky that this cicada made the recorded noise. the ruler image shows the approximate size of the giant cicada. it is one big bug! and it makes one loud noise !\nnote, there are over 40 species of cicadas in texas, but the giant cicada is truly unique in terms of the sound it makes .\nsummer cicada sound # 60 minutes song of cicada. amazing sound # 1080p video\ngiant cicada necklace - insect jewelry - natural history - aged brass. 27. 00, via etsy. | cool clothes and related | pinterest | insects\ncicadas are emerging across much of the washington area, surprising locals who weren’t expecting the giant insects for four more years .\nthe wasp will carry the cicada to a burrow, where it will place the cicada .\nbatman cicada — a cicada with an unusual pattern on its back. (kevin ambrose )\ncicada videos and sounds alarm squawks and mating calls is also very helpful for identifying cicada sounds .\nevery now and then someone will email me about “a giant bee attacking a cicada”. these are not bees, these are cicada killer wasps. now is a good time to write about them because prof. chuck holliday is now retired and has shut down his cicada killer wasp website 1 .\nthe first jon & lynn cd was released march 1, 2010 on the jbq media label. this giant cicada ep is their second release. find them on the web at giantcicada. com .\ngiant cicadas range from central texas to central argentina (sanborn &. phillips 2013). this is the widest ranging cicada in the western hemisphere and has almost no variation in its song throughout its range .\na different catchphrase is shown when it is caught in the rain in new leaf. this trait is shared with the robust cicada, walker cicada, and evening cicada .\ngiant cicada is a group that makes music in the cracks. is this jazz, folk, americana, what? some of my favorite music doesn’t fit neatly in any genre, and i will add this to the list... giant cicada’s gift is to take these incongruous elements and have them make sense together. (lynn) stein is an emotional singer who never has to shout, and that really puts this album over the top .\nfeb. 21 - around 4: 00 pm one giant cicada was heard calling in the parking lot area, resaca de la palma state park, brownsville, cameron co. - melissa c jones, phd. , tpwd, habitat conservation coordinator\nin japan, it is known as the bear cicada (熊蝉 or kumazemi). it is the largest cicada in japan .\nthe cicada information on cicada mania is not limited to north america. we have some cicada photos and information for australia, asia, europe, and south america thanks to contributors around the world .\na cicada caught on locust lane in fairfax, va. we know a cicada is not a locust, but the nearest cicada drive is in martinsburg, w. va. (kevin ambrose )\nno one would confuse a horse with a cicada (visually and audibly speaking), but there was a famous horse named cicada .\nthere are many albums named cicada as well, such as cicada by cat scientist. that one comes up a lot in ebay .\nthe group’s bassist jon burr is the leader of the giant cicada. with the addition of violin, guitar, cajon drum, and bowed upright bass, the duo ventured farther down the paths of pop, dance, world and jazz and developed a vibrant new sound .\ndon' t see your cicada? search our database of 190 + cicadas of north america or the 17 / 13 year cicada page .\nthe giant cicada been rehearsing, recording, and performing in the new york area with a focus on material chosen for its appropriateness to their unique sound. their repertoire is drawn from 60’s pop, jazz, the great american songbook of standards, songs from around the world, as well as original tunes .\nevery 17 years, an army of giant bugs rises from the earth in the northeast. cicadas spend most of their lives underground, but eventually they shake off the dirt, come up for a little air and do some mating .\nalthough they prey on cicadas, cicada killers are preyed upon by a wasp called the velvet ant. the female velvet ant sneaks into the cicada killer’s tunnel and lays an egg in a nest cell. the cicada killer larva eats its cicada and grows; when it pupates, the velvet ant larva eats the pupa .\na cicada and rabbit garden statue in herndon, va. (emily clavadetscher )\na cicada nymph emerges in oakton, va. (stephen c. guptill )\nthis is a photo of a t. canicularis (dog day cicada) next to a t. davisi (southern dog day cicada) by by paul krombholz :\ncicadas are slow, clumsy bugs that are easily caught. they will fly directly into a predator — and they will also fly directly into the faces of people who are completely freaked out by giant, ugly locusts getting tangled in their hair .\na close - up of a summer cicada making some noise in franconia, pa .\ni don’t know much about japanese species. i recommend searching the web for a website about japanese wasps and hornets. i do like the suzumebachi (asian giant hornet) and have one in my collection, but i don’t know much more than that .\nas the name might indicate, giant cicadas are one of the largest species of cicada in the world. they used to live mostly in warmer western japan, but they' ve now also moved to urban eastern japan. though they' re now common in these areas, they aren' t well known in other parts of the world .\nif you haven’t seen a cicada killer wasp, they are largely black and pale yellow wasps, and are often found carrying a cicada (see image on this page) .\na cicada in clifton, va. , poses for a photo after molting. the cicada’s shell will harden and turn black within several hours after molting. (mark khosravi )\nbird calls can be mistaken for cicada song. some birds that can mimic sounds, such as lyrebirds, mockingbirds, and psittaciformes (parrots) could conceivably mimic cicada sounds .\nas the name might indicate, giant cicadas are one of the largest species of cicada in the world. they used to live mostly in warmer western japan, but they' ve now also moved to urban eastern japan. though they' re now common in these areas, they aren' t well known in other parts of the world .\ndescription: the second largest north american cicada. black, green and brown camo patterns .\nswamp cicada sings in a meadow in pickaway county, ohio usa. august 23, 2009\na close - up view of a cicada with drops of dew. (kevin ambrose )\nthe wasp will lay an egg under the left or right second leg of the cicada .\n“i dug up a white grub in my back yard. is it a cicada? ”\nthese places show up in twitter, and when i search for cicada photos on flickr .\nmaxwell demille’s cicada club is a vintage - style night club in los angeles, california .\na cicada in herndon, va. , is stuck in its exoskeleton after molting. a video of this cicada can be found at the bottom of this post. (kevin ambrose )\nhomepage: cicadas by genus and species: u. s. a. & canada cicada search\nthe latin root for the word for cicada is cicada. cicadas are called semi in japan, cigale in france, and cigarra in spain. names for cicadas in countries around the world .\n† kriang is the sarawak - malay word for cicada. the usual malay word is bringin .\na cicada is stuck in its exoskeleton after molting in herndon, va. (kevin ambrose )\nno, cicadas are not june bugs. many people confuse june bug larvae for cicada larvae .\ndavis w. t. 1944. the remarkable distribution of an american cicada: a new genus, and other cicada notes. journal of the new york entomological society 52: 213 - 223 .\nthe bug experts at urltoken (which, if you’re interested, has more information about these giant bugs than you’ll be able to consume in one sitting) confirmed our surprise visitors are brood x precursors and not the brood vi cicadas that are emerging in other parts of the country this year .\nthe bear cicada is japan' s largest cicada. the adults can emerge anywhere from july to the end of september. the populations have seen erratic increases and decreases all over japan in recent years .\nfig. 4. cicada killer wasp burrowing activity recorded during kingwood, wv study (1989) .\nmegatibicen resh aka resh cicada aka western dusk singing cicada. found in: ar, ks, la, ms, ne, ok, sc, tn, tx. season: july to fall .\nthe giant cicada is a living, buzzing creature making a new sound of songs you know and songs you will want to know, played by strings and percussion, and sung by the amazing vocalist lynn stein. their sound has been called “chamber punk. ” energetic, danceable, fun, beautiful. throbbing, energetic but gentle. rooted in jazz, bluegrass and baroque. funky and sweet .\nadult cicada killers feed on nectar and other sweet plant juices. to provide food for the young, female cicada killers hunt dog day cicadas (genus tibicen), using their stings to paralyze them, then stock their nests with one or two cicadas per cell. cicada killer larvae feed on the cicadas .\nan illustration of cicada tymbals from c. l. marlatt' s the periodical cicada. c shows the muscles and tendons connected to the tymbals, and d & e show the bending of the tymbal .\ncicada exoskeletons collected from a tree in oakton, va. , on tuesday afternoon. (kevin ambrose )\nsphecius hogardii (latreille, 1809 aka the caribbean cicada killer, is found in florida and caribbean countries .\nthe world' s largest species of cicada is the megapomponia imperatoria, which is native to malaysia. the largest species in north america is megatibicen auletes, aka the northern dusk singing cicada. other notably large cicadas include the bear cicada of japan (cryptotympana facialis), and tacua speciosa of south - east asia .\ndavis w. t. 1944. the remarkable distribution of an american cicada: a new genus, and other cicada notes. journal of the new york entomological society 52: 213 - 223. (full pdf )\nthe world' s loudest cicada is the brevisana brevis, a cicada found in africa that reaches 106. 7 decibels when recorded at a distance of 50cm (~ 20\n), according to researcher john petti .\nthe egg hatches, and the larvae begins to eat the cicada, while taking care to keep it alive .\nthere are about 3, 000 known species of cicada worldwide, according to the smithsonian natural museum of history .\nmeet the cicada killers. as the name implies, these wasps are predators of cicadas. there are four species found in the united states, but only one occurs in north carolina: the eastern cicada killer, sphecius speciosus .\nmegatibicen resonans aka southern resonant / great pine barrens cicada aka southern dusk singing cicada. found in al, fl, ga, la, ms, nc, sc, tn, tx, va. season: july to fall .\nasia: cicadae in japan, phantastic songs of the s. e. asian cicadas! , cicada sounds of borneo\nthese are people (in the form of bands), places and things named cicada. they often show up in flickr, twitter, ebay or amazon, when i’m searching for cicada insects. it is awesome that people name stuff after cicadas (but it can be annoying when you’re searching for cicada insects, and other stuff shows up) .\n© 1996 - 2018 cicada mania - 22 years of providing cicada information and fun on the web! all content on urltoken is owned and copyrighted by the content' s creator. site map | terms & conditions, privacy policy, and help\nthe 13 - or 17 - year life cycle of a periodical cicada begins when an adult female cicada lays her eggs in slits she cuts in the twigs and branches of trees. when the eggs hatch, they nymphs or juveniles drop to the ground and burrow into the soil. the growing cicada then spends the next 13 to 17 years underground as a nymph .\nchi·cha·rra f. (spanish) 1. - cicada 2. colloquial (persona) - chatterbox 3. spain: - nuisance\nholliday, c. , hastings, j. , and coelho, j. 2009. cicada prey of new world cicada killers, sphecius spp. (dahlbom, 1843) (hymenoptera: crabronidae). entomological news. 120: 1 - 17 .\nwonder which annual cicadas are in your area? try our u. s. a. & canada cicada search search tool .\na newly emerged adult cicada walks on the wrist of a boy in great falls, va. (hyungwon kang / reuters )\nbeen here for 13 years and this is first time we' ve heard this sound. starts at dusk and goes all night. was pretty sure it was a bird because i saw a bird in the top of 2 different trees the sound was coming from. (central texas) have learned from a youtuber that it is a giant cicado. thanks to all who researched .\ndescription: the scissor grinder looks a lot like linne' s cicada but their wing doesn' t have bend that linne' s cicada has. the scissor grinder also seems to have more of an orange coloration to the' arches' on its mesonotum .\nsphecius convallis (patton, 1879) aka the pacific cicada killer, is found in the u. s. a. and mexico .\nthe “biology of cicada killer wasps | prof. chuck holliday' s www page at lafayette college” website which is now archived at urltoken .\nno matter how hard she tries mrs. cicada killer can' t seem to fit the cicadas into her burrow @ cicadamania # insanity urltoken\njuly 18 - 20 -\ni am hearing giant cicadas in san antonio. 1 individual heard on 18 july 2017 and three heard on 20 july 2017. all all detected from one / same location in the morning. all quite by late morning. detected about 1 mile north - northwest of intersection of perrin beitel road and loop 410, san antonio, northeast bexar county, tx .\n- chris collins\ni had been thinking of them as the\nfire alarm\nor\nsmoke detector\ncicada because the call is so loud and rather annoying .\na cicada emerges from its exoskeleton during the early morning hours. its shell will harden and turn black within a few hours. (kevin ambrose )\nin contrast, female cicada killers are equipped with rather large stingers and venom adapted to paralyze cicadas (effective only on insects, not people) .\nsometimes the tunneling of this species disfigures lawns; the flip side is that it aerates the soil and helps rainwater to soak in. this species also provides us with drama: a cicada killer gliding with, then dragging, a huge, immobilized cicada to its nest is truly an impressive spectacle .\nannual cicada species are those that arrive every year (annually). each state has at least 4 species of cicadas. california as over 80 .\nbelow is a sampling of the many cicada photos shared with us. your information and feedback have been a great way to document this unusual emergence .\nthere are many bands with\ncicada\nin their name. these show up a lot in ebay and twitter. here is a partial list :\ncicadas are also famous for their penchant for disappearing entirely for many years, only to reappear in force at a regular interval. there are some 3, 000 cicada species, but only some share this behavior (the 17 - year cicada is an example). others are called annuals because, although individuals have multi - year lifecycles, some adults appear every year. the dog day cicada, for example, emerges each year in mid - summer .\ncicada killer wasps, genus sphecius spp. two species are present in texas (only four spp. occur in n. and c. america) :\npageflip cicada is a wireless bluetooth pedal designed to meet the needs of musicians and people with disabilities who struggle with the challenge and inconvenience of page turning .\nsphecius grandis (say, 1824), the western cicada killer, is found in the u. s. a. mexico and parts of central america .\ndo cicada’s use the same hole the next year? i have a video of a wasp digging a hole and appears to pull out a casing of some sort .\nthis pair of cicada killer wasps may be large and look menacing. but they hunt cicadas, are not aggressive toward humans and pose no threat to the public .\nthe megatibicen pronotalis walkeri (formerly known as tibicen walkeri) is the loudest cicada in north america, and can achieve 105. 9 decibels, measured at 50cm .\nare cicada experts still convinced that brood x cicadas are emerging four years early in the washington, d. c. , area and not some other smaller brood ?\nfull song of male cicada (purana sp .) as he sings & sways with the breeze. singapore, 28th december 2015. documented by leong tzi ming .\nproto - periodical: cicada species with proto - periodical life cycles might emerge every year, but every so many years they emerge in heavy numbers, like the okanagana .\nthe new zealand cicada fauna consists of 42 species and subspecies in five genera, although additional species are yet to be formally described. all are unique to new zealand .\nthe current cicada distribution map. cyan represents brood x and pink represents brood vi. brood x stragglers are thought to be emerging in the washington area. (urltoken )\nthe waning of the day, usually a silent hour in temperate climes, is in borneo marked by the commencement of a concert of noisy cicadas, who in legions fill the air with their deafening and varied clamour. one species { pomponia imperatoria; west .), which the malays have named\nkriang pokul anam ,\nor the\nsix o' clock cicada ,\nis a giant; one of the specimens we got measured nearly 7 1 / 2 inches across the wings. it begins at sunset, and the noise it makes is not unlike the braying of an ass in high treble, and can be heard at a distance of many hundred yards .\nyoung, a. m. 1983. on the evolution of cicada x host - tree associations in central america. acta biotheoretica 33 (3): 163 - 198 .\nresearchers and cicada enthusiasts have noted that the life cycles of periodical cicadas are prime numbers, i. e. the figure can' t be evenly divided into smaller integers .\nsphecius speciosus (drury, 1773) aka the eastern cicada killer, is found in ontario, canada, the u. s. a. mexico and parts of central america .\nvery interesting about the cicada killer wasps. the cicada here in our area must be so lucky because i’ve never seen or heard of the wasps in our area. we will get an occasional cicada each year, but the big swarms come out from underground every 17 years. it is pretty loud for the several weeks they are here. they leave holes in the yard where they first burrowed out from, seem to kill the tips of tree branches, then mate, lay eggs that somehow get underground till the next 17 year cycle .\ndescription: if the cicada has a white x on its back, it is a latifasciatus. repetitive, rhythmic, call like someone repeatedly running a scissor over a grinding wheel .\nsmall trees can be covered with a mesh cloth to prevent the females from laying eggs in the twigs. delaying the planting of trees during a cicada year may also be considered .\nif you find yourself outdoors in the eastern half of the u. s. after sunset and hear a cicada call, it is likely one of the following megatibicen or neotibicen species :\nan example of a young cicada nymph unearthed from the ground. note how its body is white, but it doesn’t have the cheetos / worm - like body of a beetle grub :\nsource: cicada researcher john cooley via magicicada. org. . tree photo by bigstock. the washington post. published on may 13, 2013, 7: 13 p. m .\ndr. o. beccari writes of this insect thus: –\none species (pomponia imperatoria, westw .), which the malays have named\nkriang † pokul anam\nor\nthe six o' clock cicada ,\nis a giant; one of the specimens we got measured nearly 7 1 / 2 inches across the wings. it begins at sunset and the noise it makes is not unlike the braying of an ass in high treble, and can be heard at a distance of many hundred yards .\nthe largest specimen, a male, in the sarawak museum is just short of 8 inches; and mr. distant records a female 216 mm. , (or 8 1 / 2 inches) across, from perak .\nvisit the songs of insects site for a nice photo and sound file of the dog day cicada. also by their book songs of insects – is is inexpensive and comes with a cd .\ncicada\ncomes from the latin, meaning\ntree cricket .\nwhile cicadas are often colloquially referred to as a kind of locust, they are not part of the locust family .\nso why would these wasps paralyze cicadas? as it turns out, each female cicada killer is a potential mother, and as nature mandates, these expectant mothers follow the call to secure and provide nourishment for their young, which in this case, happens to come in the form of cicadas. so it’s no wonder the occurrence of cicada killers coincides with the annual arrival of cicadas .\na 17 - year cicada cycle is nearing its end in ohio. a resident of mansfield, ohio, shared social video of her children cleaning up the mess. (richelle smart / facebook )\ninsect singers is a great new site from kathy hill and david marshall featuring dozens of cicada songs of north american cicadas. many of the sound files on this site are courtesy of insect singers .\nonce the cicada hatches from the egg it will begin to feed on the tree fluids. at this point it looks like a termite or small white ant. once the young cicada is ready, it crawls from the groove and falls to the ground where it will dig until it finds roots to feed on. it will typically start with smaller grass roots and work its way up to the roots of its host tree. the cicada will stay underground from 2 to 17 years depending on the species. cicadas are active underground, tunneling and feeding, and not sleeping or hibernating as commonly thought .\ncicada killer wasps (s. speciosus) will prey upon magicicada periodical cicadas 3. there is a bit of a myth that magicicada are able to avoid these wasps but that is not the case .\ndescription: the largest north american cicada. olive green to rusty brown with black, tan and white coloring. heavy white pruinosis. m on mesonotum typically partially ocluded by pruinosis. sings at dusk .\ncicada killers may begin to dig in sandy areas on playgrounds or in golf course sand traps. if practical, keep these areas wet or regularly churn the sand to discourage wasps from establishing their tunnels .\ncicada population densities are inconsistent, generally speaking, even during a normal, “on - schedule” emergence. many of the gaps in their populations are a result of destruction of their habitat by human activity .\nback at the burrow, she deposits the paralyzed cicada in a brood chamber. then she lays an egg and carefully tucks it beneath the cicada' s foreleg, beside the puncture wound from her sting. (the doomed creature looks, creepily, like a wizened old man with a baguette tucked under his arm .) the female then seals the chamber with dirt, the cicada still living and immobilized within it. a few days later the egg hatches and grub begins to eat the cicada alive, using the puncture wood as an entry point. later, the grub spins a cocoon, in which it metamorphoses into an adult wasp, emerging the following year. (footage of these behaviors has been kindly posted online by filmmaker sam orr, who is working on a documentary about the 17 - year cicadas. )\nthe high - pitched humming noise you hear in the video is the mating song of the male cicada. they make this noise by vibrating rib - cage like membranes called tymbals. the cicada’s empty abdomen serves as an echo chamber that amplifies the sound — and it can get pretty loud. cicadas have been known to produce humming as loud as 100 decibels, the equivalent of a power lawn mower or a motorcycle .\nlarge aggregations of cicada killers can build up over time. an estimated 40% of the developing larvae (a dozen or more per tunnel) may emerge as adults the following year so numbers can increase rapidly .\nwill cicada killers every go away? these wasps will stay and thrive where their basic needs are met. even if aggressive control measures kill the inhabitants, the site will remain attractive to new settlers in ensuing years .\nsueur, j. 2002. cicada acoustic communication: potential sound partitioning in a multispecies community from mexico (hemiptera: cicadomorpha: cicadidae). biological journal of the linnean society 75 (3): 379 - 394 .\ncicada killer wasps are often confused with european wasps (vespa crabro). european wasps are a more vibrant yellow color and feature more yellow than black. they also belong to an entirely different family of wasp: vespidae .\nannual: cicada species with annual life cycles emerge every year, for example, swamp cicadas (neotibicen tibicen) emerge every year in the united states, and green grocers (cyclochila australasiae) emerge every year in australia .\nmegatibicen figuratus aka the fall southeastern dusk - singing cicada. found in: al, ar, fl, ga, la, ms, nc, sc, tn, tx, va. season: july to fall .\nit’s tradition going back to the 1800s. legendary periodical cicada researcher c. l. marlatt called them stragglers back in 1898. the name has stuck around, regardless of whether the cicadas emerged before or after their brood .\nmegatibicen auletes aka the northern dusk singing cicada. this cicada can be found in these states: al, ar, ct, de, dc, fl, ga, il, in, ia, ks, ky, la, md, ma, mi, ms, mo, ne, nj, ny, nc, oh, ok, pa, sc, tn, tx, va, wv, wi. season: july to fall .\ni made this page for two reasons: 1) to point out insects and other animals that people commonly confuse with cicadas, and 2) list people, places and things named\ncicada\nthat clearly are not cicadas .\ntop, left to right: cicada egg, freshly hatched nymph, 2nd and 3rd instar nymphs. bottom, left to right: 4th instar nymph, teneral adult, adult. (photos by roy troutman and elias bonaros) .\nmaybe. just about every insect goes through a larval phase, and they pretty much all look alike to the novice. unlike beetle larvae, cicada larvae or nymphs are not long - bodied like grubs. long larvae = beetle larvae .\ncan cicada killer wasps be controlled? control may be desirable in situations where physical damage is occurring or the presence of the insects is causing significant distress. the wasps were controlled in a west virginia study by sprays of the pyrerthroid insecticides (cyfluthrin or cyhalothrin). applications were made directly into the burrows or only to the entrances where the wasps contacted the insecticides as they entered and left. broadcast sprays over the area where cicada killers were nesting were not effective in reducing their numbers .\nu. s. cicada expert john cooley points out on urltoken that because periodical cicadas emerge in such staggering numbers, there are enough cicadas to satisfy its predators, while also leaving plenty of insects to mate and continue to propagate the species .\ndescription: the lyric cicada, like most small neotibicen, has a green, black & brown camouflage look, but the key is lyric cicadas typically have black collars. its sound is like an angle grinder tool steadily grinding a slightly uneven surface .\nmy site gained fans because it was one of the first cicada websites on the web. i have always had an interest in nature, science and the outdoors, but cicadas really did not grab my attention until the brood ii emergence in 1996 .\nmales produce this species - specific noise with vibrating membranes on their abdomens. the sounds vary widely and some species are more musical than others. though cicada noises may sound alike to humans, the insects use different calls to express alarm or attract mates .\nwe humans, happily, have nothing to fear, although we' re very likely to encounter the insects. cicada killers live almost everywhere east of the rockies and south of ontario. moreover, like pigeons, coyotes, and white - tailed deer, they actually benefit from human activity and enjoy suburban living. the soft soil around home foundations, in gardens, and on golf courses and playgrounds is ideal for burrowing. some of the first research into cicada killer behavior was conducted beside two baseball fields in brooklyn .\nthe cicada killer, like other solitary wasps, has the capability to sting, but won' t unless handled or threatened. only female wasps have the ability to sting. stings inflicted by solitary wasps are usually not severe but reaction varies with each individual .\nthe cicada killer ranks most formidable in appearance of any wasp in the state. it is an exceptionally large species, with rusty clear wings and the black and yellow markings common of wasps. in addition to their size and coloration, their behavior identifies them .\nat least 3 different species of wasps construct nests in the ground in iowa. these\ndigger wasps\ninclude the cicada killer wasp, the largest wasp found in iowa. cicada killer wasps may be up to 2 inches long. they are black with yellow markings on the thorax and abdomen and they have rusty colored wings. the great golden digger wasp is slightly smaller. the abdomen is reddish - orange except at the tip which is black. a third species is 1 inch long and completely black with iridescent blue wings .\nfemale cicada killers dig extensive tunnels where their young will be raised, displacing several pounds of soil in the process. occasionally, it can result in some damage, such destabilizing a brick patio laid on sand. this is an instance when control may be needed .\nwhen young cicada nymphs hatch from their eggs, they dig themselves into the ground to suck the liquids of plant roots. they spend several early life stages in these underground burrows before surfacing as adults. the process varies in length but often takes a number of years .\ni love these things, so happy to get info on them. i had ones burrow blocked and she banged against my head a few times, with a cicada under her belly, when i moved she went into her nest. have seen no reason to kill them .\nwill cicada killers harm pets? some dogs and cats may catch cicada killers but usually only once. those that pick females probably will be stung, remember it, and associate the experience with the buzzing sound and warning colors. some may have a severe reaction to the venom, especially if stung in the mouth. if that is suspected, the animal should be taken to a veterinarian immediately. wasp flight begins in early morning and can continue until dusk. wasps remain in their burrows at night so encounters can be avoided by managing the activity of the pet .\ncicada imperatoria, westwood, arcan. ent. vol. i. p. 13, t. 51 (1842). dundubia imperatoria, walk. list hom. i. p. 47, n. 1 (1850). pomponia imperatoria, stål, berl. ent. zeit. x. p. 171 (1866); atkins. j. a. s. beng. vol. liii. p. 229, n. 67 (1885). cicada adusta, walk. list hom. i. p. 102, n. 1 (1850) .\ncicada killer wasps belong to the family crabronidae latreille, 1802; the tribe bembicini latreille, 1802 and the genus sphecius dahlbom, 1843 2. crabronidae comes from the latin word for hornet, bembicini comes from the greek word for buzzing insect, and sphecius is from the greek word for wasp .\nmild mannered female cicada killer wasps are active across kentucky during the summer, intent on their tasks of 1) digging underground burrows and 2) provisioning them with paralyzed cicadas that will be food for their grub - like larvae. the wasps will be very focused on these tasks for several weeks .\ncurrently, the cicada density around the d. c. area is very inconsistent. there are pockets of high concentrations in places such as springfield and herndon, while a few miles away in fairfax and oakton, there are few cicadas. is this common with an accelerated or out - of - cycle emergence ?\nnon - chemical a periodical cicada year is a time of feasting for a surprising array of creatures. birds and fish feed ravenously on the adult stage of these insects. grackles and crows voraciously dine on periodical cicadas. fish will literally gorge themselves on adult cicadas when they are abundant in trees and shrubs along a stream .\nare cicada killers dangerous? females have significant stingers which they plunge into cicadas to inject venom that paralyzes them. without doubt, their stings are painful. however, they are not aggressive and do not have nest - guarding instinct of honey bees and hornets. you can walk through areas where they are active without attracting attention .\ncicada killer females construct burrows that are small wonders of engineering and effort. several feet long, and featuring numerous individual brood chambers at their far end, they require the excavation of hundreds of times the insects' own weight in soil. the female killers manage the feat in just a few hours, using only their jaws and hind legs .\nt. canicularis has a green pronotal collar, green markings on its pronotum, and at least some, if not all, orange colors on its mesonotum (where the m is on the cicada’s back). t. canicularis sounds like (to me at least) a circular saw buzzing through a plank in wood in a neighbor’s garage .\nthe periodical cicada is a native north american species. it is the longest - lived insect in north america. no other insect in north america generates as much interest and curiosity as do periodical cicadas when they make their sudden, springtime emergence. they are widely distributed over the eastern half of the united states and occur nowhere else in the world .\ncicada imperatoria, westwood, arc. ent. ii, p. 14, t. 51, (1843): walker, list hom. b. m. i, p. 47: j. l. s. zool. i, p. 83 (1856): ibid, x, p. 84 (1867) .\nmid - august is approaching, and the “dog days” of summer are almost here. sirius (the dog star) and the constellation canis major will soon begin to appear in the early morning sky. now is also the time that tibicen canicularis, the dog day day cicada, is also making its presence known in the u. s. a .\nsome species of cicada killer wasps show a preference for female cicadas (s. hogardii), and some seem to prefer male cicadas (s. grandis), but it is not clear why. you might think that these wasps will take more males than females because of the loud sound the males cicadas make, but this is not the case 1 .\nperhaps it’s global warming or climate confusion. maybe it’s just really hard for a 17 - year cicada to count down the years while he’s buried underground. why this is happening is a total question mark, but a small fraction of the 17 - year cicadas — the ones we’re supposed to see in 2021 — are creeping out of their zombie caskets this week, four years early .\nthe cicada killer wasp and other digger wasps are solitary wasps; that is, they live independently rather than in colonies and do not depend on other members of a colony to share in the raising of young or the maintaining of a nest. other solitary wasps include the mud daubers and potter wasps. solitary wasps put paralyzed insects or spiders inside the nest as food for their offspring .\ncicada killer tunnels usually have a distinctive u - shaped collar of loose soil around the opening. individual tunnels are can range from 30 - to 70 - inches long and may run 12 - to 15 - inches below the surface. the first chamber is about a foot or so from the entrance. there are an average of 15 egg - shaped side chambers an a tunnel, each containing 1 to 3 paralyzed cicadas and an egg which hatches in 2 to 3 days. the grub - like wasp larva feeds for about 10 days, leaving only the cicada' s outer shell. during the fall, the larva spins a silken case, shrinks, and prepares to overwinter. development will be completed when wasps emerge next summer. there is one generation each year .\nthe invasion of periodical cicadas is over, but a second insect invasion looms. sphecius speciosus, the eastern cicada killers, have begun to emerge. and they make the national media hype over the cicadas look rather misplaced. hunting, warring, patrolling, tunneling, they do more in two months - - the length of their adult lives - - than periodical cicadas do in 17 years .\nbut don’t be afraid: cicada killers are not aggressive. in fact, they might even “appear to be curious, ” often flying up to and around you as though investigating your approach and intentions. unfortunately, this behavior sends many folks into a panic. interestingly, it’s the males who most often engage in this activity. but the males are, in fact, completely harmless: they lack stingers .\nevery new building, road or other construction destroys cicada habitat and divides the brood. their surprising numbers might make people think, “there are so many of them, how could they be endangered? ” but broods have gone extinct in the past (brood xi in connecticut in the 20th century) and have seemingly gone extinct (brood x in long island, n. y .) recently as well .\nas we humans replace more and more vegetation with concrete or shorter grasses, cicadas are finding it harder and harder to find a good place to molt. other issues that can interfere with a cicada’s ability to molt include: wind, rain, cold air, small predators like ants … if you’ve sprayed them with a pesticide that will kill them mid - molt as well (please don’t do that) .\ncicada killers often gather into leks – places where they congregate to breed and dig burrows to rear their young. all too often, as these insects increase in number, so do the incidents of human - wasp encounters. most extension agents, entomologists, pest - control companies and local museums, zoos and nature centers have come to expect a flurry of phone calls and emails from people as they stumble upon these insects .\na large and awesomely detailed cicada charm hangs from a\nmother and child\nstyle long / short aged brass chain with lobster clasp. insect charm is hollow backed and large - approximately 2 1 / 2 inches long on a 22 inch chain. perfect for the bug lover out there! (fyi i kept one of these for myself: d) comes gift boxed and ready to give. handmade in beautiful portland, or ♥\nbut unlike other wasp species that plague human summers, only the females of the cicada killers have stingers, and both their sting and their temperament are very mild. holliday has captured, tagged, clipped the wings of, and in other ways harassed thousands of them in the course of his research .\ni' ve done abominable things to these animals, and i' ve never had one try to sting me ,\nhe says. instead, when threatened, they fly away or, if trapped in a burrow, frantically beat their wings against its walls, producing a loud rattlesnake - like whir. male cicada killers are entirely stingless, and though they do tend to brusquely approach anything that moves inside their territory, including people, they' re simply on the lookout for rivals and potential mates. since humans are neither, they quickly break off their\nattacks .\nit goes back to the 1800s — by c. l. marlatt in his 1898 bulletin “an account of cicada septendecim, its natural enemies and the means of preventing its injury. ” straggling is nothing new — they’ve likely always straggled to some degree, as a way to ease high - density populations, or as a way to expand their population and territory, and perhaps as a hedge against disastrous natural events (great floods, storms) .\ncicadas belong to the order hemiptera, suborder auchenorrhyncha, superfamily cicadoidea and families cicadidae (the vast majority of cicadas) or tettigarctidae (only two species). leafhoppers, spittle bugs and jumping plant lice are close relatives of the cicada. hemiptera are different from other insects in that both the nymph and adult forms have a beak (aka rostrum), which they use to suck fluids called xylem from plants. this is how they both eat and drink .\ncicada imperatoria, w. luteo - fulva, capite et thoracis dorso maculis numerosis (magnitudine et formâ variis) nigris, mesothoraceque figurâ trifidâ notatis: pronoti lateribus in medio emarginatis; abdomine brunneo lateribus pallidioribus, maculâ in singulo segmento utrinque nigrâ; alis flavido - hyalinis venis fulvis; anticarum venis transversis subapicalibus fusco nebulosis, maculisque septem versus marginem fuscis. long. corp. unc. 3 1 / 8. expans. alar. unc. 8 1 / 4 .\nneotibicen pruinosus pruinosus aka scissor (s) grinder. found in al, ar, co, il, in, ia, ks, ky, la, mi, mn, ms, mo, ne, oh, ok, sc, sd, tn, tx, va, wv, wi. season: june – september. neotibicen pruinosus fulvus aka pale scissor (s) grinder cicada. found in: ks, ok. season: june – september .\nnot harmful to humans. only the females possess stingers, and they reserve these for use in subduing prey (cicadas). it is possible that a female cicada killer could sting a person, but only if it is handled roughly. persons allergic to wasp stings should stay away from all wasps. males can look threatening as they jealously patrol their territories, chasing away other males and even other kinds of insects that flutter into the area. but they lack stings and are harmless .\nyoung cicadas, or nymphs, usually live six to 18 inches underground, sucking sap from tree roots and growing to about 1. 5 inches. as they approach 17 years of age, the nymphs dig a tunnel to the surface with their front legs, creating a small mound of mud — a cicada hut — where they will exit. when ground temperatures reach 64 degrees, nymphs emerge from their tunnels and climb onto nearby trees, where they shed their skins, or molt .\nnest tunnels are dug in open areas such as lawns and pastures, usually in aggregations. loose, workable soils are preferred. a mound of excavated soil at the tunnel entrance is often conspicuous. these mounds often have a shallow furrow leading to the tunnel entrance, as if made by dragging a thumb. female cicada killers may live a month and produce tunnels four or more feet long in a single nest. although nests are not particularly deep, nine or ten cells per nest is not unusual .\nfemale cicada killer wasps capture annual cicadas in july and august and place them in cells located at the ends of tunnels they have dug in the ground. each tunnel is about the size of a quarter and extends 24 inches or more into the ground. one or two paralyzed cicadas are placed in each cell, and a single egg deposited before the cell is closed by the female, who flies away, never to return. the wasp grubs feed on the cicadas and develop into wasps that emerge the following summer .\nthe largest is the chorus cicada (amphipsalta zelandica), with a wingspan of 80 millimetres, and the smallest are species of maoricicada, with a wingspan of around 29 millimetres and a body length of 14 millimetres. the most closely related species are found in australia, norfolk island and new caledonia. studies show that the new zealand fauna came about from several invasions across the tasman sea from australia and perhaps new caledonia. they arrived within the last 11 million years, well after new zealand became isolated after separating from australia .\nafter that they hunt, for the so - called dog - day cicadas of genus tibicen. a killer paralyzes a cicada with a single sting, but getting it back to the burrow can be an all - day affair. it may be three times the killer' s own weight - - too heavy to properly fly with. instead she drags it up the nearest tree, then launches herself, prey in claw, and glides as far as possible toward her burrow. she may have to repeat the process half a dozen times." ]
{ "text": [ "the giant cicada ( quesada gigas ) , also known as the chichara grande , coyoyo , or coyuyo , is a species of large cicada native to north , central , and south america .", "one of two species in the genus quesada , it is the widest ranging cicada in the western hemisphere . " ], "topic": [ 27, 26 ] }
"the giant cicada (quesada gigas), also known as the chichara grande, coyoyo, or coyuyo, is a species of large cicada native to north, central, and south america. one of two species in the genus quesada, it is the widest ranging cicada in the western hemisphere."
[ "the giant cicada (quesada gigas), also known as the chichara grande, coyoyo, or coyuyo, is a species of large cicada native to north, central, and south america. one of two species in the genus quesada, it is the widest ranging cicada in the western hemisphere." ]
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"animal-train-32"
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"barbodes cataractae"