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GPT-JT

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Model Summary

NOTE: This model was converted to 8-bit using the scripts from hivemind.

With a new decentralized training algorithm, we fine-tuned GPT-J (6B) on 3.53 billion tokens, resulting in GPT-JT (6B), a model that outperforms many 100B+ parameter models on classification benchmarks.

We incorporated a collection of open techniques and datasets to build GPT-JT:

With the help of techniques mentioned above, GPT-JT significantly improves the performance of classification tasks over the original GPT-J, and even outperforms most 100B+ parameter models!

Quick Start

from transformers import pipeline
pipe = pipeline(model='togethercomputer/GPT-JT-6B-v1')
pipe('''"I love this!" Is it positive? A:''')

or

from transformers import AutoTokenizer, AutoModelForCausalLM
tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained("togethercomputer/GPT-JT-6B-v1")
model = AutoModelForCausalLM.from_pretrained("togethercomputer/GPT-JT-6B-v1")

Training Details

UL2 Training Objective

We train GPT-JT using UL2 training objective [1][2]. The original GPT-J uses causal mask (as shown below left) for autoregressive generation. So for each token, it can only see its previous context. In order to fully leverage the context information, we continue to train GPT-J with UL2 training objectives, and uses causal mask with prefix (as shown below right) -- using bidirectional attention for the prompt / input and causal attention for token generation. Intuitively, being able to see context bidirectionally might improve downstream tasks that require this information.

[1000011000111001111011111][1110011100111001111011111] \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 1 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 \end{bmatrix}

Furthermore, we leverage a large collection of data, including Natural-Instructions, P3, MMLU-COT, and the Pile Specifically, we first conduct training for 2.62 billion tokens using the UL2 loss on the Pile, followed by 0.92 billion tokens with a mixture of the above datasets: 5% of COT, 20% of P3, 20% of NI, and 55% of the Pile.

Hyperparameters

We used AdamW with a learning rate of 1e-5 and global batch size of 64 (16 for each data parallel worker). We used mix-precision training where the activation is in FP16 while the optimizer states are kept in FP32. We use both data parallelism and pipeline parallelism to conduct training. During training, we truncate the input sequence to 2048 tokens, and for input sequence that contains less than 2048 tokens, we concatenate multiple sequences into one long sequence to improve the data efficiency.

Infrastructure

We used the Together Research Computer to conduct training.

References

[1]: Tay, Yi, Mostafa Dehghani, Vinh Q. Tran, Xavier Garcia, Dara Bahri, Tal Schuster, Huaixiu Steven Zheng, Neil Houlsby, and Donald Metzler. "Unifying Language Learning Paradigms." arXiv preprint arXiv:2205.05131 (2022).

[2]: Tay, Yi, Jason Wei, Hyung Won Chung, Vinh Q. Tran, David R. So, Siamak Shakeri, Xavier Garcia et al. "Transcending scaling laws with 0.1% extra compute." arXiv preprint arXiv:2210.11399 (2022).

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Dataset used to train iliemihai/GPT-JT-6B-v1-8bit