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Defog SQLCoder

Defog's SQLCoder is a state-of-the-art LLM for converting natural language questions to SQL queries.

Interactive Demo | ♾️ Colab | 🐦 Twitter


SQLCoder is a 15B parameter model that slightly outperforms gpt-3.5-turbo for natural language to SQL generation tasks on our sql-eval framework, and significantly outperforms all popular open-source models. It also significantly outperforms text-davinci-003, a model that's more than 10 times its size.

SQLCoder is fine-tuned on a base StarCoder model.

Results on novel datasets not seen in training

model perc_correct
gpt-4 74.3
defog-sqlcoder 64.6
gpt-3.5-turbo 60.6
defog-easysql 57.1
text-davinci-003 54.3
wizardcoder 52.0
starcoder 45.1


The model weights have a CC BY-SA 4.0 license, with OpenRAIL-M clauses for responsible use attached. The TL;DR is that you can use and modify the model for any purpose – including commercial use. However, if you modify the weights (for example, by fine-tuning), you must open-source your modified weights under the same CC BY-SA 4.0 license terms.


Defog was trained on 10,537 human-curated questions across 2 epochs. These questions were based on 10 different schemas. None of the schemas in the training data were included in our evaluation framework.

Training happened in 2 phases. The first phase was on questions that were classified as "easy" or "medium" difficulty, and the second phase was on questions that were classified as "hard" or "extra hard" difficulty.

The results of training on our easy+medium data were stored in a model called defog-easy. We found that the additional training on hard+extra-hard data led to a 7 percentage point increase in performance.

Results by question category

We classified each generated question into one of 5 categories. The table displays the percentage of questions answered correctly by each model, broken down by category.

query_category gpt-4 defog-sqlcoder gpt-3.5-turbo defog-easy text-davinci-003 wizard-coder star-coder
group_by 82.9 77.1 71.4 62.9 62.9 68.6 54.3
order_by 71.4 65.7 60.0 68.6 60.0 54.3 57.1
ratio 62.9 57.1 48.6 40.0 37.1 22.9 17.1
table_join 74.3 57.1 60.0 54.3 51.4 54.3 51.4
where 80.0 65.7 62.9 60.0 60.0 60.0 45.7

Using SQLCoder

You can use SQLCoder via the transformers library by downloading our model weights from the HuggingFace repo. We have added sample code for inference here. You can also use a demo on our website here, or run SQLCoder in Colab here

Hardware Requirements

SQLCoder has been tested on an A100 40GB GPU with bfloat16 weights. You can also load an 8-bit quantized version of the model on consumer GPUs with 20GB or more of memory – like RTX 4090, RTX 3090, and Apple M2 Pro, M2 Max, or M2 Ultra Chips with 20GB or more of memory.


  • Open-source the v1 model weights
  • Train the model on more data, with higher data variance
  • Tune the model further with Reward Modelling and RLHF
  • Pretrain a model from scratch that specializes in SQL analysis
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