# Datasets: bigscience /P3

Tasks:
Other
Languages: English
Multilinguality: monolingual
Size Categories: 100M<n<1B
ArXiv:
License: apache-2.0
Dataset Preview
inputs (sequence)inputs_pretokenized (string)targets (sequence)targets_pretokenized (string)
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" Given the following passage "A generation later, the Irish Anglican bishop, George Berkeley (1685–1753), determined that Locke's view immediately opened a door that would lead to eventual atheism. In response to Locke, he put forth in his Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) an important challenge to empiricism in which things only exist either as a result of their being perceived, or by virtue of the fact that they are an entity doing the perceiving. (For Berkeley, God fills in for humans by doing the perceiving whenever humans are not around to do it.) In his text Alciphron, Berkeley maintained that any order humans may see in nature is the language or handwriting of God. Berkeley's approach to empiricism would later come to be called subjective idealism.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: what concept is mentioned last? "
[ 24242, 800, 26939, 1 ]
" subjective idealism "
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" Given the following passage "A generation later, the Irish Anglican bishop, George Berkeley (1685–1753), determined that Locke's view immediately opened a door that would lead to eventual atheism. In response to Locke, he put forth in his Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) an important challenge to empiricism in which things only exist either as a result of their being perceived, or by virtue of the fact that they are an entity doing the perceiving. (For Berkeley, God fills in for humans by doing the perceiving whenever humans are not around to do it.) In his text Alciphron, Berkeley maintained that any order humans may see in nature is the language or handwriting of God. Berkeley's approach to empiricism would later come to be called subjective idealism.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: what concept is mentioned first? "
[ 44, 88, 159, 51, 1 ]
" atheism "
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" Given the following passage "A generation later, the Irish Anglican bishop, George Berkeley (1685–1753), determined that Locke's view immediately opened a door that would lead to eventual atheism. In response to Locke, he put forth in his Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) an important challenge to empiricism in which things only exist either as a result of their being perceived, or by virtue of the fact that they are an entity doing the perceiving. (For Berkeley, God fills in for humans by doing the perceiving whenever humans are not around to do it.) In his text Alciphron, Berkeley maintained that any order humans may see in nature is the language or handwriting of God. Berkeley's approach to empiricism would later come to be called subjective idealism.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: what group is mentioned last? "
[ 6917, 1 ]
" humans "
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" Given the following passage "A generation later, the Irish Anglican bishop, George Berkeley (1685–1753), determined that Locke's view immediately opened a door that would lead to eventual atheism. In response to Locke, he put forth in his Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) an important challenge to empiricism in which things only exist either as a result of their being perceived, or by virtue of the fact that they are an entity doing the perceiving. (For Berkeley, God fills in for humans by doing the perceiving whenever humans are not around to do it.) In his text Alciphron, Berkeley maintained that any order humans may see in nature is the language or handwriting of God. Berkeley's approach to empiricism would later come to be called subjective idealism.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: what time period is mentioned second? "
[ 1003, 1714, 1 ]
" 1710 "
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" Given the following passage "A generation later, the Irish Anglican bishop, George Berkeley (1685–1753), determined that Locke's view immediately opened a door that would lead to eventual atheism. In response to Locke, he put forth in his Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) an important challenge to empiricism in which things only exist either as a result of their being perceived, or by virtue of the fact that they are an entity doing the perceiving. (For Berkeley, God fills in for humans by doing the perceiving whenever humans are not around to do it.) In his text Alciphron, Berkeley maintained that any order humans may see in nature is the language or handwriting of God. Berkeley's approach to empiricism would later come to be called subjective idealism.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: what work of writing is mentioned last? "
[ 901, 3389, 107, 52, 106, 1 ]
" Alciphron "
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" Given the following passage "Hume maintained that all knowledge, even the most basic beliefs about the natural world, cannot be conclusively established by reason. Rather, he maintained, our beliefs are more a result of accumulated habits, developed in response to accumulated sense experiences. Among his many arguments Hume also added another important slant to the debate about scientific method — that of the problem of induction. Hume argued that it requires inductive reasoning to arrive at the premises for the principle of inductive reasoning, and therefore the justification for inductive reasoning is a circular argument. Among Hume's conclusions regarding the problem of induction is that there is no certainty that the future will resemble the past. Thus, as a simple instance posed by Hume, we cannot know with certainty by inductive reasoning that the sun will continue to rise in the East, but instead come to expect it to do so because it has repeatedly done so in the past.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: __ is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. "
[ 8, 1997, 1 ]
" the sun "
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" Given the following passage "Hume maintained that all knowledge, even the most basic beliefs about the natural world, cannot be conclusively established by reason. Rather, he maintained, our beliefs are more a result of accumulated habits, developed in response to accumulated sense experiences. Among his many arguments Hume also added another important slant to the debate about scientific method — that of the problem of induction. Hume argued that it requires inductive reasoning to arrive at the premises for the principle of inductive reasoning, and therefore the justification for inductive reasoning is a circular argument. Among Hume's conclusions regarding the problem of induction is that there is no certainty that the future will resemble the past. Thus, as a simple instance posed by Hume, we cannot know with certainty by inductive reasoning that the sun will continue to rise in the East, but instead come to expect it to do so because it has repeatedly done so in the past.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: __ does not have a definite boundary, but its density decreases exponentially with increasing height above the photosphere. "
[ 1997, 1 ]
" sun "
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" Given the following passage "Hume maintained that all knowledge, even the most basic beliefs about the natural world, cannot be conclusively established by reason. Rather, he maintained, our beliefs are more a result of accumulated habits, developed in response to accumulated sense experiences. Among his many arguments Hume also added another important slant to the debate about scientific method — that of the problem of induction. Hume argued that it requires inductive reasoning to arrive at the premises for the principle of inductive reasoning, and therefore the justification for inductive reasoning is a circular argument. Among Hume's conclusions regarding the problem of induction is that there is no certainty that the future will resemble the past. Thus, as a simple instance posed by Hume, we cannot know with certainty by inductive reasoning that the sun will continue to rise in the East, but instead come to expect it to do so because it has repeatedly done so in the past.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: __ color is white, with a CIE color-space index near (0.3, 0.3), when viewed from space. "
[ 1997, 1 ]
" sun "
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" Given the following passage "Philosophical empiricists hold no knowledge to be properly inferred or deduced unless it is derived from one's sense-based experience. This view is commonly contrasted with rationalism, which states that knowledge may be derived from reason independently of the senses. For example, John Locke held that some knowledge (e.g. knowledge of God's existence) could be arrived at through intuition and reasoning alone. Similarly Robert Boyle, a prominent advocate of the experimental method, held that we have innate ideas. The main continental rationalists (Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz) were also advocates of the empirical "scientific method".", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What would one not be using when holding a belief in the afterlife, for example? "
[ 1254, 7, 1 ]
" senses "
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" Given the following passage "Philosophical empiricists hold no knowledge to be properly inferred or deduced unless it is derived from one's sense-based experience. This view is commonly contrasted with rationalism, which states that knowledge may be derived from reason independently of the senses. For example, John Locke held that some knowledge (e.g. knowledge of God's existence) could be arrived at through intuition and reasoning alone. Similarly Robert Boyle, a prominent advocate of the experimental method, held that we have innate ideas. The main continental rationalists (Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz) were also advocates of the empirical "scientific method".", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Which train of thought allows for beliefs and ideas outside of what one can physically experience? "
[ 3, 2661, 6835, 1 ]
" rationalism "
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" Given the following passage "Philosophical empiricists hold no knowledge to be properly inferred or deduced unless it is derived from one's sense-based experience. This view is commonly contrasted with rationalism, which states that knowledge may be derived from reason independently of the senses. For example, John Locke held that some knowledge (e.g. knowledge of God's existence) could be arrived at through intuition and reasoning alone. Similarly Robert Boyle, a prominent advocate of the experimental method, held that we have innate ideas. The main continental rationalists (Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz) were also advocates of the empirical "scientific method".", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What term describes the stance that we are born with ideas that are not developed through experience? "
[ 3, 28538, 912, 1 ]
" innate ideas "
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" Given the following passage "Philosophical empiricists hold no knowledge to be properly inferred or deduced unless it is derived from one's sense-based experience. This view is commonly contrasted with rationalism, which states that knowledge may be derived from reason independently of the senses. For example, John Locke held that some knowledge (e.g. knowledge of God's existence) could be arrived at through intuition and reasoning alone. Similarly Robert Boyle, a prominent advocate of the experimental method, held that we have innate ideas. The main continental rationalists (Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz) were also advocates of the empirical "scientific method".", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Who would not find it rational to believe in the unknown, such as God, for example? "
[ 24657, 1950, 8943, 23, 2234, 343, 7, 1 ]
" Philosophical empiricists "
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" Given the following passage "Philosophical empiricists hold no knowledge to be properly inferred or deduced unless it is derived from one's sense-based experience. This view is commonly contrasted with rationalism, which states that knowledge may be derived from reason independently of the senses. For example, John Locke held that some knowledge (e.g. knowledge of God's existence) could be arrived at through intuition and reasoning alone. Similarly Robert Boyle, a prominent advocate of the experimental method, held that we have innate ideas. The main continental rationalists (Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz) were also advocates of the empirical "scientific method".", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What type of scientist would hold views quite opposite Robert Boyle, for example? "
[ 24657, 1950, 8943, 23, 2234, 343, 7, 1 ]
" Philosophical empiricists "
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" Given the following passage "In the late 19th and early 20th century several forms of pragmatic philosophy arose. The ideas of pragmatism, in its various forms, developed mainly from discussions between Charles Sanders Peirce and William James when both men were at Harvard in the 1870s. James popularized the term "pragmatism", giving Peirce full credit for its patrimony, but Peirce later demurred from the tangents that the movement was taking, and redubbed what he regarded as the original idea with the name of "pragmaticism". Along with its pragmatic theory of truth, this perspective integrates the basic insights of empirical (experience-based) and rational (concept-based) thinking.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What stance characterizes what someone has been through? "
[ 23941, 1 ]
" empirical "
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" Given the following passage "In the late 19th and early 20th century several forms of pragmatic philosophy arose. The ideas of pragmatism, in its various forms, developed mainly from discussions between Charles Sanders Peirce and William James when both men were at Harvard in the 1870s. James popularized the term "pragmatism", giving Peirce full credit for its patrimony, but Peirce later demurred from the tangents that the movement was taking, and redubbed what he regarded as the original idea with the name of "pragmaticism". Along with its pragmatic theory of truth, this perspective integrates the basic insights of empirical (experience-based) and rational (concept-based) thinking.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What mindset is more abstract? "
[ 12226, 1 ]
" rational "
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" Given the following passage "In the late 19th and early 20th century several forms of pragmatic philosophy arose. The ideas of pragmatism, in its various forms, developed mainly from discussions between Charles Sanders Peirce and William James when both men were at Harvard in the 1870s. James popularized the term "pragmatism", giving Peirce full credit for its patrimony, but Peirce later demurred from the tangents that the movement was taking, and redubbed what he regarded as the original idea with the name of "pragmaticism". Along with its pragmatic theory of truth, this perspective integrates the basic insights of empirical (experience-based) and rational (concept-based) thinking.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What way of thought combines real life and the abstract? "
[ 3, 102, 6151, 51, 27803, 1 ]
" pragmatism "
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" Given the following passage "In the late 19th and early 20th century several forms of pragmatic philosophy arose. The ideas of pragmatism, in its various forms, developed mainly from discussions between Charles Sanders Peirce and William James when both men were at Harvard in the 1870s. James popularized the term "pragmatism", giving Peirce full credit for its patrimony, but Peirce later demurred from the tangents that the movement was taking, and redubbed what he regarded as the original idea with the name of "pragmaticism". Along with its pragmatic theory of truth, this perspective integrates the basic insights of empirical (experience-based) and rational (concept-based) thinking.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What is pragmatism considered a method of? "
[ 1631, 1 ]
" thinking "
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" Given the following passage "Mill's empiricism thus held that knowledge of any kind is not from direct experience but an inductive inference from direct experience. The problems other philosophers have had with Mill's position center around the following issues: Firstly, Mill's formulation encounters difficulty when it describes what direct experience is by differentiating only between actual and possible sensations. This misses some key discussion concerning conditions under which such "groups of permanent possibilities of sensation" might exist in the first place. Berkeley put God in that gap; the phenomenalists, including Mill, essentially left the question unanswered. In the end, lacking an acknowledgement of an aspect of "reality" that goes beyond mere "possibilities of sensation", such a position leads to a version of subjective idealism. Questions of how floor beams continue to support a floor while unobserved, how trees continue to grow while unobserved and untouched by human hands, etc., remain unanswered, and perhaps unanswerable in these terms. Secondly, Mill's formulation leaves open the unsettling possibility that the "gap-filling entities are purely possibilities and not actualities at all". Thirdly, Mill's position, by calling mathematics merely another species of inductive inference, misapprehends mathematics. It fails to fully consider the structure and method of mathematical science, the products of which are arrived at through an internally consistent deductive set of procedures which do not, either today or at the time Mill wrote, fall under the agreed meaning of induction.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What is another word for methods? "
[ 4293, 1 ]
" procedures "
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" Given the following passage "Mill's empiricism thus held that knowledge of any kind is not from direct experience but an inductive inference from direct experience. The problems other philosophers have had with Mill's position center around the following issues: Firstly, Mill's formulation encounters difficulty when it describes what direct experience is by differentiating only between actual and possible sensations. This misses some key discussion concerning conditions under which such "groups of permanent possibilities of sensation" might exist in the first place. Berkeley put God in that gap; the phenomenalists, including Mill, essentially left the question unanswered. In the end, lacking an acknowledgement of an aspect of "reality" that goes beyond mere "possibilities of sensation", such a position leads to a version of subjective idealism. Questions of how floor beams continue to support a floor while unobserved, how trees continue to grow while unobserved and untouched by human hands, etc., remain unanswered, and perhaps unanswerable in these terms. Secondly, Mill's formulation leaves open the unsettling possibility that the "gap-filling entities are purely possibilities and not actualities at all". Thirdly, Mill's position, by calling mathematics merely another species of inductive inference, misapprehends mathematics. It fails to fully consider the structure and method of mathematical science, the products of which are arrived at through an internally consistent deductive set of procedures which do not, either today or at the time Mill wrote, fall under the agreed meaning of induction.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Arithmetic and algebra are examples of what science? "
[ 17082, 1 ]
" mathematics "
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" Given the following passage "Mill's empiricism thus held that knowledge of any kind is not from direct experience but an inductive inference from direct experience. The problems other philosophers have had with Mill's position center around the following issues: Firstly, Mill's formulation encounters difficulty when it describes what direct experience is by differentiating only between actual and possible sensations. This misses some key discussion concerning conditions under which such "groups of permanent possibilities of sensation" might exist in the first place. Berkeley put God in that gap; the phenomenalists, including Mill, essentially left the question unanswered. In the end, lacking an acknowledgement of an aspect of "reality" that goes beyond mere "possibilities of sensation", such a position leads to a version of subjective idealism. Questions of how floor beams continue to support a floor while unobserved, how trees continue to grow while unobserved and untouched by human hands, etc., remain unanswered, and perhaps unanswerable in these terms. Secondly, Mill's formulation leaves open the unsettling possibility that the "gap-filling entities are purely possibilities and not actualities at all". Thirdly, Mill's position, by calling mathematics merely another species of inductive inference, misapprehends mathematics. It fails to fully consider the structure and method of mathematical science, the products of which are arrived at through an internally consistent deductive set of procedures which do not, either today or at the time Mill wrote, fall under the agreed meaning of induction.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What is another word for higher power? "
[ 601, 1 ]
" God "
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" Given the following passage "Mill's empiricism thus held that knowledge of any kind is not from direct experience but an inductive inference from direct experience. The problems other philosophers have had with Mill's position center around the following issues: Firstly, Mill's formulation encounters difficulty when it describes what direct experience is by differentiating only between actual and possible sensations. This misses some key discussion concerning conditions under which such "groups of permanent possibilities of sensation" might exist in the first place. Berkeley put God in that gap; the phenomenalists, including Mill, essentially left the question unanswered. In the end, lacking an acknowledgement of an aspect of "reality" that goes beyond mere "possibilities of sensation", such a position leads to a version of subjective idealism. Questions of how floor beams continue to support a floor while unobserved, how trees continue to grow while unobserved and untouched by human hands, etc., remain unanswered, and perhaps unanswerable in these terms. Secondly, Mill's formulation leaves open the unsettling possibility that the "gap-filling entities are purely possibilities and not actualities at all". Thirdly, Mill's position, by calling mathematics merely another species of inductive inference, misapprehends mathematics. It fails to fully consider the structure and method of mathematical science, the products of which are arrived at through an internally consistent deductive set of procedures which do not, either today or at the time Mill wrote, fall under the agreed meaning of induction.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What is a famous university in the western United States? "
[ 20776, 1 ]
" Berkeley "
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" Given the following passage "Mill's empiricism thus held that knowledge of any kind is not from direct experience but an inductive inference from direct experience. The problems other philosophers have had with Mill's position center around the following issues: Firstly, Mill's formulation encounters difficulty when it describes what direct experience is by differentiating only between actual and possible sensations. This misses some key discussion concerning conditions under which such "groups of permanent possibilities of sensation" might exist in the first place. Berkeley put God in that gap; the phenomenalists, including Mill, essentially left the question unanswered. In the end, lacking an acknowledgement of an aspect of "reality" that goes beyond mere "possibilities of sensation", such a position leads to a version of subjective idealism. Questions of how floor beams continue to support a floor while unobserved, how trees continue to grow while unobserved and untouched by human hands, etc., remain unanswered, and perhaps unanswerable in these terms. Secondly, Mill's formulation leaves open the unsettling possibility that the "gap-filling entities are purely possibilities and not actualities at all". Thirdly, Mill's position, by calling mathematics merely another species of inductive inference, misapprehends mathematics. It fails to fully consider the structure and method of mathematical science, the products of which are arrived at through an internally consistent deductive set of procedures which do not, either today or at the time Mill wrote, fall under the agreed meaning of induction.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What is the opposite of externally? "
[ 22533, 1 ]
" internally "
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" Given the following passage "In the 12th century CE the Andalusian Muslim philosopher and novelist Abu Bakr Ibn Tufail (known as "Abubacer" or "Ebn Tophail" in the West) included the theory of tabula rasa as a thought experiment in his Arabic philosophical novel, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan in which he depicted the development of the mind of a feral child "from a tabula rasa to that of an adult, in complete isolation from society" on a desert island, through experience alone. The Latin translation of his philosophical novel, entitled Philosophus Autodidactus, published by Edward Pococke the Younger in 1671, had an influence on John Locke's formulation of tabula rasa in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What was a main topic for the his book? "
[ 8, 4516, 13, 3808, 83, 9, 28246, 38, 3, 9, 816, 5016, 1 ]
" the theory of tabula rasa as a thought experiment "
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" Given the following passage "In the 12th century CE the Andalusian Muslim philosopher and novelist Abu Bakr Ibn Tufail (known as "Abubacer" or "Ebn Tophail" in the West) included the theory of tabula rasa as a thought experiment in his Arabic philosophical novel, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan in which he depicted the development of the mind of a feral child "from a tabula rasa to that of an adult, in complete isolation from society" on a desert island, through experience alone. The Latin translation of his philosophical novel, entitled Philosophus Autodidactus, published by Edward Pococke the Younger in 1671, had an influence on John Locke's formulation of tabula rasa in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What would have encouraged average, non-scientific types to read the book? "
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" he depicted the development of the mind of a feral child "from a tabula rasa to that of an adult, in complete isolation from society" on a desert island, through experience alone "
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" Given the following passage "In the 12th century CE the Andalusian Muslim philosopher and novelist Abu Bakr Ibn Tufail (known as "Abubacer" or "Ebn Tophail" in the West) included the theory of tabula rasa as a thought experiment in his Arabic philosophical novel, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan in which he depicted the development of the mind of a feral child "from a tabula rasa to that of an adult, in complete isolation from society" on a desert island, through experience alone. The Latin translation of his philosophical novel, entitled Philosophus Autodidactus, published by Edward Pococke the Younger in 1671, had an influence on John Locke's formulation of tabula rasa in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What was the name of the story type book? "
[ 8567, 63, 3, 23, 115, 29, 4701, 1824, 26, 2618, 1 ]
" Hayy ibn Yaqdhan "
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" Given the following passage "In the 12th century CE the Andalusian Muslim philosopher and novelist Abu Bakr Ibn Tufail (known as "Abubacer" or "Ebn Tophail" in the West) included the theory of tabula rasa as a thought experiment in his Arabic philosophical novel, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan in which he depicted the development of the mind of a feral child "from a tabula rasa to that of an adult, in complete isolation from society" on a desert island, through experience alone. The Latin translation of his philosophical novel, entitled Philosophus Autodidactus, published by Edward Pococke the Younger in 1671, had an influence on John Locke's formulation of tabula rasa in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What additional literature followed the book of isolation? "
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" Philosophus Autodidactus, published by Edward Pococke the Younger in 1671, had an influence on John Locke's formulation of tabula rasa in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding "
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" Given the following passage "Three milestone releases of Windows 8 leaked to the general public. Milestone 1, Build 7850, was leaked on April 12, 2011. It was the first build where the text of a window was written centered instead of aligned to the left. It was also probably the first appearance of the Metro-style font, and its wallpaper had the text shhh... let's not leak our hard work. However, its detailed build number reveals that the build was created on September 22, 2010. The leaked copy edition was Enterprise edition. The OS still reads as "Windows 7". Milestone 2, Build 7955, was leaked on April 25, 2011. The traditional Blue Screen of Death (BSoD) was replaced by a new Black screen, although this was later scrapped. This build introduced a new ribbon in Windows Explorer. Build 7959, with minor changes but the first 64-bit version, was leaked on May 1, 2011. The "Windows 7" logo was temporarily replaced with text displaying "Microsoft Confidential". On June 17, 2011, build 7989 64-bit edition was leaked. It introduced a new boot screen featuring the same fish as the default Windows 7 Beta wallpaper, which was later scrapped, and the circling dots as featured in the final (although the final version comes with smaller circling dots throbber). It also had the text Welcome below them, although this was also scrapped.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Milestone 1 was leaked as? "
[ 8526, 4182, 1 ]
" Enterprise edition "
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" Given the following passage "Three milestone releases of Windows 8 leaked to the general public. Milestone 1, Build 7850, was leaked on April 12, 2011. It was the first build where the text of a window was written centered instead of aligned to the left. It was also probably the first appearance of the Metro-style font, and its wallpaper had the text shhh... let's not leak our hard work. However, its detailed build number reveals that the build was created on September 22, 2010. The leaked copy edition was Enterprise edition. The OS still reads as "Windows 7". Milestone 2, Build 7955, was leaked on April 25, 2011. The traditional Blue Screen of Death (BSoD) was replaced by a new Black screen, although this was later scrapped. This build introduced a new ribbon in Windows Explorer. Build 7959, with minor changes but the first 64-bit version, was leaked on May 1, 2011. The "Windows 7" logo was temporarily replaced with text displaying "Microsoft Confidential". On June 17, 2011, build 7989 64-bit edition was leaked. It introduced a new boot screen featuring the same fish as the default Windows 7 Beta wallpaper, which was later scrapped, and the circling dots as featured in the final (although the final version comes with smaller circling dots throbber). It also had the text Welcome below them, although this was also scrapped.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What was added other than centered text in 7850? "
[ 10730, 18, 4084, 4088, 1 ]
" Metro-style font "
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" Given the following passage "Three milestone releases of Windows 8 leaked to the general public. Milestone 1, Build 7850, was leaked on April 12, 2011. It was the first build where the text of a window was written centered instead of aligned to the left. It was also probably the first appearance of the Metro-style font, and its wallpaper had the text shhh... let's not leak our hard work. However, its detailed build number reveals that the build was created on September 22, 2010. The leaked copy edition was Enterprise edition. The OS still reads as "Windows 7". Milestone 2, Build 7955, was leaked on April 25, 2011. The traditional Blue Screen of Death (BSoD) was replaced by a new Black screen, although this was later scrapped. This build introduced a new ribbon in Windows Explorer. Build 7959, with minor changes but the first 64-bit version, was leaked on May 1, 2011. The "Windows 7" logo was temporarily replaced with text displaying "Microsoft Confidential". On June 17, 2011, build 7989 64-bit edition was leaked. It introduced a new boot screen featuring the same fish as the default Windows 7 Beta wallpaper, which was later scrapped, and the circling dots as featured in the final (although the final version comes with smaller circling dots throbber). It also had the text Welcome below them, although this was also scrapped.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What milestone was 7959 part of? "
[ 11705, 3009, 204, 1 ]
" Milestone 2 "
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" Given the following passage "Three milestone releases of Windows 8 leaked to the general public. Milestone 1, Build 7850, was leaked on April 12, 2011. It was the first build where the text of a window was written centered instead of aligned to the left. It was also probably the first appearance of the Metro-style font, and its wallpaper had the text shhh... let's not leak our hard work. However, its detailed build number reveals that the build was created on September 22, 2010. The leaked copy edition was Enterprise edition. The OS still reads as "Windows 7". Milestone 2, Build 7955, was leaked on April 25, 2011. The traditional Blue Screen of Death (BSoD) was replaced by a new Black screen, although this was later scrapped. This build introduced a new ribbon in Windows Explorer. Build 7959, with minor changes but the first 64-bit version, was leaked on May 1, 2011. The "Windows 7" logo was temporarily replaced with text displaying "Microsoft Confidential". On June 17, 2011, build 7989 64-bit edition was leaked. It introduced a new boot screen featuring the same fish as the default Windows 7 Beta wallpaper, which was later scrapped, and the circling dots as featured in the final (although the final version comes with smaller circling dots throbber). It also had the text Welcome below them, although this was also scrapped.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: When was the Win 7 logo replaced? "
[ 14025, 3, 4440, 3390, 1 ]
" Build 7959 "
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" Given the following passage "Three milestone releases of Windows 8 leaked to the general public. Milestone 1, Build 7850, was leaked on April 12, 2011. It was the first build where the text of a window was written centered instead of aligned to the left. It was also probably the first appearance of the Metro-style font, and its wallpaper had the text shhh... let's not leak our hard work. However, its detailed build number reveals that the build was created on September 22, 2010. The leaked copy edition was Enterprise edition. The OS still reads as "Windows 7". Milestone 2, Build 7955, was leaked on April 25, 2011. The traditional Blue Screen of Death (BSoD) was replaced by a new Black screen, although this was later scrapped. This build introduced a new ribbon in Windows Explorer. Build 7959, with minor changes but the first 64-bit version, was leaked on May 1, 2011. The "Windows 7" logo was temporarily replaced with text displaying "Microsoft Confidential". On June 17, 2011, build 7989 64-bit edition was leaked. It introduced a new boot screen featuring the same fish as the default Windows 7 Beta wallpaper, which was later scrapped, and the circling dots as featured in the final (although the final version comes with smaller circling dots throbber). It also had the text Welcome below them, although this was also scrapped.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: When are circling dots available? "
[ 918, 3, 4440, 3914, 1 ]
" build 7989 "
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" Given the following passage "Microsoft began an advertising campaign centered around Windows 8 and its Surface tablet in October 2012, starting with its first television advertisement premiering on October 14, 2012. Microsoft's advertising budget of US$1.5–1.8 billion was significantly larger than the US$200 million campaign used to promote Windows 95. As part of its campaign, Microsoft set up 34 pop-up stores inside malls (primarily focusing on Surface), provided training for retail employees in partnership with Intel, and collaborated with the electronics store chain Best Buy to design expanded spaces to showcase devices. In an effort to make retail displays of Windows 8 devices more "personal", Microsoft also developed a character known in English-speaking markets as "Allison Brown", whose fictional profile (including personal photos, contacts, and emails) is also featured on demonstration units of Windows 8 devices.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: How did Microsoft kick off their campaign? "
[ 4390, 21592, 1 ]
" television advertisement "
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" Given the following passage "Microsoft began an advertising campaign centered around Windows 8 and its Surface tablet in October 2012, starting with its first television advertisement premiering on October 14, 2012. Microsoft's advertising budget of US$1.5–1.8 billion was significantly larger than the US$200 million campaign used to promote Windows 95. As part of its campaign, Microsoft set up 34 pop-up stores inside malls (primarily focusing on Surface), provided training for retail employees in partnership with Intel, and collaborated with the electronics store chain Best Buy to design expanded spaces to showcase devices. In an effort to make retail displays of Windows 8 devices more "personal", Microsoft also developed a character known in English-speaking markets as "Allison Brown", whose fictional profile (including personal photos, contacts, and emails) is also featured on demonstration units of Windows 8 devices.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What was unique about their spokesperson? "
[ 24460, 1 ]
" fictional "
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" Given the following passage "Microsoft began an advertising campaign centered around Windows 8 and its Surface tablet in October 2012, starting with its first television advertisement premiering on October 14, 2012. Microsoft's advertising budget of US$1.5–1.8 billion was significantly larger than the US$200 million campaign used to promote Windows 95. As part of its campaign, Microsoft set up 34 pop-up stores inside malls (primarily focusing on Surface), provided training for retail employees in partnership with Intel, and collaborated with the electronics store chain Best Buy to design expanded spaces to showcase devices. In an effort to make retail displays of Windows 8 devices more "personal", Microsoft also developed a character known in English-speaking markets as "Allison Brown", whose fictional profile (including personal photos, contacts, and emails) is also featured on demonstration units of Windows 8 devices.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: How were the Surface tablets presented to consumers in store? "
[ 8148, 4856, 12, 7193, 1 ]
" expanded spaces to showcase "
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" Given the following passage "Microsoft began an advertising campaign centered around Windows 8 and its Surface tablet in October 2012, starting with its first television advertisement premiering on October 14, 2012. Microsoft's advertising budget of US$1.5–1.8 billion was significantly larger than the US$200 million campaign used to promote Windows 95. As part of its campaign, Microsoft set up 34 pop-up stores inside malls (primarily focusing on Surface), provided training for retail employees in partnership with Intel, and collaborated with the electronics store chain Best Buy to design expanded spaces to showcase devices. In an effort to make retail displays of Windows 8 devices more "personal", Microsoft also developed a character known in English-speaking markets as "Allison Brown", whose fictional profile (including personal photos, contacts, and emails) is also featured on demonstration units of Windows 8 devices.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What expertise did sales people have? "
[ 3, 5325, 3, 7388, 30, 18884, 201, 937, 761, 21, 3549, 1652, 1 ]
" primarily focusing on Surface), provided training for retail employees "
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" Given the following passage "Microsoft began an advertising campaign centered around Windows 8 and its Surface tablet in October 2012, starting with its first television advertisement premiering on October 14, 2012. Microsoft's advertising budget of US$1.5–1.8 billion was significantly larger than the US$200 million campaign used to promote Windows 95. As part of its campaign, Microsoft set up 34 pop-up stores inside malls (primarily focusing on Surface), provided training for retail employees in partnership with Intel, and collaborated with the electronics store chain Best Buy to design expanded spaces to showcase devices. In an effort to make retail displays of Windows 8 devices more "personal", Microsoft also developed a character known in English-speaking markets as "Allison Brown", whose fictional profile (including personal photos, contacts, and emails) is also featured on demonstration units of Windows 8 devices.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Which operating was superior? "
[ 1758, 505, 1 ]
" Windows 8 "
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" Given the following passage "Windows 8 development started before Windows 7 had shipped in 2009. At the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2011, it was announced that the next version of Windows would add support for ARM system-on-chips alongside the existing x86 processors produced by vendors, especially AMD and Intel. Windows division president Steven Sinofsky demonstrated an early build of the port on prototype devices, while Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the company's goal for Windows to be "everywhere on every kind of device without compromise." Details also began to surface about a new application framework for Windows 8 codenamed "Jupiter", which would be used to make "immersive" applications using XAML (similarly to Windows Phone and Silverlight) that could be distributed via a new packaging system and a rumored application store.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What version of the OS was announced at CES? "
[ 1758, 505, 1 ]
" Windows 8 "
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" Given the following passage "Windows 8 development started before Windows 7 had shipped in 2009. At the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2011, it was announced that the next version of Windows would add support for ARM system-on-chips alongside the existing x86 processors produced by vendors, especially AMD and Intel. Windows division president Steven Sinofsky demonstrated an early build of the port on prototype devices, while Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the company's goal for Windows to be "everywhere on every kind of device without compromise." Details also began to surface about a new application framework for Windows 8 codenamed "Jupiter", which would be used to make "immersive" applications using XAML (similarly to Windows Phone and Silverlight) that could be distributed via a new packaging system and a rumored application store.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What was named after a big planet? "
[ 126, 917, 4732, 1 ]
" new application framework "
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" Given the following passage "Windows 8 development started before Windows 7 had shipped in 2009. At the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2011, it was announced that the next version of Windows would add support for ARM system-on-chips alongside the existing x86 processors produced by vendors, especially AMD and Intel. Windows division president Steven Sinofsky demonstrated an early build of the port on prototype devices, while Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the company's goal for Windows to be "everywhere on every kind of device without compromise." Details also began to surface about a new application framework for Windows 8 codenamed "Jupiter", which would be used to make "immersive" applications using XAML (similarly to Windows Phone and Silverlight) that could be distributed via a new packaging system and a rumored application store.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What word, if changed to cheese, would give an expression for nachos? "
[ 358, 1 ]
" system "
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" Given the following passage "Windows 8 development started before Windows 7 had shipped in 2009. At the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2011, it was announced that the next version of Windows would add support for ARM system-on-chips alongside the existing x86 processors produced by vendors, especially AMD and Intel. Windows division president Steven Sinofsky demonstrated an early build of the port on prototype devices, while Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the company's goal for Windows to be "everywhere on every kind of device without compromise." Details also began to surface about a new application framework for Windows 8 codenamed "Jupiter", which would be used to make "immersive" applications using XAML (similarly to Windows Phone and Silverlight) that could be distributed via a new packaging system and a rumored application store.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What word is used for folks who sell components? "
[ 8535, 1 ]
" vendors "
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" Given the following passage "Windows 8 development started before Windows 7 had shipped in 2009. At the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2011, it was announced that the next version of Windows would add support for ARM system-on-chips alongside the existing x86 processors produced by vendors, especially AMD and Intel. Windows division president Steven Sinofsky demonstrated an early build of the port on prototype devices, while Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the company's goal for Windows to be "everywhere on every kind of device without compromise." Details also began to surface about a new application framework for Windows 8 codenamed "Jupiter", which would be used to make "immersive" applications using XAML (similarly to Windows Phone and Silverlight) that could be distributed via a new packaging system and a rumored application store.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Which of the two Stevens was higher ranked? "
[ 4155, 935, 1 ]
" Ballmer "
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" Given the following passage "On August 1, 2012, Windows 8 (build 9200) was released to manufacturing with the build number 6.2.9200.16384 . Microsoft planned to hold a launch event on October 25, 2012 and release Windows 8 for general availability on the next day. However, only a day after its release to manufacturing, a copy of the final version of Windows 8 Enterprise N (a version for European markets lacking bundled media players to comply with a court ruling) leaked online, followed by leaks of the final versions of Windows 8 Pro and Enterprise a few days later. On August 15, 2012, Windows 8 was made available to download for MSDN and TechNet subscribers. Windows 8 was made available to Software Assurance customers on August 16, 2012. Windows 8 was made available for students with a DreamSpark Premium subscription on August 22, 2012, earlier than advertised.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: One version of Windows was different because of what event? "
[ 3, 9, 1614, 12346, 1 ]
" a court ruling "
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" Given the following passage "On August 1, 2012, Windows 8 (build 9200) was released to manufacturing with the build number 6.2.9200.16384 . Microsoft planned to hold a launch event on October 25, 2012 and release Windows 8 for general availability on the next day. However, only a day after its release to manufacturing, a copy of the final version of Windows 8 Enterprise N (a version for European markets lacking bundled media players to comply with a court ruling) leaked online, followed by leaks of the final versions of Windows 8 Pro and Enterprise a few days later. On August 15, 2012, Windows 8 was made available to download for MSDN and TechNet subscribers. Windows 8 was made available to Software Assurance customers on August 16, 2012. Windows 8 was made available for students with a DreamSpark Premium subscription on August 22, 2012, earlier than advertised.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: In it's simplest form, what greatly accelerated the launch of the products? "
[ 7653, 7, 1 ]
" leaks "
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" Given the following passage "On August 1, 2012, Windows 8 (build 9200) was released to manufacturing with the build number 6.2.9200.16384 . Microsoft planned to hold a launch event on October 25, 2012 and release Windows 8 for general availability on the next day. However, only a day after its release to manufacturing, a copy of the final version of Windows 8 Enterprise N (a version for European markets lacking bundled media players to comply with a court ruling) leaked online, followed by leaks of the final versions of Windows 8 Pro and Enterprise a few days later. On August 15, 2012, Windows 8 was made available to download for MSDN and TechNet subscribers. Windows 8 was made available to Software Assurance customers on August 16, 2012. Windows 8 was made available for students with a DreamSpark Premium subscription on August 22, 2012, earlier than advertised.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Who made Windows 8 available to students? "
[ 2803, 1 ]
" Microsoft "
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" Given the following passage "On August 1, 2012, Windows 8 (build 9200) was released to manufacturing with the build number 6.2.9200.16384 . Microsoft planned to hold a launch event on October 25, 2012 and release Windows 8 for general availability on the next day. However, only a day after its release to manufacturing, a copy of the final version of Windows 8 Enterprise N (a version for European markets lacking bundled media players to comply with a court ruling) leaked online, followed by leaks of the final versions of Windows 8 Pro and Enterprise a few days later. On August 15, 2012, Windows 8 was made available to download for MSDN and TechNet subscribers. Windows 8 was made available to Software Assurance customers on August 16, 2012. Windows 8 was made available for students with a DreamSpark Premium subscription on August 22, 2012, earlier than advertised.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Who made Windows 8? "
[ 2803, 1 ]
" Microsoft "
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" Given the following passage "Retail versions of Windows 8 are only able to install these apps through Windows Store—a namesake distribution platform which offers both apps, and listings for desktop programs certified for comparability with Windows 8. A method to sideload apps from outside Windows Store is available to devices running Windows 8 Enterprise and joined to a domain; Windows 8 Pro and Windows RT devices that are not part of a domain can also sideload apps, but only after special product keys are obtained through volume licensing.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What is not an app? "
[ 6555, 1356, 1 ]
" desktop programs "
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" Given the following passage "Retail versions of Windows 8 are only able to install these apps through Windows Store—a namesake distribution platform which offers both apps, and listings for desktop programs certified for comparability with Windows 8. A method to sideload apps from outside Windows Store is available to devices running Windows 8 Enterprise and joined to a domain; Windows 8 Pro and Windows RT devices that are not part of a domain can also sideload apps, but only after special product keys are obtained through volume licensing.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Where do you run Windows 8? "
[ 1904, 1 ]
" devices "
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" Given the following passage "Retail versions of Windows 8 are only able to install these apps through Windows Store—a namesake distribution platform which offers both apps, and listings for desktop programs certified for comparability with Windows 8. A method to sideload apps from outside Windows Store is available to devices running Windows 8 Enterprise and joined to a domain; Windows 8 Pro and Windows RT devices that are not part of a domain can also sideload apps, but only after special product keys are obtained through volume licensing.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Where do you run Windows 8 Enterprise? "
[ 1904, 1 ]
" devices "
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" Given the following passage "Retail versions of Windows 8 are only able to install these apps through Windows Store—a namesake distribution platform which offers both apps, and listings for desktop programs certified for comparability with Windows 8. A method to sideload apps from outside Windows Store is available to devices running Windows 8 Enterprise and joined to a domain; Windows 8 Pro and Windows RT devices that are not part of a domain can also sideload apps, but only after special product keys are obtained through volume licensing.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Where do you run Windows 8 Pro and Windows RT? "
[ 1904, 1 ]
" devices "
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" Given the following passage "Retail versions of Windows 8 are only able to install these apps through Windows Store—a namesake distribution platform which offers both apps, and listings for desktop programs certified for comparability with Windows 8. A method to sideload apps from outside Windows Store is available to devices running Windows 8 Enterprise and joined to a domain; Windows 8 Pro and Windows RT devices that are not part of a domain can also sideload apps, but only after special product keys are obtained through volume licensing.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What OS doesn't need to sideload apps? "
[ 14530, 5204, 13, 1758, 505, 1 ]
" Retail versions of Windows 8 "
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" Given the following passage "Windows 8 was released to a mixed critical reception. Although reaction towards its performance improvements, security enhancements, and improved support for touchscreen devices was positive, the new user interface of the operating system was widely criticized for being potentially confusing and difficult to learn (especially when used with a keyboard and mouse instead of a touchscreen). Despite these shortcomings, 60 million Windows 8 licenses have been sold through January 2013, a number which included both upgrades and sales to OEMs for new PCs.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: When using a mouse with Windows 8, what must one also use? "
[ 8680, 1 ]
" keyboard "
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" Given the following passage "Windows 8 was released to a mixed critical reception. Although reaction towards its performance improvements, security enhancements, and improved support for touchscreen devices was positive, the new user interface of the operating system was widely criticized for being potentially confusing and difficult to learn (especially when used with a keyboard and mouse instead of a touchscreen). Despite these shortcomings, 60 million Windows 8 licenses have been sold through January 2013, a number which included both upgrades and sales to OEMs for new PCs.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What is the acronym for personal computers? "
[ 2104, 7, 1 ]
" PCs "
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" Given the following passage "Windows 8 was released to a mixed critical reception. Although reaction towards its performance improvements, security enhancements, and improved support for touchscreen devices was positive, the new user interface of the operating system was widely criticized for being potentially confusing and difficult to learn (especially when used with a keyboard and mouse instead of a touchscreen). Despite these shortcomings, 60 million Windows 8 licenses have been sold through January 2013, a number which included both upgrades and sales to OEMs for new PCs.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: For what was Windows 8 not criticized? "
[ 165, 821, 6867, 6, 1034, 15220, 7, 6, 11, 3798, 380, 21, 28171, 1904, 1 ]
" its performance improvements, security enhancements, and improved support for touchscreen devices "
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" Given the following passage "Windows 8 was released to a mixed critical reception. Although reaction towards its performance improvements, security enhancements, and improved support for touchscreen devices was positive, the new user interface of the operating system was widely criticized for being potentially confusing and difficult to learn (especially when used with a keyboard and mouse instead of a touchscreen). Despite these shortcomings, 60 million Windows 8 licenses have been sold through January 2013, a number which included both upgrades and sales to OEMs for new PCs.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: For what was Windows 8 not complimented? "
[ 271, 6149, 15266, 11, 1256, 12, 669, 1 ]
" being potentially confusing and difficult to learn "
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" Given the following passage "Windows 8 was released to a mixed critical reception. Although reaction towards its performance improvements, security enhancements, and improved support for touchscreen devices was positive, the new user interface of the operating system was widely criticized for being potentially confusing and difficult to learn (especially when used with a keyboard and mouse instead of a touchscreen). Despite these shortcomings, 60 million Windows 8 licenses have been sold through January 2013, a number which included both upgrades and sales to OEMs for new PCs.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Was reaction to Windows 8 negative or positive? "
[ 4838, 1 ]
" mixed "
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" Given the following passage "The interface of Windows 8 has been the subject of mixed reaction. Bright wrote that its system of hot corners and edge swiping "wasn't very obvious" due to the lack of instructions provided by the operating system on the functions accessed through the user interface, even by the video tutorial added on the RTM release (which only instructed users to point at corners of the screen or swipe from its sides). Despite this "stumbling block", Bright said that Windows 8's interface worked well in some places, but began to feel incoherent when switching between the "Metro" and desktop environments, sometimes through inconsistent means. Tom Warren of The Verge wrote that the new interface was "as stunning as it is surprising", contributing to an "incredibly personal" experience once it is customized by the user, but had a steep learning curve, and was awkward to use with a keyboard and mouse. He noted that while forcing all users to use the new touch-oriented interface was a risky move for Microsoft as a whole, it was necessary in order to push development of apps for the Windows Store. Others, such as Adrian Kingsley-Hughes from ZDNet, considered the interface to be "clumsy and impractical" due to its inconsistent design (going as far as considering it "two operating systems unceremoniously bolted together"), and concluded that "Windows 8 wasn't born out of a need or demand; it was born out of a desire on Microsoft's part to exert its will on the PC industry and decide to shape it in a direction—touch and tablets -- that allows it to compete against, and remain relevant in the face of Apple's iPad."", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What was the "stumbling block" that Bright mentioned? "
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" its system of hot corners and edge swiping "wasn't very obvious" due to the lack of instructions provided by the operating system on the functions accessed through the user interface, even by the video tutorial added on the RTM release (which only instructed users to point at corners of the screen or swipe from its sides) "
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" Given the following passage "The interface of Windows 8 has been the subject of mixed reaction. Bright wrote that its system of hot corners and edge swiping "wasn't very obvious" due to the lack of instructions provided by the operating system on the functions accessed through the user interface, even by the video tutorial added on the RTM release (which only instructed users to point at corners of the screen or swipe from its sides). Despite this "stumbling block", Bright said that Windows 8's interface worked well in some places, but began to feel incoherent when switching between the "Metro" and desktop environments, sometimes through inconsistent means. Tom Warren of The Verge wrote that the new interface was "as stunning as it is surprising", contributing to an "incredibly personal" experience once it is customized by the user, but had a steep learning curve, and was awkward to use with a keyboard and mouse. He noted that while forcing all users to use the new touch-oriented interface was a risky move for Microsoft as a whole, it was necessary in order to push development of apps for the Windows Store. Others, such as Adrian Kingsley-Hughes from ZDNet, considered the interface to be "clumsy and impractical" due to its inconsistent design (going as far as considering it "two operating systems unceremoniously bolted together"), and concluded that "Windows 8 wasn't born out of a need or demand; it was born out of a desire on Microsoft's part to exert its will on the PC industry and decide to shape it in a direction—touch and tablets -- that allows it to compete against, and remain relevant in the face of Apple's iPad."", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What were Warren's criticisms of the interface? "
[ 3, 9, 10856, 1036, 8435, 6, 11, 47, 18267, 12, 169, 28, 3, 9, 8680, 11, 8429, 1 ]
" a steep learning curve, and was awkward to use with a keyboard and mouse "
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" Given the following passage "The interface of Windows 8 has been the subject of mixed reaction. Bright wrote that its system of hot corners and edge swiping "wasn't very obvious" due to the lack of instructions provided by the operating system on the functions accessed through the user interface, even by the video tutorial added on the RTM release (which only instructed users to point at corners of the screen or swipe from its sides). Despite this "stumbling block", Bright said that Windows 8's interface worked well in some places, but began to feel incoherent when switching between the "Metro" and desktop environments, sometimes through inconsistent means. Tom Warren of The Verge wrote that the new interface was "as stunning as it is surprising", contributing to an "incredibly personal" experience once it is customized by the user, but had a steep learning curve, and was awkward to use with a keyboard and mouse. He noted that while forcing all users to use the new touch-oriented interface was a risky move for Microsoft as a whole, it was necessary in order to push development of apps for the Windows Store. Others, such as Adrian Kingsley-Hughes from ZDNet, considered the interface to be "clumsy and impractical" due to its inconsistent design (going as far as considering it "two operating systems unceremoniously bolted together"), and concluded that "Windows 8 wasn't born out of a need or demand; it was born out of a desire on Microsoft's part to exert its will on the PC industry and decide to shape it in a direction—touch and tablets -- that allows it to compete against, and remain relevant in the face of Apple's iPad."", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What did Adrian Kingsley-Hughes describe to be the reasons for his criticisms? "
[ 788, 12, 165, 26608, 408, 1 ]
" due to its inconsistent design "
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" Given the following passage "The interface of Windows 8 has been the subject of mixed reaction. Bright wrote that its system of hot corners and edge swiping "wasn't very obvious" due to the lack of instructions provided by the operating system on the functions accessed through the user interface, even by the video tutorial added on the RTM release (which only instructed users to point at corners of the screen or swipe from its sides). Despite this "stumbling block", Bright said that Windows 8's interface worked well in some places, but began to feel incoherent when switching between the "Metro" and desktop environments, sometimes through inconsistent means. Tom Warren of The Verge wrote that the new interface was "as stunning as it is surprising", contributing to an "incredibly personal" experience once it is customized by the user, but had a steep learning curve, and was awkward to use with a keyboard and mouse. He noted that while forcing all users to use the new touch-oriented interface was a risky move for Microsoft as a whole, it was necessary in order to push development of apps for the Windows Store. Others, such as Adrian Kingsley-Hughes from ZDNet, considered the interface to be "clumsy and impractical" due to its inconsistent design (going as far as considering it "two operating systems unceremoniously bolted together"), and concluded that "Windows 8 wasn't born out of a need or demand; it was born out of a desire on Microsoft's part to exert its will on the PC industry and decide to shape it in a direction—touch and tablets -- that allows it to compete against, and remain relevant in the face of Apple's iPad."", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What words did Adrian Kingsley-Hughes use to insult the design of the interface? "
[ 96, 8264, 2699, 1002, 73, 2110, 15, 8823, 11937, 12862, 15, 26, 544, 121, 1 ]
" "two operating systems unceremoniously bolted together" "
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" Given the following passage "The interface of Windows 8 has been the subject of mixed reaction. Bright wrote that its system of hot corners and edge swiping "wasn't very obvious" due to the lack of instructions provided by the operating system on the functions accessed through the user interface, even by the video tutorial added on the RTM release (which only instructed users to point at corners of the screen or swipe from its sides). Despite this "stumbling block", Bright said that Windows 8's interface worked well in some places, but began to feel incoherent when switching between the "Metro" and desktop environments, sometimes through inconsistent means. Tom Warren of The Verge wrote that the new interface was "as stunning as it is surprising", contributing to an "incredibly personal" experience once it is customized by the user, but had a steep learning curve, and was awkward to use with a keyboard and mouse. He noted that while forcing all users to use the new touch-oriented interface was a risky move for Microsoft as a whole, it was necessary in order to push development of apps for the Windows Store. Others, such as Adrian Kingsley-Hughes from ZDNet, considered the interface to be "clumsy and impractical" due to its inconsistent design (going as far as considering it "two operating systems unceremoniously bolted together"), and concluded that "Windows 8 wasn't born out of a need or demand; it was born out of a desire on Microsoft's part to exert its will on the PC industry and decide to shape it in a direction—touch and tablets -- that allows it to compete against, and remain relevant in the face of Apple's iPad."", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What does Adrian Kingsley-Hughes say of his thoughts on the origins of the interface? "
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" Windows 8 wasn't born out of a need or demand; it was born out of a desire on Microsoft's part to exert its will on the PC industry and decide to shape it in a direction—touch and tablets -- that allows it to compete against, and remain relevant in the face of Apple's iPad." "
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" Given the following passage "Several notable video game developers criticized Microsoft for making its Windows Store a closed platform subject to its own regulations, as it conflicted with their view of the PC as an open platform. Markus "Notch" Persson (creator of the indie game Minecraft), Gabe Newell (co-founder of Valve Corporation and developer of software distribution platform Steam), and Rob Pardo from Activision Blizzard voiced concern about the closed nature of the Windows Store. However, Tom Warren of The Verge stated that Microsoft's addition of the Store was simply responding to the success of both Apple and Google in pursuing the "curated application store approach."", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Who stuck up for Microsoft? "
[ 3059, 16700, 1 ]
" Tom Warren "
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" Given the following passage "Several notable video game developers criticized Microsoft for making its Windows Store a closed platform subject to its own regulations, as it conflicted with their view of the PC as an open platform. Markus "Notch" Persson (creator of the indie game Minecraft), Gabe Newell (co-founder of Valve Corporation and developer of software distribution platform Steam), and Rob Pardo from Activision Blizzard voiced concern about the closed nature of the Windows Store. However, Tom Warren of The Verge stated that Microsoft's addition of the Store was simply responding to the success of both Apple and Google in pursuing the "curated application store approach."", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What entity stuck up for Microsoft? "
[ 37, 781, 397, 1 ]
" The Verge "
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" Given the following passage "Several notable video game developers criticized Microsoft for making its Windows Store a closed platform subject to its own regulations, as it conflicted with their view of the PC as an open platform. Markus "Notch" Persson (creator of the indie game Minecraft), Gabe Newell (co-founder of Valve Corporation and developer of software distribution platform Steam), and Rob Pardo from Activision Blizzard voiced concern about the closed nature of the Windows Store. However, Tom Warren of The Verge stated that Microsoft's addition of the Store was simply responding to the success of both Apple and Google in pursuing the "curated application store approach."", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What cube loving guy complained about the Microsoft store? "
[ 25323, 96, 10358, 524, 121, 1915, 7, 739, 1 ]
" Markus "Notch" Persson "
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" Given the following passage "Several notable video game developers criticized Microsoft for making its Windows Store a closed platform subject to its own regulations, as it conflicted with their view of the PC as an open platform. Markus "Notch" Persson (creator of the indie game Minecraft), Gabe Newell (co-founder of Valve Corporation and developer of software distribution platform Steam), and Rob Pardo from Activision Blizzard voiced concern about the closed nature of the Windows Store. However, Tom Warren of The Verge stated that Microsoft's addition of the Store was simply responding to the success of both Apple and Google in pursuing the "curated application store approach."", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What was the main issue people had with the Windows Store? "
[ 4129, 15, 26, 28, 70, 903, 13, 8, 2104, 38, 46, 539, 1585, 1 ]
" conflicted with their view of the PC as an open platform "
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" Given the following passage "In June 2014, state broadcaster China Central Television (CCTV) broadcast a news story further characterizing Windows 8 as a threat to national security. The story featured an interview with Ni Guangnan, who stated that operating systems could aggregate "sensitive user information" that could be used to "understand the conditions and activities of our national economy and society", and alleged that per documents leaked by Edward Snowden, the U.S. government had worked with Microsoft to retrieve encrypted information. Yang Min, a computer scientist at Fudan University, also stated that "the security features of Windows 8 are basically to the benefit of Microsoft, allowing them control of the users' data, and that poses a big challenge to the national strategy for information security." Microsoft denied the claims in a number of posts on the Chinese social network Sina Weibo, which stated that the company had never "assisted any government in an attack of another government or clients" or provided client data to the U.S. government, never "provided any government the authority to directly visit" or placed any backdoors in its products and services, and that it had never concealed government requests for client data.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Which scholar talked about the national security threats of Windows 8 in June 2014? "
[ 21078, 4765, 1 ]
" Yang Min "
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" Given the following passage "In June 2014, state broadcaster China Central Television (CCTV) broadcast a news story further characterizing Windows 8 as a threat to national security. The story featured an interview with Ni Guangnan, who stated that operating systems could aggregate "sensitive user information" that could be used to "understand the conditions and activities of our national economy and society", and alleged that per documents leaked by Edward Snowden, the U.S. government had worked with Microsoft to retrieve encrypted information. Yang Min, a computer scientist at Fudan University, also stated that "the security features of Windows 8 are basically to the benefit of Microsoft, allowing them control of the users' data, and that poses a big challenge to the national strategy for information security." Microsoft denied the claims in a number of posts on the Chinese social network Sina Weibo, which stated that the company had never "assisted any government in an attack of another government or clients" or provided client data to the U.S. government, never "provided any government the authority to directly visit" or placed any backdoors in its products and services, and that it had never concealed government requests for client data.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Microsoft defended itself concerning the national security claims on what platform? "
[ 8271, 9, 101, 23, 115, 32, 1 ]
" Sina Weibo "
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" Given the following passage "In June 2014, state broadcaster China Central Television (CCTV) broadcast a news story further characterizing Windows 8 as a threat to national security. The story featured an interview with Ni Guangnan, who stated that operating systems could aggregate "sensitive user information" that could be used to "understand the conditions and activities of our national economy and society", and alleged that per documents leaked by Edward Snowden, the U.S. government had worked with Microsoft to retrieve encrypted information. Yang Min, a computer scientist at Fudan University, also stated that "the security features of Windows 8 are basically to the benefit of Microsoft, allowing them control of the users' data, and that poses a big challenge to the national strategy for information security." Microsoft denied the claims in a number of posts on the Chinese social network Sina Weibo, which stated that the company had never "assisted any government in an attack of another government or clients" or provided client data to the U.S. government, never "provided any government the authority to directly visit" or placed any backdoors in its products and services, and that it had never concealed government requests for client data.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: According to the CCTV broadcast, what individual helped make information available concerning the national security cyber threat? "
[ 8200, 9394, 537, 1 ]
" Edward Snowden "
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" Given the following passage "In June 2014, state broadcaster China Central Television (CCTV) broadcast a news story further characterizing Windows 8 as a threat to national security. The story featured an interview with Ni Guangnan, who stated that operating systems could aggregate "sensitive user information" that could be used to "understand the conditions and activities of our national economy and society", and alleged that per documents leaked by Edward Snowden, the U.S. government had worked with Microsoft to retrieve encrypted information. Yang Min, a computer scientist at Fudan University, also stated that "the security features of Windows 8 are basically to the benefit of Microsoft, allowing them control of the users' data, and that poses a big challenge to the national strategy for information security." Microsoft denied the claims in a number of posts on the Chinese social network Sina Weibo, which stated that the company had never "assisted any government in an attack of another government or clients" or provided client data to the U.S. government, never "provided any government the authority to directly visit" or placed any backdoors in its products and services, and that it had never concealed government requests for client data.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: According to the CCTV interview, what may the company Microsoft be using to take advantage of users' secure details concerning Windows 8?? "
[ 1034, 753, 1 ]
" security features "
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" Given the following passage "In June 2014, state broadcaster China Central Television (CCTV) broadcast a news story further characterizing Windows 8 as a threat to national security. The story featured an interview with Ni Guangnan, who stated that operating systems could aggregate "sensitive user information" that could be used to "understand the conditions and activities of our national economy and society", and alleged that per documents leaked by Edward Snowden, the U.S. government had worked with Microsoft to retrieve encrypted information. Yang Min, a computer scientist at Fudan University, also stated that "the security features of Windows 8 are basically to the benefit of Microsoft, allowing them control of the users' data, and that poses a big challenge to the national strategy for information security." Microsoft denied the claims in a number of posts on the Chinese social network Sina Weibo, which stated that the company had never "assisted any government in an attack of another government or clients" or provided client data to the U.S. government, never "provided any government the authority to directly visit" or placed any backdoors in its products and services, and that it had never concealed government requests for client data.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: In defending itself against allegations, what did Microsoft claim was not implemented on its various offerings? "
[ 223, 11968, 7, 1 ]
" backdoors "
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" Given the following passage "The French Marines and naval infantry intended for the invasion of northern Germany were dispatched to reinforce the French Army of Châlons and fell into captivity at Sedan along with Napoleon III. A shortage of officers, following the capture of most of the professional French army at the Siege of Metz and at the Battle of Sedan, led naval officers to be sent from their ships to command hastily assembled reservists of the Garde Mobile. As the autumn storms of the North Sea forced the return of more of the French ships, the blockade of the north German ports diminished and in September 1870 the French navy abandoned the blockade for the winter. The rest of the navy retired to ports along the English Channel and remained in port for the rest of the war.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What happened to the French Marines? "
[ 2468, 17, 10696, 44, 679, 3768, 1 ]
" captivity at Sedan "
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" Given the following passage "The French Marines and naval infantry intended for the invasion of northern Germany were dispatched to reinforce the French Army of Châlons and fell into captivity at Sedan along with Napoleon III. A shortage of officers, following the capture of most of the professional French army at the Siege of Metz and at the Battle of Sedan, led naval officers to be sent from their ships to command hastily assembled reservists of the Garde Mobile. As the autumn storms of the North Sea forced the return of more of the French ships, the blockade of the north German ports diminished and in September 1870 the French navy abandoned the blockade for the winter. The rest of the navy retired to ports along the English Channel and remained in port for the rest of the war.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: The Siege of Metz and Battle of Sedan caused? "
[ 5803, 12, 36, 1622, 45, 70, 10911, 12, 4106, 65, 17, 9203, 17583, 3, 60, 3473, 343, 7, 13, 8, 3121, 221, 4873, 1 ]
" officers to be sent from their ships to command hastily assembled reservists of the Garde Mobile "
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" Given the following passage "The French Marines and naval infantry intended for the invasion of northern Germany were dispatched to reinforce the French Army of Châlons and fell into captivity at Sedan along with Napoleon III. A shortage of officers, following the capture of most of the professional French army at the Siege of Metz and at the Battle of Sedan, led naval officers to be sent from their ships to command hastily assembled reservists of the Garde Mobile. As the autumn storms of the North Sea forced the return of more of the French ships, the blockade of the north German ports diminished and in September 1870 the French navy abandoned the blockade for the winter. The rest of the navy retired to ports along the English Channel and remained in port for the rest of the war.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: The autumn storms had what effect on the North Sea by 1870? "
[ 2379, 23118, 13876, 8, 2463, 9, 221, 21, 8, 2265, 1 ]
" French navy abandoned the blockade for the winter "
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" Given the following passage "The French Marines and naval infantry intended for the invasion of northern Germany were dispatched to reinforce the French Army of Châlons and fell into captivity at Sedan along with Napoleon III. A shortage of officers, following the capture of most of the professional French army at the Siege of Metz and at the Battle of Sedan, led naval officers to be sent from their ships to command hastily assembled reservists of the Garde Mobile. As the autumn storms of the North Sea forced the return of more of the French ships, the blockade of the north German ports diminished and in September 1870 the French navy abandoned the blockade for the winter. The rest of the navy retired to ports along the English Channel and remained in port for the rest of the war.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: __ was the oppidum of the Celtic Mediomatrici tribe. "
[ 8146, 172, 1 ]
" Metz "
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" Given the following passage "The French Marines and naval infantry intended for the invasion of northern Germany were dispatched to reinforce the French Army of Châlons and fell into captivity at Sedan along with Napoleon III. A shortage of officers, following the capture of most of the professional French army at the Siege of Metz and at the Battle of Sedan, led naval officers to be sent from their ships to command hastily assembled reservists of the Garde Mobile. As the autumn storms of the North Sea forced the return of more of the French ships, the blockade of the north German ports diminished and in September 1870 the French navy abandoned the blockade for the winter. The rest of the navy retired to ports along the English Channel and remained in port for the rest of the war.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: __ remained German until the end of World War I, when it reverted to France. "
[ 8146, 172, 1 ]
" Metz "
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" Given the following passage "The French Marines and naval infantry intended for the invasion of northern Germany were dispatched to reinforce the French Army of Châlons and fell into captivity at Sedan along with Napoleon III. A shortage of officers, following the capture of most of the professional French army at the Siege of Metz and at the Battle of Sedan, led naval officers to be sent from their ships to command hastily assembled reservists of the Garde Mobile. As the autumn storms of the North Sea forced the return of more of the French ships, the blockade of the north German ports diminished and in September 1870 the French navy abandoned the blockade for the winter. The rest of the navy retired to ports along the English Channel and remained in port for the rest of the war.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: The French national census of 2012 estimated the population of __ to be 119,551. "
[ 8146, 172, 1 ]
" Metz "
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" Given the following passage "Although public opinion in Paris was strongly against any form of surrender or concession to the Prussians, the Government realised that it could not hold the city for much longer, and that Gambetta's provincial armies would probably never break through to relieve Paris. President Trochu resigned on 25 January and was replaced by Favre, who signed the surrender two days later at Versailles, with the armistice coming into effect at midnight. Several sources claim that in his carriage on the way back to Paris, Favre broke into tears, and collapsed into his daughter's arms as the guns around Paris fell silent at midnight. At Tours, Gambetta received word from Paris on 30 January that the Government had surrendered. Furious, he refused to surrender and launched an immediate attack on German forces at Orleans which, predictably, failed. A delegation of Parisian diplomats arrived in Tours by train on 5 February to negotiate with Gambetta, and the following day Gambetta stepped down and surrendered control of the provincial armies to the Government of National Defence, which promptly ordered a cease-fire across France.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: __ was preceded by Napoleon III. "
[ 7080, 8019, 1 ]
" Trochu "
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" Given the following passage "Although public opinion in Paris was strongly against any form of surrender or concession to the Prussians, the Government realised that it could not hold the city for much longer, and that Gambetta's provincial armies would probably never break through to relieve Paris. President Trochu resigned on 25 January and was replaced by Favre, who signed the surrender two days later at Versailles, with the armistice coming into effect at midnight. Several sources claim that in his carriage on the way back to Paris, Favre broke into tears, and collapsed into his daughter's arms as the guns around Paris fell silent at midnight. At Tours, Gambetta received word from Paris on 30 January that the Government had surrendered. Furious, he refused to surrender and launched an immediate attack on German forces at Orleans which, predictably, failed. A delegation of Parisian diplomats arrived in Tours by train on 5 February to negotiate with Gambetta, and the following day Gambetta stepped down and surrendered control of the provincial armies to the Government of National Defence, which promptly ordered a cease-fire across France.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: __ was succeeded by Adolphe Thiers. "
[ 7080, 8019, 1 ]
" Trochu "
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" Given the following passage "Although public opinion in Paris was strongly against any form of surrender or concession to the Prussians, the Government realised that it could not hold the city for much longer, and that Gambetta's provincial armies would probably never break through to relieve Paris. President Trochu resigned on 25 January and was replaced by Favre, who signed the surrender two days later at Versailles, with the armistice coming into effect at midnight. Several sources claim that in his carriage on the way back to Paris, Favre broke into tears, and collapsed into his daughter's arms as the guns around Paris fell silent at midnight. At Tours, Gambetta received word from Paris on 30 January that the Government had surrendered. Furious, he refused to surrender and launched an immediate attack on German forces at Orleans which, predictably, failed. A delegation of Parisian diplomats arrived in Tours by train on 5 February to negotiate with Gambetta, and the following day Gambetta stepped down and surrendered control of the provincial armies to the Government of National Defence, which promptly ordered a cease-fire across France.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: __ sat for Morbihan. "
[ 7080, 8019, 1 ]
" Trochu "
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" Given the following passage "Albrecht von Roon, the Prussian Minister of War from 1859 to 1873, put into effect a series of reforms of the Prussian military system in the 1860s. Among these were two major reforms that substantially increased the military power of Germany. The first was a reorganization of the army that integrated the regular army and the Landwehr reserves. The second was the provision for the conscription of every male Prussian of military age in the event of mobilization. Thus, despite the population of France being greater than the population of all of the German states that participated in the war, the Germans mobilized more soldiers for battle.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Who had a larger army, France or Germany? "
[ 8, 2968, 7, 11047, 1601, 72, 10838, 21, 3392, 1 ]
" the Germans mobilized more soldiers for battle "
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" Given the following passage "Albrecht von Roon, the Prussian Minister of War from 1859 to 1873, put into effect a series of reforms of the Prussian military system in the 1860s. Among these were two major reforms that substantially increased the military power of Germany. The first was a reorganization of the army that integrated the regular army and the Landwehr reserves. The second was the provision for the conscription of every male Prussian of military age in the event of mobilization. Thus, despite the population of France being greater than the population of all of the German states that participated in the war, the Germans mobilized more soldiers for battle.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Which group was conscribed? "
[ 334, 5069, 276, 26165, 29, 13, 2716, 1246, 1 ]
" every male Prussian of military age "
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" Given the following passage "Albrecht von Roon, the Prussian Minister of War from 1859 to 1873, put into effect a series of reforms of the Prussian military system in the 1860s. Among these were two major reforms that substantially increased the military power of Germany. The first was a reorganization of the army that integrated the regular army and the Landwehr reserves. The second was the provision for the conscription of every male Prussian of military age in the event of mobilization. Thus, despite the population of France being greater than the population of all of the German states that participated in the war, the Germans mobilized more soldiers for battle.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Which stretch of years do the events in the article take place? "
[ 3, 24700, 7, 1 ]
" 1860s "
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" Given the following passage "The Prussian Army, under the terms of the armistice, held a brief victory parade in Paris on 17 February; the city was silent and draped with black and the Germans quickly withdrew. Bismarck honoured the armistice, by allowing train loads of food into Paris and withdrawing Prussian forces to the east of the city, prior to a full withdrawal once France agreed to pay a five billion franc war indemnity. At the same time, Prussian forces were concentrated in the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. An exodus occurred from Paris as some 200,000 people, predominantly middle-class, went to the countryside.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: How were French people allowed to eat after the armistice? "
[ 2412, 10460, 13, 542, 1 ]
" train loads of food "
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" Given the following passage "The Prussian Army, under the terms of the armistice, held a brief victory parade in Paris on 17 February; the city was silent and draped with black and the Germans quickly withdrew. Bismarck honoured the armistice, by allowing train loads of food into Paris and withdrawing Prussian forces to the east of the city, prior to a full withdrawal once France agreed to pay a five billion franc war indemnity. At the same time, Prussian forces were concentrated in the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. An exodus occurred from Paris as some 200,000 people, predominantly middle-class, went to the countryside.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Who went to the countryside? "
[ 2214, 18, 4057, 1 ]
" middle-class "
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" Given the following passage "The Prussian Army, under the terms of the armistice, held a brief victory parade in Paris on 17 February; the city was silent and draped with black and the Germans quickly withdrew. Bismarck honoured the armistice, by allowing train loads of food into Paris and withdrawing Prussian forces to the east of the city, prior to a full withdrawal once France agreed to pay a five billion franc war indemnity. At the same time, Prussian forces were concentrated in the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. An exodus occurred from Paris as some 200,000 people, predominantly middle-class, went to the countryside.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: When would all troops leave? "
[ 728, 1410, 4686, 12, 726, 3, 9, 874, 2108, 3, 6296, 75, 615, 11468, 29, 485, 1 ]
" once France agreed to pay a five billion franc war indemnity "
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" Given the following passage "The Prussian Army, under the terms of the armistice, held a brief victory parade in Paris on 17 February; the city was silent and draped with black and the Germans quickly withdrew. Bismarck honoured the armistice, by allowing train loads of food into Paris and withdrawing Prussian forces to the east of the city, prior to a full withdrawal once France agreed to pay a five billion franc war indemnity. At the same time, Prussian forces were concentrated in the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. An exodus occurred from Paris as some 200,000 people, predominantly middle-class, went to the countryside.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: Why was Paris silent on the 17th of February? "
[ 6224, 16314, 1 ]
" victory parade "
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" Given the following passage "The Prussian Army, under the terms of the armistice, held a brief victory parade in Paris on 17 February; the city was silent and draped with black and the Germans quickly withdrew. Bismarck honoured the armistice, by allowing train loads of food into Paris and withdrawing Prussian forces to the east of the city, prior to a full withdrawal once France agreed to pay a five billion franc war indemnity. At the same time, Prussian forces were concentrated in the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. An exodus occurred from Paris as some 200,000 people, predominantly middle-class, went to the countryside.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What carried life sustaining items to Paris? "
[ 2412, 1 ]
" train "
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" Given the following passage "The first action of the Franco-Prussian War took place on 4 August 1870. This battle saw the unsupported division of General Douay of I Corps, with some attached cavalry, which was posted to watch the border, attacked in overwhelming but uncoordinated fashion by the German 3rd Army. During the day, elements of a Bavarian and two Prussian corps became engaged and were aided by Prussian artillery, which blasted holes in the defenses of the town. Douay held a very strong position initially, thanks to the accurate long-range fire of the Chassepots but his force was too thinly stretched to hold it. Douay was killed in the late morning when a caisson of the divisional mitrailleuse battery exploded near him; the encirclement of the town by the Prussians threatened the French avenue of retreat.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What was caused by Douay's death "
[ 8, 2379, 18836, 13, 10742, 1 ]
" the French avenue of retreat "
[ 9246, 8, 826, 5454, 96, 634, 166, 1041, 13, 8, 20439, 18, 345, 26165, 29, 1602, 808, 286, 30, 314, 1660, 507, 2518, 5, 100, 3392, 1509, 8, 73, 29249, 4889, 13, 2146, 17159, 9, 63, 13, 27, 16829, 6, 28, 128, 5223, 212, 2165, 651, 6, 84, 47, 1694, 12, 1605, 8, 4947, 6, 17263, 16, 11316, 68, 73, 509, 21122, 26, 2934, 57, 8, 2968, 220, 52, 26, 6788, 5, 3, 2092, 8, 239, 6, 2479, 13, 3, 9, 2659, 208, 6855, 11, 192, 276, 26165, 29, 7527, 1632, 5908, 11, 130, 3, 5385, 26, 57, 276, 26165, 29, 768, 7613, 63, 6, 84, 3, 115, 19054, 8034, 16, 8, 4453, 7, 13, 8, 1511, 5, 17159, 9, 63, 1213, 3, 9, 182, 1101, 1102, 7513, 6, 2049, 12, 8, 4034, 307, 18, 5517, 1472, 13, 8, 4004, 3974, 3013, 7, 68, 112, 2054, 47, 396, 5551, 120, 23038, 12, 1520, 34, 5, 17159, 9, 63, 47, 4792, 16, 8, 1480, 1379, 116, 3, 9, 212, 12661, 13, 8, 4889, 138, 181, 52, 14424, 1074, 3322, 3, 29155, 1084, 376, 117, 8, 3, 35, 15776, 3335, 13, 8, 1511, 57, 8, 276, 26165, 29, 7, 16026, 8, 2379, 18836, 13, 10742, 535, 6, 1525, 8, 826, 822, 5, 2507, 24, 8, 1525, 19, 915, 441, 8, 1499, 5, 11860, 10, 363, 47, 17159, 9, 63, 31, 7, 1706, 44, 8, 1849, 13, 8, 3392, 58 ]
" Given the following passage "The first action of the Franco-Prussian War took place on 4 August 1870. This battle saw the unsupported division of General Douay of I Corps, with some attached cavalry, which was posted to watch the border, attacked in overwhelming but uncoordinated fashion by the German 3rd Army. During the day, elements of a Bavarian and two Prussian corps became engaged and were aided by Prussian artillery, which blasted holes in the defenses of the town. Douay held a very strong position initially, thanks to the accurate long-range fire of the Chassepots but his force was too thinly stretched to hold it. Douay was killed in the late morning when a caisson of the divisional mitrailleuse battery exploded near him; the encirclement of the town by the Prussians threatened the French avenue of retreat.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What was Douay's condition at the beginning of the battle? "
[ 3, 9, 182, 1101, 1102, 1 ]
" a very strong position "
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" Given the following passage "The first action of the Franco-Prussian War took place on 4 August 1870. This battle saw the unsupported division of General Douay of I Corps, with some attached cavalry, which was posted to watch the border, attacked in overwhelming but uncoordinated fashion by the German 3rd Army. During the day, elements of a Bavarian and two Prussian corps became engaged and were aided by Prussian artillery, which blasted holes in the defenses of the town. Douay held a very strong position initially, thanks to the accurate long-range fire of the Chassepots but his force was too thinly stretched to hold it. Douay was killed in the late morning when a caisson of the divisional mitrailleuse battery exploded near him; the encirclement of the town by the Prussians threatened the French avenue of retreat.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What was the main cause of Douay's failure? "
[ 112, 2054, 47, 396, 5551, 120, 23038, 12, 1520, 34, 1 ]
" his force was too thinly stretched to hold it "
[ 9246, 8, 826, 5454, 96, 634, 166, 1041, 13, 8, 20439, 18, 345, 26165, 29, 1602, 808, 286, 30, 314, 1660, 507, 2518, 5, 100, 3392, 1509, 8, 73, 29249, 4889, 13, 2146, 17159, 9, 63, 13, 27, 16829, 6, 28, 128, 5223, 212, 2165, 651, 6, 84, 47, 1694, 12, 1605, 8, 4947, 6, 17263, 16, 11316, 68, 73, 509, 21122, 26, 2934, 57, 8, 2968, 220, 52, 26, 6788, 5, 3, 2092, 8, 239, 6, 2479, 13, 3, 9, 2659, 208, 6855, 11, 192, 276, 26165, 29, 7527, 1632, 5908, 11, 130, 3, 5385, 26, 57, 276, 26165, 29, 768, 7613, 63, 6, 84, 3, 115, 19054, 8034, 16, 8, 4453, 7, 13, 8, 1511, 5, 17159, 9, 63, 1213, 3, 9, 182, 1101, 1102, 7513, 6, 2049, 12, 8, 4034, 307, 18, 5517, 1472, 13, 8, 4004, 3974, 3013, 7, 68, 112, 2054, 47, 396, 5551, 120, 23038, 12, 1520, 34, 5, 17159, 9, 63, 47, 4792, 16, 8, 1480, 1379, 116, 3, 9, 212, 12661, 13, 8, 4889, 138, 181, 52, 14424, 1074, 3322, 3, 29155, 1084, 376, 117, 8, 3, 35, 15776, 3335, 13, 8, 1511, 57, 8, 276, 26165, 29, 7, 16026, 8, 2379, 18836, 13, 10742, 535, 6, 1525, 8, 826, 822, 5, 2507, 24, 8, 1525, 19, 915, 441, 8, 1499, 5, 11860, 10, 363, 47, 8, 1706, 13, 17159, 9, 63, 31, 7, 10101, 58 ]
" Given the following passage "The first action of the Franco-Prussian War took place on 4 August 1870. This battle saw the unsupported division of General Douay of I Corps, with some attached cavalry, which was posted to watch the border, attacked in overwhelming but uncoordinated fashion by the German 3rd Army. During the day, elements of a Bavarian and two Prussian corps became engaged and were aided by Prussian artillery, which blasted holes in the defenses of the town. Douay held a very strong position initially, thanks to the accurate long-range fire of the Chassepots but his force was too thinly stretched to hold it. Douay was killed in the late morning when a caisson of the divisional mitrailleuse battery exploded near him; the encirclement of the town by the Prussians threatened the French avenue of retreat.", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What was the condition of Douay's enemy？ "
[ 17263, 16, 11316, 68, 73, 509, 21122, 26, 2934, 1 ]
" attacked in overwhelming but uncoordinated fashion "
[ 9246, 8, 826, 5454, 96, 1570, 811, 6, 8, 276, 26165, 29, 2716, 1073, 358, 47, 4784, 12, 8, 2379, 825, 117, 276, 26165, 29, 871, 5803, 130, 4252, 12, 6981, 6121, 11, 2547, 1631, 5, 10930, 6, 48, 47, 11019, 17, 1050, 31, 7, 18775, 5, 37, 2379, 6, 3, 25605, 6, 8151, 45, 46, 1073, 11, 5546, 358, 24, 3, 7, 17, 99, 1361, 8445, 606, 5, 2150, 12, 8, 2716, 18637, 9628, 30411, 6, 8, 358, 96, 9491, 966, 1551, 1231, 16, 3, 21763, 8, 9102, 31, 7, 2241, 579, 45, 8, 871, 11, 306, 4106, 5, 304, 8, 3, 5490, 2136, 13, 6123, 44, 8, 420, 54, 36, 3, 9, 22573, 66, 8, 16, 994, 1071, 7, 179, 18370, 13, 2379, 2716, 1291, 535, 1686, 1525, 8, 826, 822, 5, 2507, 24, 8, 1525, 19, 915, 441, 8, 1499, 5, 11860, 10, 363, 410, 8, 20609, 825, 2136, 58 ]
" Given the following passage "In addition, the Prussian military education system was superior to the French model; Prussian staff officers were trained to exhibit initiative and independent thinking. Indeed, this was Moltke's expectation. The French, meanwhile, suffered from an education and promotion system that stifled intellectual development. According to the military historian Dallas Irvine, the system "was almost completely effective in excluding the army's brain power from the staff and high command. To the resulting lack of intelligence at the top can be ascribed all the inexcusable defects of French military policy."", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What did the french model lack? "
[ 6121, 11, 2547, 1631, 1 ]
" initiative and independent thinking "
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" Given the following passage "In addition, the Prussian military education system was superior to the French model; Prussian staff officers were trained to exhibit initiative and independent thinking. Indeed, this was Moltke's expectation. The French, meanwhile, suffered from an education and promotion system that stifled intellectual development. According to the military historian Dallas Irvine, the system "was almost completely effective in excluding the army's brain power from the staff and high command. To the resulting lack of intelligence at the top can be ascribed all the inexcusable defects of French military policy."", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What was the worst thing about the French model? "
[ 16, 994, 1071, 7, 179, 18370, 1 ]
" inexcusable defects "
[ 9246, 8, 826, 5454, 96, 1570, 811, 6, 8, 276, 26165, 29, 2716, 1073, 358, 47, 4784, 12, 8, 2379, 825, 117, 276, 26165, 29, 871, 5803, 130, 4252, 12, 6981, 6121, 11, 2547, 1631, 5, 10930, 6, 48, 47, 11019, 17, 1050, 31, 7, 18775, 5, 37, 2379, 6, 3, 25605, 6, 8151, 45, 46, 1073, 11, 5546, 358, 24, 3, 7, 17, 99, 1361, 8445, 606, 5, 2150, 12, 8, 2716, 18637, 9628, 30411, 6, 8, 358, 96, 9491, 966, 1551, 1231, 16, 3, 21763, 8, 9102, 31, 7, 2241, 579, 45, 8, 871, 11, 306, 4106, 5, 304, 8, 3, 5490, 2136, 13, 6123, 44, 8, 420, 54, 36, 3, 9, 22573, 66, 8, 16, 994, 1071, 7, 179, 18370, 13, 2379, 2716, 1291, 535, 1686, 1525, 8, 826, 822, 5, 2507, 24, 8, 1525, 19, 915, 441, 8, 1499, 5, 11860, 10, 363, 2337, 410, 8, 276, 26165, 29, 7, 43, 147, 8, 2379, 2716, 1291, 58 ]
" Given the following passage "In addition, the Prussian military education system was superior to the French model; Prussian staff officers were trained to exhibit initiative and independent thinking. Indeed, this was Moltke's expectation. The French, meanwhile, suffered from an education and promotion system that stifled intellectual development. According to the military historian Dallas Irvine, the system "was almost completely effective in excluding the army's brain power from the staff and high command. To the resulting lack of intelligence at the top can be ascribed all the inexcusable defects of French military policy."", answer the following question. Note that the answer is present within the text. Question: What advantage did the Prussians have over the French military policy? "
[ 2716, 1073, 1 ]
" military education "

# Dataset Card for P3

### Dataset Summary

P3 (Public Pool of Prompts) is a collection of prompted English datasets covering a diverse set of NLP tasks. A prompt is the combination of an input template and a target template. The templates are functions mapping a data example into natural language for the input and target sequences. For example, in the case of an NLI dataset, the data example would include fields for Premise, Hypothesis, Label. An input template would be If {Premise} is true, is it also true that {Hypothesis}?, whereas a target template can be defined with the label choices Choices[label]. Here Choices is prompt-specific metadata that consists of the options yes, maybe, no corresponding to label being entailment (0), neutral (1) or contradiction (2).

Prompts are collected using Promptsource, an interface to interactively write prompts on datasets, and collect prompt-specific metadata such as evaluation metrics. As of October 13th, there are 2'000 prompts collected for 270+ data(sub)sets. The collection of prompts of P3 is publicly available on Promptsource.

To train T0*, we used a subset of the prompts available in Promptsource (see details here). However, some of the prompts use random.choice, a method that selects uniformly at random an option in a list of valid possibilities. For reproducibility purposes, we release the collection of prompted examples used to train T0*. The data available here are the materialized version of the prompted datasets used in Multitask Prompted Training Enables Zero-Shot Task Generalization which represent only a subset of the datasets for which there is at least one prompt in Promptsource.

### Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

The tasks represented in P3 cover a diverse set of NLP tasks including multiple-choice QA, sentiment analysis or natural language inference. We detail the full list of datasets in Source Data.

### Languages

The data in P3 are in English (BCP-47 en).

## Dataset Structure

### Data Instances

An example of "train" looks as follows:

{
'answer_choices': ['safe', 'trolley'],
'inputs': [86, 8, 7142, 666, 6, 405, 8, 3, 834, 1518, 21, 1346, 42, 31682, 58, 37, 3, 929, 9, 3042, 63, 2765, 808, 8, 2045, 6448, 326, 13, 8, 31682, 11, 3, 24052, 135, 16, 8, 1346, 552, 8, 3, 834, 47, 6364, 5], 'inputs_pretokenized': 'In the sentence below, does the _ stand for safe or trolley?\nThe treasury workers took the gold bars off of the trolley and stacked them in the safe until the _ was empty.',
'targets': [31682, 1],
'targets_pretokenized': '\ntrolley'
}


In the case of rank classification (letting the model select its the prediction the option with the highest log-likelihood), an example looks as follows:

{
'idx': [5, 0],
'inputs': [86, 8, 7142, 666, 6, 405, 8, 3, 834, 1518, 21, 19454, 42, 22227, 58, 19454, 744, 31, 17, 2112, 4553, 17742, 7, 12, 1953, 6, 298, 22227, 966, 373, 405, 5, 3, 834, 19, 72, 952, 12, 619, 16, 3, 9, 17742, 3298, 5],
'inputs_pretokenized': "In the sentence below, does the _ stand for Kyle or Logan?\nKyle doesn't wear leg warmers to bed, while Logan almost always does. _ is more likely to live in a warmer climate.",
'is_correct': True,
'targets': [19454, 1],
'targets_pretokenized': 'Kyle',
'weight': 1.0
}


To check all the prompted examples, you can use the Promptsource hosted tool and choose the Prompted dataset viewer mode in the left panel.

### Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all splits:

• answer_choices: the choices (in natural language) available to the model
• inputs_pretokenized: the natural language input fed to the model
• targets_pretokenized: the natural language target that the model has to generate
• inputs: the tokenized input with T5's tokenizer
• targets: the tokenized target with T5's tokenizer
• idx: identifier of the (example, answer_option_id) in the case of rank classification
• weight: a weight for the example produced by seqio (always set to 1.0 in practise)
• is_correct: whether the (example, answer_option_id) is the correct one

### Data Splits

The list of data splits and their respective sizes is very long. You'll find the whole list in this file.

## Dataset Creation

### Curation Rationale

The Public Pool of Prompts relies on the Hugging Face Dataset library. Any public dataset in the Datasets library can be prompted. We select the datasets that have at least one subset in English and excluded datasets containing (predominantly) non-natural language examples.

We conservatively decided not to prompt datasets that contain potentially harmful content (for instance, datasets built on social media content). However, we sometimes prompt datasets that are purposefully built to measure bias and fairness of trained models, and reserve these prompted datasets (the validation or test sets) for evaluation purposes.

### Source Data

Here's the full list of the datasets present in the materialized version of P3:

• Multiple-Choice QA
• CommonsenseQA
• DREAM
• QUAIL
• QuaRTz
• Social IQA
• WiQA
• Cosmos
• QASC
• Quarel
• SciQ
• Wiki Hop
• ARC
• OpenBookQA
• MultiRC
• PIQA
• RACE
• HellaSwag
• BoolQ
• Extractive QA
• Adversarial QA
• Quoref
• DuoRC
• ROPES
• SQuAD v2
• ReCoRD
• Close-book QA
• Hotpot QA
• Wiki QA
• Trivia QA
• Web Questions
• Structure-to-text
• Common Gen
• Wiki Bio
• Sentiment
• Amazon
• App Reviews
• IMDB
• Rotten Tomatoes
• Yelp
• Summarization
• CNN Daily Mail
• Gigaword
• MultiNews
• SamSum
• XSum
• Topic Classification
• AG News
• DBPedia
• TREC
• Paraphrase Identification
• MRPC
• PAWS
• QQP
• Natural Language Inference
• ANLI
• CB
• RTE
• Coreference Resolution
• WSC
• Winogrande
• Word Sense disambiguation
• WiC
• Sentence Completion
• COPA
• HellaSwag
• Story Cloze

### Annotations

The prompts available in Promptsource are collected as part of BigScience, one-year long research workshop on large multilingual models and datasets. 36 contributors affiliated with 24 institutions in 8 countries participated to the prompt collection. Contributors are in majority machine learning researchers or machine learning engineers.

The main annotation guideline was that prompts needed to be grammatical and understandable by a native English speaker with no prior experience of the tasks. Additionally, prompts that required explicit counting or numerical indexing were removed in favor of natural language variants, e.g., instead of predicting indices of a span to extract (e.g. in extractive question answering), the model was expected to copy the span's text instead. With these minimal constraints, prompt writers were encouraged to use both formal and creative prompts and various orderings of the data. Most of the prompts correspond directly to a version of the original proposed task, although we also allowed prompts that permuted the original task (for instance, generating a document from its summary) or allowed for ambiguous output (for instance, not indicating a list of available choices).

The full annotation given to the contributors can be found here. *Note to self: the link is currently being updated with the)

## Additional Information

### Licensing Information

The dataset is released under Apache 2.0.

### Citation Information

@misc{sanh2021multitask,
title={Multitask Prompted Training Enables Zero-Shot Task Generalization},
author={Victor Sanh and Albert Webson and Colin Raffel and Stephen H. Bach and Lintang Sutawika and Zaid Alyafeai and Antoine Chaffin and Arnaud Stiegler and Teven Le Scao and Arun Raja and Manan Dey and M Saiful Bari and Canwen Xu and Urmish Thakker and Shanya Sharma Sharma and Eliza Szczechla and Taewoon Kim and Gunjan Chhablani and Nihal Nayak and Debajyoti Datta and Jonathan Chang and Mike Tian-Jian Jiang and Han Wang and Matteo Manica and Sheng Shen and Zheng Xin Yong and Harshit Pandey and Rachel Bawden and Thomas Wang and Trishala Neeraj and Jos Rozen and Abheesht Sharma and Andrea Santilli and Thibault Fevry and Jason Alan Fries and Ryan Teehan and Stella Biderman and Leo Gao and Tali Bers and Thomas Wolf and Alexander M. Rush},
year={2021},
eprint={2110.08207},
archivePrefix={arXiv},
primaryClass={cs.LG}
}


### Contributions

Thanks to the contributors of promptsource for adding this dataset.

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