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Aira-2 is the second version of the Aira instruction-tuned series. Aira-OPT-125M is an instruction-tuned model based on OPT. The model was trained with a dataset composed of prompts and completions generated synthetically by prompting already-tuned models (ChatGPT, Llama, Open-Assistant, etc).

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  • Size: 125,237,760 parameters
  • Dataset: Instruct-Aira Dataset
  • Language: English
  • Number of Epochs: 5
  • Batch size: 32
  • Optimizer: torch.optim.AdamW (warmup_steps = 1e2, learning_rate = 5e-4, epsilon = 1e-8)
  • GPU: 1 NVIDIA A100-SXM4-40GB
  • Emissions: 0.25 KgCO2 (Singapore)
  • Total Energy Consumption: 0.52 kWh

This repository has the source code used to train this model.


Three special tokens are used to mark the user side of the interaction and the model's response:

<|startofinstruction|>What is a language model?<|endofinstruction|>A language model is a probability distribution over a vocabulary.<|endofcompletion|>

from transformers import AutoTokenizer, AutoModelForCausalLM
import torch

device = torch.device("cuda" if torch.cuda.is_available() else "cpu")

tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained('nicholasKluge/Aira-OPT-125M')
aira = AutoModelForCausalLM.from_pretrained('nicholasKluge/Aira-OPT-125M')


question =  input("Enter your question: ")

inputs = tokenizer(tokenizer.bos_token + question + tokenizer.sep_token,

responses = aira.generate(**inputs,	num_return_sequences=2)

print(f"Question: 👤 {question}\n")

for i, response in  enumerate(responses):
    print(f'Response {i+1}: 🤖 {tokenizer.decode(response, skip_special_tokens=True).replace(question, "")}')

The model will output something like:

>>>Question: 👤 What is the capital of Brazil?

>>>Response 1: 🤖 The capital of Brazil is Brasília.
>>>Response 2: 🤖 The capital of Brazil is Brasília.


  • Hallucinations: This model can produce content that can be mistaken for truth but is, in fact, misleading or entirely false, i.e., hallucination.

  • Biases and Toxicity: This model inherits the social and historical stereotypes from the data used to train it. Given these biases, the model can produce toxic content, i.e., harmful, offensive, or detrimental to individuals, groups, or communities.

  • Repetition and Verbosity: The model may get stuck on repetition loops (especially if the repetition penalty during generations is set to a meager value) or produce verbose responses unrelated to the prompt it was given.


Model Average ARC TruthfulQA ToxiGen
Aira-OPT-125M 43.34 24.65 49.11 56.27
OPT-125M 40.29 22.78 42.88 55.21
Aira-OPT-350M 41.56 25.00 42.13 57.55
OPT-350M 40.62 23.97 41.00 56.91
Aira-OPT-1B3 43.90 28.41 46.59 56.70
OPT-1.3b 40.91 29.69 38.68 54.36

Cite as 🤗

  doi = {10.5281/zenodo.6989727},
  url = {https://huggingface.co/nicholasKluge/Aira-OPT-125M},
  author = {Nicholas Kluge Corrêa},
  title = {Aira},
  year = {2023},
  publisher = {HuggingFace},
  journal = {HuggingFace repository},


Aira-OPT-125M is licensed under the OPT-175B License Agreement, Copyright (c) Meta Platforms, Inc. All Rights Reserved. See the LICENSE file for more details.

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