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Google's T5 Version 1.1

Version 1.1

T5 Version 1.1 includes the following improvements compared to the original T5 model- GEGLU activation in feed-forward hidden layer, rather than ReLU - see here.

  • Dropout was turned off in pre-training (quality win). Dropout should be re-enabled during fine-tuning.

  • Pre-trained on C4 only without mixing in the downstream tasks.

  • no parameter sharing between embedding and classifier layer

  • "xl" and "xxl" replace "3B" and "11B". The model shapes are a bit different - larger d_model and smaller num_heads and d_ff.

Note: T5 Version 1.1 was only pre-trained on C4 excluding any supervised training. Therefore, this model has to be fine-tuned before it is useable on a downstream task. Pretraining Dataset: C4

Other Community Checkpoints: here

Paper: Exploring the Limits of Transfer Learning with a Unified Text-to-Text Transformer

Authors: Colin Raffel, Noam Shazeer, Adam Roberts, Katherine Lee, Sharan Narang, Michael Matena, Yanqi Zhou, Wei Li, Peter J. Liu


Transfer learning, where a model is first pre-trained on a data-rich task before being fine-tuned on a downstream task, has emerged as a powerful technique in natural language processing (NLP). The effectiveness of transfer learning has given rise to a diversity of approaches, methodology, and practice. In this paper, we explore the landscape of transfer learning techniques for NLP by introducing a unified framework that converts every language problem into a text-to-text format. Our systematic study compares pre-training objectives, architectures, unlabeled datasets, transfer approaches, and other factors on dozens of language understanding tasks. By combining the insights from our exploration with scale and our new β€œColossal Clean Crawled Corpus”, we achieve state-of-the-art results on many benchmarks covering summarization, question answering, text classification, and more. To facilitate future work on transfer learning for NLP, we release our dataset, pre-trained models, and code.

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