Hugging Face's logo
Join the Hugging Face community

and get access to the augmented documentation experience

to get started

Working with large models

Dispatching and Offloading Models

accelerate.init_empty_weights

< >

( include_buffers: bool = False )

Parameters

  • include_buffers (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to also put all buffers on the meta device while initializing.

A context manager under which models are initialized with all parameters on the meta device, therefore creating an empty model. Useful when just initializing the model would blow the available RAM.

Example:

import torch.nn as nn
from accelerate import init_empty_weights

# Initialize a model with 100 billions parameters in no time and without using any RAM.
with init_empty_weights():
    tst = nn.Sequential(*[nn.Linear(10000, 10000) for _ in range(1000)])

Any model created under this context manager has no weights. As such you can’t do something like model.to(some_device) with it. To load weights inside your empty model, see load_checkpoint_and_dispatch().

accelerate.cpu_offload

< >

( model: Module execution_device: typing.Optional[torch.device] = None offload_buffers: bool = False state_dict: typing.Union[typing.Dict[str, torch.Tensor], NoneType] = None preload_module_classes: typing.Optional[typing.List[str]] = None )

Parameters

  • model (torch.nn.Module) — The model to offload.
  • execution_device (torch.device, optional) — The device on which the forward pass of the model will be executed (should be a GPU). Will default to the model first parameter device.
  • offload_buffers (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to offload the buffers with the model parameters.
  • state_dict (Dict[str, torch.Tensor], optional) — The state dict of the model that will be kept on CPU.
  • preload_module_classes (List[str], optional) — A list of classes whose instances should load all their weights (even in the submodules) at the beginning of the forward. This should only be used for classes that have submodules which are registered but not called directly during the forward, for instance if a dense linear layer is registered, but at forward, dense.weight and dense.bias are used in some operations instead of calling dense directly.

Activates full CPU offload for a model. As a result, all parameters of the model will be offloaded and only one copy of the state dict of the model will be kept. During the forward pass, parameters will be extracted from that state dict and put on the execution device passed as they are needed, then offloaded again.

accelerate.disk_offload

< >

( model: Module offload_dir: typing.Union[str, os.PathLike] execution_device: typing.Optional[torch.device] = None offload_buffers: bool = False preload_module_classes: typing.Optional[typing.List[str]] = None )

Parameters

  • model (torch.nn.Module) — The model to offload.
  • offload_dir (str or os.PathLike) — The folder in which to offload the model weights (or where the model weights are already offloaded).
  • execution_device (torch.device, optional) — The device on which the forward pass of the model will be executed (should be a GPU). Will default to the model’s first parameter device.
  • offload_buffers (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to offload the buffers with the model parameters.
  • preload_module_classes (List[str], optional) — A list of classes whose instances should load all their weights (even in the submodules) at the beginning of the forward. This should only be used for classes that have submodules which are registered but not called directly during the forward, for instance if a dense linear layer is registered, but at forward, dense.weight and dense.bias are used in some operations instead of calling dense directly.

Activates full disk offload for a model. As a result, all parameters of the model will be offloaded as memory-mapped array in a given folder. During the forward pass, parameters will be accessed from that folder and put on the execution device passed as they are needed, then offloaded again.

accelerate.dispatch_model

< >

( model: Module device_map: typing.Dict[str, typing.Union[int, str, torch.device]] main_device: typing.Optional[torch.device] = None state_dict: typing.Union[typing.Dict[str, torch.Tensor], NoneType] = None offload_dir: typing.Union[str, os.PathLike] = None offload_buffers: bool = False preload_module_classes: typing.Optional[typing.List[str]] = None )

Parameters

  • model (torch.nn.Module) — The model to dispatch.
  • device_map (Dict[str, Union[str, int, torch.device]]) — A dictionary mapping module names in the models state_dict to the device they should go to. Note that "disk" is accepted even if it’s not a proper value for torch.device.
  • main_device (str, int or torch.device, optional) — The main execution device. Will default to the first device in the device_map different from "cpu" or "disk".
  • state_dict (Dict[str, torch.Tensor], optional) — The state dict of the part of the model that will be kept on CPU.
  • offload_dir (str or os.PathLike) — The folder in which to offload the model weights (or where the model weights are already offloaded).
  • offload_buffers (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to offload the buffers with the model parameters.
  • preload_module_classes (List[str], optional) — A list of classes whose instances should load all their weights (even in the submodules) at the beginning of the forward. This should only be used for classes that have submodules which are registered but not called directly during the forward, for instance if a dense linear layer is registered, but at forward, dense.weight and dense.bias are used in some operations instead of calling dense directly.

Dispatches a model according to a given device map. Layers of the model might be spread across GPUs, offloaded on the CPU or even the disk.

accelerate.load_checkpoint_and_dispatch

< >

( model: Module checkpoint: typing.Union[str, os.PathLike] device_map: typing.Union[str, typing.Dict[str, typing.Union[int, str, torch.device]], NoneType] = None max_memory: typing.Union[typing.Dict[typing.Union[int, str], typing.Union[int, str]], NoneType] = None no_split_module_classes: typing.Optional[typing.List[str]] = None offload_folder: typing.Union[str, os.PathLike, NoneType] = None offload_buffers: bool = False dtype: typing.Union[str, torch.dtype, NoneType] = None offload_state_dict: typing.Optional[bool] = None preload_module_classes: typing.Optional[typing.List[str]] = None )

Parameters

  • model (torch.nn.Module) — The model in which we want to load a checkpoint.
  • checkpoint (str or os.PathLike) — The folder checkpoint to load. It can be:

    • a path to a file containing a whole model state dict
    • a path to a .json file containing the index to a sharded checkpoint
    • a path to a folder containing a unique .index.json file and the shards of a checkpoint.
  • device_map (Dict[str, Union[int, str, torch.device]], optional) — A map that specifies where each submodule should go. It doesn’t need to be refined to each parameter/buffer name, once a given module name is inside, every submodule of it will be sent to the same device.

    To have Accelerate compute the most optimized device_map automatically, set device_map="auto". For more information about each option see here.

  • max_memory (Dict, optional) — A dictionary device identifier to maximum memory. Will default to the maximum memory available for each GPU and the available CPU RAM if unset.
  • no_split_module_classes (List[str], optional) — A list of layer class names that should never be split across device (for instance any layer that has a residual connection).
  • offload_folder (str or os.PathLike, optional) — If the device_map contains any value "disk", the folder where we will offload weights.
  • offload_buffers (bool, optional, defaults to False) — In the layers that are offloaded on the CPU or the hard drive, whether or not to offload the buffers as well as the parameters.
  • dtype (str or torch.dtype, optional) — If provided, the weights will be converted to that type when loaded.
  • offload_state_dict (bool, optional) — If True, will temporarily offload the CPU state dict on the hard drive to avoig getting out of CPU RAM if the weight of the CPU state dict + the biggest shard does not fit. Will default to True if the device map picked contains "disk" values.
  • preload_module_classes (List[str], optional) — A list of classes whose instances should load all their weights (even in the submodules) at the beginning of the forward. This should only be used for classes that have submodules which are registered but not called directly during the forward, for instance if a dense linear layer is registered, but at forward, dense.weight and dense.bias are used in some operations instead of calling dense directly.

Loads a (potentially sharded) checkpoint inside a model, potentially sending weights to a given device as they are loaded and adds the various hooks that will make this model run properly (even if split across devices).

Model Hooks

Hook Classes

class accelerate.hooks.ModelHook

< >

( )

A hook that contains callbacks to be executed just before and after the forward method of a model. The difference with PyTorch existing hooks is that they get passed along the kwargs.

Class attribute:

  • no_grad (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to execute the actual forward pass under the torch.no_grad() context manager.

detach_hook

< >

( module )

Parameters

  • module (torch.nn.Module) — The module detached from this hook.

To be executed when the hook is deached from a module.

init_hook

< >

( module )

Parameters

  • module (torch.nn.Module) — The module attached to this hook.

To be executed when the hook is attached to the module.

post_forward

< >

( module output ) → Any

Parameters

  • module (torch.nn.Module) — The module whose forward pass been executed just before this event.
  • output (Any) — The output of the module.

Returns

Any

The processed output.

To be executed just after the forward method of the model.

pre_forward

< >

( module *args **kwargs ) → Tuple[Tuple[Any], Dict[Str, Any]]

Parameters

  • module (torch.nn.Module) — The module whose forward pass will be executed just after this event.
  • args (Tuple[Any]) — The positional arguments passed to the module.
  • kwargs (Dict[Str, Any]) — The keyword arguments passed to the module.

Returns

Tuple[Tuple[Any], Dict[Str, Any]]

A tuple with the treated args and kwargs.

To be executed just before the forward method of the model.

class accelerate.hooks.AlignDevicesHook

< >

( execution_device: typing.Union[int, str, torch.device, NoneType] = None offload: bool = False io_same_device: bool = False weights_map: typing.Optional[typing.Mapping] = None offload_buffers: bool = False place_submodules: bool = False )

Parameters

  • execution_device (torch.device, optional) — The device on which inputs and model weights should be placed before the forward pass.
  • offload (bool, optional, defauts to False) — Whether or not the weights should be offloaded after the forward pass.
  • io_same_device (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not the output should be placed on the same device as the input was.
  • weights_map (Mapping[str, torch.Tensor], optional) — When the model weights are offloaded, a (potentially lazy) map from param names to the tensor values.
  • offload_buffers (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to include the associated module’s buffers when offloading.
  • place_submodules (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether to place the submodules on execution_device during the init_hook event.

A generic ModelHook that ensures inputs and model weights are on the same device for the forward pass of the associated module, potentially offloading the weights after the forward pass.

class accelerate.hooks.SequentialHook

< >

( *hooks )

A hook that can contain several hooks and iterates through them at each event.

Adding Hooks

accelerate.hooks.add_hook_to_module

< >

( module: Module hook: ModelHook ) → torch.nn.Module

Parameters

  • module (torch.nn.Module) — The module to attach a hook to.
  • hook (ModelHook) — The hook to attach.

Returns

torch.nn.Module

The same module, with the hook attached (the module is modified in place, so the result can be discarded).

Adds a hook to a given module. This will rewrite the forward method of the module to include the hook, to remove this behavior and restore the original forward method, use remove_hook_from_module.

If the module already contains a hook, this will replace it with the new hook passed. To chain two hooks together, use the SequentialHook class.

accelerate.hooks.attach_execution_device_hook

< >

( module: Module execution_device: typing.Union[int, str, torch.device] preload_module_classes: typing.Optional[typing.List[str]] = None )

Parameters

  • module (torch.nn.Module) — The module where we want to attach the hooks.
  • execution_device (int, str or torch.device) — The device on which inputs and model weights should be placed before the forward pass.
  • preload_module_classes (List[str], optional) — A list of classes whose instances should load all their weights (even in the submodules) at the beginning of the forward. This should only be used for classes that have submodules which are registered but not called directly during the forward, for instance if a dense linear layer is registered, but at forward, dense.weight and dense.bias are used in some operations instead of calling dense directly.

Recursively attaches AlignDevicesHook to all submodules of a given model to make sure they have the right execution device

accelerate.hooks.attach_align_device_hook

< >

( module: Module execution_device: typing.Optional[torch.device] = None offload: bool = False weights_map: typing.Optional[typing.Mapping] = None offload_buffers: bool = False module_name: str = '' preload_module_classes: typing.Optional[typing.List[str]] = None )

Parameters

  • module (torch.nn.Module) — The module where we want to attach the hooks.
  • execution_device (torch.device, optional) — The device on which inputs and model weights should be placed before the forward pass.
  • offload (bool, optional, defauts to False) — Whether or not the weights should be offloaded after the forward pass.
  • weights_map (Mapping[str, torch.Tensor], optional) — When the model weights are offloaded, a (potentially lazy) map from param names to the tensor values.
  • offload_buffers (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to include the associated module’s buffers when offloading.
  • module_name (str, optional, defaults to "") — The name of the module.
  • preload_module_classes (List[str], optional) — A list of classes whose instances should load all their weights (even in the submodules) at the beginning of the forward. This should only be used for classes that have submodules which are registered but not called directly during the forward, for instance if a dense linear layer is registered, but at forward, dense.weight and dense.bias are used in some operations instead of calling dense directly.

Recursively attaches AlignDevicesHook to all submodules of a given model that have direct parameters and/or buffers.

accelerate.hooks.attach_align_device_hook_on_blocks

< >

( module: Module execution_device: typing.Union[torch.device, typing.Dict[str, torch.device], NoneType] = None offload: typing.Union[bool, typing.Dict[str, bool]] = False weights_map: typing.Mapping = None offload_buffers: bool = False module_name: str = '' preload_module_classes: typing.Optional[typing.List[str]] = None )

Parameters

  • module (torch.nn.Module) — The module where we want to attach the hooks.
  • execution_device (torch.device or Dict[str, torch.device], optional) — The device on which inputs and model weights should be placed before the forward pass. It can be one device for the whole module, or a dictionary mapping module name to device.
  • offload (bool, optional, defauts to False) — Whether or not the weights should be offloaded after the forward pass. It can be one boolean for the whole module, or a dictionary mapping module name to boolean.
  • weights_map (Mapping[str, torch.Tensor], optional) — When the model weights are offloaded, a (potentially lazy) map from param names to the tensor values.
  • offload_buffers (bool, optional, defaults to False) — Whether or not to include the associated module’s buffers when offloading.
  • module_name (str, optional, defaults to "") — The name of the module.
  • preload_module_classes (List[str], optional) — A list of classes whose instances should load all their weights (even in the submodules) at the beginning of the forward. This should only be used for classes that have submodules which are registered but not called directly during the forward, for instance if a dense linear layer is registered, but at forward, dense.weight and dense.bias are used in some operations instead of calling dense directly.

Attaches AlignDevicesHook to all blocks of a given model as needed.

Removing Hooks

accelerate.hooks.remove_hook_from_module

< >

( module: Module ) → torch.nn.Module

Parameters

  • module (torch.nn.Module) — The module to attach a hook to.

Returns

torch.nn.Module

The same module, with the hook detached (the module is modified in place, so the result can be discarded).

Removes any hook attached to a module via add_hook_to_module.

accelerate.hooks.remove_hook_from_submodules

< >

( module: Module )

Parameters

  • module (torch.nn.Module) — The module on which to remove all hooks.

Recursively removes all hooks attached on the submodules of a given model.