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fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
Dwight David 'Ike' Eisenhower ( EYE-zən-how-ər; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), GCB, OM was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961. Following the war, he served under various generals and was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in 1941. After the United States entered World War II, Eisenhower oversaw the invasions of North Africa and Sicily before supervising the invasions of France and Germany. After the war, he served as Army Chief of Staff (1945–1948), as president of Columbia University (1948–1953) and as the first Supreme Commander of NATO (1951–1952). While Eisenhower was stationed in Texas, he met Mamie Doud of Boone, Iowa. Eisenhower was mostly reluctant to discuss his death. Their second son, John Eisenhower (1922–2013), was born in Denver, Colorado. John served in the United States Army, retired as a brigadier general, became an author and served as U.S.
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fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was the 14th president of the United States (1853–1857), a northern Democrat who saw the abolitionist movement as a fundamental threat to the unity of the nation. He alienated anti-slavery groups by supporting and signing the Kansas–Nebraska Act and enforcing the Fugitive Slave Act, yet he failed to stem conflict between North and South, setting the stage for Southern secession and the American Civil War. Pierce actively campaigned in his district on behalf of Jackson, who carried both the district and the nation by large margins in the November 1828 election, even though he lost New Hampshire. Pierce's father, meanwhile, was elected again as governor, retiring after that term. The younger Pierce was appointed as chairman of the House Education Committee in 1829 and the Committee on Towns the following year. By 1831 the Democrats held a legislative majority, and Pierce was elected Speaker of the House.
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[ "n/a" ]
fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) was an American political leader, military general, statesman, and founding father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Previously, he led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War for Independence. He presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787, which established the U.S. Constitution. Washington reversed his decision to retire after his first term in order to minimize party strife, but the feud continued after his re-election. Jefferson's political actions, his support of Freneau's National Gazette, and his attempt to undermine Hamilton nearly led Washington to dismiss him from the cabinet; Jefferson ultimately resigned his position in December 1793, and Washington forsook him from that time on.
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[ "n/a" ]
fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr.; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th president of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977. In December 1973, two months after the resignation of Spiro Agnew, Ford became the first person appointed to the vice presidency under the terms of the 25th Amendment by President Richard Nixon. After the subsequent resignation of President Nixon in August 1974, Ford immediately assumed the presidency. Following his years as president, Ford remained active in the Republican Party. His moderate views on various social issues increasingly put him at odds with conservative members of the party in the 1990s and early 2000s. In retirement, Ford set aside the enmity he had felt towards Carter following the 1976 election, and the two former presidents developed a close friendship. After experiencing a series of health problems, he died at home on December 26, 2006.
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fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the 33rd president of the United States from 1945 to 1953, succeeding upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt after serving as vice president. He implemented the Marshall Plan to rebuild the economy of Western Europe, and established the Truman Doctrine and NATO. Corruption in the Truman administration became a central campaign issue in the 1952 presidential election. After Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower's electoral victory against Democrat Adlai Stevenson II, Truman went into a financially-difficult retirement, marked by the founding of his presidential library and the publication of his memoirs. When he left office, Truman's presidency was criticized, though critical reassessment of his tenure has been favorable.
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[ "n/a" ]
fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
He later co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected president of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a narrow and contested win that involved a Supreme Court decision to stop a recount in Florida. After Goss' appointment, many of the CIA's senior agents were fired or quit. The CIA has been accused of deliberately leaking classified information to undermine the 2004 election.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
In 1865, as commanding general, Ulysses S. Grant led the Union Armies to victory over the Confederacy in the American Civil War. As an American hero, Grant was later elected the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877), working to implement Congressional Reconstruction and to remove the vestiges of slavery. After retiring from the Presidency, Grant became a partner in a financial firm, which went bankrupt. About that time he learned that he had cancer of the throat. He started writing his recollections to pay off his debts and provide for his family, racing against death to produce a memoir that ultimately earned nearly $450,000. Soon after completing the last page, in 1885, he died.
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[ "n/a" ]
fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
In 1982, Carter established the Carter Center to promote and expand human rights. He has traveled extensively to conduct peace negotiations, monitor elections, and advance disease prevention and eradication in developing nations. Carter is considered a key figure in the Habitat for Humanity charity. He has written over 30 books ranging from political memoirs to poetry while continuing to actively comment on ongoing American and global affairs, such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The earliest-serving of the five living U.S. presidents, Carter is the longest-lived president, the longest-retired president, the first to live forty years after their inauguration, and the first to reach the age of 95.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
In the 1913 session, Coolidge enjoyed renowned success in arduously navigating to passage the Western Trolley Act, which connected Northampton with a dozen similar industrial communities in western Massachusetts. Coolidge intended to retire after his second term as was the custom, but when the President of the State Senate, Levi H. Greenwood, considered running for Lieutenant Governor, Coolidge decided to run again for the Senate in the hopes of being elected as its presiding officer. Although Greenwood later decided to run for reelection to the Senate, he was defeated primarily due to his opposition to women's suffrage; Coolidge was in favor of the women's vote, won his own re-election and with Crane's help, assumed the presidency of a closely divided Senate. After his election in January 1914, Coolidge delivered a published and frequently quoted speech entitled Have Faith in Massachusetts, which summarized his philosophy of government.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
Obama was born in Honolulu, Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black person to head the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. Turning to elective politics, he represented the 13th district from 1997 until 2004 in the Illinois Senate, when he ran for the U.S. Senate. Obama received national attention in 2004 with his March Senate primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, and his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his presidential campaign began, and after close primary campaigns against Hillary Clinton. Obama was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated alongside Joe Biden on January 20, 2009. Nine months later, he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.
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[ "n/a" ]
fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
President Grant in 1871 appointed him Collector of the Port of New York. Arthur effectively marshalled the thousand Customs House employees under his supervision on behalf of Roscoe Conkling’s Stalwart Republican machine. Arthur demonstrated as President that he was above factions within the Republican Party, if indeed not above the party itself. Perhaps in part his reason was the well-kept secret he had known since a year after he succeeded to the Presidency, that he was suffering from a fatal kidney disease. He kept himself in the running for the Presidential nomination in 1884 in order not to appear that he feared defeat, but was not renominated, and died in 1886. Publisher Alexander K. McClure recalled, “No man ever entered the Presidency so profoundly and widely distrusted, and no one ever retired … more generally respected.”.
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[ "n/a" ]
fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974. In 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote his memoirs and nine other books and undertook many foreign trips, thereby rehabilitating his image into that of an elder statesman and leading expert on foreign affairs. In later years, Nixon proudly said he was the only modern president to have previously worked as a practicing attorney.
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[ "n/a" ]
fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
Ronald Wilson Reagan (/ˈreɪɡən/; February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989 and became a highly influential voice of modern conservatism. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975. Soon after taking office as president, Reagan began implementing sweeping new political and economic initiatives. Eager for a larger stage, but not allowed to enter politics by GE, he quit and formally registered as a Republican. He often said, 'I didn't leave the Democratic Party. The party left me.'
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[ "n/a" ]
fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
The presidency of Bill Clinton began at noon EST on January 20, 1993, when Bill Clinton was inaugurated as the 42nd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2001. Clinton, a Democrat from Arkansas, took office. following a decisive victory over Republican incumbent President George H. W. Bush and Independent businessman Ross Perot in the 1992 presidential election. Clinton, a Democrat from Arkansas, took office. following a decisive victory over Republican incumbent President George H. W. Bush and Independent businessman Ross Perot in the 1992 presidential election. Harry Blackmun retired in 1994, and Clinton successfully nominated Breyer to succeed Blackmun. The appointments did not greatly affect the ideological balance of the Rehnquist Court, as conservatives continued to hold a narrow majority on the Supreme Court.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
The presidency of Donald Trump began at noon EST (17:00 UTC) on January 20, 2017, when Donald Trump was inaugurated as the 45th president of the United States, succeeding Barack Obama. Prior to the election, Trump named Chris Christie as the leader of his transition team. After the election, Vice President-elect Mike Pence replaced Christie as chairman of the transition team, while Christie became a vice-chairman alongside Senator Jeff Sessions of Alabama, retired Army Lieutenant General Michael Flynn, former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani, former presidential candidate Ben Carson, and former House Speaker Newt Gingrich. After the election, Vice President-elect Mike Pence replaced Christie as chairman of the transition team, while Christie became a vice-chairman alongside Senator Jeff Sessions of Alabama, retired Army Lieutenant General Michael Flynn, former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani, former presidential candidate Ben Carson, and former House Speaker Newt Gingrich.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
The presidency of George Washington began on April 30, 1789, when Washington was inaugurated as the first president of the United States, and ended on March 4, 1797. Washington took office after the 1788–89 presidential election, the nation's first quadrennial presidential election, in which he was elected unanimously. Washington was re-elected unanimously in the 1792 presidential election, and chose to retire after two terms. He was succeeded by his vice president, John Adams of the Federalist Party.
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[ "n/a" ]
fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
The presidency of Ronald Reagan began at noon EST on January 20, 1981, when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as the 40th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1989. Reagan, a Republican from California, took office following a landslide victory over Democratic incumbent President Jimmy Carter in the 1980 presidential election. Reagan's 1980 election resulted from a dramatic conservative shift to the right in American politics, including a loss of confidence in liberal, New Deal, and Great Society programs and priorities that had dominated the national agenda since the 1930s. In 1986, Reagan elevated Associate Justice William Rehnquist to the position of Chief Justice of the United States after Warren Burger chose to retire. Rehnquist, a member of the conservative wing of the Court, was the third sitting associate justice to be elevated to chief justice, after Edward Douglass White and Harlan F. Stone. Reagan successfully nominated Antonin Scalia to fill Rehnquist's position as an associate justice of the Supreme Court.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. He previously served as the second vice president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. He previously served as the second vice president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. He previously served as the second vice president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. The principal author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was a proponent of democracy, republicanism, and individual rights, motivating American colonists to break from the Kingdom of Great Britain and form a new nation; he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level. Following his retirement from the presidency, Jefferson continued his pursuit of educational interests; he sold his vast collection of books to the Library of Congress, and founded and built the University of Virginia.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877. After Grant's victory at Chattanooga, President Abraham Lincoln promoted Grant to Lieutenant General. For thirteen months, Grant fought Robert E. Lee during the high casualty Overland Campaign and at Petersburg. A week later, Lincoln was assassinated, and was succeeded by President Andrew Johnson, who promoted Grant to General of the Army in 1866. Later Grant openly broke with Johnson over Reconstruction policies; Grant used the reconstruction acts, which had been passed over Johnson's veto, to enforce civil rights for African freedmen. In his retirement, Grant was the first president to circumnavigate the world on his tour meeting with many foreign leaders.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
fa4491816fc74008b44bb370b15dbcb4
After leaving office, where did this president go to retire?
paraphrase
[ "c49f9279dfe44142aaa15ae581919340" ]
presidents
Washington chose to retire after serving two terms and, in advance of the 1796 presidential election, Madison helped convince Jefferson to run for the presidency. Despite Madison's efforts, Federalist candidate John Adams defeated Jefferson, taking a narrow majority of the electoral vote. Under the rules of the Electoral College then in place, Jefferson became vice president because he finished with the second-most electoral votes. Madison, meanwhile, had declined to seek re-election, and he returned to his home at Montpelier. On Jefferson's advice, President Adams considered appointing Madison to an American delegation charged with ending French attacks on American shipping, but Adams's Cabinet members strongly opposed the idea. After a diplomatic incident between France and the United States known as the XYZ Affair took place, the two countries engaged in an undeclared naval war known as the Quasi-War.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
combination
[ "634ecc2b7bf44a8da82f4fc07e827a4a", "57a79c66f6d24b43a61a16e1924fc839" ]
national_parks
Bear Sightings. If you see a black bear, stop and do not run. Stay calm and pick up small children. Make lots of noise, shouting and clapping your hands. Back away slowly. Stand tall, but if you are attacked, fight back. Food Storage. Black bears will eat almost anything. Most conflicts between bears and people are linked to careless handling of food or garbage. Once a bear has found food which is easily accessible, it will overcome its wariness of people and visit the site often.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
combination
[ "634ecc2b7bf44a8da82f4fc07e827a4a", "57a79c66f6d24b43a61a16e1924fc839" ]
national_parks
Bears. If you’re involved in a conflict with a bear, regardless of how minor, contact us or report it to a park ranger as soon as possible. If cell service is available, dial 911. The lives of other people, and the bear, may depend on it. Read more about bear safety. For all other bear sightings, please email our bear management program.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
combination
[ "634ecc2b7bf44a8da82f4fc07e827a4a", "57a79c66f6d24b43a61a16e1924fc839" ]
national_parks
Black Bears. The smallest and most common bear in North America, the American black bear lives primarily in the forests within the Crown of the Continent. Omnivores, their diet consists of vegetation in the form of roots, young shoots from trees, shrubs, berries, fruits, grasses, nuts and buds, along with insects and even the occasional carcass. They also raid the nut caches of squirrels, steal eggs from bird nests, and dig honeycombs out from trees. Black bears remain dormant in dens for the winter months, reducing their metabolism and going without eating, drinking, urinating or defecating until spring.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
combination
[ "634ecc2b7bf44a8da82f4fc07e827a4a", "57a79c66f6d24b43a61a16e1924fc839" ]
national_parks
Black bear – Ursus americanus. The black bear is a common inhabitant of Olympic National Park, and North America, in general. They are smaller and darker than the grizzly bear and the brown bear. Females typically weigh between 100 and 400 lbs, while males weigh between 250 and 600 lbs.
[ "yes" ]
[ "yes" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
combination
[ "634ecc2b7bf44a8da82f4fc07e827a4a", "57a79c66f6d24b43a61a16e1924fc839" ]
national_parks
Black bears and grizzly bears have many things in common. They are intelligent, curious, and individualistic. They begin to hibernate in the fall and emerge from their dens in the spring. During hibernation, bears do not eat, drink, defecate, or urinate and may lose one quarter to one third of their body weight. To survive hibernation, bears must eat a year’s worth of food in six months or less and their diet is extremely varied. Each species can climb trees, although black bears are much more agile climbers compared to grizzlies. They have good eyesight and an excellent sense of smell. They are powerful, fast, and protective of their cubs.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
combination
[ "634ecc2b7bf44a8da82f4fc07e827a4a", "57a79c66f6d24b43a61a16e1924fc839" ]
national_parks
Black bears can be found everywhere in the park, even on trails. Patti Wold, NPS. If You See a Black Bear or a Mountain Lion. Mount Rainier National Park contains a wide variety of wildlife species. Among the largest and most feared are the black bear and the mountain lion. Though you are not likely to see them, they are powerful animals, and your safety depends on how you act around them. Be aware of your surroundings, and follow these guidelines while in the park.
[ "yes" ]
[ "yes" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
combination
[ "634ecc2b7bf44a8da82f4fc07e827a4a", "57a79c66f6d24b43a61a16e1924fc839" ]
national_parks
Black bears in the Smokies are black in color, but in other parts of the country they may be brown or cinnamon. They may be six feet in length and up to three feet high at the shoulder. During the summer months, a typical adult male bear weighs approximately 250 pounds while adult females are generally smaller and weigh slightly over 100 pounds. However, bears may double their weight by the fall. Bears over 600 pounds have been documented in the park. Bears can live 12-15 years or more, however bears which have had access to human foods and garbage have a life expectancy of only half that time.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
combination
[ "634ecc2b7bf44a8da82f4fc07e827a4a", "57a79c66f6d24b43a61a16e1924fc839" ]
national_parks
Common Sightings. The most common animals observed around Rim Drive are golden-mantled ground squirrels, Canada jays and an assortment of butterflies and bees. Black bear sightings are more common in autumn and late spring when animals are waking up or getting ready to hibernate.
[ "yes" ]
[ "yes" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
combination
[ "634ecc2b7bf44a8da82f4fc07e827a4a", "57a79c66f6d24b43a61a16e1924fc839" ]
national_parks
Did you know that southeast Utah is bear country? Black bears wander from nearby mountains, and have been spotted in Natural Bridges National Monument. Bears are omnivorous and will forage for food and water over a large area. Many factors influence their behavior, including your reaction to them. Some bears are more aggressive than others, and bears that become habituated to human food can be very dangerous. Your sightings of bears, bear tracks, and other evidence can help us stay informed of bear activity in the park. Please contact us to report your bear sighting.
[ "yes" ]
[ "yes" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
combination
[ "634ecc2b7bf44a8da82f4fc07e827a4a", "57a79c66f6d24b43a61a16e1924fc839" ]
national_parks
General: Bears are common along this drainage. Be vigilant about keeping camps clean and use food storage lockers. Report all bear sightings to rangers at any North Cascades National Park contact station. (Bridge Creek Camp to Glacier Peak Wilderness)
[ "yes" ]
[ "yes" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
combination
[ "634ecc2b7bf44a8da82f4fc07e827a4a", "57a79c66f6d24b43a61a16e1924fc839" ]
national_parks
Habitat, Range and Local Sightings. The American black bear is the most common bear species native to North America and can be found from Alaska to Mexico and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, including 41 of the 50 U.S. states. In Alaska, black bears occur over most of the state’s forested areas and, depending on the season, from sea level to alpine zones. They are not found on the Seward Peninsula, the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, or north of the Brooks Range. Black bears are excellent tree climbers and will use trees to escape from danger. Whenever possible, black bears travel to and from food sources along stream corridors dense with shrubbery.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
combination
[ "634ecc2b7bf44a8da82f4fc07e827a4a", "57a79c66f6d24b43a61a16e1924fc839" ]
national_parks
Learn more about bear biology and bear management in Yosemite. Fascinating Bear Fact. In autumn bears may forage up to 20 hours a day, eating up to 20,000 calories every day. That’s the equivalent of 100 fast-food soft tacos! Other Wildlife Sightings. Mountain lions have been reported across Yosemite National Park. Recent observations of lions exhibiting curiosity and following visitors have occurred in wilderness areas. Learn more about mountain lions in Yosemite.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
combination
[ "634ecc2b7bf44a8da82f4fc07e827a4a", "57a79c66f6d24b43a61a16e1924fc839" ]
national_parks
Since 1979, Yellowstone has hosted over 118 million visits. During this time, 44 people were injured by grizzly bears in the park. For all park visitors combined, the chances of being injured by a grizzly bear are approximately 1 in 2.7 million visits. The risk is significantly lower for people who don't leave developed areas or roadsides, and higher for anyone hiking in the backcountry.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
combination
[ "634ecc2b7bf44a8da82f4fc07e827a4a", "57a79c66f6d24b43a61a16e1924fc839" ]
national_parks
Some time during the late 1980s, a female black bear from the Sierra del Carmen in Northern Mexico started a journey. She descended from the mountains, crossed miles of desert, swam across the Rio Grande, and traversed more desert to reach the forested slopes of the Chisos Mountains in Big Bend National Park. She may have led offspring to the Chisos, and probably encountered a wandering male already using the mountain range. Researchers do not know exactly why the bears returned, but it is due in part to the preservation and restoration of habitat in the park.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
combination
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national_parks
Spring is transitioning into summer and mating season in Yosemite has begun! Bears are solitary creatures and aren’t often seen in pairs or sloths (a group of bears is called a sloth). However, there are a few common exceptions: when food is overly abundant in one specific place, when sows have cubs or yearlings, and in the late spring and early summer during mating season (May–July).
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
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national_parks
The bears were fitted with radio collars so that their movements could be tracked. While not all bears released stayed in the area, some established home ranges in and around Big South Fork. Bear sightings are becoming more common on the Cumberland Plateau. After the original study was completed all radio collars were removed. Since that time, no additional bears have been released at Big South Fork NRRA.
[ "yes" ]
[ "yes" ]
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Are bear sightings common at this national park?
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national_parks
This area is thickly forested. Moose and, less commonly, bears can be seen if they are near the road; otherwise, wildlife sightings are fairly rare. The road rises up to Mile 9, eventually breaking out of spruce forest and into a low alpine zone of tall bushes and sporadic trees. Moose frequent this stretch during the autumn (mid-August to mid-September). Caribou and bears can occasionally be seen, especially toward Savage River (Mile 15). Mountain-dwelling critters, like marmots, pika and Dall sheep are sometimes seen on Healy Ridge and Mount Margaret.
[ "no" ]
[ "no" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
combination
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national_parks
Two bears were reported within the newly established park in 1937 and by 1944 the estimated bear population within the Park was ten individuals. By the early 1950s, bear sightings were reported from all three districts with an obvious concentration in the South District. Through the protection offered by the Park, the bear population gradually increased through the 1950s to an estimated 75 individuals park wide. Since the 1960s, much of Shenandoah's hardwood forest has reached mast producing age. Intensive agricultural practices on lands adjacent to the Park have increased the availability of high starch foods preferred by bears including apples, peaches, grapes, corn, and honey. The mosaic of agricultural lands, woodlots and stream corridors surrounding Shenandoah created nearly ideal conditions for the bear population to expand and disperse.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
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national_parks
What kind of bear did you see? Both grizzly bears and black bears live in the park and parkway. Color is misleading - both species can vary from blonde-black. Watch our video podcast to test your knowledge. If you see a bear, please report it to the nearest visitor center or ranger station. Bear Sighting and Incident Report. Learn more about safety in bear country.
[ "yes" ]
[ "yes" ]
4f31a191cb90434691b3d2dcfe781eeb
Are bear sightings common at this national park?
combination
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national_parks
When bears and humans get too close, the result can be disastrous - for you or the bear. Bears change their behavior if they become habituated to humans (get used to our presence), which happens if we crowd them or observe them too closely. If they obtain our food - even just one time - bears begin to break into cars, tents, and cabins. They may become aggressive. If a bear becomes a safety hazard, we may have to destroy it. In 2010, we had to kill four bears.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
12.7 years (median age)Classification / standardsFCI. A typical dachshund is long-bodied and muscular with short stubby legs. It was found that as the inbreeding coefficient increased, litter size decreased and the percentage of stillborn puppies increased, thus indicating inbreeding depression. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
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[ "n/a" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
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dogs
A Shih Tzu (UK: , US: ; Chinese: 西施犬; pinyin: Xī Shī quǎn literally 'Xi Shi dog', also spelled Shittsu) is a toy dog breed, weighing from 4 to 7.25 kilograms (9–16 lb) when fully grown. The breed was developed in China. It is very common for Shih Tzus to develop eye problems at any age, and even more so once they are older. Most veterinarians will recommend eye drops to assist with any eye irritations. Some dogs have allergies which causes excess discharge around the eye. Some of them have more short, curly hair. This is purely a choice made by the owners. A Shih Tzu should stand no more than 26.7 cm at the withers and with an ideal weight of 4.5 to 7.3 kg.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
A second Akita was arranged to be sent to Miss Keller: Kamikaze's litter brother, Kenzan-go. Kenzan-go died in the mid-1940s. First, while American Akitas are acceptable in all colors, Japanese Akitas are only permitted to be red, white, or brindle. Additionally, American Akitas may be pinto and/or have black masks, unlike Japanese Akitas where it is considered a disqualification and not permitted in the breed standards. American Akitas generally are heavier boned and larger, with a more bear-like head, whereas Japanese Akitas tend to be lighter and more finely featured with a fox-like head. The Akita Inu is one of the most dominant dog breeds. Therefore, training should start in an early age of seven to eight weeks.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
Accepted height ranges may differ depending on country and standard used. Variation can be found within litters, and height (in the range of 40–50 cm or 16–20 in) is above the breed standard in some lines.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
As a breed they are more susceptible to parvovirus than others if not vaccinated, especially as puppies, so vaccination is imperative beginning at 39 days old and continuing every 2 weeks until 4 months old. Then again at 8 months. Once a year after that, as recommend for all breeds.They are very prone to Demodex Mange due to culling for performance. There are two different types of Demodex Mange, namely Localized and Generalized Demodex. Although it is not contagious it is sometimes difficult to treat due to immunodeficiency in some puppies. Statistical evidence published in Global News implicates several other dog breeds had contributed to the rise, stating that 'Toronto's reported dog bites have been rising since 2012, and in 2013 and 2014 reached their highest levels this century, even as pit bulls and similar dogs neared local extinction.' The breed tends to have a higher than average incidence of hip dysplasia.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
Based on 2013 American Kennel Club statistics, Boxers held steady as the seventh-most popular breed of dog in the United States for the fourth consecutive year. However, according to the AKC's website, the boxer is now the eleventh-most popular dog breed in the United States. The head is the most distinctive feature of the Boxer. The breed standard dictates that it must be in perfect proportion to the body and above all it must never be too light. The greatest value is to be placed on the muzzle being of correct form and in absolute proportion to the skull. The length of the muzzle to the whole of the head should be a ratio of 1:3. Folds are always present from the root of the nose running downwards on both sides of the muzzle, and the tip of the nose should lie somewhat higher than the root of the muzzle.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
Classed as a toy dog breed because of its small size, the Pomeranian is descended from larger Spitz-type dogs, specifically the German Spitz. It has been determined by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale to be part of the German Spitz breed; and in many countries, they are known as the Zwergspitz ('Dwarf-Spitz'). They are prone to early tooth loss, and dry food is recommended. Poms are one of the breeds with the smallest average litter size, with various sources giving numbers of between 1.9 and 2.7 puppies per litter.
[ "no" ]
[ "no" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
Earlier dogs were also more sturdy in build and reportedly capable of covering up to 100 miles in one day. In the UK the Rough Collie is no longer used for serious herding, having been replaced by the Border Collie, though in the United States and a number of European countries, there has been a resurgence in the use of the Collie as a working and performance dog. Canine cyclic neutropenia is a cyclic blood disorder that is usually fatal to affected puppies. The disease is also referred to as 'gray collie syndrome', due to affected puppies having a pale gray, pinkish/gray or beige colouring, none of which are normal Rough Collie colours. Puppies that survive through adulthood are plagued with immune disorders throughout their lives and rarely live more than three years. DNA testing can help detect carriers of the recessive gene that causes the disease.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
Hektor was the product of few generations of selective breeding and completely fulfilled what Von Stephanitz believed a working dog should be. He was pleased with the strength of the dog and was so taken by the animal's intelligence, loyalty and beauty, that he purchased him immediately. German Shepherds are medium to large-sized dogs. The breed standard height at the withers is 60–65 cm (24–26 in) for males, and 55–60 cm (22–24 in) for females. German Shepherds are longer than they are tall, with an ideal proportion of 10 to ​8 1⁄2. The AKC official breed standard does not set a standard weight range. According to a recent survey in the UK, the median life span of German Shepherds is 10.95 years, which is normal for a dog of their size.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
In the U.S./Canada study, 11% of living dogs had arthritis at an average age of 4.3 years. Most other common, non-musculoskeletal morbidity issues strike Berners at rates similar to other breeds. The average life expectancy of a Bernese Mountain Dog is approximately 7 to 8 years. Most other breeds of a similar size have median longevities of 10–11 years. In a 2004 UK survey, the longest-lived of 394 deceased Bernese Mountain Dogs died at the age of 15.2 years. Bernese Mountain Dogs shed year-round, and the heaviest shedding is during seasonal changes. Usually the Bernese will only require a brushing once a week, with more in spring and fall, to keep its coat neat and reduce the amount of fur on the floor and furniture. The Bernese will only require a bath about once every couple of months or so, depending on how high its activity level is and how often it spends its time in the dirt.Special attention should be paid to the ears of the Bernese Mountain Dog, as they can trap bacteria, dirt, and liquid.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
In the United States, a typical mature male weighs 50 lb (23 kg), while mature females weigh about 40 lb (18 kg). The Bulldog Club of America recommends the average weight of a bulldog to be 40–50 lb (18–23 kg).Bulldogs are one of the few breeds whose tail is naturally short and either straight, screwed or thin and thus is not cut or docked as with some other breeds. A straight tail is a more desirable tail according to the breed standard set forth by the BCA if it is facing downward, not upwards. The UK Bulldog Breed Council website lists the average life span of the breed as 8–10 years.Statistics from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals indicate that of the 467 Bulldogs tested between 1979 and 2009 (30 years), 73.9% were affected by hip dysplasia, the highest amongst all breeds. Similarly, the breed has the worst score in the British Veterinary Association/Kennel Club Hip Dysplasia scoring scheme, although only 22 Bulldogs were tested in the scheme.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
It also indicates the ancestry of present-day dog breeds descends from more than one region. A 1999 ASPCA publication shows the average life span of the Siberian Husky is 12 to 14 years. Health issues in the breed are mainly genetic, such as seizures and defects of the eye (juvenile cataracts, corneal dystrophy, canine glaucoma and progressive retinal atrophy) and congenital laryngeal paralysis.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
It is recommended that puppies receive early socialisation; certainly before 18 months. Staffords are healthy and robust dogs with a life expectancy of 12–14 years. There are two theories about the development of the Stafford as recognised by the KC registry.The first and more widely held theory is that the Stafford, like the Bull Terrier, descends from the long-extinct bull and terrier, which originated as a cross between the ferocious, thickly muscled Old English Bulldog and the agile, lithe and feisty Black and Tan Terrier.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
Just like Apple Head and Deer Head Chihuahuas, Teacup Chihuahuas are from the same breed but have a different appearance. A Teacup Chihuahua on average doesn't weigh more than four pounds. In a household they may need a little more looking after due to their small size. Teacup Chihuahuas can have either short or long hair. Although a Teacup is much smaller in size, they still have the same confident and energetic personality as a full-sized Chihuahua. It is also very risky for Teacup Chihuahuas to have puppies due to their size. It can cause many complications and put their life at risk. Compared to the typical lifespan of a Chihuahua, a Teacup's lifespan tends to be much shorter due to the health issues they are more prone to have because of their small size.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
Konrad Lorenz an Austrian zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist, winner of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine who is often regarded as one of the founders of modern ethology, had a Chow-Chow mix named Stasi. He wrote about his dogs in his book King Solomon's Ring. Owning a Chow-Chow can raise the cost of homeowners insurance because some companies consider them high-risk dogs. In a study in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Chow-Chow were responsible for 8 out of 238 fatalities related to dog bites from 1979 to 1998.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
The Dogue de Bordeaux, Bordeaux Mastiff, French Mastiff or Bordeauxdog is a large French mastiff breed—and one of the oldest French dog breeds. A typical brachycephalic molossoid type breed, the Bordeaux is a very powerful dog, with a very muscular body. This brawny breed has been put to work in many different capacities, from pulling carts and hauling heavy objects, to guarding flocks and, historically, the castles of the European elite. While larger breeds of canines tend to have shorter life expectancy, the life expectancy of the Dogue is still shorter than even breeds of comparable or larger size. According to data collected by the Dogue De Bordeaux Society of America, the average lifespan of the breed is 5 to 6 years. A veterinary database in the UK showed similar figures. In the American survey, the oldest dog in the record was 12 years old. The Society is actively recording dogs that are 7 years old or older to celebrate the longer-lived dogs.
[ "no" ]
[ "no" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
The Greater Swiss Mountain Dog (German: Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund or French: Grand Bouvier Suisse) is a dog breed which was developed in the Swiss Alps. It is relatively healthy for its size and tends to have far fewer problems than more popular breeds in its size range. A genetic clustering algorithm could not easily distinguish between the obviously related pairs of Greater Swiss Mountain Dog and the Bernese Mountain Dog.The four breeds of Sennenhund, with the original breed name followed by the most popular English version of the breed name: Throughout the early 20th century, the Greater Swiss Mountain Dog population in Europe grew slowly, and it remains a rare breed both in its native Switzerland and the U.S. During World War II the breed was used by the Swiss Army as a draft dog. Mouse, a Greater Swiss Mountain Dog living in Austin, TX served as the mascot of Keep Austin Dog Friendly.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
The Rottweiler (/ˈrɒtwaɪlər/, UK also /-vaɪlər/) is a breed of domestic dog, regarded as medium-to-large or large. The dogs were known in German as Rottweiler Metzgerhund, meaning Rottweil butchers' dogs, because their main use was to herd livestock and pull carts laden with butchered meat to market. This continued until the mid-19th century when railways replaced droving. Although still used to herd stock in many parts of the world, Rottweilers are now also used as search and rescue dogs, as guard dogs, and as police dogs. Black and tan or black and mahoganyLitter size. average 8 to 12 although larger litters are knownLife span.
[ "yes" ]
[ "yes" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
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dogs
The average life span of a Boston is around 11 to 13 years, though some can live up to around 18 years. They have a short nose, which can often cause breathing problems later in life, which is what leads to a low life expectancy. The Boston Terrier is a compactly built, well-proportioned dog. The chest is broad and the tail is short. According to international breed standards, the dog should weigh no more than 25 pounds (11 kg). Boston Terriers usually stand up to 15-17 inches at the withers.The American Kennel Club divides the breed into three classes: under 15 pounds, 15 pounds and under 20 pounds, 20 pounds and not exceeding 25 pounds.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
53d75546a77941888e2d567e02e23cbe
Are both the average litter size and life expectancy of this dog breed greater than 7?
combination
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dogs
They are recorded as the seventh most popular dog breed in the United States.Toy Poodles won 'Best in Show' at Crufts in 1966 and 1982. Standard Poodles achieved the award in 1955, 1985, 2002, and 2014. The 2002 winner came from Norway and was the first overseas exhibit to win the Crufts best in show award. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) recognizes four sizes of one breed: standard, medium, miniature, and toy. Poodles exist in many coat colours. Despite the Standard Poodle's claim to greater age than the other varieties, some evidence shows the smaller types developed only a short time after the breed assumed the general type by which it is recognized today. Breed size is correlated with litter size and Standard Poodles have the highest litter size followed by Medium, Miniature, and Toy. Toy Poodles have one of the smallest litter size of all breeds.
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
824c11c5fba14f6188b9f467f47e3b70
Are fires ever restricted at this national park?
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national_parks
A Report of the National Park System Advisory Board. The creation of a national park is an expression of. faith in the future. It is a pact between generations, a promise from.
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Are fires ever restricted at this national park?
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national_parks
Autumn olive (dark bluish-green) invades a former crop field. NPS Photo by Bill Agne. Plants from far away find a new home. Many times they’re purchased at a local nursery and planted because they’re pretty; but they don’t just move in and settle among their neighbors, they take over the neighborhood and kick everyone else out!
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Are fires ever restricted at this national park?
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national_parks
Campfires can cause lasting impacts. Carry a stove for cooking and enjoy a candle lantern instead of a fire. Know where fires are restricted. Remember, Leave No Trace of your stay. The next visitors should not be able to tell your group has ever camped there.
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[ "yes" ]
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Are fires ever restricted at this national park?
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national_parks
Channel Islands National Park is announcing modifications in operations to implement the latest guidance from the White House, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), and local and state authorities to promote social distancing. As of March 16, 2020, the park’s mainland visitor center in the Ventura Harbor is closed until further notice. The five remote islands that comprise Channel Islands National Park remain open to public visitation. However, current access will only be via private vessel.
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Are fires ever restricted at this national park?
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national_parks
For a part of 7 or more (group camping), groups must have advance reservations. There is a $25 per permit fee. Boaters staying overnight in the park also need free permits. Permits should be displayed on a backpack when hiking and on a tent or shelter when at camp. Please follow camping regulations during your visit.
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Are fires ever restricted at this national park?
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national_parks
Glacier NP: Rules and Regulations (1936) camp fires are not permitted at nondesignated camp grounds. place tin cans and unburnable residue in garbage cans. There is plenty. Forest Fires. Forest fires are a terrible and ever-present menace. There are thousands of acres of burned forests in Glacier National Park. Most of these 'ghosts of forests' are hideous proofs of some person's.
[ "yes" ]
[ "yes" ]
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Are fires ever restricted at this national park?
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national_parks
In the interest of safety, Everglades National Park is announcing the temporary closure of Richmond Drive (SW 168th Street) west of the park border. Park personnel and heavy equipment are currently working in the area to contain the Mustang Corner Fire. The closure, in effect for both motorized and non-motorized vehicles, is required to guarantee access for fire personnel and minimize risks to visitor and employee safety. Access to all affiliated roads beyond the closure point will also be restricted. The Mustang Corner Fire was first reported south of Chekika early Wednesday morning. By early Thursday, the fire spanned approximately 13,000 acres and threatened to impact nesting habitat of the federally endangered Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow. Presently, the fire poses no danger to structures or visitor facilities. It is believed the fire was human-caused.
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national_parks
Invasive non-native plants can cause enormous changes in park ecosystems by out-competing native plants, polluting the gene pool of native plants through hybridization, and dramatically altering fire, water, and nutrient cycles. Additionally, non-native plants are known to transmit non-native diseases to native plants;non-native diseases can be much more devastating than native diseases because native resistance to these diseases is often very low.
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national_parks
Mammals of Fire Island. More than 30 species of mammals either visit or live within the boundaries of Fire Island National Seashore. These mammals range in size from finback whales and other whales—which occasionally swim close to shore or wash up on the beach—to white-tailed deer, red fox, and the tiny masked shrew, which are very common throughout the island.
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national_parks
Map of Remedial Investigations at Great Kills Park National Park Serivce. Great Kills Park Environmental Cleanup Project - Gateway National Recreation Area (U.S. National Park Service) In 2016, NPS accelerated the investigation of the 43-acre section of Great Kills Park (referred to as OU1), so that the results of the investigation could be used to inform construction planning for the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Civil Works South Shore of Staten Island Coastal Storm Risk Management Project.
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national_parks
OLMSTED REPORT ON MANAGEMENT OF YOSEMITE, 1865. THE YOSEMITE VALLEY AND THE MARIPOSA BIG TREE GROVEBy Frederick Law Olmsted 1865. It is a fact of much significance with reference to the temper and spirit which ruled the loyal people of the United States during the war of the great rebellion, that a livelier susceptibility to the influence of art was apparent, and greater progress in the manifestations of artistic talent was made, than in any similar period before in the history of the country.
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national_parks
Once established, Australian pines spread rapidly, displacing native plant and wildlife species. NPS photo. Crews removing exotic vegetation in the Everglades. NPS photo. Organisms are considered nonnative (alien, exotic, foreign, introduced, non-indigenous) when they occur artificially in locations beyond their known historical natural ranges. Nonnative can refer to species brought in from other continents, regions, ecosystems, and even other habitats. Species exotic to the United States include those transported from Europe, Asia, Africa, South America, Australia, and other parts of the world. They also include any species moved by people from one locality in the United States to a new one.
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national_parks
Redwood National and State Parks are ever-changing—knowing the current conditions will help to ensure a more enjoyable redwood adventure. For information about visitor centers, locations, contact information and services, click here. High clearance vehicles recommended. This gravel road has two stream crossings and low clearance vehicles going to Fern Canyon have a high chance of getting stuck or scraping along the stream cobbles. In winter and spring this road often is temporarily closed due to flooding or landslides. Closures happen with little or no warning, and there may be a delay before closures are posted on the 'park conditions / alerts' webpage.
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national_parks
Smoke and/or fire may be visible from US 41 and Shark Valley. Everglades National Park is coordinating with Miccosukee PD and Florida Highway Patrol. Temporary lane closures of US 41 may occur depending on smoke impacts on the road. Airboat tours in the immediate vicinity of the fire will be suspended.
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national_parks
Take Notes. Try writing down a list of the birds you see on a particular date. If you keep a logbook, over time, you'll be able to anticipate the movements of birds during migrations. Some birders like to keep a life list, recording every species they've ever IDed in the wild. Practice! You don't have to actively be looking for birds to practice. Take note of the birds you see and hear on your walk to work or school, while you're looking out your kitchen window, or while you're doing other activities outdoors. Being observant and aware of your surroundings can heighten your senses and help you find other surprises in nature, too. You may discover interesting flowers or other animals at the same time.
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national_parks
There are approximately 1,737 known species of vascular plants, 167 species of fungi, 64 species of moss and 195 species of lichen found in Grand Canyon National Park. This variety is largely due to the 8,000 foot elevation change from the river up to the highest point on the North Rim. Grand Canyon boasts a dozen endemic plants (known only within the Park's boundaries) while only ten percent of the Park's flora is exotic. Sixty-three plants found here have been given special status by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
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national_parks
Visitors are advised to watch out for wildlife, fire personnel, and vehicles along roadways. Please drive cautiously, reduce your speed and turn on your headlights if you encounter smoke while driving. To ensure safety, people who are not part of the prescribed fire operation should avoid areas of active fire. Some sections of the park or roadways may be temporarily restricted for your safety. Prescribed burns are an important part of resource management at Everglades National Park. These burns will reduce vegetation adjacent to the highway and Shark Valley to protect public and park assets and maintain fire adapted ecosystems.
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national_parks
Yes, beach fires are permitted on the mainland beaches of Lake Michigan between the water's edge and the first dune. Please do not build fires on or near vegetation. You can help by extinguishing your fire with water and cleaning up all debris before leaving. Do not bury fires - hidden embers can burn unsuspecting feet. Beach fires are not allowed on the Manitou Islands except in the fire ring on the beach in front of the Bay Campground on South Manitou Island.
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national_parks
gradually shifted from fire exclusion to fire inclusion. Beginning in. 1886 in Yellowstone the policy was to suppress all fires (Agee 1974). The National Parks Act of 1916 emphasized the protection of objects,
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national_parks
program in the territory when wildfires devastated Alaska in 1957. More. than 400 fires burned close to 5 million acres. One fire, the Kuskokwin. Fire, burned an area twice the size of Rhode Island. Damage to resources. was put at more than $7.7 million.
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national_parks
A family enjoys a hike along the Hot Springs Mountain Trail. NPS Photo. Walking paths have long been a part of Hot Springs National Park and the preceding Hot Springs Reservation. Today those walking paths form the base of the park’s trail system. There are two concentrated areas of hiking trails within the park, the Hot Springs and North Mountain Trails and the West Mountain Trails. Both of these areas are composed of relatively short, interconnected trails. The Sunset Trail is a longer trail that travels through more remote areas of the park.
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Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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national_parks
Bicycling at Chaco. Biking at Chaco Tanya Ortega de Chamberlain. Bicycling at Chaco - Chaco Culture National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service) *Secure bikes at the bike racks. *Prepare for extreme weather. Bring along sun protection, a hat, and rain gear.
[ "yes" ]
[ "yes" ]
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Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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national_parks
Bicycling at White Sands is truly a unique experience—nowhere else in the world can you ride a bike on a hard-packed gypsum sand road through the heart of an immense gypsum dunefield! This distinctive experience requires one to be a prepared and alert cyclist. Safe Riding.
[ "yes" ]
[ "yes" ]
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Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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national_parks
Bicycling in Rocky Mountain National Park is a breathtaking experience. To protect yourself, others, and the park, review and follow the rules and suggestions on this page. Have a fun, safe ride! Bicycling - Rocky Mountain National Park (U.S. National Park Service) There are bike racks at visitor centers but no bike racks on shuttle buses. At trailheads, if no bike rack is available, cyclists may carry their bike into the woods and lock it to something out of sight (like a tree) as long as no harm is done to that object. Cyclists may not lock bikes to signs or trailhead bulletin boards.
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Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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national_parks
Bicycling is allowed on any road within Big Bend National Park, but is not allowed off-road or on any trail. Safety. Bicyclists must share the roads with vehicles and obey all traffic laws. Paved roads within the park are narrow and often have no shoulders. Bicyclists should take proper measures to stay safe, such as riding single-file, wearing bright and/or reflective clothing, and being away of their surroundings. Bicycling - Big Bend National Park (U.S. National Park Service) Many of the rides in Big Bend National Park are easier with a shuttle. Traffic is sparse in summer and highest during March and early April and on holiday weekends throughout the year. Use extreme caution. A good map is essential. Maps and road guides are available at the Big Bend Natural History Association Book Store.
[ "yes" ]
[ "yes" ]
d482b04650474c74ac52171594532620
Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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national_parks
Bicyclists willing to brave the unpredictable elements of spring in Yellowstone can ride 49 miles of park roads from the West Entrance to Mammoth Hot Springs for a small period of time each spring when the roads have been plowed but aren't yet open to motorized vehicles. As conditions allow, bicycles will also be permitted from the East Entrance to the east end of Sylvan Pass, and the South Entrance to West Thumb. Check the Spring and Fall Bicycling page for road segment status. Yellowstone National Park Bike Trail West Yellowstone West Entrance Madison River Riverside. Several gravel roads are open to both bicycle and automotive traffic. The Old Gardiner Road allows two-way bike traffic and one-way auto traffic. This road is best suited for mountain bikes. Please do not block gates when parking. Yellowstone National Park Bike Trail gardiner North Entrance Mammoth Hot Springs Mammoth Hot Springs Area.
[ "yes" ]
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d482b04650474c74ac52171594532620
Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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national_parks
Cycling is a great way to see Denali National Park and get some exercise at the same time. Visitors are allowed to bike all 92 miles of the Park Road. The road is paved to mile 15 (Savage River) and is graded gravel beyond. Much of the roadway beyond mile 31 is narrow and there are no shoulders. Travel restrictions for motor vehicles begin at mile 15, so traffic volume will ease up after this point.
[ "yes" ]
[ "yes" ]
d482b04650474c74ac52171594532620
Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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national_parks
Cyclists are often surprised to discover how impressive the Badlands features seem without a windshield to impede the view. From the back of a bike, it almost feels like you can reach out and touch the rugged buttes and twisted spires. Visitors planning on exploring by bicycle should be aware that bicycles are only allowed on designated paved, gravel, and dirt roads within Badlands National Park. As such, they are not allowed on hiking trails, closed roads, off-road, off-trail, or in backcountry areas. The Badlands Loop Road is open to cyclists who prefer a paved riding experience. While bicycles are allowed on the road, it is not without its hazards. The scenic road is narrow with many curves. Traffic is heavy from Memorial Day to Labor Day. Lacking much of a shoulder, recreational vehicles with extended mirrors pose a danger for cyclists riding along the sides of the road. Water is not available along the route and cyclists should avoid dehydration by bringing sufficient amounts with them. Obey traffic regulations and wear bright colors, protective clothing, and a helmet. Several steep passes involving an elevation change of 250 feet in less than 500 meters can be challenging for cyclists not prepared for the experience. Bicycling - Badlands National Park (U.S. National Park Service) Bicycling Off the Beaten Path. A fairly easy ride through rolling grasslands, this route offers good opportunities for wildlife viewing. Start at the junction of the Badlands Loop Road and the Sage Creek Rim Road. Follow the unpaved Sage Creek Road west for seven miles to the junction with County Road 502. Follow the signs to Wall until you reach a paved road. Turn right on the paved road and travel until you reach Highway 240. Inside Badlands National Park, Highway 240 is called the Badlands Loop Road. Take Highway 240 south through the Pinnacles Entrance and back to the junction with Sage Creek Rim Road. If you entered the park by car, remember to bring your entrance receipt with you. You must present this at the entrance station or you will be expected to pay $7 per person. 12 miles paved, 11 miles unpaved.
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[ "yes" ]
d482b04650474c74ac52171594532620
Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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national_parks
During this time of year pets are not permitted past the vehicle gates. Bring bear spray, water, and food and plan your day the same as you would if hiking a trail. Be on the lookout for wildlife and be aware that bicyclists and hikers are using the same roadway. Avalanche conditions exist throughout the park and along the roadway. Be aware of conditions prior to starting your trip and avoid known avalanche paths.
[ "yes" ]
[ "yes" ]
d482b04650474c74ac52171594532620
Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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national_parks
Frequently Asked Questions about Bicycling. Q. Where can I ride my bike in Zion National Park? A. The best place is on the Pa'rus Trail and the Zion Canyon Scenic Drive (when the Zion Canyon Shuttle is operating). All cyclists are encouraged to ride on the Pa'rus Trail from the South Entrance to Canyon Junction.
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[ "yes" ]
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Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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national_parks
Lookout Mountain, TN: Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park, in partnership with Outdoor Chattanooga, invites the public to find their park during a special event celebrating the National Park Service Centennial. Come rock climb, hike, and mountain bike the slopes of Lookout Mountain on Saturday, June 11 between 9 am and 4 pm at Cravens House. As the National Park Service launches into its second century of preserving special places across the United States, the time has never been better to explore new facets of the national parks. Come explore an icon of Chattanooga—Lookout Mountain—and perhaps see it in a new way as you rock climb up the face of its cliffs, spin along the trails on a mountain bike, or learn about the mountain's history as you hike along its paths. Outdoor Chattanooga and National Park Service staff and volunteers will ensure a safe and fascinating new experience as you discover or re-discover your local national park.
[ "yes" ]
[ "yes" ]
d482b04650474c74ac52171594532620
Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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national_parks
Mountain biking is only allowed on roads in the park, with the exception of the trail between Baker and the Great Basin Visitor Center (0.2mi). Bicycling is not allowed on trails. Helmets are strongly recommended. There are primitive roads to access for more of a challenge. Bicycling - Great Basin National Park (U.S. National Park Service) 100 Great Basin National Park. Available 8:00 am - 4:00 pm, Monday through Friday. Closed on Federal holidays.
[ "yes" ]
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d482b04650474c74ac52171594532620
Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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national_parks
On and Off Road Biking. On and Off Road Biking - Prince William Forest Park (U.S. National Park Service) Three miles of the park Scenic Drive are a dedicated bike lane providing a paved, relatively flat surface ideal for beginning bicyclists. More experienced cyclists with mountain bikes have the option of off-road biking on any of the ten fire roads in the park. Bicycle racks are located at Pine Grove Picnic Area, Turkey Run Education Center parking lot, and Oak Ridge Campground. Bring along plenty of water and be sure to drink it.
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[ "yes" ]
d482b04650474c74ac52171594532620
Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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national_parks
Over 12 miles of paved bike paths are available in Yosemite Valley. In addition, bicyclists can ride on regular roads (if they obey traffic laws). Helmets are required by law for children under 18 years of age. Off-trail riding, mountain biking, and use of motorized bicycles or scooters on bike paths are not permitted in Yosemite National Park.
[ "yes" ]
[ "yes" ]
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Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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national_parks
Pets are not permitted on the Ridge or Saddle Trails on Old Rag Mountain. Please do not bring pets if you plan to hike Old Rag. Old Rag is Shenandoah's most popular and most dangerous hike. The number of blogs and websites about this hike attests to its popularity. The number of search and rescue missions each year attests to its danger. There's no doubt that the scramble is great fun and the views are spectacular. A day on Old Rag is one of Shenandoah's premier experiences. We want to be sure that your experience is not marred by an accident or health issue that could be prevented with good planning. Preparing to Hike Old Rag Mountain - Shenandoah National Park (U.S. National Park Service)
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Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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national_parks
RELATED TEXT: A mountain of immeasurable inspiration, Mount Rainier is the center of the nation’s fifth national park. It is a place of discovery and of personal triumphs, where family traditions endure.At 14,410 feet, the mountain is the tallest volcano in the Cascade Mountain Range and the most glaciated peak in the continental United States. Basalt columns and other remnants of early eruptions and lava flows reveal Mount Rainier’s ancient geologic history. Glaciers, massive rivers of ice up to 750 feet deep, flow down the rocky slopes. Yet, on the summit, steam escapes from deep within the mountain’s core, a reminder that it is still an active volcano.Above Mount Rainier, millions of stars illuminate the night sky. The park minimizes the use of artificial light. This preserves darkness, through which constellations and planets are remarkably visible. In spring, snow melts first in the foothills. Beneath the old growth forest, flowers bloom and ferns unfurl. Across the subalpine region, summer may only last two months. Adaptations that have taken centuries to develop prove crucial in a race for survival. Profuse wildflower displays and pollinating insects bring life to the meadows. Birds and mammals forage on the abundance before winter quickly returns. Entering the park is a step back in time—a portal into Mount Rainier National Historic Landmark District. Roads, buildings, and other structures were designed nearly one hundred years ago. Massive logs and round river boulders characterize early national park rustic architecture, which harmonizes with the park’s natural scenery.For thousands of years, Mount Rainier has been an important place for Pacific Northwest Indian people. Nearly two million people from around the world now visit Mount Rainier National Park each year. As global development increases, this mountain remains steadfast, a place where people can reconnect with what is important in their lives. RELATED TEXT: Meander moist, moss-carpeted paths through temperate rainforest. Discover the dynamic forces of a glacial river. Mountain-bike a historic road. Spend a night in the backcountry. Visit Mowich Lake—the park’s largest and deepest lake. Camp near the lake or enjoy its serenity from a canoe. Fish the deep waters. Hike to subalpine meadows. A detailed map of Mount Rainier National Park showing roads, trails, and visitor areas with amenities. The map is focused on the area within the park boundary, with a minimum of information on the areas immediately outside of the park. To the north, the park is bordered by Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest and the Clearwater Wilderness. Crystal Mountain Ski Area and Resort is outside of the northeast corner of the park. Wenatchee National Forest and the William O. Douglas Wilderness borders the eastern edge of the park. Gifford Pinchot National Forest and the Tatoosh Wilderness wraps around the southern border of the park. The southwest corner and much of the west side of the park is privately owned. The Glacier View Wilderness borders the southern half of the western edge of the park. The park is roughly square, with mostly straight borders on the west, north, and south sides. The east side pushes out slightly with a squiggly border that follows a mountain ridgeline. The center of the park is dominated by Mount Rainier, drawn with white glaciers radiating out from the summit. All roads and trails are around the mountain on the edges of the park. All park land is shaded green. In the northwest corner a small oblong section of land just outside of the main park is also shaded in green. This section surrounds the Carbon River Ranger Station. Moving clockwise around the park, other visitor centers include the Sunrise Visitor Center and White River Ranger Station in the northeast quadrant of the park, the Ohanapecosh Visitor Center in the southeast corner, the Henry M. Jackson Memorial Visitor Center in Paradise in the south, and the Longmire Museum in Longmire to the southwest of Paradise. The following subsections describe in detail the map legend, park amenities, roads and trails, and Mount Rainier's glaciers. Skip to park information.
[ "yes" ]
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d482b04650474c74ac52171594532620
Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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national_parks
Several miles of trails are available for riding. The parking area for all trailers is located off of Cheatham Hill Rd near Powder Springs. You must bring your own horse as we do not rent them here. Is alcohol allowed at Kennesaw Mountain? No. No. Alcohol is prohibited in all areas of the Battlefield. Is there a fee to visit? Yes. You can purchase Kennesaw Mountain NBP annual or day passes, and any of the Interagency Passes at the Visitor Center or online. For more information, please click here. Yes. Kennesaw Mountain NBP charges $5 a day, or $40 a year for entrance to the park. For more information on how to pay and what other passes are accepted, please click here. Frequently Asked Questions - Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park (U.S. National Park Service)
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Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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national_parks
The term “e-bike” means a two- or three-wheeled cycle with fully operable pedals and an electric motor of less than 750 watts (1 h.p.). E-bikes are allowed in Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site where traditional bicycles are allowed. E-bikes are prohibited where traditional bicycles are prohibited. Except where use of motor vehicles by the public is allowed, using the electric motor to move an e-bike without pedaling is prohibited.
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Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
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[ "ea21dff3c5c046eaba9eae1da9234d2e" ]
national_parks
There is a place in Far West Texas where night skies are dark as coal and rivers carve temple-like canyons in ancient limestone. Here, at the end of the road, hundreds of bird species take refuge in a solitary mountain range surrounded by weather-beaten desert. Tenacious cactus bloom in sublime southwestern sun, and diversity of species is the best in the country. This magical place is Big Bend... Big Bend National Park (U.S. National Park Service)
[ "n/a" ]
[ "n/a" ]
d482b04650474c74ac52171594532620
Are mountain bikes allowed at this national park?
paraphrase
[ "ea21dff3c5c046eaba9eae1da9234d2e" ]
national_parks
Want to leave the long entrance lines and parking frustrations behind? Ride the Tusayan Shuttle into the park and then cycle along the roads and Greenway Trails. If you get tired, there is a bus stop every one-half to one mile along the 13-mile road/trail system – load your bike on one of the shuttle bus bike racks and take the bus to your next destination. And if you are looking for a fun, mostly downhill ride back to Tusayan – pick up the Greenway Trail near Grand Canyon Visitor Center and follow the signs to Tusayan. It is a 6.5-mile (10.5 km), downhill ride on a smooth, paved trail. Bicycling Information - Grand Canyon National Park (U.S. National Park Service)
[ "yes" ]
[ "yes" ]

Dataset Card for "ZEST: ZEroShot learning from Task descriptions"

Dataset Summary

ZEST tests whether NLP systems can perform unseen tasks in a zero-shot way, given a natural language description of the task. It is an instantiation of our proposed framework "learning from task descriptions". The tasks include classification, typed entity extraction and relationship extraction, and each task is paired with 20 different annotated (input, output) examples. ZEST's structure allows us to systematically test whether models can generalize in five different ways.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

A leaderboard is included with accepatbility metrics for each of the four generalization types outlined in the paper. The metrics are novel acceptability metrics also proposed by the authors.

Languages

The dataset is in English.

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

[More Information Needed]

Data Fields

[More Information Needed]

Data Splits

[More Information Needed]

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

To evaluate the ability of a model to generalize to unseen tasks based only on a task description in a zero-shot manner.

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

[More Information Needed]

Who are the source language producers?

Mechanical Turk crowdsource workers.

Annotations

Annotation process

[More Information Needed]

Who are the annotators?

Mechanical Turk crowdsource workers.

Personal and Sensitive Information

[More Information Needed]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

The dataset emphasizes a model's ability to generalize to unseen tasks with only a natural language description of the task. The long-term vision of this type of evaluation is to facilitate the creation of models which can perform arbitrary tasks with only a prompt from a non-technical user. This could broaden the frontier of what a user can ask something like a chatbot to do for them, but it is unclear how restrictions would be put in place to prevent users from prompting a system to perform unethical tasks.

Discussion of Biases

[More Information Needed]

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

[More Information Needed]

Licensing Information

This dataset is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

Citation Information

@inproceedings{weller-etal-2020-learning,
    title = "Learning from Task Descriptions",
    author = "Weller, Orion  and
      Lourie, Nicholas  and
      Gardner, Matt  and
      Peters, Matthew",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)",
    month = nov,
    year = "2020",
    address = "Online",
    publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics",
    url = "https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/2020.emnlp-main.105",
    pages = "1361--1375",
    abstract = "Typically, machine learning systems solve new tasks by training on thousands of examples. In contrast, humans can solve new tasks by reading some instructions, with perhaps an example or two. To take a step toward closing this gap, we introduce a framework for developing NLP systems that solve new tasks after reading their descriptions, synthesizing prior work in this area. We instantiate this frame- work with a new English language dataset, ZEST, structured for task-oriented evaluation on unseen tasks. Formulating task descriptions as questions, we ensure each is general enough to apply to many possible inputs, thus comprehensively evaluating a model{'}s ability to solve each task. Moreover, the dataset{'}s structure tests specific types of systematic generalization. We find that the state-of-the-art T5 model achieves a score of 12% on ZEST, leaving a significant challenge for NLP researchers.",
}

Contributions

Thanks to @joeddav for adding this dataset.

Models trained or fine-tuned on zest

None yet