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The dataset generation failed because of a cast error
Error code:   DatasetGenerationCastError
Exception:    DatasetGenerationCastError
Message:      An error occurred while generating the dataset

All the data files must have the same columns, but at some point there are 4 new columns ({'target', 'input_with_chapters', 'chapter_idx', 'input'}) and 3 missing columns ({'audio_path', 'text', 'targets'}).

This happened while the json dataset builder was generating data using

hf://datasets/retkowski/ytseg/data/partitions/yt_seg_titles.train.json (at revision b461bc9cc80d3db04c231ef797badd0d5ea169b5)

Please either edit the data files to have matching columns, or separate them into different configurations (see docs at
Traceback:    Traceback (most recent call last):
                File "/src/services/worker/.venv/lib/python3.9/site-packages/datasets/", line 2011, in _prepare_split_single
                File "/src/services/worker/.venv/lib/python3.9/site-packages/datasets/", line 585, in write_table
                  pa_table = table_cast(pa_table, self._schema)
                File "/src/services/worker/.venv/lib/python3.9/site-packages/datasets/", line 2302, in table_cast
                  return cast_table_to_schema(table, schema)
                File "/src/services/worker/.venv/lib/python3.9/site-packages/datasets/", line 2256, in cast_table_to_schema
                  raise CastError(
              datasets.table.CastError: Couldn't cast
              input: string
              input_with_chapters: string
              target: string
              channel_id: string
              video_id: string
              chapter_idx: int64
              {'text': Sequence(feature=Value(dtype='string', id=None), length=-1, id=None), 'targets': Value(dtype='string', id=None), 'channel_id': Value(dtype='string', id=None), 'video_id': Value(dtype='string', id=None), 'audio_path': Value(dtype='string', id=None)}
              because column names don't match
              During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:
              Traceback (most recent call last):
                File "/src/services/worker/src/worker/job_runners/config/", line 1316, in compute_config_parquet_and_info_response
                  parquet_operations, partial = stream_convert_to_parquet(
                File "/src/services/worker/src/worker/job_runners/config/", line 909, in stream_convert_to_parquet
                File "/src/services/worker/.venv/lib/python3.9/site-packages/datasets/", line 1882, in _prepare_split
                  for job_id, done, content in self._prepare_split_single(
                File "/src/services/worker/.venv/lib/python3.9/site-packages/datasets/", line 2013, in _prepare_split_single
                  raise DatasetGenerationCastError.from_cast_error(
              datasets.exceptions.DatasetGenerationCastError: An error occurred while generating the dataset
              All the data files must have the same columns, but at some point there are 4 new columns ({'target', 'input_with_chapters', 'chapter_idx', 'input'}) and 3 missing columns ({'audio_path', 'text', 'targets'}).
              This happened while the json dataset builder was generating data using
              hf://datasets/retkowski/ytseg/data/partitions/yt_seg_titles.train.json (at revision b461bc9cc80d3db04c231ef797badd0d5ea169b5)
              Please either edit the data files to have matching columns, or separate them into different configurations (see docs at

Need help to make the dataset viewer work? Open a discussion for direct support.

[ "♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ Tim Cook: Good morning, and welcome to WWDC.", "We have a big day of announcements about our latest technologies and platforms.", "These platforms, and the products they drive, deliver amazing experiences for our users and provide developers with incredible opportunities so they can use their superpowers to innovate, create, and collaborate, making apps that continue to change the world.", "And WWDC is designed to give this community what they need to do their very best work.", "We love to support our developers beyond WWDC with comprehensive world-class support and other important initiatives.", "We just opened our brand-new Developers Center across from Apple Park where developers can engage with our engineers.", "And to reach our global community, this past fall we introduced our first online Tech Talks for developers to learn more about our new technologies and directly connect with Apple engineers in live sessions and one-on-one office hours.", "We are also committed to cultivating the next generation of developers, including efforts to reach underrepresented communities.", "So our developer academies teach students the fundamentals of coding as well as the other necessary skills to find and create jobs in the app economy.", "There are 17 around the world including the academy in Detroit we founded in October as a part of Apple's Racial Equity and Justice Initiative.", "And in Saudi Arabia, we launched our first developer academy for women in February.", "Our Entrepreneur Camps provide developers from underrepresented communities with mentorship, inspiration, and insights from Apple.", "The first camps were for female founders, and this past year, we expanded the camps to reach Black and Latin founders.", "Alumni have gone on to secure major funding and see great success on the App Store.", "These ongoing efforts empower all developers with the tools, technologies, and inspiration to change the world for the better.", "Last year, many millions of developers engaged in WWDC, and we expect millions more to join us again this year.", "In fact, we're excited to say we've grown our developer community to over 34 million Apple developers.", "We have a huge week ahead of us, with an amazing online experience, including sessions, labs, and digital lounges, which will all be available for free to our developers.", "Today, we're going to push our platforms further than ever for our developers and our users.", "So let's get started by sending it over to Craig.", "♪ ♪ Craig Federighi: I'm really excited about what we have to show you today.", "But first, let's head downstairs.", "♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ Now, let's talk about iOS.", "Together with iPhone, iOS helps you get so much done, whether you're at home or on the move.", "And the next release, iOS 16, offers new intelligence, sharing, and communication features that are going to enhance so much of what you do with your iPhone.", "And those come together with an incredible set of new personalization features that will make your experience feel fresh and completely you.", "Let's get started with the all-new Lock Screen.", "The Lock Screen is the first thing you see every time you pick up your iPhone.", "It's a place where you can check the date and time, look out for key messages, and launch the camera to quickly capture the moment.", "And it's just as much a place for personalization, where so many of you put a photo that makes iPhone uniquely yours.", "In iOS 16, we're bringing the biggest update ever to the Lock Screen, completely reimagining how it looks and works for you.", "Let's take a look.", "♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ Craig: The new Lock Screen remains undeniably iPhone, while also giving you new ways to make it more personal, beautiful, and helpful than ever.", "Let me show you.", "Here's my Lock Screen.", "You'll notice the subtle depth effect with my daughters appearing in front of the time.", "I really love it.", "Now, if I just press and hold, I can personalize it further.", "I'll just tap Customize, and now I'm in the editor.", "Now, check this out.", "I can simply swipe to try out different styles that automatically change the color filter, the background, and the font for the time, all to complement each other.", "These look really beautiful.", "So let's go with this one.", "Now, of course, if I want to change anything, it's easy to dial it in further to get it just the way I want it.", "All I need to do is tap on any element of the Lock Screen to start editing.", "So let's customize the font.", "I can audition different typefaces and choose from different colors.", "And I like this color.", "I'll just adjust the shade a little bit.", "I think this looks awesome now.", "Now, I can also make my Lock Screen more helpful by putting widgets right on the Lock Screen.", "So let me move the girls down here and tap in to bring up the widget gallery.", "And these are really useful for getting information at a glance, like upcoming calendar events.", "So I'll add the temperature, my Activity rings, and let's drag in the calendar widget.", "Now, this is great.", "And what's even better is, I'm not limited to just one.", "Let's create another.", "I can bring up our brand-new wallpaper gallery, which showcases a bunch of options for inspiration.", "And there are plenty to choose from here.", "So much room for personalization, with millions of combinations.", "With Photo Shuffle, I can choose a set of photos to shuffle throughout the day, And we also have Suggested Photos, intelligently curated from my personal library, like the best shots of family that look great on the Lock Screen.", "Now, this is an awesome one to add to my collection.", "Now, I've created a bunch of other Lock Screens, and by simply swiping, I can switch between them.", "It's amazing the range you can create.", "Here's Weather, which shows live weather conditions like a downpour and lightning.", "I just love this animation.", "Here's a really cool emoji wallpaper and our Pride wallpaper.", "And here's one from our Astronomy collection.", "Watch how it animates fluidly as I swipe into the Home Screen.", "So cool.", "So that's a quick look at the all-new Lock Screen.", "And for developers, WidgetKit makes it quick and easy to put glanceable information from their app here as well.", "The new Lock Screen is so beautiful, we wanted to make sure that you can always enjoy it, even if you get a lot of notifications.", "Sometimes, notifications can cover up your personal photo.", "So we've rethought how they appear.", "Notifications now roll in from the bottom of the Lock Screen as you receive them, and you can choose to hide them throughout the day.", "Now, sometimes you get a bunch of notifications from an app, like when you're following the score of a basketball game.", "Well, now there's a better way to keep tabs with something called Live Activities.", "Live Activities make it easier to stay on top of things that are happening in real time right from your Lock Screen.", "And for developers, starting in an update to iOS 16 later this year, they can use the Live Activities API to create these compact and glanceable experiences.", "This will make it really easy to follow that NBA game, track the progress of an Uber ride, see how you're doing on your workout, and more, all while letting the other elements on the Lock Screen shine.", "One of the most popular activities for many of us is listening to music.", "And now with Live Activities, the Now Playing controls can expand to a full screen view that celebrates album art while you listen along.", "So that's the all-new Lock Screen.", "There are some really powerful ways these updates tie together and build upon what we introduced last year with Focus.", "Focus has helped people reduce distractions and stay in the moment.", "And this year, we're taking it further, starting with extending Focus to your Lock Screen.", "This means your choice of a photo and widgets can all be tied to a particular Focus.", "And now that you can have multiple Lock Screens, you can match them to the appropriate Focus throughout your day.", "You can have a dedicated one for when you're in a Work Focus, with widgets showing your upcoming meeting or to-do list.", "Or, with just a swipe, you can activate your Personal Focus.", "All of your corresponding notification settings apply, and it extends to your Home Screen too.", "So now you can elevate your favorite apps or widgets for keeping up with friends and family.", "And now, your Focus can also carry into the apps themselves, with Focus filters, which let you filter out distracting content.", "Let's take Safari, for example.", "Instead of seeing all of your websites, you can turn on the Work Focus filter and see only the tabs that relate to work.", "And you can filter not just tab groups in Safari, but also conversations in Messages, accounts in Mail, and events in Calendar.", "And for developers, we have a new API so they can help you focus in their apps as well.", "These updates to Focus can help you draw boundaries and find balance throughout all of the moments in your life.", "Now, let's talk about what's in store for Messages.", "Hundreds of millions of people rely on Messages every single day.", "It's integral to how we communicate with the people who matter most.", "And now, we're adding three of the most highly-requested features to Messages.", "First, have you ever sent a Message only to immediately realize you didn't quite say what you intended?", "Well, no worries.", "Because now you can edit any message you just sent so embarrassing typos can be a thing of the past.", "Second, have you ever wished you'd never sent that message at all?", "Well, good news–now you have undo send, so you can immediately recall a recent misfire.", "And finally, you can now mark any thread as unread, a perfect tool if you don't have time to respond in the moment and want to be sure to come back to a message later.", "These three features are going to make a big difference in how you use Messages every single day.", "Messages makes texting easy and efficient, and it's also a great way to share.", "Last year, we introduced Shared with You, which takes things like photos, links, and music that your friends share with you in Messages and highlights them right in the app where you'd like to enjoy them later.", "And for developers, we're really excited to make Shared with You available with a new API.", "So when someone sends you a funny video, a worthwhile article, or a recipe that you don't have time to check out in the moment, it'll be there waiting for you the next time you open that app.", "And when it comes to sharing in real time with others, people are loving SharePlay.", "It's stellar for enjoying shared experiences while connecting over FaceTime.", "Like watching TV shows, listening to music, or breaking a sweat to a synced up workout.", "So many of your favorite apps are using SharePlay to create shared experiences, like listening to bedtime stories together with Better Sleep or playing a rowdy game of Heads Up, no matter how far apart you are.", "And this year, we're making it easier to discover all of these awesome SharePlay experiences from within your FaceTime call.", "With just a tap, you can jump into SharePlay-supported apps that you already have on your phone, or discover new experiences that you can share with your friends.", "And to give you more opportunities to enjoy shared experiences, we're extending SharePlay beyond FaceTime and bringing it to Messages.", "This was the number one request from developers.", "Now when you find something you want to share, like a movie on Disney+, you can kick off SharePlay right there and enjoy it together while chatting in Messages.", "You can watch in sync, and you've got the same instantaneous shared playback controls that make SharePlay magical.", "So whether you're using SharePlay for your weekly movie night or marking a message unread so you can respond later, Messages has everything you need to connect with ease.", "And we're making it that much easier to compose Messages with some updates to Dictation.", "To tell you more, here's Robby.", "Robby Walker: Dictation lets you type just by speaking and can be much faster than typing with the Keyboard.", "This is why it's so popular for taking notes, sending messages, and more.", "In fact, Dictation is used over 18 billion times each month.", "And it's designed to protect your privacy.", "Thanks to the Neural Engine, Dictation can happen entirely on-device.", "Today, we're excited to introduce an all-new on-device Dictation experience that lets you fluidly move between voice and touch.", "Let's take a look.", "We'll use our new dictation experience to send an email.", "Now, when I start dictating, the keyboard stays open, so I can switch between using voice and touch.", "I can even select text using touch and replace it with my voice.", "Just by speaking.", "Are you sending a longer message?", "Dictation automatically adds punctuation to the text.", "\"That's so cool!", "Mind blown emoji!\"", "Automatic punctuation and emoji dictation also work when you send messages with Siri.", "And this year, we're making it easier to use Siri with apps.", "There are over 15,000 apps that work with Siri using SiriKit and Siri Shortcuts.", "And today, these require manual setup.", "So we're introducing a new developer API built using the Swift programming language called App Intents.", "Now shortcuts work with zero setup so you can use Siri to get things done with supported apps.", "Now let's talk about another feature powered by intelligence: Live Text.", "Live Text is so useful because it's deeply integrated across the entire OS, letting you interact with text in images across the system, from Camera and Safari to Notes and Screenshots.", "And this year, we're excited to take this integration further by bringing Live Text to video.", "Now you can pause a video on any frame and interact with text just like you can today with photos.", "It's great for copying code samples.", "We're also accelerating the things you do with Live Text with quick actions.", "So now you're just a tap away from converting currency and translating a foreign language.", "And for an even richer translation experience, you'll be able to use Live Text while in the Translate app, with our new camera view.", "This will be great for when you have lots of text to translate.", "And for developers, we're also excited to announce a Live Text API.", "Soon you will be able to grab text straight from photos and videos in apps like Vimeo.", "And photos are about more than just text.", "That's why last year we introduced Visual Look Up, a feature that recognizes objects like pets, landmarks, plants, and more, and gives you rich information about what's in your images.", "And this year we have a new feature that takes image understanding further.", "Now when you touch and hold on the subject of an image, you can lift it away from the background and place it in apps like Messages.", "It feels like magic.", "It's actually the product of an advanced machine learning model which is accelerated by CoreML and the Neural Engine to perform 40 billion operations in just milliseconds.", "Together, Live Text and Visual Look Up continue to unlock rich and useful information from your photos and videos across iOS, iPadOS, and macOS.", "Back to you, Craig.", "Craig: These intelligence features help you get things done with ease.", "And another app that makes life easier is Wallet.", "To tell you about what's new in Wallet, I'll hand it over to Corey.", "Corey Fugman: With Apple Wallet, we're working hard on our goal to replace your physical wallet.", "Take what we're doing with driver's licenses and ID cards.", "We're excited to have launched Maryland and Arizona, with 11 additional states actively working on deployments.", "And the first locations now accepting Wallet IDs are select TSA security checkpoints.", "You'll also be able to securely present your ID to apps requiring identity and age verification.", "To protect your privacy, only the necessary information will be shared.", "So rather than providing your exact birthday, you can simply share that you are over 21.", "Now, let's talk about Keys.", "Our growing suite of keys in Wallet makes it easy to access everyday places like your home, car, hotel, and office, all with just your iPhone.", "And now we're making sharing keys even easier with your favorite messaging apps like Mail, Messages, or WhatsApp.", "When your friend receives the key, they can add it to their Wallet with a single tap.", "And to let you share keys with people who don't have an iPhone, we're working with the IETF to make sharing keys an industry standard that is free for others to adopt.", "We are seeing tremendous enthusiasm from our partners, with more of them signing on to support keys for all of the places you visit.", "Now let's talk about Apple Pay, one of the most important areas of Wallet.", "We've made a lot of progress with Apple Pay acceptance in stores and online, and now we're expanding even further.", "Starting this month with Tap to Pay on iPhone, millions of merchants across the U.S. can accept contactless payments directly on iPhone with no additional hardware or payment terminal needed.", "Beginning with apps from these payment providers, Tap to Pay on iPhone enables small merchants and large retailers to use iPhone to securely accept payments.", "In addition to expanded acceptance, we're also enhancing Apple Pay to support new types of payments.", "So we are thrilled to announce Apple Pay Later.", "Apple Pay Later lets you split the cost of an Apple Pay purchase into four equal payments spread over six weeks with zero interest and no fees of any kind.", "And Apple Pay Later is available everywhere Apple Pay is accepted in apps and online.", "You can now get that espresso machine you've wanted and pay for it over time with no additional cost.", "For developers and merchants, Apple Pay Later requires no integration.", "It just works using their standard Apple Pay implementation.", "Upcoming payments are managed through Wallet, making it easy to keep track of what's due when and to stay within a budget.", "And after you've placed your order, we have another brand-new feature that helps you track it.", "Apple Pay Order Tracking enables merchants to deliver detailed receipt and tracking information directly to Wallet, making it easy to get the latest information on all of your Apple Pay orders delivered securely and privately to your device.", "Apple Pay Order Tracking will be offered at millions of merchants through eCommerce platforms starting with Shopify.", "So that's our Wallet update.", "Back to you, Craig.", "Craig: With ID cards available in more locations, new ways to use and share keys, Apple Pay Later, and Apple Pay Order Tracking, Wallet makes life so much easier, no matter where you go.", "And the best way to get wherever you're going is with Maps.", "So let's get out of here to talk about what's new.", "♪ ♪ We're building the best map to help you navigate and explore the world.", "We've launched our redesigned map in ten countries and regions, and we're excited to announce that later this year, we'll bring the new map to 11 more, including France, Switzerland, and New Zealand.", "Our new map includes great features like cycling, Look Around, and so many more.", "And with the new city experience, we pushed it even further with unprecedented detail for landcover, roads, and elevation, as well as improved driving and transit navigation.", "And we're adding Las Vegas, which looks stunning.", "And before the end of the year, we'll add six more cities including Miami, Chicago, and Sydney.", "To tell you more about what's new in Maps, here's Meg.", "Meg Frost: With iOS 16, we're introducing great updates for Maps users and developers.", "Let's start with one of our most requested features: multistop routing.", "You can now plan up to 15 stops in advance.", "Maps will now store previous routes in Recents so they're easy to get back to and you can plan multi-stop routes on the Mac and send them to iPhone when you're ready to go.", "And, of course, when you're driving, you can ask Siri to add additional stops to your route while safely keeping your eyes on the road.", "Next, let's talk about getting around with transit.", "We're making it easy for riders to see fares for how much their journey will cost along with the ability to add transit cards to Wallet.", "And if a transit card balance is running low , you'll receive an alert so you can reload it without having to leave Maps.", "And for developers, we're making big improvements to MapKit, starting with our revolutionary new city experience which includes rich details for landcover, roads, landmarks, and more.", "Developers like Bird can now integrate this detailed map so users can more easily locate bikes and scooters to get around town.", "And it looks stunning in both Light and Dark Mode.", "And there's more.", "We're also bringing Look Around to MapKit, making it easy to integrate high resolution imagery from Maps into apps like Zillow, helping users get an immersive ground-level view while browsing homes.", "And finally, we're excited to announce that later this year, developers will have faster and more flexible ways to build incredible Maps experiences with brand-new server-side APIs.", "And that's a quick look at Maps.", "Back to you, Craig!", "Craig: Now, let's talk about sports.", "Sports can bring people together in meaningful ways, whether a heated rivalry among friends or a whole town rooting for their team.", "And at Apple, we want to create great experiences for sports fans everywhere.", "To tell you more, here's Rubie.", "♪ ♪ Rubie Edmondson: Today, there are many ways to keep up with your favorite sports, like being able to ask Siri about players or teams or see live games, no matter where they're streaming.", "And now with Live Activities, the Apple TV app brings you scores and play-by-play action right on your Lock Screen.", "We also recently premiered Friday Night Baseball on Apple TV+ where you can stream two great games every Friday.", "And today, we have another major update for sports in Apple News.", "Apple News is the number one news app everywhere it's available, and it's about to become amazing for sports fans.", "You can now follow your favorite teams and leagues to get stories from hundreds of the best publishers in an all-new section called My Sports.", "You'll also find scores, schedules, and standings for the top professional and college sports leagues, and highlights too.", "Now you can catch the best plays from your favorite teams right in your news feed.", "And your favorites are seamlessly synced with the Apple TV app and across all your Apple devices.", "This new sports experience is free.", "It'll be available in the U.S., UK, Canada, and Australia.", "And when you subscribe to Apple News+, you'll get premium sports coverage from many local newspapers.", "That's Sports.", "Back to you, Craig.", "Craig: iOS and the entire Apple ecosystem are amazing for families, and we have some great new features to talk about, starting with some updates to Family Sharing.", "With Family Sharing, you can share your favorite purchases and subscriptions with up to five of your family members, including Apple Music, iCloud+, Apple One, and much more.", "Everyone gets personalized access to their favorite content without having to buy their own subscriptions or share an account.", "And for households with kids, you can create accounts just for them with built-in parental controls to help you monitor their screen time or approve their purchases.", "And this year, we're making it even easier to create accounts for kids and make sure the right parental controls are in place right from the start.", "We're adding a new, easy way to set age-appropriate restrictions for apps, movies, books, and music.", "Along with quick setup of other important parental controls.", "We're also making setting up a new device for your child– like an iPad–really simple.", "Just turn on the device they'll be using, bring your iPhone nearby, and choose to set up with Quick Start.", "With just a few taps, the new device will be set up for their use with all the parental controls you've selected already configured.", "And when your child asks for more screen time, you won't have to navigate to Settings to approve or deny their request.", "You can now respond right in Messages.", "Finally, we've added a new Family Checklist with helpful tips like updating a child's settings as they get older, turning on location sharing, or just reminding you that you can share your iCloud+ subscription with everyone.", "So those are some of the helpful updates to Family Sharing this year.", "Now, as we all know, one of the things everyone enjoys sharing with their family is photos.", "So this year, we're introducing a better way to share photos with your family.", "Our precious memories are often captured by several people and in between personal photos of hobbies, house projects, and homework, we have photos on our device that everyone in the family would like to have.", "But no one has all of them, so the family's memories are never complete.", "Until now.", "We're introducing iCloud Shared Photo Library to help you share photos seamlessly and even automatically.", "It's easy to set up.", "It's a separate iCloud library that everyone can contribute to, collaborate on, and enjoy.", "You can participate in one shared library that's shared with up to five other people.", "We've made it simple to share just the photos you want from your library.", "You can share everything already in your library, or choose what to include based on a start date or the people in the photos.", "For example, you can choose to include just the photos where you were together with your partner and the kids.", "Once the Shared Library is set up, you can manually move over new photos after you take them.", "But we wanted to make it even easier with a new switch right in Camera that sends shots straight to the Shared Library as you take them.", "This is great when you're on a vacation and you want to make sure the photos are shared right away.", "And if you take a photo of something personal, like a gift, you can easily turn it off.", "You can also choose to have the sharing switch enabled automatically whenever you take shots with other members of the Shared Library nearby.", "So if you take photos on a camping trip, you don't have to remember to share them later.", "You'll also receive intelligent sharing suggestions in the For You tab.", "Everyone has equal permissions for adding, editing, and deleting photos in the Shared Library.", "So if one member of the group is a talented photo editor, everyone gets to enjoy their edits to the shared photos.", "Deletions, captions, and keywords sync too.", "Content in the Shared Library will appear in everyone's Memories, Featured Photos, and in the Photos widget.", "So you can relive your family's adventures that include all the photos.", "That's iCloud Shared Photo Library: the best way to share photos with your family.", "And last, let's talk about privacy.", "We're always working hard to protect our users and their privacy, with features like App Privacy Report, Mail Privacy Protection, App Tracking Transparency, Privacy Nutrition Labels, and so many more.", "Another critically important area is protecting our users' personal safety.", "One way we're doing that is by adding a new tool to help people quickly turn off others' access, for example, disabling location sharing if they're escaping an abusive relationship.", "It's called Safety Check.", "To tell you about it, here's Katie.", "Katie Skinner: Many people share passwords and access to their devices with their partner.", "However, in abusive relationships, this can threaten personal safety and make it harder for victims to get help.", "We've been working closely with organizations that support victims of domestic and intimate partner violence.", "And the result of those conversations is Safety Check, a new section in Settings where you can quickly review and reset the access you've granted others.", "This lets people in abusive situations quickly revoke an abuser's access to their data and location, enabling them to cut ties and get to safety.", "Safety Check stops sharing your location with others via FindMy and resets the system privacy permissions for all apps.", "It also protects access to your messages by helping you sign out of iCloud on all your other devices and restricts Messages and FaceTime to the device in your hand.", "Safety Check also helps you manage who you've given access to.", "And you can audit which permissions you've granted to certain apps.", "We've received some really positive feedback on our approach, including from the National Center for Victims of Crime who said: \"In times of crisis, for many survivors, \"it's important to know who has their information and location.", "Safety Check helps give control back to survivors.\"", "This is important work, expanding the ways iOS helps you stay safe.", "Now, back to you, Craig.", "Craig: Protecting you and your privacy is and will always be at the center of what we do.", "iOS 16 offers so many updates that will change the way you experience iPhone.", "iOS also extends that experience beyond the phone, to enhance how you interact with the world around you.", "Whether helping you through your morning routine or keeping you connected on your next road trip, iOS has you covered.", "This year we're bringing exciting updates to your home and your car.", "To tell you what's new in the home, here's Corey.", "♪ ♪ Corey Wang: Our home is perhaps the most important place in our lives, and there's a lot to manage.", "Smart home accessories can make it easier and more convenient to control your home right from your iPhone.", "You can do things like see who's at the door while working at your desk, or turn off the lights downstairs without getting out of bed.", "And when you're away from home, you can double-check if the front door is locked or adjust the temperature so it's just right when you get back.", "And your smart home is all the more powerful when your accessories work together, reacting to changes automatically.", "Now, the smart home is still in its early days, and we want to help bring these powerful experiences to as many homes as possible.", "In order to build a connected ecosystem at home, it's important that you have the most choice so you don't have to worry about what works with what.", "With that in mind, we joined forces with other industry leaders to create a new smart home connectivity standard.", "It's called Matter.", "Matter enables smart home accessories to work together across platforms.", "And to ensure we stayed true to our values, we contributed HomeKit, our smart home framework, as a foundation of this new standard, so it's built on the same core principles and maintains the highest level of security.", "Industry-leading brands have already committed to supporting Matter, with over 130 products in the pipeline, and that's just the beginning.", "The Matter standard provides the underlying foundation to connect smart home accessories, and it allows us to innovate on top of it.", "We take privacy further, ensuring that data about how you use your accessories is processed and stored by default in a way that even Apple can't see.", "With Matter, we can continue to create amazing experiences in the Home app while also making sure all your different accessories are consistently simple to set up and easy to use.", "And now that you’ll have more accessory options to choose from, let's check out how we made the experience even better with an all-new Home app.", "We reimagined it from the ground up starting with the underlying architecture so it's more efficient and reliable, especially for homes with many accessories.", "We also completely redesigned how you navigate, organize, and view accessories to make it easier to control your smart home.", "We've integrated your rooms and favorites into the main tab of the app.", "So you can see your entire home in a single view.", "And we made sure it looks great, whether you're just getting started or have built out an advanced connected home.", "We added new categories for climate, lights, security, and more and an overview of what's happening in each category right at the top of the screen.", "And categories are a great way to navigate within the app.", "When you tap on a specific category, you see all the relevant accessories organized by room and more detailed status information.", "A multi-camera view displays up to four cameras at once front and center, and you can scroll to the right to see any additional cameras.", "We also redesigned tiles so that different accessories are more visually recognizable through shape and color.", "And with the new widgets on the Lock Screen, it's easier than ever to see how your home is doing.", "So that's the all-new Home app, and it's coming to iPhone, iPad, and Mac.", "Now that you have what you need to keep tabs on your home, you're ready to hit the road.", "Let's hand it off to Emily to talk about CarPlay.", "Emily Schubert: CarPlay is the smarter, safer way to use your iPhone in the car and has fundamentally changed the way people interact with their vehicles.", "It's available on over 98% of cars in the U.S. What's more, 79% of U.S. buyers would only consider a car that works with CarPlay.", "It's a must-have feature when shopping for a new vehicle.", "Our users love CarPlay.", "It gives them an easy way to use apps in the car, using the familiar UI from their iPhone.", "But cars have changed a lot, with larger-sized screens and more of them throughout the car.", "There's an opportunity for iPhone to play an even more important role.", "We've been working with automakers to reinvent the in-car experience across all of the driver's screens.", "Let's take a sneak peek at this next generation of CarPlay.", "♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ There's so much to explore here.", "Let's take a closer look.", "This next generation of CarPlay provides content for all the driver's screens, giving an experience that is unified and consistent.", "It's the very best of both your car and your iPhone.", "And it goes beyond what you can do with CarPlay today.", "Deep integration with the car's hardware lets you tune your car's radio or change your temperature without ever leaving the CarPlay experience.", "It also includes widgets, powered by your iPhone, that fit your screens perfectly.", "They can live front and center in the gauge cluster as well, giving you information at a glance.", "In fact, this next generation of CarPlay powers your entire instrument cluster.", "To do this, your iPhone communicates with your vehicle's real-time systems in an on-device, privacy-friendly way, showing all of your driving information like speed, RPMs, fuel level, temperature, and more.", "And no matter what type of unique screen shapes or layouts you may have, this next generation of CarPlay feels like it was made specifically for your car.", "We're also excited to give you the ability to make the core of the driving experience unique to you.", "We carefully crafted instrument cluster options ranging from the modern to the traditional, that use different colors, dial treatments, backgrounds, and layouts to provide various looks and feels.", "You can choose different curated themes and styles for your gauges.", "And automakers from around the world are excited to bring this new vision of CarPlay to customers.", "This is just a taste of what the next generation of CarPlay will bring.", "Vehicles will start to be announced late next year, and we can't wait to show you more further down the road.", "And now, I'll hand it back to Craig.", "Craig: And that's iOS 16, a mighty release that gives you entirely new ways to make iOS your own.", "It also helps you stay in touch with ease, engage with the world around you, and seamlessly share experiences and memories with your family and friends.", "And that's just the beginning.", "We've also made a big advancement in Spatial Audio with AirPods.", "Now, Spatial Audio works by understanding how sound interacts with the geometry of your head and ears.", "And now, in iOS 16, you can use the True Depth camera on iPhone to create a personalized Spatial Audio profile, enabling an even more precise and immersive listening experience, tuned just for you.", "Plus, Quick Note is coming to iOS so you can capture ideas instantly.", "A new rapid security response mechanism gets important improvements to iPhone faster, and you've got more Memoji customizations to choose from.", "And there's so many more features to meet your needs no matter where you are.", "Now, I’ll hand it over to Kevin to tell you about the big new advancements coming to Apple Watch.", "♪ ♪ Kevin Lynch: Let's talk about watchOS.", "Apple Watch continues to be the most loved watch in the world, because it helps you stay connected, active, and healthy.", "In watchOS 9 we're bringing great new features to each of these three areas.", "First, you can stay connected to what matters to you most just by glancing at your wrist, whether you use the popular Photos watch face, or a face with rich complications.", "And we're adding four new watch faces for you to choose from.", "The Astronomy face has been remastered to take advantage of the expansive display, and shows current cloud coverage around the world.", "The Lunar calendar is used to observe traditional holidays and special events in many cultures.", "The Lunar watch face celebrates this thousand-year-old practice with support for Chinese, Islamic, and Hebrew calendars.", "Play Time, designed by artist Joi Fulton, features whimsical animated numbers.", "You can tap the display to send them bouncing around, and when you lower your wrist, they take a nap.", "Finally, Metropolitan highlights watch typography with a new font that dynamically stretches when you rotate the digital crown, and features many lovely color combinations.", "Rich complications enable you to see more information in a small space, and we're bringing these to more of our watch faces.", "watchOS 9 also introduces a refreshed Siri UI and new banner notifications.", "And active apps will be pinned to the top of the Dock for quick access.", "Another way to stay connected is by listening to the latest stories, or sharing your favorite content.", "With watchOS 9, the Podcast app allows you to discover and follow new podcasts using Search and Listen Now.", "And the app is now available to kids using Family Setup.", "For developers, sharing content and selected images from apps like Outcast and WeChat is easier with the new Share Sheet and Photos Picker APIs.", "And with CallKit, you can start, end, or mute VoIP calls from apps like Webex directly on Apple Watch.", "That's some of what's coming in watchOS 9 to keep you connected.", "And now to Craig to tell you what's coming to keep you active.", "Craig Bolton: The Workout app is one of the most popular apps, so in watchOS 9, we're bringing new easy-to-use metrics, views, and training experiences inspired by high-performing athletes, starting with running.", "It's a sport that, no matter what your level, you can use metrics to better understand your performance.", "And switching up your training can reduce the chance of getting injured.", "The first thing we're doing is adding three new running form metrics to track how efficiently you run.", "Measuring these from the wrist isn't easy.", "Take vertical oscillation for example, which is a measure of how much you move up and down.", "If it's too high, your energy might be wasted going up versus propelling you forward.", "In order to capture this from the wrist, we need to extrapolate your torso movement from the distinctive style of your arm swing.", "We use machine learning and sensor fusion– a combination of accelerometer and gyroscope– to isolate your torso movement, and then measure how much vertical oscillation is produced.", "We use a similar approach to measure the two other Running Form metrics– stride length and ground contact time.", "These metrics can be added to new easy-to-read Workout views.", "Each Workout view lets you see more at a glance.", "Scroll the digital crown to see new views for familiar metrics like segments, splits, and elevation.", "And we're introducing heart rate zones so you can quickly see what zone you're in and get a sense of your intensity level at any point during your workout.", "There's also a new custom workout that you can use to add structure into your run.", "For example, if you are trying to improve your speed or endurance, you can create a workout using distance and time intervals that include sets of work and recovery which you can repeat as needed.", "You can also add one of the new alerts to a specific part of your workout– like one to monitor which heart rate zone you want to train in to help keep you on track.", "During your run, these alerts will guide you with both haptics and voice feedback, letting you know when to switch between work and recovery and when to pick up the pace if your heart rate falls below the target zone that you set.", "During your run, you can use the Digital Crown for additional workout views like this new power metric.", "Running with a power target can help you go the distance by keeping your effort in a range that you can reasonably sustain.", "You can even see how this workout is contributing to your Activity rings.", "And if it's a route you do often, it will be automatically saved in the Workout app for you to race against your last or best time.", "That way, you can see if all the training you're doing is paying off.", "You can use many of these new features not just when you're running, but for many workout types like Hiking, HIIT, and Functional Strength Training.", "And for our triathletes, there's a new multi-sport workout type that uses sensor fusion to detect when you finish one leg of your race and are transitioning to the next.", "So it can automatically switch between swimming, cycling, and running.", "That's just some of what's coming to the Workout app in watchOS 9.", "Since the first Apple Watch, we've been inspired by the stories we hear from users who stay motivated by closing their Activity rings each day.", "We also know there are many iPhone users who want to meet their fitness goals but don't yet have an Apple Watch.", "So in iOS 16, the Fitness app will be available to all iPhone users.", "Using the iPhone motion sensors, you can track steps, distance, flights climbed, and workouts from your favorite apps, which can be converted to an estimation of your active calories to contribute to your daily Move goal.", "You'll also be able to share your Move ring with friends and receive coaching tips.", "While Apple Watch gives you a picture of your all-day activity, we're excited to bring some of the Fitness app benefits to iPhone users to get them started on their fitness journey.", "Now, I'll hand it off to Sumbul to tell you what's coming in watchOS 9 to help keep you healthy.", "Sumbul Ahmad Desai: The Sleep app has helped millions of you by providing insights into how much sleep you're getting along with metrics like heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood oxygen.", "In watchOS 9, you'll be able to learn more about your sleep with Sleep Stages.", "Apple Watch uses signals from the accelerometer and heart rate sensor to detect which stage of sleep you're in.", "Machine learning models were trained and validated against the clinical gold standard of polysomnography with the largest and most diverse population ever studied for a wearable.", "You can see how much time you spent in each stage, as well as when you might have woken up.", "You'll see more details in the Health app where you'll learn that each sleep stage– REM, Core, and Deep– perform an essential function.", "And as you sleep, you're likely to cycle through these stages multiple times.", "Researchers are still looking into what happens during sleep and how it impacts your health.", "We want to help push forward the science of sleep, so Apple Heart and Movement Study participants will now be able to contribute sleep stage data through the Research app.", "With the large scale of this study, we are excited about the potential discoveries.", "That's what's new with sleep.", "Another area where Apple Watch has an impact is heart health.", "We hear from so many of you who have received an Atrial Fibrillation alert and sought potentially-life saving care.", "So we also wanted to offer support once you've been diagnosed.", "When living with this condition, it's important to understand the time you spend in AFib because it may relate to your risk of serious complications, such as stroke.", "watchOS 9 can now track the amount of time your heart shows signs of this rhythm with AFib History.", "And in the Health app, you can manage lifestyle factors that may influence the amount of time you spend in AFib like exercise, sleep, and weight.", "AFib History even helps you identify the time of the day or week when your AFib is most frequent.", "You can also share a PDF with your doctor to facilitate richer conversations.", "AFib History is a first-of-its-kind feature that uniquely provides insights into your AFib over the long term.", "We expect to receive FDA clearance for AFib History soon.", "Apple Watch makes some of the more complicated aspects of your health more intuitive.", "And this year, we're tackling another integral aspect of health for so many of us–Medications.", "Over 50% of people take prescription medications, and we wanted to help make it easier to track, manage, and understand the medications that you take.", "So in watchOS 9, the Medications app makes it easy for you to discreetly and conveniently track your medications, vitamins, and supplements anytime.", "You can log medications that you might take occasionally like Cetirizine for allergies.", "And you can receive notifications for medications that you need to take regularly.", "Rich complications on your watch face can help you stay on top of your schedule.", "And of course you can track and manage your medications in the Health app, even if you don't have an Apple Watch.", "To build your medications list, start typing the name, and you'll see suggestions.", "We wanted to make creating the list easier, especially if you take multiple medications.", "So you can just use your iPhone camera to scan the label of your medication.", "You can create a schedule to receive reminders and add custom visuals to make it easier to remember.", "Another important aspect of medications is drug-drug interactions, which can make them less effective or cause side effects.", "In the U.S. alone, drug interactions cause nearly a quarter of a million hospitalizations each year.", "To help you with this, you'll receive an alert when you add a new medication if there is a critical interaction.", "We've partnered with Elsevier, a leading medical publisher, to provide clinically accurate and evidence-based information across the Medications experience.", "You'll be able to review critical, serious, and moderate interactions as well as interaction factors like alcohol.", "Medications also works with Health Sharing, which is updated in iOS 16.", "You can now send a family member an invitation to share their health data with you.", "This is another way that you can support a loved one on their health journey and have peace of mind, too.", "Now back to Kevin.", "Kevin: Your health data is some of your most personal information, and privacy is central to how we build and design features for Apple Watch.", "Health data is encrypted on device and is not shared without your explicit permission.", "You'll also now be periodically reminded of what health data you're sharing and who you're sharing it with.", "There's so much more in watchOS 9, including support for six new keyboard languages, a new way for developers to connect their watchOS apps to Apple TV, and with Family Setup, kids can now control home devices right from their wrist.", "watchOS is the world's most advanced wearable operating system, and watchOS 9 takes it further with new features to help you stay connected, active, and healthy.", "Back to Craig.", "Craig: I'm so excited for watchOS 9 and can't wait to get it into the hands of our users.", "Next, to show you what's new with Mac, here's John.", "♪ ♪ John Ternus: We couldn't be more excited by how well the Mac transition to Apple Silicon is going.", "It all started with the launch of M1, which brought a whole new level of performance, capabilities, and battery life to the Mac.", "We've already transitioned nearly the entire Mac product line.", "Users have been blown away by the phenomenal capabilities of these new systems powered by the M1 family of chips.", "And the Mac business has never been stronger.", "Well, today we're excited to start the next generation of Apple Silicon for the Mac.", "Introducing... M2.", "It takes the breakthrough performance and capabilities of M1 even further.", "To tell you more, I'll pass it over to Johny.", "Johny Srouji: Today we begin our second generation of Apple Silicon designed specifically for the Mac.", "The M-Series chips deliver a scalable range of performance and capabilities.", "It began with M1's breakthrough set of features that transformed our most popular systems.", "M2 starts the second generation of M-Series chips, and goes beyond the remarkable features of M1.", "Unlike others in the industry who significantly increase power to gain performance, our approach is different.", "We continue to have a relentless focus on power efficient performance.", "In other words, maximizing performance while minimizing power consumption.", "Combined with our unified memory architecture and custom technologies, this focus on power efficiency allows M2 to bring even more performance and new capabilities to our most popular Macs.", "M2 is built using an enhanced, second-generation five nanometer technology, and features over 20 billion transistors: that's 25% more than M1.", "We use those transistors to enhance every feature of the chip, starting with the memory controller which delivers 100GB/s of unified memory bandwidth, which is 50% more than M1 for even greater performance.", "And because M1 is so capable, users run all sorts of demanding tasks.", "So for M2, we've enabled up to 24GB of unified memory to handle even larger and more complex workloads.", "M2 features our next-generation CPU, with advancements in both the performance and efficiency cores.", "The performance cores are faster and feature a larger cache, and the efficiency cores have been significantly enhanced for even greater performance gains.", "Together, they rip through CPU-intensive tasks using very little power.", "When we look at the multi-core CPU performance of M2 compared to M1, it delivers 18% greater performance.", "And compared to the latest 10-core PC laptop chip, the CPU in M2 delivers nearly two times faster performance at the same power level.", "And M2 delivers the peak performance of the PC chip while using a quarter of the power.", "Now let's compare M2 to the latest 12-core PC laptop chip, which needs dramatically more power to deliver an increase in performance.", "So it's in a thicker, hotter, more noisy system with less battery life.", "M2 delivers nearly 90% of the peak performance of the 12-core chip while using just a quarter of the power.", "This is what we mean by the power efficient performance of Apple Silicon.", "M2 also features our next generation GPU, which now has up to 10 cores– that's two more than M1.", "Combined with a larger cache and higher memory bandwidth, the 10-core GPU delivers a big boost in graphics performance.", "M2 delivers up to 25% higher graphics performance at the same power level as M1 and up to 35% higher performance at its max.", "And compared to the integrated graphics in the latest PC laptop chip, the GPU in M2 delivers 2.3 times faster performance at the same power level.", "And M2 delivers the peak performance of the PC chip using just one-fifth of the power.", "This much higher performance per watt from M2 enables systems to run cool and quiet with exceptional battery life.", "Now, one of the advantages of making our own silicon is that we can quickly bring our newest custom technologies across our SoCs.", "So M2 also features our next-generation Secure Enclave and Neural Engine.", "The Neural Engine in M2 can process up to 15.8 trillion operations per second.", "That's over 40% more than M1.", "It also has our next generation media engine, including a higher-bandwidth video decoder that supports 8K H.264 and HEVC video.", "And M2 features our powerful ProRes video engine for hardware accelerated encode and decode.", "So systems with M2 will be able to play back multiple streams of 4K and 8K video.", "So that's M2.", "It starts our next generation of M-Series chips, with an 18% faster CPU, 35% faster GPU, 40% faster Neural Engine, and 50% more memory bandwidth.", "It takes the amazing performance, capabilities, and efficiency of M1 even further.", "Now, back to John.", "John: The fact that we're already starting our next generation of Apple Silicon for the Mac is remarkable.", "So now let's talk about the first Mac to get the M2 chip.", "We're thrilled that it's our most loved Mac– the MacBook Air.", "Users love MacBook Air for its great performance, portability, and battery life.", "It defined the category of thin and light notebooks.", "And with M1, it redefined what a thin and light notebook could do.", "Today, it's more popular than ever.", "In fact, MacBook Air is the world's best-selling laptop.", "Apple Silicon enables us to design products we never could have imagined, which is why we're so excited to introduce an all-new MacBook Air, completely redesigned around M2.", "And here it is.", "♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ John: This is the new MacBook Air, powered by M2.", "And to tell you all about it, here's Kristin.", "Kristin White: The new MacBook Air takes everything our users love about the Air to the next level.", "The wedge shape of the previous Air has evolved into a new design that's strikingly thin from every angle.", "The durable, all-aluminum unibody enclosure feels incredibly solid when you hold it and is built to last.", "And this remarkably thin design integrates its components so efficiently that it results in an astonishing 20% reduction in volume over the previous Air.", "The new Air is just 11.3mm thin, or under half an inch, and it's only 2.7 pounds.", "MacBook Air now comes in four finishes: Silver, Space Gray, a gorgeous Starlight, and a stunning Midnight.", "And yes, MagSafe is back for dedicated charging and peace of mind when you're plugged in.", "And it keeps the two Thunderbolt ports free for connecting to a variety of accessories.", "There's also an audio jack with support for high-impedance headphones.", "This all-new design is incredibly portable, and it's loaded with new features, starting with a brilliant Liquid Retina display.", "We expanded the display closer to the sides and up around the camera to make room for the menu bar.", "The result is a larger 13.6-inch display with much thinner borders, giving users more screen real estate to view their content in brilliant detail.", "At 500 nits, it's also 25% brighter than before.", "And MacBook Air now supports 1 billion colors, so photos and movies look incredibly vibrant.", "Next, let's talk about the camera.", "Having a great camera is more important than ever these days.", "So MacBook Air features a new 1080p camera with twice the resolution and twice the low-light performance of the previous Air.", "Combined with the processing power of M2's advanced image signal processor, you'll look great on video calls.", "Next up, audio.", "To fit inside such a thin design, the speakers and mics are completely integrated between the keyboard and display, all while delivering an even better audio experience.", "A three-mic array captures clean audio using advanced beam-forming algorithms.", "And there's a four-speaker sound system that produces amazing stereo separation and vocal clarity.", "There's also support for immersive Spatial Audio for music and movies with Dolby Atmos.", "The Magic Keyboard features a full-height function row with Touch ID.", "And, of course, the new Air has a spacious, industry-leading Force Touch trackpad.", "And when it comes to performance, M2 takes it even further.", "So applying filters and effects in apps like Photoshop is up to 20% faster than before and a massive five times faster for customers that haven't yet upgraded to Apple Silicon.", "And for intensive workloads like editing complex timelines in Final Cut Pro, performance is nearly 40% faster than the previous Air.", "Thanks to the power efficiency of M2, all these capabilities are built into a silent, fan-less design.", "And even with a larger display and increased performance, the Air delivers the same great all-day battery life with up to 18 hours of video playback.", "There's also some new charging options, including a compact power adapter with two USB-C ports so you can charge two devices at once.", "And for the first time, the Air supports fast charge with an available 67W adapter.", "So you can charge up to 50% in just 30 minutes.", "So that's the all-new, amazingly portable and powerful MacBook Air.", "It's thinner, lighter, and faster with a durable unibody design, bigger display, better camera, all-day battery life, and four beautiful finishes.", "It's everything you could want in a new MacBook Air.", "Now, before I hand it back to John, let's see it in action.", "♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ John: We're so excited to bring M2 to MacBook Air, the world's best-selling laptop.", "Only with Apple Silicon can you build such a thin and light notebook with a fan-less design and this combination of performance and capabilities.", "But that's not all we have for you today.", "M2 is coming to another Mac, which is actually the world's second-best-selling laptop: the 13-inch MacBook Pro.", "It's our most portable pro notebook, and users love the performance it delivers in its compact design.", "Now with M2, you get even more capabilities in the same great form factor.", "With a faster 8-core CPU and 10-core GPU, working with RAW images in apps like Affinity Photo is nearly 40% faster than the previous generation.", "And over three times faster if you're upgrading from a model without Apple Silicon.", "And playing graphics intensive games like Baldur's Gate III is also nearly 40% faster than the previous 13-inch Pro.", "With an active cooling system, the MacBook Pro is designed to sustain its pro performance.", "And thanks to M2, it also supports up to 24GB of unified memory.", "Along with 50% more memory bandwidth, multitasking and working with large assets is super fluid.", "With support for ProRes encode and decode in M2's media engine, you can convert your video projects to ProRes nearly three times faster than before.", "MacBook Pro also delivers phenomenal battery life, with up to 20 hours of video playback.", "So that's the powerful 13-inch MacBook Pro.", "With the incredible performance of M2, ProRes acceleration, up to 24GB of memory, and up to 20 hours of battery life, our most portable Pro notebook gets even better.", "Both the Air and the Pro also support our environmental goals.", "They use 100% recycled rare earth elements in many components, are free of numerous harmful substances, and meet Apple's high standards for energy efficiency.", "The all-new MacBook Air starts at $1199 and just $1099 for education.", "The powerful 13-inch MacBook Pro starts at $1299 and $1199 for education.", "And they'll be available next month.", "And the MacBook Air with M1 stays in the lineup at $999 and just $899 for education.", "We're thrilled to bring M2 to the world's two most popular laptops, the MacBook Air and 13-inch MacBook Pro.", "And they join the even more powerful 14 and 16-inch MacBook Pro with M1 Pro and M1 Max to round out the most amazing lineup of Macs we've ever offered, and continue our tremendous pace of innovation for the Mac.", "Now, back to Craig.", "Craig: We're really excited about these new Macs with the next generation of Apple Silicon.", "And the powerful software that drives the experience is macOS.", "So let's talk about what's new.", "Kyle: Jump!", "Sit!", "Craig?", "Craig: Sorry, Kyle.", "Wrong door.", "♪ ♪ macOS plays a critical role in our lives as we work, collaborate with colleagues, family, and friends, create and organize what's important to us, and so much more.", "This year, we focused on making the core things you do with macOS even better, delivering new ways to be productive and take advantage of the capability of your other devices with Continuity.", "So what should we call it?", "Well, that brings us to the latest exploits of Apple's crack product marketing team.", "They've been absolutely riding high since their naming coup on M1 and M2, and needless to say, they were exhausted.", "But after their requisite three-month rejuvenation retreat in Monterey, with their chakras now in complete alignment, the team once again piled into their macOS naming microbus and wove their way down Highway 1.", "Chasing the vibrant display of colorful California wildflowers, they finally came to rest where stunning surf meets lush alluvial plains, in beautiful Ventura.", "macOS Ventura enriches so many of the ways we use our Macs.", "So let's jump in.", "A key part of the Mac experience is helping you be productive and creative, which can often mean having a lot of windows open at once.", "And the more you do, the more overwhelming this can become.", "We all want the perfect mix– to focus on our work without distractions and to easily move between tasks.", "This year, we have a new way to automatically keep everything organized and give you quick access to your windows.", "It's called Stage Manager.", "Let's see how it works.", "When you're working on the Mac, it's really easy to find yourself with lots of open windows.", "Now, the Mac has great tools like Mission Control to help you find the window that you're looking for, but with so many open windows, it can feel like you never really escape all the clutter.", "With Stage Manager, you can focus on the app you're using without the distractions, and it's easy to get started.", "Let's activate Stage Manager from Control Center.", "As you see, it automatically arranges all my windows for me off to the side and puts the app I'm currently working with front and center.", "When I bring forward a different app, like clicking on Mail here in the Dock, you'll see that it's brought to the stage and Safari gracefully moves over to the left with my other recent apps.", "When I click on Safari, it retakes the stage, and Mail moves back to the left.", "You'll notice that for an app with multiple open windows, like Pages here, Stage Manager gathers all the windows together in a single pile.", "When I click, I get the top one, and if I want a different window, I can cycle through them just by clicking.", "It's really convenient.", "Of course, just as you would expect on a Mac, I can have overlapping windows and multiple apps open at the same time too.", "It's really easy to group apps together.", "Here I'll just drag in Notes and pair it with my Pages window.", "This is so great when I'm working on projects that involve a specific group of windows like planning a trip with these three apps here.", "And if I go back to my previous group, Stage Manager keeps my windows arranged just as I left them.", "I love working this way.", "Of course, like many Mac users, I often want to get at files on my desktop, and with Stage Manager, we've made that easier than ever.", "I'm working on this Final Cut project, and I want to pull in a couple of files.", "With just a click on my desktop, my windows clear the stage and my files are revealed.", "Now I can grab these title graphics and drag them over to my Final Cut window.", "I'll just drop them in right here, and boom.", "So that's a quick look at multitasking with Stage Manager, Another part of the Mac experience that helps you do more is Spotlight.", "This year we have a big update that delivers a more consistent and powerful experience across our platforms.", "Spotlight is great for doing all kinds of things, like quickly launching an app or starting a search.", "And now you can peek at a result in Quick Look with a tap on the space bar.", "Spotlight can now also find images from your photo library, across the system, and on the web.", "And using Live Text, you can search the text inside the image.", "You can also take actions like starting a timer or running a shortcut right from Spotlight.", "It's also a great way to get information, now leveraging the full window for richer results.", "For musicians, you'll see their albums, key facts, news, and more.", "It's also great for movies, TV shows, and actors, businesses, and sports.", "Rich results and the ability to take actions right from Spotlight are also coming to iOS and iPadOS.", "Now, speaking of iOS, we wanted to make Spotlight even easier to discover and access, so we added it right to the bottom of the Home Screen.", "With just a tap, you can use Spotlight to launch an app, find a contact, or start a search.", "These updates make Spotlight more productive, helping you find what you're looking for faster.", "Next, let's turn to an app that many of us use to communicate every day.", "To take you through it, here's Darin.", "Darin Adler: Of course, we're talking about Mail.", "Mail is central to how so many of us communicate.", "This year, we have great updates that will help you be more productive, starting with some highly-requested features.", "Undo send lets you pull an email back a few moments after hitting Send.", "Scheduled send, so your emails arrive at the perfect moment.", "Follow-up suggestions will automatically remind you to follow up if you haven't received a response.", "And Remind Me makes it easy to come back to a message at a particular date and time.", "Next, let's talk Search.", "This is the biggest overhaul of Search in Mail we've done in years, leveraging the latest state-of-the-art techniques to deliver more accurate and complete results.", "When you click Search, you'll see recently shared documents, links, and more.", "The moment you start typing, with each letter, you instantly see suggestions.", "If you make a typo, Search is one step ahead, only showing results for the correct spelling.", "And if Search knows a synonym, it'll look for that too.", "And all these new features are also coming to iPadOS and iOS.", "And that's Mail.", "Next up is another app most of us spend a ton of time in every day: Safari.", "With macOS Ventura, Safari is the world's fastest browser, rendering the most complex websites with incredible speed.", "Safari is the most power-efficient browser on Mac, letting you do more on a single charge than any other browser.", "And of course, Safari is a trailblazer in protecting your privacy on the web, with features like Intelligent Tracking Protection and Privacy Report.", "Safari has a legacy of introducing key web technologies that elevate the web experience for everyone.", "Safari's pioneering support for HTML5 transformed the video experience on the web, resulting in higher-quality playback and increased battery life.", "And Safari continues to deliver support for the latest web technologies and standards for web developers, including all of these added in just the last year, like more fluid web animations, new browser extension types, and support for the push notifications standards.", "These enable more immersive and engaging web content for our users.", "And now Safari has a new way to share your favorite content with others with Shared Tab Groups.", "Whether you're planning a trip with friends or shopping for a couch with your partner, you can share all the tabs in one place.", "And when they find something great, they can add tabs too.", "You can see which tabs your friends are looking at live, and using built-in collaboration, you can easily connect in real time over Messages or FaceTime.", "It's so easy to discover the web together.", "And next, we have a new way to make the web a safer place.", "We rely on passwords to protect our most private accounts.", "While Safari helps users create the strongest passwords possible, there are still ways accounts can be compromised.", "Hackers can use social engineering techniques like phishing to trick users into giving up passwords.", "They can also breach a website directly to get access to all the passwords stored on its server.", "That's why we've helped create a next generation credential that's more secure, easier to use, and aims to replace passwords for good.", "We call them passkeys.", "Passkeys use powerful cryptographic techniques and the biometrics built into your device to keep accounts safe.", "To create a passkey, just use TouchID or FaceID to authenticate, and you're done.", "When users create a passkey, a unique digital key is created that only works for the site it was created for.", "Passkeys can't be phished.", "Since the passkey never leaves your devices, hackers can't trick you into sharing it on a fake website.", "And passkeys can't be leaked because nothing secret is kept on a web server.", "We've designed passkeys to work in apps as easily as they do on the web.", "Passkeys are securely synced across Apple devices using iCloud Keychain and are instantly available on Mac, iPhone, iPad, and Apple TV.", "We've been working with industry leaders in the FIDO alliance including Google and Microsoft, to ensure that passkeys work seamlessly cross-platform.", "With a passkey, you'll be able to walk up to a non-Apple device and sign in to a website or app using just your iPhone.", "The transition away from passwords will be a journey, and we look forward to working with developers on the password-less future.", "And that's Safari.", "Now back over to you, Craig.", "Craig: We think these updates to Mail and Safari will help you be productive and browse the web in new and safer ways.", "Next, let's have some fun and talk about gaming.", "We're at a point where two things are really coming together.", "First, Apple Silicon has changed everything.", "It's taking the graphics performance of every new Mac to new heights, giving Macs the power to run the most demanding games, with ease.", "Second, the Mac is more popular than ever, and it's a huge and fast-growing opportunity for game developers.", "And since we have a unified silicon architecture spanning from iPhone and iPad all the way up to M1 Ultra, game developers can scale the quality and performance of their titles across the entire line.", "Another key part of a great gaming experience is the software that powers it.", "To tell you what's new, here's Jeremy.", "Jeremy Sandmel: We continue to improve Metal.", "It's the software that powers hardware-accelerated graphics on all our platforms.", "And now, Metal 3 brings new features that will unleash the full potential of Apple Silicon for years to come.", "Gaming at maximum resolution and quality looks awesome.", "And to help game developers increase the performance of realistic and immersive graphics, we're introducing MetalFX Upscaling, which enables developers to render rich, visually complex scenes even faster.", "It works by rendering smaller, less compute-intensive frames and then applies high-quality spatial upscaling and temporal anti-aliasing.", "And it's so cool.", "No Man's Sky, coming to Mac later this year, will be one of the first games to use MetalFX Upscaling.", "The frame rate increases, giving you that responsive feel, and it looks beautiful.", "Another area we're improving is game loading.", "Games continue to push the boundaries and appear more realistic than ever before by using richer textures and more geometric detail, which can take a while to load.", "So Metal 3 adds a new fast resource loading API that minimizes wait time by providing a more direct path from storage to the unified memory system so the GPU can more quickly access high-quality textures and buffers without waiting.", "Metal 3 and Apple Silicon enable even more immersive visuals, faster performance, and quicker loading.", "This really is a new day for gaming on the Mac.", "But don't take our word for it.", "Let's hear from the team that has created the acclaimed Resident Evil Village.", "We are so excited it's coming to the Mac.", "To tell you more, we are delighted to introduce Ijuin-san, manager of Capcom's Advanced Technical Research Division.", "♪ ♪ Craig: Thank you, Ijuin-san.", "Next, let's talk about Continuity.", "Continuity is all about giving you a seamless experience across devices.", "Features like Universal Control, AirPlay, and Handoff allow you to always use the right device for the moment.", "And today, we're extending Handoff to FaceTime.", "Now picture this: you answer a FaceTime call on your iPhone while you're away from your desk.", "When you get home and bring your iPhone up close to your Mac, your Mac automatically recognizes the call on your iPhone, and you can move it to your Mac seamlessly, giving you a bigger view to continue the conversation.", "You can handoff calls in any direction between your devices, so you'll always be able to join the call from the right one.", "We also have exciting news about another Continuity feature, which pairs the best camera you own with the large displays on Mac.", "We spend a lot of time in front of our Macs with our cameras on.", "Our webcams have become an integral part of work, school, and play.", "And now, with Continuity Camera, you can use iPhone as your webcam.", "It's powered by the advanced capabilities of the iPhone camera system, letting you do things that were never before possible with a webcam.", "Let me show you how it works.", "Now, I'm just gonna pop this stand on my iPhone, and attach it to my display.", "Let's launch FaceTime.", "You can see my Mac automatically detects my iPhone and uses it as the camera.", "I don't even have to wake up my iPhone.", "This all works wirelessly so there's nothing to plug in.", "So to try this out, let's call a friend in the design studio.", "Johnnie Manzari: Hi, Craig!", "Craig: Hey, Johnnie!", "Are you up for helping me give a demo of Continuity Camera?", "Johnnie: Sure, I'm using it right now.", "with my iPhone and Pro Display XDR.", "You know, one thing I love about Continuity Camera is Center Stage.", "I can move around and Center Stage will keep me in the frame.", "I'll frequently pair that with Portrait Mode to blur the background with that beautiful boca.", "Craig: Yeah, I've loved having these features on my iPad, and it's great that we can now use them with any Mac.", "Johnnie: For sure.", "A new one people are gonna love is Studio Light.", "Check this out.", "It brightens my face and darkens the background.", "Craig: Hey, that looks great.", "It's almost like you have a ring-light.", "Johnnie: It is perfect for tough lighting conditions, like if I'm ever sitting in front of a window.", "Okay, now I wanna show my favorite new feature, Desk View.", "You can see the work that's on my desk, and it keeps me in the picture.", "It is amazing.", "Take a look.", "It looks like I have a dedicated overhead camera, but this is Desk View creating both of these views from the one ultra-wide camera on my iPhone using some very powerful image processing.", "I didn't even need to adjust my phone.", "Desk View's gonna be great for sharing new designs with my team.", "I can even use it to show my nephew a new card trick.", "Craig: This is gonna be so cool.", "Well, hey, Johnnie, thanks for helping us give the quick demo.", "Johnnie: No problem.", "I'll talk to you later.", "Craig: In addition to FaceTime, you can use Continuity Camera with any macOS videoconferencing app like Zoom, Teams, Webex, and more.", "And we're working with Belkin to offer beautiful stands to hold your iPhone at the perfect height and angle.", "These will be available later this year.", "And since so many of you with a Mac already have an iPhone, these great capabilities come with the devices you already own.", "That's the magic of Continuity.", "And that's macOS Ventura, a feature-packed release that brings new tools for managing windows, smart new features for Mail, Safari, and games, and magical new Continuity features.", "Now let's turn to iPadOS.", "♪ ♪ Our vision for iPadOS is to create a distinct experience that's built on the best of iOS, like security, mobility, and an intuitive touch-first interface, with powerful capabilities from macOS, like multitasking and trackpad support, combined with features like Apple Pencil that are uniquely iPad.", "All of this comes together to deliver our most versatile device.", "This year in iPadOS 16, we have a big release that's going to take this versatility even further.", "Starting with a host of features that you heard about earlier in iOS and macOS that are going to be great on iPad, like Shared Photo Library, Shared Tab Groups and Passkeys in Safari, and a big update to Mail.", "We're also bringing Weather to iPad, taking full advantage of the stunning display with beautiful animations like these gently moving clouds, heavy snowfall, and driving rain.", "And all of these modules are tappable to access detailed information.", "And for developers, we're announcing WeatherKit so they can build weather into their apps.", "iPadOS 16 also includes new ways to collaborate with others, more capable apps, and new features for Pro users that take advantage of the power of the M1 chip.", "So let's start with collaboration, which often begins in Messages when you're asked to pass along a document.", "Of course, you could send a copy, but now you can also instantly kick off a collaboration when you send something with the Share Sheet.", "This makes initiating collaboration across the system as easy as sending a link, and means a conversation with your collaborators is always just a tap away.", "Let me show you how it works.", "So let's tap in to Messages.", "I've been talking to the team about an upcoming offsite, and we've been using this conversation to figure out the details.", "Now, it looks like a message just came in from Lopp, and he wants to catch up on the latest.", "Over here in Pages, I've been collecting our ideas.", "I want to share this with the group.", "In the past, when I'd tap Share, I'd end up sharing a copy.", "But now, you'll notice I can start collaboration right here.", "And what's great is, I don't need to type in a bunch of names or email addresses.", "When I select a Messages group, everyone gets added automatically.", "Let's go ahead and send it.", "This makes it way easier to collaborate with people you're already communicating with.", "Everyone can immediately join and start making edits, like the ones you see here.", "And back in the Messages conversation, I even get a notice of any changes I might have missed.", "When you collaborate this way, your document is connected to the conversation.", "The group appears in the toolbar, and I can kick off communication right from here.", "I can get back to the messages conversation or initiate a FaceTime call.", "Let's go ahead and call the group.", "Hey, everyone!", "Michael Lopp: Hey, Craig.", "Craig: Hey, I saw that a few of you were in the document.", "Does anyone have any other ideas for the offsite?", "Lopp: Yeah, I've been thinking about it, and I've been collecting a few tabs.", "I'm gonna share them right now with you in Safari.", "Craig: Thanks, Lopp.", "This year, you can start collaborating with the group right in FaceTime.", "You can see that Lopp just invited me to collaborate on a set of tabs in Safari.", "I'm gonna go ahead and accept his invite, and now, I can get to them in Safari.", "Just like with the Pages document, everyone in the group automatically has access.", "I can see Anne and Mindy joining the tab group, and I can even see which tabs people are looking at right in the tab bar.", "Looks like Mindy is checking out kayaking.", "Lopp: Found a few more.", "Check these out.", "Craig: When Lopp adds tabs, they instantly appear so we can all check them out.", "Let's see, we already did this last year, but ziplining looks cool!", "All right, team, let's wrap this up and update our document with the latest ideas.", "Looks like Anne is updating the text, and Mindy just dropped in an image, so we're all set.", "So that's a quick look at some of the new ways you can work together with collaboration with iPadOS 16.", "In addition to Pages and Safari, these new collaboration features will work with a variety of apps, like Notes and Keynote.", "And for developers, there's a new API to integrate collaboration in their apps, and these features will also be coming to iOS and macOS.", "Of course, when you're collaborating live, sometimes you want a space where you can brainstorm and capture ideas as they strike.", "So today, we're giving you a sneak peek at a brand-new app called Freeform coming later this year.", "To tell you all about it, here's Elizabeth.", "Elizabeth Reid: We have so many great ways to collaborate, but up until now, you didn't have a space to work in, a place for group sessions, project planning, home renovations, or school projects.", "Now, you can be on a FaceTime call, and with a tap, you're all collaborating live on a Freeform board.", "You can add almost anything to a board.", "It's perfect for brainstorming sessions, jotting down notes, sharing files, or even creating diagrams with others.", "It's flexible, limited only by your imagination.", "As others begin adding their thoughts, you can see their live cursors showing you right where they're working.", "And if someone is in another part of Freeform, you can just tap to jump straight to where they are on the board.", "And any time you need more space, move around simply using touch, or focus on what's really important with a pinch.", "Of course, with a full complement of drawing tools, you can sketch or write a note anywhere you'd like with Apple Pencil.", "And with all the powerful tools to create content on iPad, Freeform is a great place to pull it all together, including photos, video, audio, documents, PDFs, web links, pretty much anything you need to work with can be brought onto your board.", "And you can preview right in line, including multipage documents and high-resolution videos, giving you everything you need to bring your ideas to life right at your fingertips.", "And that's a sneak peek at Freeform.", "Back to you, Craig.", "Craig: Freeform is going to be a great way to brainstorm your ideas with others, and we're building it right into iPadOS, macOS, and iOS later this year.", "Of course, the versatility of iPad means you can seamlessly move from being productive to gaming.", "With its stunning display, built-in sensors, and support for your favorite game controller, iPad provides a great gaming experience.", "And the M1 chip delivers high-performance graphics, enabling immersive games like Divinity: Original Sin 2.", "In iPadOS 16, we have some great updates to gaming, starting with Metal 3, which brings the same MetalFX upscaling and fast resource loading API to iPad that we talked about earlier with macOS.", "There's also a new API that lets games download large assets in the background, enabling you to multitask while the download completes.", "Another important aspect to gaming on iPad is how it brings us together.", "Tens of thousands of games use Game Center to help us play with our friends or compete against each other.", "It's easy to jump right in and play without creating a new account, using your Game Center profile.", "You can find friends to play with, compare scores on leaderboards, and track progress through achievements.", "And now, we're bringing Activity to the Game Center dashboard.", "You can see what your friends are playing, highlights of their achievements, and even find out when they beat your high score, so you know when it's time to take your game to the next level and get back on top.", "And all of this activity appears on your Game Center profile.", "Game Center has always supported playing together in real time.", "Now, SharePlay makes it simple to join and play.", "In a multiplayer game using Game Center, just start a SharePlay session and bring your friends right in.", "These new Game Center features will be coming to an update to iPadOS 16 later this year, and we're also bringing them to iOS and macOS.", "The versatility of iPad makes it great for so many things, and a big part of that is apps.", "This year, we're continuing our work to make iPad apps more capable with desktop-class apps.", "While many iPad apps have their origins in iOS, over the years, they've taken on their own unique capabilities, optimized for the iPad's larger display.", "In iPadOS 16, we scoured the entire system, adding enhancements across the board, from system elements and interactions to new features you use on Mac and want on iPad.", "Let me highlight a few of them.", "Undo/redo across the system, availability view in Calendar, find and merge cards and create lists in Contacts, and we have a big update to Files, with some of the most requested features, such as the ability to change file extensions, view folder size, and more.", "We've also added system-wide features that deliver improvements across apps, starting with a redesigned find and replace experience that works in-line.", "A document menu in apps like Files, Pages, and Keynote that reveals common actions you may want to take, such as duplicate, rename, export, and print.", "And for the first time ever, customizable toolbars in iPadOS so you can add the tools that matter to you most.", "And for developers, we've created new APIs, so they can build these capabilities right into their own apps.", "These features will help you be more productive.", "And we have another feature for Mac that will be great for creative pros on iPad.", "And that is reference color.", "The Liquid Retina XDR display in our latest 12.9-inch iPad Pro is great for professional color workflows.", "And with iPadOS 16, we're introducing Reference Mode, which meets the color requirements in workflows like review and approve, color grading, and compositing, where accurate colors and consistent image quality are critical.", "So whether you prefer using iPad Pro as a standalone device or as a second display with Sidecar, Reference Mode provides a consistent reference workflow across your pro devices, making iPad Pro an indispensable tool for creative professionals.", "Now, I want to turn our attention to a set of features enabled by the performance of the M1 chip in our latest iPad Pro and iPad Air.", "Features for people who push the versatility of iPad to the limit.", "Pros are always wanting more space to work with, so we're adding a new display scaling setting, which allows you to increase the pixel density of the display so you can view more in your apps, which is particularly helpful when using Split View.", "We also want to enable you to do more in apps.", "Our latest iPad Air and iPad Pro come with a ton of ultra-fast memory and storage.", "iPadOS 16 adds support for virtual memory swap, meaning your iPad storage can be used to expand the available memory for all apps and delivers up to 16 GB of memory to the most demanding apps.", "With technologies like display scaling and virtual memory swap, we have the foundation for a big leap forward in user experience, one that can change how our Pro users get work done on iPad.", "So we're bringing Stage Manager, our latest windowing system that you just saw in macOS, to iPadOS.", "Stage Manager takes multitasking on iPad to a whole new level by making it more nimble and unlocking full external display support.", "I'd like to show it to you now.", "Today on iPad, when you use apps, you get the full screen experience that we're all familiar with, like in Photos here.", "With Stage Manager activated, I can now resize windows, exposing a powerful new way to work with apps on iPad.", "And the Dock is visible, so I can easily get to all my apps.", "Let's open Music.", "You'll notice that all my recently used apps appear on the left, so switching between them is really fast.", "And Stage Manager gives me powerful new layout capabilities to create my ideal workspace.", "For the first time on iPad, I can work with overlapping windows.", "I'm gonna drag Messages alongside Calendar here, and Stage Manager automatically moves Calendar gently off to the side as I bring it to the stage.", "And if I move Messages to the left, Stage Manager repositions Calendar for me automatically.", "And like you saw earlier, I can resize windows and arrange everything just the way I want.", "And it gets even better when I plug my iPad into an external display.", "My wallpaper beautifully fills the entire display, and I can move my cursor to it from my iPad.", "I have the Dock here too, so let's go ahead and launch Keynote.", "When I do, I once again enter Stage Manager, now on an even bigger canvas.", "All of that additional screen real estate is so useful when working on a presentation in Keynote.", "And it's amazing when you're working with a set of apps.", "I can create groups of three and even four windows.", "This is just incredibly powerful.", "Between my iPad and my external display, I can have up to eight apps running onscreen simultaneously.", "And I can take advantage of the unique capabilities of each of these displays.", "For instance, I'm working on this Keynote document, and I want to add a drawing from Procreate here on my iPad.", "I can use Apple Pencil to add a finishing touch to my drawing.", "And now I can jump back into the gallery and then drag and drop across displays and into my deck.", "And that's a quick look at Stage Manager.", "It's an entirely new way to multitask with multiple overlapping windows, flexible window sets, fast app switching, and full external display support.", "And that's iPadOS 16, a big release with exciting updates to many of the built-in apps; Weather app comes to iPad, new ways to collaborate and be productive, great features for pro users, including Stage Manager, and so much more.", "Now, back to Tim.", "Tim: Thank you, Craig.", "And thanks to all of our presenters.", "What an exciting day of announcements!", "We introduced the all-new, redesigned MacBook Air, with its super-thin enclosure, Liquid Retina display, MagSafe, beautiful new finishes, and supercharged by M2, our next generation of Apple Silicon.", "Along with a powerful new 13-inch MacBook Pro, also supercharged by M2.", "And we pushed our software platforms forward in some incredible new ways.", "Introducing features and capabilities that will enable our developers to do amazing work and provide our users with exciting new experiences.", "Our OS releases will be available as developer betas today, and each of them will have a public beta next month.", "All of these OS releases will be available to our users this fall.", "I'm confident that our incredible products and innovative platforms will inspire developers to do the very best work of their lives, enabling all of us to do even more amazing things.", "We hope you enjoyed today's event, and we have a huge week ahead.", "We will be offering a comprehensive online experience, starting with a Platform State of the Union for those developers who want take a deeper dive into our announcements.", "And there will be more than 175 sessions, as well as one-on-one labs with Apple engineers and digital lounges.", "All of this is available for free to all our developers to help them get the most out of the conference.", "Thank you for joining us, and let's have a great WWDC!", "♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ .", "." ]
[ "[CLICKING] PHILIP GREENSPUN: All right, folks.", "I know you're excited to learn about weather data.", "I've been told you're excited to learn about weather data.", "I'm going to do the first few slides.", "Tina's going to take over for the ones that require intelligence.", "And I'm going to come back at the end.", "OK.", "Remember that VFR, ordinarily, is a ceiling of 1,000 feet or more and visibility of three statute miles or more.", "That's one of the few things in aviation that's reported in statute miles is the visibility.", "As Tina mentioned earlier, a ceiling is a broken or overcast layer, or sometimes, if it's really nasty, you'll see a vertical visibility reported.", "So here are some of the abbreviations that you might see on the right in a METAR.", "Remember these weather minimums, so VFR pilots, we're looking at the weather reports to see if we're going to be able to maintain these cloud clearances and, generally, stay out of the clouds.", "So I wanted to tell you that it's not quite as hard as you might think because computer programs make a lot of what you're going to learn about simpler.", "On the other hand, we want to give you the good fundamentals, because what we're going to show you, these are the basis of what these computer programs are presenting to you.", "They're oftentimes getting the same data and spinning it in some interesting graphical way.", "So we're going to show you all the fundamental text weather that people have been relying on since at least the '50s.", "There are weather graphics you can grab on the web or sometimes in flight.", "How do you get the weather on the ground and how do you get it in the air?", "So most of what you're going to see in the rest of this presentation can actually be summarized by clever programmers.", "And I think the cleverest programmer of all is this guy David Boozer who taught the class last year.", "And fortunately, he's taking a jet type-- well, fortunately, for him he's taking a jet type rating course right now.", "So he couldn't be with us, but here is WeatherSpork.", "If you want to ever have a good illustration of the value of an MBA and studying marketing, just think about the name for this product of WeatherSpork.", "Let's say we want to go from Bedford to the Gaithersburg, Maryland airport.", "It's going to show us-- this was I think from Sunday evening.", "It's pretty nasty here at Bedford.", "I believe that's low IFR, that purple, and then here a marginal VFR, marginal VFR.", "Actually, sorry, maybe the blue is a VFR.", "That's the problem with color codes.", "Anyway, you get these symbols for VFR, marginal VFR, IFR, and low IFR.", "But here, here's the altitude.", "We're going from C level up to 11,000 feet or 12,000 feet at the top.", "It shows you inside this blue area where the freezing levels are.", "It's kind of a weird mixed up situation here with this freezing level here, another freezing level here.", "There's AIRMETs.", "It looks pretty scary.", "Once we get down closer to the DC area, it's not so bad.", "There's only one AIRMET and it looks like we could be in the clear of the clouds up here.", "But this is a good way to summarize.", "It this already shows you that it's probably not going to be wise to go on Sunday at, I guess, this was Sunday at 1:00 PM.", "OK.", "Here, notice on the bottom, the time keeps changing.", "So we're going from Sunday at 1:00 PM.", "The middle screen capture is to go Sunday at 10:00 PM.", "This is at eastern time.", "And the last one is to go Monday at 8:30.", "So you can see from this already that you could take off from Hanscom field, rise up to 1,500 feet or so on the right, and just cruise along never even getting inside a cloud until you landed at Gaithersburg.", "That's kind of a low altitude, so you might end up deciding, well, what I really want to do is find a hole and go up to about 7,000 or 8,000 feet and go on top of it all and come back down, but whatever.", "It looks like you could probably remain clear of clouds, make it to your destination.", "You're not going to pass through a lot of AIRMETs.", "Over here, let's look at this one in the middle because it's not quite as terrifying.", "There's a low turbulence low from the surface all the way up to 18,000 feet.", "If it says a turbulence AIRMET that goes up to 8,000, that's kind of normal.", "And oftentimes, if you climb to four or five or six, it'll smooth out.", "But if the turbulence is forecast to go all the way up into the flight levels, you know that's a pretty ugly day.", "They're saying there's going to be low level wind shear from zero to 2000 feet.", "There's going to be IFR conditions.", "And it's going to be gusting 18 knots, so all of that is pretty bad unless you really have to go.", "Here look, icing from the freezing level up to flight level 230, just a collection of hazards.", "But also look at the difference between Sunday and Monday.", "If you just hang out in the ground and you're patient.", "You don't need a superior level of skill if you have a superior level of judgment.", "Here's some more presentations from WeatherSpork.", "Again, I kind of love this app.", "You have all the airports you're going to fly near.", "So you go from Bedford to Worcester, some places in Connecticut.", "I think that's Morristown in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Lancaster, anyway, on the way to Gaithersburg.", "And it shows you here's your time of departure.", "You're going to depart, but hey look, It would just get to be-- I guess that is.", "That does mean blue must be marginal VFR, and then green it's going to be windy, but it will be nice VFR weather.", "So if we just wait a little bit, we won't have to fly through any areas that are challenging.", "ForeFlight has a mode where you can ask for your weather briefing in a PDF format.", "And this is the first page of that PDF format.", "It shows some of the same ideas.", "There are these graphics, these blue half moons, if you will, for icing.", "You can see there's a key down here.", "It says icing severity.", "So up here, you've got varying degrees of ice.", "You probably don't want to be up there in an aircraft like the Cirrus.", "It doesn't have de-icing capability.", "So now I think it said all up to Tina to talk about the exciting world of actual weather data.", "TINA SRIVASTAVA: All right.", "So we're going to talk about weather data in the form of reports as well as forecasts.", "So what is the difference between a report and a forecast?", "So a report is actually telling you what's actually happening, so it's a current weather condition at a particular location.", "A forecast is a forecast.", "It's a guess as to what is going to happen.", "So it's really important to know the difference between these.", "We now have Mark Nathanson up in the back who's going to be talking to you at 4:00 about some really cool stuff.", "And as we talked about, he's an FAA examiner.", "Probably doesn't remember this, but he asked me during my oral exam, for a given piece of weather data, is that a report or a forecast?", "And if it's a forecast, how much should I rely on that or depend on that?", "And so that's something to really keep in mind the difference between knowing what the actual situation is and what somebody guesses the situation is going to be.", "And of course, depending how far out that guess is, it may or may not actually turn out to be true.", "So a METAR is a report, and so it's timestamped so it will tell you the weather at a particular time and a particular location.", "And one thing that's important to think about when you think about direction is the way that the wind is reported.", "So if you hear it, so like if you're listening to the ADDS.", "We talked about the ADDS quite a bit, so you tune in the ADDS frequency and you listen to it.", "They're going to be telling you that wind direction in magnetic.", "If you read it on a printed document, it's pretty much always at true heading.", "And certainly, on the internet as we'll give you some sources, that's like the same as reading it.", "We already covered ceilings.", "I won't get into that.", "So let's just talk about the breakdown of a METAR report.", "So I discussed that generally, for example, at Bedford.", "You might hear the METAR updated every hour or so.", "And we talked about the identifier, that this is information whiskey, maybe an hour later it's the next as they keep going through the alphabet.", "And one time that you might see it updated more frequently than once every hour or so is if they need to do a special report.", "And so that's the other type of acronym that you see there S-P-E-C-I, and that's if the weather is changing a lot.", "That's usually a bad thing.", "You don't like weather changing frequently.", "It's probably not something you want to be flying in, but maybe the conditions are deteriorating, the wind or the conditions or the ceiling has changed significantly, so they'll update that information.", "So there are a whole bunch of different abbreviations when you read these reports.", "I highlighted a couple in red.", "You could make your way through sort of guessing, OK, thunderstorms is TS.", "It seems kind of intuitive, but I highlighted some that are really, really kind of get you.", "So hail is GR and mist is BR, as someone was pointing out on this side.", "Yeah, so mist, if you just look at it and you try to think, oh, is it broken?", "No, broken is BKR.", "So they just try to trick you with that's, so try to keep an eye on those, and it's good to refresh your memory on these.", "So this is an example of a METAR report.", "So it starts off with the location and then the first two numbers, the 16, are telling you that it's a 16th day of the month.", "And then it's followed by 1653, so that's the time and has a Z for time in Zulu.", "We already talked about how you subtract hours depending on Eastern standard time versus Daylight Time to get to the current time.", "And then instead of telling you a heading of the wind, in this case, it has variables.", "So sometimes, it will say winds variable at about four knots, in this case.", "And then the next is the visibility, so 10 SM is standing for 10 statute miles.", "And then, in this case, the ceiling is overcast, overcast at 6,000.", "The next two numbers, you see the 14 slash 07?", "So that's talking about the temperature and the dew point.", "So who remembers what is dew point?", "Yes.", "AUDIENCE: The temperature where the air reaches saturation for water.", "TINA SRIVASTAVA: So we heard the temperature where the air reaches saturation for water.", "So what happens when the dew point and the temperature are very close to each other?", "So here, we have seven degrees Celsius for dew point, 14 degrees Celsius for temperature.", "What if the dew point and the temperature were much closer, only a couple degrees apart?", "Yes.", "AUDIENCE: Clouds would form.", "TINA SRIVASTAVA: Yeah, it can be very humid.", "You could be inside of a cloud or heavy fog or precipitation.", "Exactly.", "So here's a good source of weather information.", "So you can go to and they have a bunch of menu options up there.", "So if you click on METAR right here, this METAR button, it will take you to a place where you can request the METAR data.", "And it asks for an ID, so that's the airport identifier.", "So in this case, I wrote in KBED which is Bedford airport, Hanscom field that we keep referring to.", "And then you can actually tell it to decode the data for you.", "So as much as you want to memorize all of these different codes and symbols, in general practice, you can hit decode it and it'll tell you that.", "You can look up at the time, so you can actually ask for weather data in the past.", "And you could include a TAF.", "What does TAF mean?", "Yes.", "AUDIENCE: Terminal area forecast.", "TINA SRIVASTAVA: Terminal area forecast.", "That's right.", "So if you do that and you hit Enter, it gives you this data.", "So first thing it does is it tells you the date at which it's producing the data for you.", "And then the first is the METAR and the second here is the TAF.", "And so the METAR here is telling you the location, so it starts with KBED.", "And then here is the information raw, so you see that data right here or you can have it decoded.", "So again, the first two numbers 23-- that's the date-- 20 23rd, and then it gives you the time in Zulu.", "And then they basically go forward with all that information.", "So it it's defined it here because it's decoded, so you see the temperature, dew point.", "So I actually just updated this this morning so you could see the weather and what it's looking like.", "Now I'll go over to the Document Viewer for a moment.", "PHILIP GREENSPUN: Oh, probably don't want the light.", "Or maybe we probably need this.", "OK.", "Qualified personnel are here.", "I'll entertain you.", "That first METAR was from PDK.", "Anybody know where that is?", "KPDK.", "Southerners?", "AUDIENCE: DeKalb.", "PHILIP GREENSPUN: DeKalb, yes.", "Peachtree DeKalb in Atlanta.", "It's the Teterboro or Hanscom Field of Atlanta.", "I landed there once in a Diamond Star.", "I had to have the wings taken off in Florida to fix a fuel gauge.", "I took off from there and I filed a VFR flight plan, landed in DeKalb, and I forgot to close my VFR flight plan.", "So the FAA and flight service folks at the time, they start searching for me and calling everybody.", "And they called the tower at DeKalb and they said, hey, did you see 505 whiskey tango?", "And they said, no, we hadn't seen an airplane.", "And I really freaked out.", "And I was right there on the ramp.", "So I kept silencing my phone because I was at a barbecue place with my friend and didn't want to be disturbed.", "Anyway, so they called the mechanic who took the wings off and they told him like the aircraft was missing.", "He had some choice words for me.", "So now, whenever I activate a VFR flight plan usually, if I do a flight plan at all, its IFR.", "They close that for you automatically.", "I move my watch from my left wrist to my right as a reminder to close the flight plan.", "All right, Tina.", "Take it away.", "TINA SRIVASTAVA: So this is the ForeFlight app.", "I've passed the iPad around a couple times, so I think you guys have gotten to play with it.", "This is just a setting where the blue dot is showing where we currently are, and I've actually overlaid one of those instrument flight plans on top going here.", "So this is it an instrumented approach to Bedford.", "But if I wanted to get this weather data here, I can go to Airports and pull up the airport that I'm looking for.", "And then click on this Weather and it shows me the METAR.", "So it has both the raw data there and then it depicts it.", "And again, blue is showing marginal VFR, and so it explains that.", "What's also nice is it tells you the weather at nearby airports, as well.", "And then you can also go to your TAF, your terminal area forecast, and you can look at how that is changing over time.", "PHILIP GREENSPUN: Oh, Tina, you don't mind, click on MOS, also.", "Yeah, if you're planning travel, MOS is good because it gives you weather a few days in advance so you can decide whether or not it makes sense to depart here on Friday and hope to come back VFR on Sunday.", "TINA SRIVASTAVA: MOS is talking about the models, so the weather models and what the outputs are.", "PHILIP GREENSPUN: I think it stands for Model Outputs Statistics, not very helpful, but anyway, it's a longer-- ForeFlight and Garmin Pilot and some other sources, like WeatherSpork, will turn that into a sort of a virtual TAF for you that lasts three days instead of just 24 hours.", "30 for the big airports.", "TINA SRIVASTAVA: So another type of weather report is a PIREP or a pilot report.", "And so this is where a pilot could be flying and wants to report the condition, so for example, turbulence or icing.", "Those are types of things that are frequently reported by pilots.", "And you can actually report one, as well.", "So one time when you're getting your flight instruction, if you do notice a wind shear, turbulence, icing, try to see if you can actually provide your own PIREP.", "And it'll ask you certain information such as your location, the time, the altitude at which you experienced it, what type of aircraft.", "I think that's really relevant because, for example, wind shear experienced by a small Cessna is one thing.", "If a large aircraft, like a big jet, a JetBlue aircraft, is telling you that they have wind shear, I'd really pay attention.", "If they seem to have trouble with it, that means you're definitely going to have trouble with it.", "And then you could also have printed weather forecasts that tell you-- so we just talked about the TAF as an example.", "And as Philip was just saying, it only goes out 24 hours.", "So same type of information as a METAR and similar abbreviations.", "And then we were just talking about that those models, and so you can forecast even farther out if need be.", "You can also get a forecast for a general area.", "So this is what we were discussing earlier when we were talking about radios and you might want to call in and ask for a weather forecast or weather brief for a given flight plan.", "We talked about how you'd call in, give your tail number, where you were starting, where you were going, about how much time is out you'd be en route or in flight.", "And then, they might tell you the weather for the general area as well as the local current readings as well as the forecasts.", "PHILIP GREENSPUN: And notice that these area forecasts, if you go to the page on, they're now only available for two or three regions, like the Gulf of Mexico.", "They used to have them for all over the continental US and they included cloud tops, which was very useful.", "The forecast top of the cloud because if it was, say, 4,000 feet, you would know that as long as you get on top of those IFR, you're not going to pick up any ice because you'll be above the clouds.", "And now you have to try to tease that out of the MOS data sources or use something like WeatherSpork that tries to depict graphically where the clouds are.", "I think ForeFlight's Profile View will also try to do some of that.", "TINA SRIVASTAVA: You can also get forecasts of winds aloft.", "We talked about that a couple times.", "And so this will tell you kind of what the winds are going to be at a particular altitude, for example, at 3,000 feet or 6,000 feet, and so it helps you estimate especially in a cross-country flight or a longer flight how long it might take for you to get there.", "On apps, such as ForeFlight, if you-- in fact, we'll just do that right now so you can see.", "So you can actually enter in a flight plan very quickly, so you can have a starting place.", "And then-- so where do you guys want to fly to?", "AUDIENCE: Boston Logan.", "TINA SRIVASTAVA: That's a pretty short flight, but sure.", "PHILIP GREENSPUN: You guys, if you have the patience to stay with us tomorrow afternoon starting at 3:00, the founder of ForeFlight's going to be here, and I'm sure you'll get a pretty thorough demo.", "He and a colleague are going to talk for a couple hours about first the app, and also the startup, and then some of the engineering behind it.", "TINA SRIVASTAVA: So the blue dot is showing where we are here at MIT.", "But of course, generally, you'd be doing this when you're at Bedford and you're flying to Logan.", "And then here, it's telling you it wants to know about the aircraft that I'll be flying in order to calculate some of the information.", "But when you do these types of things with the flight, it can estimate kind of how long you'll be in flight.", "And you can provide what is the altitude at which you want to fly.", "And then it will be able to-- so it says coloring based on winds aloft.", "It looks like it's not detecting that maybe because I haven't given it all of its data right now.", "So in terms of what that means is just that the winds aloft are a good way of helping you predict how long it's going to take you to get to certain places.", "And it'll be part of that cross-country planning that you'll have to do.", "PHILIP GREENSPUN: The winds aloft forecast also shows you the temperature, which is critical because that's going to tell you whether icing is-- icing is not possible if it's above freezing, generally.", "TINA SRIVASTAVA: There are also a bunch of severe weather reports.", "Philip has already talked about a number of them, AIRMETs and SIGMETs, as he was talking about.", "And then they have different abbreviations, even more abbreviations, related to this.", "So what they mean for icing and turbulence.", "So here we'll look at some examples of an AIRMET.", "And in the picture, it shows a broad area where that AIRMET is valid.", "And so this is talking about icing and freezing level.", "So SIGMETs also talk about hazardous weather such as icing, turbulence, volcanic ash, which I don't think you'll encounter very often, but it was an issue in Europe, for example.", "And then here's a breakdown of decoding a SIGMET, as an example, to show you the type of information, what it stands for, and you can read through these to understand the adverse weather.", "And certainly, if you're planning your own cross-country flight, I recommend you also use your normal weather data sources, as well.", "So just turn on the Weather Channel or or Accu Weather, whatever you use on a regular basis.", "If it's a crummy day, it's probably not a good day to go flying anyway and you may not want to dive so deep into all of these different tools.", "But if it seems like a nice day, then I would really recommend diving more specifically into understanding if there's a front coming in or other types of issues.", "And then, convective SIGMETs are really, really concerning.", "So there are things that are much more severe, so you're talking about thunderstorms, hail, some things you really don't want to be flying during at all.", "There's a lot of different ways that the weather is also produced not in a text form but in a graphical format.", "So this is a relatively complicated weather depiction chart.", "So we'll break it down in detail.", "But let me just tell you some of the main things.", "Do you have the-- oh, I left it over there.", "Thanks, Phillip.", "So can anyone guess what all the little circles are?", "We see some circles that are white and some circles that are black.", "Does anyone know what those are?", "Any guesses?", "AUDIENCE: Weather stations?", "TINA SRIVASTAVA: Weather stations?", "Good guess.", "So it's actually trying to tell you what the cloud cover is like.", "So you can see certain places where the circle is empty.", "It's a clear day when it's fully filled in, that it's showing the cloud cover.", "And then you see some that are like little pie chart, so that they're partially filled in.", "So the purpose of looking at a weather chart like that is just to get the general conditions.", "There's a lot of different things.", "So here, it's more specific so it breaks down that the circles indicate the percent cloud cover.", "So if it's a quarter filled, it saying few clouds.", "If it's 3/4 filled, it's broken.", "And then it also has shaded areas that depict when you have the IFR conditions.", "So zooming in, you can just kind of see those circles a little bit bigger, and the charts provide a lot of information, as well.", "But you can see a little bit more clearly also here some of the circles that are like pie charts that's showing how much they're filled in and what the cloud cover is looking like.", "And again, you can actually get the same type of thing on your ForeFlight.", "It's basically an option.", "For every airport that it depicts, it can show this cloud cover, as well.", "And you can also look at a radar summary chart.", "There are a bunch of prog charts, so they talk about when you're looking at a front.", "You guys have seen a lot of these things on the Weather Channel, probably didn't pay attention to them very much, but it's good to understand what the different types of fronts are, what's happening across the country, more than just your particular region.", "So if you're planning you know if it's a-- I think today's a Wednesday, so if you're planning on a flight this upcoming weekend and you want to think about what's going to happen, basically, you're trying to see are there some fronts coming in?", "What's happening?", "Or is it likely to going to be a clear day?", "And then, of course, as we've talked about, all of these have good legends just like we talked about the sectional chart quite a bit and the details of the legend.", "It's always good to take a look at how they have indicated these different lines, where the fronts are.", "And you really want to know which ones, again, are reporting the actual conditions versus which is a guesstimate of what's going to happen in six hours, 12 hours from now.", "Again, if it's a forecast, it could be wrong.", "And then this is just a little bit more detail of types of things you can see on a chart.", "I think the most important thing to look at is this weird little R symbol with kind of an arrow at the bottom.", "It's indicating thunder.", "So that's a big one to look out for.", "If you see that, it's probably not something you're interested in flying in.", "I'm not, for sure.", "And then, there are a couple of shards here that are not specifically on the-- usually going to be asked about, but it's good to see.", "So you might have seen these kind of surface analysis charts.", "And they talk about high pressure areas and low pressure areas.", "And so that high and low pressure, what are we talking about?", "So that's the same thing is that pressure that you're dialing into your altimeter, right?", "So we talked about 29.92, but there might be a day where it's really dropped very low and it's 28 or something very, very low.", "That means you're in a low pressure area.", "And if it's very high, you're at 30 point something, it's a higher pressure area.", "And if you see that as you're flying around that pressure setting is getting updated very rapidly and changing rapidly, that usually is related to a change in your overall weather system.", "So you really want to be aware if that number is changing quite a bit, that's a big problem.", "You can also take a look at when you get into your airplane and you're first setting that dial when you're sitting on the ground, see how much it's changing.", "You might want to-- in general, when you get into a plane, I like to think about when the plane was last flown.", "There are parts where you are checking the oil that you can kind of generally feel the engine and see if it's warm or not, if it needs to be primed or not, those types of things.", "If you see that the plane has just been flown and you're really dramatically having to change that pressure setting, that means the weather has recently changed quite a bit.", "It makes you want to really make sure that your projections and your knowledge about the weather is still accurate.", "PHILIP GREENSPUN: Tina, you want to mention these numbers here are the metric equivalent.", "So instead of 2 99 and 2, you'll see 1,000 millibars or so.", "TINA SRIVASTAVA: So we have a bunch of these.", "And all of these are also on that first website, the", "You can look at actually seeing the clouds from a satellite picture and kind of just seeing what's going on.", "These are hopefully not the first time you've seen these types of charts before.", "And then this is a way that they like to depict the winds aloft.", "So these little lines, and then depending on how many lines are coming off the side, it indicates how strong that wind is and what the amount is.", "So you can see here some that have a lot of little dashes coming off of it, whereas some that don't have any.", "It's a way to very quickly see where the wind is very strong and where it's not.", "And this is what I had talked about last time when we're in the radio section, the radio ATC and communications section.", "But just as a reminder, this is the number that you can call and you can get your full weather briefing done there.", "PHILIP GREENSPUN: Tina, do you want me to take over now?", "TINA SRIVASTAVA: Sure.", "PHILIP GREENSPUN: All right.", "So thank you.", "Tina covered the stuff that requires a brain.", "Now, I'm going to just tell you about how do you get this stuff as a practical matter.", "You can call this phone number it's very good when you're a novice pilot.", "Again, think about crew resource management.", "The weather briefers are another person that you can pull in.", "They may say VFR flight not recommended.", "That's there at the bottom.", "That's worth paying attention to.", "They used to work for the FAA.", "They were outsourced in 2005, and now they're contractors from a company called Leidos, so you might hear the name Leidos.", "You can get a full weather briefing over the phone.", "I actually do this sometimes if I'm in an Uber on my way to the Gaithersburg airport.", "I'll just call the weather briefer and that makes life very easy.", "OK.", "So, as we mentioned earlier, has all the chart that we saw.", "The weather briefers themselves run their own website, which is a little bit of a twist on that.", "I kind of like this site, actually, because you get to set up a home page where you pick your favorite airport.", "So I picked Bedford, Teterboro which is where you go in the New York Metro area if you enjoy paying $8 or $9 a gallon for gasoline.", "And then Dulles Airport where the two competing FBO's also charge about $9 a gallon for gasoline.", "But anyway, they'll have the METARs for your favorite airports and the TAFs and all this, and you can set up these charts.", "So basically, as soon as you log in, you get a whole bunch of current weather information.", "That's kind of a nice feature for this website.", "And it is free.", "They will give you, just like, they'll give you the METAR.", "Here's one for Bedford from the other day.", "I guess that's from the 21st.", "Yeah.", "The wind was 310.", "So it was on the 21st at 0256 Zulu, so it was late at night, early in the morning in London.", "Wind was 310 at 18 knots, gusting 25, 10 miles of visibility, clear.", "Temperature was minus 11, dew point minus one niner, altimeter two niner, four seven, and there's a remark.", "The peak wind was 310 at 31 knots and that happened at 0225 Zulu time.", "OK.", "There are private websites.", "The most popular free one is probably at least among the turbine crowd.", "They have very accurate models for a lot of jet powered or turboprop aircraft.", "And they have some example briefings that I think I do want to show you.", "OK. Again, you'll have access to this.", "So one nice thing about is they start you off with a nav log.", "Remember, we talked about that?", "And in the nav log, they tell you what magnetic course to steer.", "Oh, sorry.", "They give you the magnetic course?", "Sorry, magnetic course is 303.", "I guess they don't give you the wind correction angle, or maybe the wind's right in our faces.", "No, it's not.", "Maybe this is not such a great site.", "All right.", "Well anyway, they tell you roughly how long it's going to take you to get there.", "And they will calculate your ground speed for you.", "So I think I put in the Piper Warrior or something, so this is a pretty low airspeed, 124 knots.", "And you can see at the different altitudes how much fuel you're going to burn and how long it's going to take you.", "So there's really not a lot of difference.", "You can see here, you could go at 10,000 feet and take 58 minutes.", "You could go at 4,500 feet and it would take you an hour.", "So there's not a lot to choose from.", "Your airspeed goes up a little bit as you climb higher, but the wind is also a little bit stronger.", "They're giving you the weather to go from Bedford to Bennington, Vermont.", "Giving you a little bit of information about the runways.", "You can look at the approaches there.", "Departure airport forecast, so look at this.", "Departure airport NOTAM, so they did a pretty good job here.", "They pulled out the most important NOTAM.", "They were doing snow clearing.", "So at Bedford, they said, look, runway 112 niner is closed except with one hour of prior permission to this phone number.", "Now how about that?", "Look at all those other NOTAMs.", "You can really get lost because they're telling you about stuff-- taxiway-- Let's go here.", "Taxiway November edge markings obscured maybe by this snow.", "I don't know why.", "Anyway, that's probably not really important.", "That maybe is taxiway that you're not even going to use.", "So this is actually a pretty good computer program, I think, because they put that closed runway NOTAM right up at the top where you might actually see it, and they put it in boldface.", "Anyway, so that's a weather briefing.", "Let's see how ForeFlight presents the same information.", "You saw that before.", "They also give you this wind temperature and turbulence.", "Oh, this is to a different spot.", "This is to Gaithersburg.", "Significant weather from flight level 250 to 630.", "Not going to be able to use that in the Cirrus, unfortunately.", "That's up above 25,000 feet.", "We get the METARs.", "It looks like, sorry, the METARs and TAFs.", "So we get our METAR for Hanscom and it looks like they put in boldface the relevant portion of the TAF.", "So they're saying, look, at your flight time, this is the one that's going to apply.", "It's going to be better than six miles of visibility but overcast at 800, so not a bad IFR situation as long as you can handle any icing.", "They've color coded a bunch of stuff.", "So you can see here at Worcester, they've got-- well, that looks pretty nasty.", "They're forecasting, for example, wind 030 at 11 knots, only half a mile of visibility.", "Tina, help me out.", "What's minus PL?", "Freezing fog.", "I don't know what minus PL is, but it sounds bad.", "Overcast 500.", "So they're calling that low IFR.", "Where are the NOTAMs?", "Let me see what they did with the NOTAMs.", "I think it was the same day.", "Ice pellets.", "OK. Well, we don't want that.", "So this is an interesting thing.", "ForeFlight kind of missed-- I think it was out there, maybe it's here.", "OK.", "So up at the top, it says runway 523 is closed, which normally wouldn't bother me at all because that's the crosswind runway and we don't like to use it unless we have to.", "Maybe that NOTAM was not out at the time that I got this one.", "Yeah, there's nothing about that PPR.", "I guess they hadn't started plowing the snow at that time.", "Anyway, so the NOTAMs are important.", "They can tell you if the airport is having some kind of construction going on.", "Mobile apps-- ForeFlight is for the iPhone or iPad only.", "That's a major difference between ForeFlight and Garmin Pilot.", "NavMonster is a fun, free app.", "It works at least on iOS, I think on Android, as well.", "That gives you a lot of good stuff.", "WeatherSpork is all three platforms.", "So we're just going to show you ForeFlight in case you're not able to come to the talk tomorrow starting at 3:00.", "Here's a little flavor of ForeFlight.", "Notice that in the airport information page here on the left, they highlight the fact that runway 523 is closed by NOTAM, so they're making an attempt to pull out the most significant runways.", "But actually, they missed one.", "Look at this.", "Runway 112 niner is also closed except for this one hour prior permission.", "Somehow that exception didn't get the software excited.", "So if you showed up, actually this is a good example of when you might want to run your minimum fuel burn, maximum endurance airspeed.", "So you get to the airport and you didn't check the NOTAMs or maybe it was a newly issued NOTAM.", "And they tell you the runway's closed and it won't reopen for another half hour.", "So in that case, you're going to go out and loiter somewhere until the airport reopens unless you want to land somewhere else.", "OK.", "The next page is apparently about NOTAMs.", "And over on the right, we have the weather which Tina already showed you.", "And you see the density altitude?", "Look at that.", "It's minus 2,500 feet.", "It's 2,500 feet below sea level at Hanscom Field.", "ForeFlight can give you the TAF and the MOS, as I said.", "So this was, I think, on Sunday.", "And have a look there.", "We're getting the weather for Wednesday, so we can plan our trip to return-- what's today, Wednesday?", "And look, the MOS is pretty right.", "It's nice.", "It's not too much wind.", "190 at 5 knots, overcast below 12,000.", "Here's Garmin Pilot.", "Garmin really believes in the old white on black, like a 1970s monitor.", "ForeFlight will actually flip into sort of a style like this at nighttime.", "And this one, it doesn't highlight for you.", "It's the same time as I was using ForeFlight, and nowhere in here does it highlight that that runway 523 is closed or that two niner is having any kind of issue.", "I think it was the same time.", "I could be wrong.", "Yeah, see?", "523 closed.", "Runway 1129 closed except one hour prior permission.", "So you're fat, dumb, and happy looking at this page, getting all ready to go to Hanscom Field, and then if you don't check the NOTAMs, you discover that there's no runway.", "So another good reason to always have some reserve fuel and not overcommit to your plan.", "All right.", "In-flight weather sources.", "There's something called TWEB, transcribed weather broadcasts.", "You might be asked about it on the exam.", "I doubt it.", "Anyway, that's my friend Eric, again, with his DC-3.", "If you were flying a DC-3 in its prime, you might have heard of TWEB.", "HIWAS is still being broadcast off of certain VORs that are indicated on the chart.", "So look at this, see that H symbol there in the middle?", "That H symbol tells you that if you tune in to this VOR and tell your audio panel in the airplane that you want to actually listen to whatever is being modulated, that you'll hear this pre-recorded weather announcement about maybe thunderstorms in a certain area.", "You can call Flight Service Enroute.", "They're very helpful.", "They'll take a PIREP from you and they'll tell you what is going on.", "They can call your mom if you're going to be late due to forecast headwinds.", "I was actually flying through New York on my way to DC, and there were horrible headwinds.", "I was in a Diamond Star, which was not a very fast airplane, so when you've got a 50 knot headwind, you slow down to a Honda Accord speeds.", "So I asked New York for a frequency change to Flight Service and they said, well, why do you need it?", "And I said, well, I want to have them call my mom and tell her I'm going to be late.", "And they said, oh, we can do that for you.", "So in between vectoring the airbus's out to Germany, they were calling my mom.", "I think each controller in New York has an assistant right next to him or her and that was who actually made the phone call.", "TINA SRIVASTAVA: Just quick note.", "The last point there.", "So Flight Service can accept your PIREP.", "So when we talked about how you should make a pilot report or a PIREP, you can call them and tell them, hey, I experienced turbulence.", "PHILIP GREENSPUN: I think if it's really ugly, the controllers can also put it in, like if it's icing or-- TINA SRIVASTAVA: Wind shear they usually accept cause wind shear is such a bad thing, and you're fighting the wind shear and trying to deal with the wind shear, so they'll usually except that PIREP.", "PHILIP GREENSPUN: All right.", "NEXRAD.", "So this is an actual photo of our Cirrus screen on our way to Oshkosh.", "So remember, I showed you that one earlier which with the track from FlightAware.", "So we had planned to go from Rutland, Vermont, oh, sorry.", "We had planned, I guess, yeah, we came up with a new plan.", "We really wanted to go from Bedford over to Syracuse, and I think initially we decided that going to Rutland would keep us away from the rain.", "The NEXRAD radar, what they're really seeing is water in the clouds.", "So they can actually see rain.", "They can't see a cloud that's just vapor and it's going to produce a rain storm at some point.", "They're really seeing the big water droplets of rain.", "Anyway, so we elected to fly over here and refuel at Watertown, New York instead of at Syracuse.", "Oksana was on that flight.", "We flew through some of that rain and it actually was pretty smooth.", "So we probably could have just charged through, but we took a more conservative route.", "OK.", "So NEXRAD data, instead of paying for a receiver in your airplane and then paying a subscription fee, the FAA give you NEXRAD data as well as a bunch of other stuff, like some text weather data.", "That's another good reason to be able to read METARs because if you're looking at it in the cockpit, it could be on a pretty small display and the raw format is very compact and actually very convenient for in-flight use.", "Anyway, here's a little diagram of how it's transmitted.", "You have to have this-- you have to have-- let's see if we talked about this.", "Yeah, so you have to have a UAT receiver to get these data.", "The aircraft position, see the big airliner transmitting on 1090 megahertz extended squitter it's called.", "That's fine, but you need to be able to receive on 978 megahertz, which is this alternative frequency that I guess had more bandwidth available.", "And that's where the FAA can push all these data up to you, like about other traffic, even traffic who doesn't comply with ADS-B.", "Although by January 1st of next year, almost everybody will have ADS-B out at least.", "Anyway, so that the feds are pushing this stuff up to your airplane.", "I'm going to turn it over to Tina now to talk about-- TINA SRIVASTAVA: Yeah, so I just added in this slide.", "This is the one that we had been talking about.", "If you're in a plane that does not have the ADS-B receiver but you want to receive that information so that you get real-time weather information or real time traffic information, you can actually make that happen by building it yourself.", "And I did that.", "It really doesn't take very long.", "If you want to seem really cool, you can go and buy just a regular Raspberry Pi and a couple different parts.", "And also that link will show you how you can just buy a little kit where they've put everything together and you just buy it.", "It's very easy to assemble.", "So it just has a little Raspberry Pi inside.", "And it has a little cooling fan, and then it has these antennas.", "The Stratics Software is actually kind of free, open source software, and it's really great.", "And it syncs up to your other apps.", "So for example with ForeFlight, it just shows up like a Wi-Fi signal that you connect to.", "And then while you're in the air, when you don't have access to this data, this will actually update.", "So you can see on the right is kind of a zoomed in picture from ForeFlights.", "So it shows that you can see the weather on the bottom left corner and then you also see these little pictures that show traffic.", "So yeah, exactly.", "So on the further bottom right, you can also see-- it just shows you other airplanes, other traffic, and kind of the altitude that they're at.", "And so it's really useful I think it's kind of nice to have, especially in a little airplane to have that visibility and knowledge that you're not just relying on Flight Service giving or kind of like a area controller giving you traffic advisories, but you can see it in advance.", "We're about to dive into human factors, and Philip has talked a lot about using the person sitting next to you whether they are actually a pilot or just a friend.", "Even just a friend can sit there and hold the iPad and see the little blue traffic.", "And then when they hear on the radio that's someone saying, hey, it looks like in this situation, no traffic, 3 o'clock, you're trying to look for that plane.", "Well, they can have a little sense of, OK, yeah, it's near that, and they can help you find the other aircraft.", "So it's very helpful.", "PHILIP GREENSPUN: How much were the parts for that, Tina?", "TINA SRIVASTAVA: It's like $80.", "PHILIP GREENSPUN: OK. Yeah.", "So the ones that you can buy commercially all packaged, like the Stratux-- I think this is a play on Stratus.", "This is one of the competitors in that market.", "They're anywhere from $400 to $1,000, I think.", "The commercial ones also have an electronic gyro in there and AHARs, attitude heading reference system.", "So they can actually give you on your iPad an attitude indicator and some information about your speed and so forth.", "All right.", "So this is a reminder that, again, all those data are intended to help you fly within the VFR weather minimums, which provide a good margin of safety.", "I put this $20 magazine up here for you guys because this whole talk has really been about software and different ways of spinning the same data.", "So this is everything, in case you're not a core six major.", "This is everything you need to know to become a programmer in one $20 magazine.", "TINA SRIVASTAVA: So we're running a little behind.", "So I'm going to go straight to human factors.", "While I'm pulling it up, let Phillip know if you have any more questions.", "PHILIP GREENSPUN: Yeah, anything going on?", "AUDIENCE: How do you know if your weather briefing is adequate with all these sources out there and you're not good.", "I'm just not really sure.", "PHILIP GREENSPUN: That's a great question.", "How do you know if you're a weather briefing is adequate?", "The professional weather briefers at Leidos, at 1-800-WX-BRIEF, they tend to go a little above and beyond.", "They'll give you NOTAMs about any VOR that's out of service on your route of flight, even if you're navigating with the GPS.", "So if you're at all unsure, just do your self-service stuff online, and then just call 1-800-WX-BRIEF and ask for a full briefing.", "It won't take you more than 10 minutes, and you will definitely be at least-- you'll probably be over briefed, at that point.", "They'll tell you about an unlit tower even if you're flying at noon, and there's no possibility of it being dark and the lighting on the tower making a difference." ]
[ "(electronic chiming) - [Falcon] Sometimes video games are all about creating a massive fantasy and indulging something that's utterly impossible, and sometimes it's about the exact opposite.", "Hi folks, it's Falcon, and today, on Gameranx, the 10 most realistic missions in video games.", "Starting off with number 10, \"Call of Duty: Modern Warfare,\" the reboot from 2019's \"Clean House.\"", "(lock clanking) So the original \"Call of Duty 4\" attempted to emulate the feeling of modern warfare, but as that series went on, it got a little bit more and more ridiculous.", "Like the second \"Modern Warfare's\" campaign was about a Russian invasion of the United States, so it didn't really take that long for any semblance of reality and the \"Modern Warfare\" series to part ways.", "The 2019 reboot is an attempt by Activision to get back to more of the grounded scenarios of \"Call Duty 4,\" and for the most part, it really succeeds.", "There's a couple missions from the game that we could do on a list like this, but the most realistic by far is probably \"Clean House,\" the one where you raid a terrorist safe house.", "Now, the mission is slow, tense, and atmospheric in a way that most \"Call of Duty\" missions are just not.", "(dog barking) - [Price] Bravo 6, moving to the first floor.", "- [Terrorist 1] What are you doing?", "- [Terrorist 2] Shut up!", "Do as I say!", "- [Terrorist 3] Where do you need me?", "- [Falcon] The actual gameplay, it's kind of minimal because you're just one soldier among many storming this place.", "But the brief moments where you're tasked with checking rooms and clearing out hostiles are about as intense as these games get.", "In such close quarters, death can come in an instant, and just identifying hostiles while wearing night vision goggles is kind of a nerve-wracking experience.", "The body count is significantly lower than pretty much any other \"Call of Duty\" mission that isn't a tutorial, but that's just another thing about it that makes it feel perhaps a little more real.", "The graphics, the presentation, the gameplay, it all comes together to create this mission that feels realistic.", "Now, it might not actually be the most realistic mission of all time, but it's the one everyone talks about, so we wanted to get this one outta the way first.", "(door clunking) (door creaking) At number nine is \"Pouring Forth Oil\" from \"Red Dead Redemption 2.\"", "Now, as far as open-world games go, there are few games as obsessed with realism as \"RDR2.\"", "The attention to detail is second to none, and the designers put just a mindbogglingly insane level of work into this game to create a version of the Old West that is just filled with historical details that are true to life.", "There are, of course, some things that are maybe a little less realistic, but for the most part, realism is a thing this game leans into.", "Now, again, this is another one where probably more than a few missions could work here, but, personally, \"Pouring Forth Oil IV\" is probably one of the most realistic.", "Compared to some of the more over-the-top heists that show up from time to time, this is a really down-to-earth mission.", "Most games that include train robberies go, like, really wild with it by making it so the robbery occurs on a moving train, but this mission's a lot closer to how actual train robbers did it.", "Like they just parked something on the train tracks, waited for the train to stop, and then robbed the passengers.", "For a good long while, you go through this mission without even firing a shot.", "It's not until you get to the cargo compartment that some train guards shoot at you, but then, I mean even there, there's only a few.", "If there's any issue with \"RDR2\" when it comes to realism, it's the amount of people you shoot in any given mission.", "Your enemies don't really have much of a survival instinct and that does come into play at the end of the train job where some lawmen start, like, snooping around.", "- [Arthur] There's only two of you, you fools.", "We got a whole lot less to lose.", "Why don't the two of you ride away?", "That way neither of you get killed.", "- [Falcon] You just kill them before getting away.", "But outside of that, the way the rest of this mission plays out feels pretty real.", "As far as missions go, this is probably as close to a real trained robbery as the game gets.", "At number eight is the \"Malaysia Job\" and \"A Normal Life\" from \"Uncharted 4.\"", "Now, the \"Uncharted\" series is basically \"Indiana Jones\" on steroids.", "The games are filled with completely insane setpieces and moments where the protagonists seem like they should be dead 100 times over, but that's just part of the fun.", "It's not meant to be realistic, at least not most of the time.", "And that's what makes these particular missions at the start of \"Uncharted 4\" stand out so much.", "The first, \"The Malaysia Job,\" seems like another treasure hunt, but it quickly becomes clear that Drake isn't exploring yet another forgotten ruin in an exotic location, he's actually dredging up a damaged chip container.", "Instead of an exciting adventure, it's just another day in the job.", "So you hook up the line, make sure the cargo's intact, and then haul the container onto the ship.", "Pretty much it.", "The following mission, \"A Normal Life,\" is just as mundane.", "You start off in Drake's attic, you get to look at all the souvenirs he's accumulated, you play with a Nerf gun, and then you go downstairs and eat dinner.", "The house itself is one of the most detailed and realistic interiors ever created for a game, and the things you do in it are just as real.", "You can heat up some leftovers, you can play some video games, stuff that we all do but in video game form.", "- Is there a problem?", "- No.", "No, just, uh, how do you, uh... How'd you make it go?", "- Push the start button.", "- I knew that.", "I got it.", "- All right.", "- [Falcon] It's a fairly short sequence, and it's mostly just there for story purposes, establishing that Drake is sort of aching for the life, so to speak.", "But nothing else in this entire series is vaguely as realistic as these two little missions.", "At number seven is \"Thunder Run\" from \"Battlefield 3.\"", "Now, obviously, the \"Battlefield\" series has its fair share of campaign missions that look fantastic, but there's not a lot that I'd classify as realistic.", "Probably the closest I can think of though is this one, \"Thunder Run,\" the tank mission from \"Battlefield 3.\"", "Probably the most noticeable thing about this mission starting out is how huge and open it is.", "Like, you don't really see wide open spaces like this in video games because, well, it's hard to make them interesting.", "Not even open-world games have maps like this.", "A gigantic flat world would be too boring to explore in an open-world game.", "And for most \"Battlefield\" missions, it's pretty lacking, in terms of the more showy visuals that make it easy to tell where we're supposed to be going.", "But the emptiness makes it feel much more realistic than a lot of video game locations.", "How the mission plays out is pretty realistic as well.", "Most of the enemy's Soviet-area equipment is no match for the M1A2 Abrams tank.", "Their speed and battlefield awareness would allow an Abrams to run circles around tanks like that.", "Of course, their ranges aren't realistic at all.", "One of the advantages of the Abrams is that it would be able to fire outside the enemy's effective range, so most of the shooting would be little specs in the distance if there were truly realistic.", "But I'll give the game a break on that.", "Like it wouldn't be visually interesting or fun.", "- [Tank Crewmember 1] Anvil Actual, we're approaching the burn.", "(gun blasting) - [Tank Crewmember 2] Roger!", "All call signs continue assault into encampment!", "- [Tank Crewmember 1] There!", "Northside!", "Let's go!", "(gun blasting) Troops!", "Coax!", "- [Falcon] There are more cool events here, like using thermal vision to shoot at enemies through a cloud of dust.", "There's a drone you can switch to to take a rocket emplacement out.", "And the tense sequence where you run out on the battlefield and detonate some minefield clearing charges.", "It's probably one of the best parts of \"Battlefield 3,\" and it stands out as one of the most realistic depictions of tank warfare in a video game campaign mission at all, period.", "At number six is \"Bone Appetit\" in \"Mafia: Definitive Edition.\"", "Switching from a giant battlefield to something a little more intimate.", "Probably one of the best missions in all of \"Mafia\" is this one, the one where Tommy escorts Don Salieri to his favorite restaurant, gets ambushed by a Morello hit squad, and, well, everything basically goes topsy-turvy.", "- My mother, she would be so honored if you tried her carbonara.", "- Excellent.", "- [Falcon] It's a simple premise, but the details really sell it.", "The restaurant is lavishly detailed.", "The destruction caused by the hitmen, also lavishly detailed.", "All in all, there's less than a dozen guys shooting up the place but it's still impossible to take them on in a stand-up fight.", "So you're forced to escape through the kitchen, then you sneak around the alley and you ambush the gunman from the side.", "It's a dramatic encounter that you could easily see playing out in real life.", "That's what makes it feel so realistic to me.", "Both sides are playing a win here.", "The guys who ambush use overwhelming force to try to kill you, but quick wits are what keeps Tommy alive.", "It's a mission that can end in only a few minutes but it's so intense and shocking, it's one of the most memorable and yet doesn't engage in an unrealistic scale.", "At number five is \"LAX International Airport\" from \"Splinter Cell: Pandora Tomorrow.\"", "The \"Splinter Cell\" Series tried to be a little bit more realistic than most military games at the time.", "Of course, the nature of the protagonist as a one-man super spy is unrealistic, but the plots themselves are fairly grounded in reality.", "Probably the most grounded and possible plots come from the second game of the series, \"Pandora Tomorrow,\" which is about the US being threatened by an Indonesian nationalist with a deadly strain of smallpox.", "At the end of the game, you manage to take out the terrorist leader, but one of the allies manages to get away with the smallpox strain and a small group of followers infiltrate the Los Angeles International Airport where they intend to release the virus and spread it all over the world, without dwelling on modern events.", "(chuckles) It's a simple but frighteningly plausible terrorist act.", "There's no bomb, no hostages, no violent shootouts, just some guys in plain clothes planning to release a virus in a heavily trafficked area.", "The only way to stop them is to sneak through the airport and take out the disguised terrorists without anyone knowing about it, which is much easier set than done.", "It's an all-around great location to end a game on.", "And while the graphics aren't nearly as impressive as they used to be, it's still a relatively realistic setting for one of the most realistic terrorist plots ever made in a video game.", "At number four is \"Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare's\" \"Death From Above.\"", "Like I said in the first point, this was the \"Call of Duty\" that really went out of its way to try to create unique scenarios that felt like realistic modern war situations.", "This is definitely one of them.", "In this mission, you play as the spotter on an AC-130 gunship.", "And you're not even technically the guy firing any of the weapons, you're just the guy pointing the camera at targets for gunners to, you know, gun.", "(chuckles) The entire mission has this almost eerie detachment that's reminiscent of the battlefield footage from the Iraqi war.", "The professional, almost bored chatter from the other crewmen only add to the realism of it.", "The body count is pretty ridiculous, but the presentation is immersive.", "The moments where you have to stop and actually listen to your crew as they tell you to look at certain landmarks just to find the enemy, it's really tense and real.", "The dialogue, it's a standout.", "Like the crew members are sometimes stuttering or, like, saying, \"Um,\" while speaking.", "It's this sort of talk you don't normally see in gung-ho military shooters, and it just feels much more real because of it.", "(gun blasting) - [AC-130 FCO] Okay, he's moving again.", "- Moving in.", "- You got him.", "(gun blasting) - [Falcon] At number three is the \"Paperchase\" from \"The Witcher 3,\" not a realistic game by any stretch of the imagination.", "It's set in a fantasy universe where magic is real, monsters exist, and, basically, anything's possible.", "But no other game has managed to create a mission as realistically mundane as the \"Paperchase.\"", "Now, starts off very simple.", "A guy wants to repay Geralt for some service he did years ago, so he opened an account in Geralt's name at the bank so that when Geralt actually did eventually come back he'd get money with interest.", "And that sounds easy, right?", "You head to the bank and you just say, \"Hey, it's me, Geralt.\"", "But they think you're dead.", "So you need a permit, specifically an A38, to prove you are alive.", "So you go to Window 1, who tells you you need to go to either records or the archives to get the actual form.", "You go to the archives, you find a giant line that you just have to cut through to talk to somebody, who tells you you're at the wrong place.", "If you go to records, he tells you you need a Form 202 to get a permit A38.", "And it goes on like that, with endless red tape standing between you and the money that you're owed.", "If you are an adult, particularly if you have children and have dealt with various doctor's offices, you have experienced something like this at some point, and it sucks.", "And it's rare that a game manages to capture one of the most frustrating parts of modern life, especially when it's a random side quest in a fantasy-adventure game set in the furthest thing from modern life.", "At number two is \"Hat Trick\" from \"Medal of Honor: Warfighter.\"", "This one's probably a little more difficult to remember.", "When it comes to military operations in games, it doesn't get a lot more realistic than this though.", "Probably because it's directly based off real events.", "Now, it was inspired by the real-life rescue of Richard Phillips in 2009 by the US Navy Seals.", "And this mission is actually incredibly simple as far as video games go.", "You start off on the deck of a US Navy vessel, you get your eyes on some Somali pirates with a hostage on a lifeboat, then you wait.", "18 hours later, a signal flare is shot off, the pirates panic, and then you shoot them.", "It's about as real as a military as you can get because there's overwhelming firepower and a ton of waiting around.", "It's not the flashiest mission out there but that's what makes it much more realistic than many many other missions.", "And finally, at number one, the \"Fairfax Residence\" from \"SWAT 4.\"", "If you're talking about these tense, realistic missions in games, it doesn't get much better than the second mission of \"SWAT 4.\"", "This is a hardcore tactical shooter that puts you as the team leader of an elite SWAT unit, and simply taking out all the bad guys, that's not good enough.", "The fact you can't just kill everyone adds an extra layer of tension to everything you do because you never know if someone's unarmed or if they'll give up or if they'll shoot you on sight, and just one or two bullets is usually enough to kill you.", "What makes this mission so realistic is it's got one single target, a serial killer.", "In any other game, taking out one guy with a squad of heavily-armed police would be a cinch, but this is not any other game.", "It's more realistic and any wrong move can mean death.", "The house itself, also very realistic for its time.", "Dense, cluttered, confusing, piles of garbage blocking your sightlines, creepy dugout passages that make it difficult to guess just where the guy is hiding.", "It's a good location, even now.", "It doesn't look as good as stuff nowadays but it was very creatively put together.", "Most of the missions in \"SWAT 4\" actually feel pretty real at times, but this one stands out because of the low numbers involved.", "It's one guy, capture-kill, one hostage to rescue.", "It's just this creepy, tense, and surprisingly realistic mission.", "And that's all for today.", "Leave us a comment.", "Let us know what you think.", "If you liked this video, click like.", "If you're not subscribed, now's a great time to do so.", "We upload brand-new videos every day of the week.", "Best way to see them first is, of course, of subscription, so click subscribe.", "Don't forget to enable notifications.", "And as always, we thank you very much for watching this video.", "I'm Falcon.", "You can follow me on Twitter @FalconTheHero.", "We'll see you next time, right here on Gameranx." ]
[ "The iPhone 13 Pro was the clear choice for me out of Apple’s current iPhone lineup because of its 120 hz refresh rate screen and better camera system, but was that upgrade really worth it after 6 months?", "Or should have I just gone for the iPhone 13?", "And, now that its been 6 months, should you just skip this phone and wait for the iPhone 14 Pro?", "I'm going to answer all of those questions and more.", "And first, let's start off by talking about the 120 Hertz display or what Apple calls their Pro Motion display technology.", "This makes the iPhone’s animations, scrolling, and basically anything you do on the phone feel much faster.", "To me it's actually an upgrade that makes a difference every time I use my phone and after six months, this feature alone to me is worth it to get the iPhone 13 Pro over the 13.", "Now the other reason I went with the 13 Pro over the iPhone 13 is the new camera system which includes a telephoto lens that’s also capable of producing macro shots.", "I like taking a lot of photos with my smartphones and the iPhone’s photo quality is of course great, but having the flexibility to be able to zoom in 3x without losing resolution, that's a feature, I use way more than the ultra-wide camera because in general, I think there are more situations where a telephoto lens is appropriate than an ultra-wide lens.", "So those are the two things I think make the iPhone 13 Pro worth it over the 13, even when you consider the $200 price difference between the two phones.", "Now, if you disagree with that take or you agree, let me know down in the comments.", "Sticking with camera quality for a second, if you’re looking at getting a 13 Pro vs. something like the Pixel 6 Pro, or the S22 Ultra...In general, the iPhone 13 Pro has taken great photos for me.", "Overall I think there’s less and less of a difference between the main phone makers in terms of camera quality these days, though I do still find I prefer the look of photos taken from my Pixel 6 Pro about half of the time compared to the photos from my iPhone.", "And this is even with me using a photographic style that tries to mimic the cooler, increased contrast look of the Pixel’s camera system.", "Photographic styles are a new feature for iPhones that allows you to change the overall look of the photos your iPhone takes and overall, I think this feature works quite well.", "It allows me to create a truly unique look to my photos that when you look at them, they don’t always immediately look like they were taken on an iPhone.", "This to me is a good thing since the iPhone’s default style is a bit too punchy with highlights.", "And if you want to see our upcoming review of the Pixel 6 Pro, or you want to see more reviews on Apple products, make like this video and subscribe to the channel.", "Now, there is one more difference between the iPhone 13 Pro and the 13 that I haven't mentioned yet and that's the lidar sensor.", "Now I don’t think this is a feature most people would use to justify upgrading to the 13 Pro, but it is a hardware feature that I have found some surprising uses for over the past 6 months.", "Over the holidays I wanted to share a gingerbread house that I had made with extended family who weren't physically present to be able to view it, and a photo just wasn't going to do it justice.", "A gingerbread house, it's a three-dimensional object.", "And if I just took a bunch of photos of each of the sides, it's just not the same as viewing it there in real life.", "so I downloaded this free app called Scaniverse that utilizes the LiDar sensor and was able to make a 3D scan of my gingerbread house.", "And it was easy to send that 3D file to my other family members through iMessage, so they could see the entire thing in augmented reality, otherwise known as AR.", "And they thought it pretty cool they could place my gingerbread house on their kitchen table virtually.", "The Lidar sensor also makes taking measurements and object tracking in Apple’s measure app way more accurate.", "And it can also make placing digital furniture and objects from certain apps and websites into your space a much smoother experience, because the LiDar sensor helps improve the accuracy of digital object placement and the phone can remember exactly where it drew the object more accurately.", "And because Apple supports AR across iOS, I’ve found a lot of websites are supporting this feature now.", "Now, the lidar sensor again, it's not going to be a feature that everybody finds a use for but I have been surprised at how many times I've actually used it over the past six months considering I didn't expect to use it at all.", "So those are all of the features that help differentiate the iPhone 13 Pro from the regular 13.", "Now, there is one feature I haven't mentioned yet, that's probably the best feature of the iPhone 13 Pro and that's battery life.", "The battery life on the iPhone 13 Pro is phenomenal.", "I rarely ever see this phone go near 25% battery by the time I’m ready to put it on a charger.", "For my light to moderate phone use, I’ll end the day between 50-40% battery left, and it's by far been the best battery life I've experienced on any phone in recent memory and a somewhat significant upgrade from iPhone 12 I was using before I got the 13 Pro.", "Now, another thing I've really liked about using the iPhone 13 Pro over the past six months, is iOS 15 and the new software features it brought to the iPhone experience.", "The first one being focus modes.", "In iOS 15 you can create multiple focus modes which will mute notifications and distracting apps so you’re not disturbed when trying to work, drive etc.", "And the killer feature here is when I enable a focus mode or schedule one, it'll sync across all of my other Apple devices like my iPad and my Mac.", "Related to focus modes, screen time is another feature I’ve recently used a lot to help me lessen the amount of distracting notifications, and time I was spending on social media apps.", "Apple gives you a ton of data to work with to help you lessen the amount of distractions from your iPhone so you can focus on more important things.", "Another new software feature that's been really useful is called Hide My Email.", "What Apple will do here is it will create a random iCloud, email address like this one that you can send emails to and then what Apple will do is anytime an email is sent to an address like this one, it'll forward that email onto your actual email address.", "This way when you're signing up for something, you're not actually giving a company your actual email address.", "But what’s been brilliant about this feature on iOS is when you get a box to input your email address, you’ll see a drop down appear automatically with this feature, making it so simple to use.", "Now to use Hide My Email, you'll need to have something called iCloud Plus, which is what Apple calls their expanded iCloud Storage program.", "The lowest tier costs $2.99 per month here in the US for 250 GB of storage and it comes with other features like private relay.", "A couple of other features that have been useful on the 13 Pro are the ability to mute text message notifications from unknown numbers, you can use FaceID with a mask on, and with iOS 15 you can copy written text like a recipe and paste it as digital text into your notes.", "Though the accuracy of this feature can vary wildly and I still find that Google Lens is a more accurate product to use in this type of scenario.", "So, that's a bit about the new software features that I've enjoyed using on this iPhone.", "Now, with the iPhone 13 Pro, you of course get the classic iPhone hardware features like Face ID, which is fantastic.", "and the FaceID camera enclosure is a bit smaller on the iPhone 13 Pro compared to the 13.", "And Apple’s flat screen design on this year’s iPhones are a classic take on the iPhone 4 and 4S era and make it really easy to put a screen protector on, which I appreciate.", "Now, the last main benefit I found with using this iPhone and it's one you've probably heard me mentioned before if you're subscriber to the channel, and if you're not perfect time to go ahead and subscribe to the channel and give this video a thumbs up.", "The last major benefit is the Apple ecosystem.", "Now, the Apple ecosystem, this is a term that refers to all of these software features you can use between Apple products.", "And the iPhone.", "I like to think of the iPhone as a key into the Apple ecosystem, especially when we're talking about phone calls and messages, so you can have all of your text messages on your iPad, Mac and Apple Watch and you even send text messages from a HomePod Mini.", "Your iPhone will also enable spatial audio & automatic headphones switching between your other devices, it has a universal clipboard which makes it easy to copy text from your phone and paste on a Mac or iPad.", "Continuity, where you can open up a webpage in Safari on your Mac, right from where you left off on your iPhone.", "The iPhone 13 Pro also has an ultrawideband chip that makes it easy to tap a HomePod Mini to hand off audio to or precisely find an AirTag located nearby.", "Next up, let's talk downsides.", "Now, the only downside I found using the iPhone 13 Pro over the past six months has been Apple's insistence on downloading every application for this device through their own app store.", "This limits the kind of apps you can download and overall limits your choice as consumer with what you can do with your device, unlike with one of Apple’s other products, the Mac, which doesn’t have this limitation.", "Other than that, I haven't found any other downsides, with the iPhone 13 Pro.", "It’s been a solid device and for $200 more, to me is worth the upgrade over the 13.", "Now once you get 6 months into a phone’s lifecycle, this question always comes up.", "“Should you wait for the new iPhones coming out in September or just get one now?” It’s a valid question and in general, I don’t think going for the 13 Pro now is a bad decision.", "Based on the latest rumors for the iPhone 14 Pro from sites like Forbes and figures like Mark Gurman and John Prossor, It seems like the upcoming 14 Pro will ditch the FaceID notch and have some other minor aesthetic changes, but nothing groundbreaking that will really change your day-to-day use of the device like I’d argue better battery life and the 120hz screen will get you in the 13 Pro.", "Now, Apple will likely have a new chip in the iPhone 14 Pro and that may allow them to get even better battery life with that phone compared to the 13 Pro.", "So that may be something to watch.", "The iPhone 13 Pro starts at $999.00 here in the US for the 128 GB model and can go up to 1 TB of storage for $1499, and comes in the new Alpine Green, Silver, Gold, Graphite and Serria Blue which is the color I have.", "If you're interested in purchasing an iPhone 13 Pro or you just want to check out some links to some great iPhone accessories, make sure you check out the purchase links here in this video and in the description below.", "If you have any thoughts on the iPhone 13 Pro, what you love about using it, if it's worth the upgrade over the 13 in your mind and whether or not people should wait for the 14 pro, leave a comment below.", "Now, if you're looking for what to watch next, check out some of our other long-term full reviews.", "Like our reviews of the AirPods Max, HomePod Mini, iPad Mini, and make sure you're subscribed to see upcoming Apple long-term reviews, like our review of the Mac Studio and Studio Display.", "For 6 Months Later, I'm Josh Teder, thanks for watching." ]
[ "(logo bleeping) - [Falcon] Normally the end of the game is when the crazy stuff stops happening, but some games save some extra special stuff for after the credits roll.", "Hi folks, it's Falcon, and today on Gameranx, 10 of the craziest things that happened after the game ended, part two.", "Now, part two implies there is a part one, and this is true.", "And of course, before we get into this list, this is about the endings and things that happen after the endings of games, so expect spoilers.", "But getting started with number 10, in \"Red Dead Redemption 2,\" when you play as John Marston, again.", "We mentioned \"Red Dead 1\" on the first list, so, for part two, we gotta come back with one of the best part twos of all time.", "\"RDR2\" is a prequel to the first game and follows the misadventures of the Dutch Van der Linde Gang, as they try to outrun the law and stay alive in a rapidly changing world.", "The protagonist of the original game, John Marston, is in the game, but mostly he's just around.", "The guy you actually play as is Arthur Morgan.", "And \"RDR2\" is not a short game, so you play as Arthur a lot.", "So, there's five lengthy sections of the story where you play as Arthur.", "It's so long that I just assume Rockstar wouldn't be putting anything else after the end.", "But, obviously, it's on this list, so I was not right about that.", "At this point, it's much less of a surprise because the game's been out a while, we've all played it.", "But at the end of the game, you can decide how honorable or dishonorable Arthur's final moments are, but the final result is always the same.", "Arthur dies and John Marston manages to escape.", "It feels like a pretty definitive end to things.", "And for most games, the story probably would just end there, but no, it keeps going.", "The game jumps ahead multiple years, and now we're back playing is John Marston.", "Like the epilogue chapter of the original game, these last bits are a little more mellow, showing John try to rebuild his relationship with his family and prove to them he's a changed man from his outlaw days.", "It's actually an amazing section of an already great game and only deepens the themes of the story.", "And it also feels good to be back in John Marston's boots for a while.", "At number nine is \"Guardians of the Galaxy's\" final boss.", "A more recent example of a game that pulls a pretty fast one on you.", "They really, really want you to think that this game is ending.", "Like there's a final boss, sequence where all the heroes struck away and talk to their buddies.", "And it really feels like that's the end.", "They roll the credits.", "There's even a mid-credit scene before cutting back to the credits that looks like there's set up to be a sequel.", "So, it really feels like the game could be ending here.", "It's kind of unsatisfying that you never got to fight the actual bad guy of the game, Magus.", "But this is video games we're talking about.", "Most video game endings aren't great, and usually, are kind of sudden, so we just assumed that and all this stuff would get followed up on a potential sequel.", "Thankfully, the game doesn't let us down.", "Magus shows up in the second mid-credits trailer, which leads to the actual final boss of the game.", "And it is appropriately epic.", "The only reason this whole thing isn't higher on the list is because it's not totally unexpected.", "I mean, the bad guy's whole thing is that he can warp reality and trick people with visions and stuff, so the audience is kind of conditioned to expect the unexpected.", "So, savvy players probably saw this one coming, but we were impressed, at least.", "\"Guardians\" turned out to be a surprisingly great game with a really fun last-minute twist.", "At number eight is \"Dead Space 2's\" rescue.", "One that really could have gone in our first list.", "\"Dead space 2\" is, in many ways, the \"Aliens\" of video games.", "It's a more action-packed sequel that expands the original, while still retaining what made the original so great.", "It's just a really fun, scary game with a lot of great moments, and one's obviously included on there.", "At first, it seems like the game's gonna end on a downer.", "Isaac's able to resist control of the Marker and destroy it, but it seems like he's going to die with the station.", "Isaac sits down, the screen fades to black, while the computer voice is saying, \"The entire facility is falling apart.\"", "It's a very horror game kind of ending, that could have easily been how things concluded, and even starts rolling credits to really make you think that's the end, until, out of nowhere, Isaac's video screen turns on and reveals that Ellie is coming to rescue you.", "So, you get in the ship and everything seems cool but they actually hit you with a double fake-out, as Isaac sits in a chair a lot like the ending of the first \"Dead Space.\"", "If you remember that game ends with Isaac sitting in the escape pod and then suddenly getting attacked by a Necromorph, it looks like the exact same thing's gonna play out again here.", "But when Isaac looks over, he just sees Ellie who just looks back and says, \"What?\"", "As unrelentingly grim as these games can be, the fact \"Dead Space 2\" has a pretty happy ending almost feels like a subversion.", "But after everything the poor dude went through, it was nice they gave Isaac a little bit of a break with this ending.", "At number seven is \"Resident Evil 8's\" flash forward.", "A really unexpected thing from the game for multiple reasons.", "For one, \"Resident Evil\" games almost always have short endings where the heroes fly away in a helicopter and then fade to credits.", "It's practically a series tradition that the ending's pretty short and simple.", "It's just something that happens in pretty much every one of the games.", "And it's basically how this one ends too.", "Chris Redfield and Mia and the baby escape on a helicopter, while Ethan Winters sacrifices himself to save the day.", "There's even a little tease that Chris is going to the European BSAA headquarters to deal with them.", "Which implies there will be a sequel, with Chris fighting his former organization.", "That's pretty normal.", "The stuff you'd expect from a \"Resident Evil\" game.", "But then the credits play and there's a post-credit scene that sort of blows everything up.", "The actual scene itself is relatively mundane, but the implications for the series are pretty huge.", "It shows a teenage Rose visiting her father's grave, getting picked up by a guy who apparently works for Chris.", "They imply that Rose has some kind of powers and that she is needed for a situation.", "And then the car drives away to show a figure in the distance, who's presumably an actually alive Ethan Winters.", "All of this wouldn't be that huge if this was a standalone game, but it's not.", "It's the eighth game and a major franchise.", "And there's never been a time skip as huge as this one in a \"Resident Evil\" game.", "Remember, the last time we saw Rose, she was a literal baby.", "So, it has to be at least 12 to 15 years from the rest of the ending.", "What's the state of the world now?", "Why did they tease two completely different sequels at the end?", "It's all kind of nuts, especially if you're a \"Resident Evil fan and love the speculation.", "At number six, \"Nioh 2,\" in that is a prequel and a sequel.", "\"Nioh 2\" is an incredibly long game, especially for an action game.", "So, when you take on a two-stage boss and it basically, in every way, looks like the last boss, most people think that's the end.", "The plot's simple, you out friends with Tokichiro, and both rise up the ranks and gain prestige, but Tokichiro becomes evil and you have to fight him.", "So, it makes sense that this would be the final battle.", "The encounter with him is pretty tough too.", "He's got the same Yokai powers as you do.", "There's even a surprise villain reveal where you find out that this evil spirit guy is the one who is influencing your friend to be bad.", "So, you beat him down too.", "And it's revealed that his evil is so powerful that you have to seal yourself in with him to keep the spirit contained.", "It seems like an obvious stopping point, but, no, the game just keeps going.", "In a pretty cool twist, it's revealed here that this game is both a prequel and a sequel to the original \"Nioh.\"", "It never seemed like the protagonist, William, would appear in the game, but here he is.", "And you actually have to fight him as the next boss.", "Of course, then the two of them team up to take on the actual honest to God final boss, Otakemaru, and then the game actually ends.", "They never even hinted that something like this would happen.", "Pre-release Team Ninja swore up and down the game was just a prequel and had nothing to do with the first game, story-wise at least.", "So, they completely lied about that, but it made the ending a really big surprise.", "Yeah, nobody really cares too in-depth about the story in these games, but a William boss fight was pretty darn cool.", "At number five, with \"Metal Gear Solid V,\" that there is just a part two of the game.", "This is an obvious edition.", "There's a point in this game where it really seems like everything's wrapping up.", "You take on this game's Metal Gear, you kill the bad guy, everyone goes home happy, the credit's roll.", "That's it.", "Job well done.", "And then at the end, there's something completely different.", "A trailer for part two.", "Most \"Metal Gear\" games love to hide twists after the credits.", "It's a common thing for there to be some kind of phone message or conversation after the end credits where a big bombshell's dropped, that either hints towards a sequel or makes you rethink everything that's already happened.", "This game does something different.", "The credits roll, but there's still a ton of story left.", "Some of the most interesting parts of the game actually happen in part two.", "It's really where the entire structure of the game kind of gets blown up and not everything works.", "Just having to replay certain missions over again on hard difficulties is a drag.", "And the whole thing kind of feels incomplete.", "But just the fact that there's so much more of the game past where a \"Metal gear\" traditionally ends was kind of shocking.", "Regardless of your opinion of the rest of the game, the trailer that played after the credits was mind-blowing in the best possible way.", "At number four, \"Call of Duty: Black Ops II's\" Avenging Sevenfold.", "\"Call of Duty: Black Ops II\" has a more silly one where Menendez and Woods join Avenged Sevenfold, to play for a crowd consisting primarily of every other character to show up across the game.", "Also, Woods isn't actually handicapped, he's just apparently lazy.", "Let's explain.", "This one's a lot goofier.", "So, \"Call of Duty: Black Ops II's campaign was a pretty interesting experiment for the franchise.", "Instead of being totally linear, there were multiple choices that would affect the outcome of the story.", "It's an idea that they've only tried again, even kind of with \"Cold War,\" but we'd love to see the franchise really try this choose your own adventure idea in a future game again.", "The plot takes place in the future of the \"Black Ops\" universe, and it's about hunting a terrorist leader named Raul Menendez.", "None of that really matters for this whole thing though.", "In fact, nothing matters to this.", "It's just an all-around really dumb thing that Treyarch put at the end of the game for, honestly, I have no idea.", "I don't know why this is in the game.", "Depending on your end, this goofy little bonus thing may come after either one or both characters featured die an agonizing death, so the tonal whiplash is completely insane.", "It's all inappropriate, dumb, totally pointless, and, to some, painfully cringe.", "But it's also definitely surprising.", "I mean, why would a \"Call of Duty\" game end with a concert?", "At number three is the funeral in \"Wild Arms.\"", "We've mostly been talking about modern games on this list so far, but for this one, let's go all the way back to 1996, and the PlayStation 1.", "The original \"Wild Arms\" was pretty much overshadowed by the much more technically impressive and modern \"Final Fantasy VI,\" but it's a cult classic game for a reason.", "If you get past the pretty ugly 3D models in battle, you've got an old-school RPG with a really good story and fantastic pixel art, on top of an amazing soundtrack.", "One interesting gimmick about the game was that after you picked one of the three protagonists at the start of the game, you would play through each of their stories individually before they all met up and finally started the game properly.", "That let the game focus on each character's special gimmicks and give them some character before the actual plot kicked in, and it worked pretty well.", "Once all three characters are united, you get sent on a mission to discover some ancient technology, and when you return to town, it gets attacked by demons.", "The heroes lose the fight against the demon leader, the king is killed, and that seems like it's the end of the game.", "Looking at it now, it's absurd to think that an RPG would end that quickly, but a lot of players legitimately assumed that was the end of the game.", "It's a long sequence with swelling music that shows the funeral of the king in the aftermath of the battle.", "It really does feel like something you would show at the end of the game, but it's really the beginning of the game.", "It was way more of a wild west with video games back then, so nobody really knew what a game might do.", "The PlayStation 1 was a system with a lot of weird games too.", "So, if you just rented this one without any prior experience, I could definitely see why you'd think the funeral is the end, especially when the credits start kicking in.", "Games really didn't just do stuff like that back then.", "At number two is \"Advent Rising.\"", "I don't know how to describe this without spending a longer period of time on it, so here.", "If you've heard about this game, it's probably in relation to how much of a bomb it was.", "It was an infamous failure.", "A janky, buggy mess that was awkward to play, and had a borderline incomprehensible story.", "I can't even begin to describe what's supposed to be happening in this game.", "You play as this strange noodle creature that's apparently a human being, and you fight forearmed Elites from \"Halo.\"", "And that's the game.", "But while most of it is weird and kind of dumb, it's not really noteworthy, at least, until the ending.", "At the end of the game, you manage to defeat the bad guys called the Seekers, then make it to the Galactic Council, basically, to tattle on the bad guys.", "The credits roll from there and that seems like the end.", "It's kind of weird and unsatisfying, but it fits with the rest of the game.", "Then, suddenly, the game cuts back to the Council and this weird dude floats in and says that they're a \"true human,\" and you end up fighting them.", "\"Guardians of the Galaxy\" didn't invent the surprise boss after the credits, this game did.", "There's probably something older than both of these that does the same trick.", "But, anyway, you fight the guy with psychic powers, and then you go through a portal.", "Then some weirdo, this guy with horns, tells you that there is much to be done.", "So, basically, all the most interesting stuff about this game happens after the credits.", "And, guess what?", "It's not going to be followed up on.", "And that's fine.", "And finally, at number one, \"Dragon's Dogma's\" Everfall.", "You'd think a game called \"Dragon's Dogma\" would end when you kill the dragon, but, no.", "The entire game seems to be about hunting a big dragon.", "Everything in the story tells you the dragon's the focus and there's pretty much zero hints there could be anything else going on.", "So, when you finally take on the big guy in the suitably epic final showdown, that feels like the end of the game.", "But in one of the most unexpected and crazy twists of all time, defeating the dragon causes a giant hole to appear in the capital city called the Everfall.", "And to truly finish the game, you need to go down to the depths of the place and take on the real final boss.", "Like I said, there's really nothing that hinted this could happen.", "It's a game mostly about wandering around an open world, finding monsters.", "But the end of the game has you go to a pretty closed-off dungeon and fight a god or whatever this is supposed to be.", "It's a sharp right turn for a game that's pretty traditional fantasy stuff for most of it.", "A lot of JRPGs get weird at the end, and it's one of those things people kind of come to expect.", "But there's no way people would've expected that you'd have to fight and then become a god at the end of \"Dragon's Dogma.\"", "And remember, this is pre-\"Dark Souls,\" so it was a pretty novel idea at the time, at least for games like this.", "Everything about the dragon boss screams, \"This is the final boss,\" so there being a lot more past it is just a huge shock.", "And that's all for today.", "Leave us a comment.", "Let us know what you think.", "If you liked this video click like.", "If you're not subscribed, now's a great time to do so.", "We upload brand new videos every day of the week.", "The best way to see them first is, of course, a subscription.", "So, click subscribe, don't forget to enable all notifications.", "And as always, we thank you very much for watching this video.", "I'm Falcon.", "You can follow me on Twitter @FalconTheHero.", "And we'll see you next time, right here on Gameranx." ]
["IRFAN BAQUI: Hey, everyone.","Welcome to \"Apigee Up Close.\"","My name is Irfan Baqui.","I'm a cu(...TRUNCATED)
["I think there is a chance that the US government may about to once again create the greatest wealt(...TRUNCATED)
["[APPLAUSE] - Two out of the three fundamental mysteries about our place in the universe have alrea(...TRUNCATED)
["You’ve probably seen a lot of headlines claiming that quantum mechanics is “strange”, “wei(...TRUNCATED)
["- These two computers have the exact same specifications, which means their performance is exactly(...TRUNCATED)
End of preview.

From Text Segmentation to Smart Chaptering: A Novel Benchmark for Structuring Video Transcriptions

We present YTSeg, a topically and structurally diverse benchmark for the text segmentation task based on YouTube transcriptions. The dataset comprises 19,299 videos from 393 channels, amounting to 6,533 content hours. The topics are wide-ranging, covering domains such as science, lifestyle, politics, health, economy, and technology. The videos are from various types of content formats, such as podcasts, lectures, news, corporate events & promotional content, and, more broadly, videos from individual content creators. We refer to the paper (acl | arXiv) for further information. We provide both text and audio data as well as a download script for the video data.

Data Overview


Each video is represented as a JSON object with the following fields:

Field Description
text A flat list of sentences.
targets The target segmentation as string of binary values (e.g., 000100000010).
channel_id The YouTube channel ID which this video belongs to.
video_id The YouTube video ID.
audio_path Path to the .mp3 file of the video.
Partition # Examples
Training 16,404 (85%)
Validation 1,447 (7.5%)
Testing 1,448 (7.5%)
Total 19,229


Each chapter of a video is represented as a JSON object with the following fields:

Field Description
input The complete chapter/section text.
input_with_chapters The complete chapter/section text with previous section titles prepended.
target The target chapter title.
channel_id The YouTube channel ID which this chapter's video belongs to.
video_id The YouTube video ID which this chapter belongs to.
chapter_idx The index and placement of the chapter in the video (e.g., the first chapter has index 0).
Partition # Examples
Training 146,907 (84.8%)
Validation 13,206 (7.6%)
Testing 13,082 (7.6%)
Total 173,195

Audio Data

We provide audio files for all examples in the dataset, preprocessed into the .mp3 format with a standardized sample rate of 16,000 Hz and a single channel (mono). These files are organized within the directory structure as follows: data/audio/<channel_id>/<video_id>.mp3.

Video Data

A download script for the video and audio data is provided.


In the script, you can further specify a target folder (default is ./video) and target formats in a priority list.

Loading Text Data

This repository comes with a simple, exemplary script to read in the text data with pandas.

from load_data import get_partition
test_data = get_partition('test')

Equivalently, to read in YTSeg[Titles]:

from load_data import get_title_partition
test_data = get_title_partition('test')


We kindly request you to cite our corresponding EACL 2024 paper if you use our dataset.

    title = "From Text Segmentation to Smart Chaptering: A Novel Benchmark for Structuring Video Transcriptions",
    author = "Retkowski, Fabian  and Waibel, Alexander",
    editor = "Graham, Yvette  and Purver, Matthew",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)",
    month = mar,
    year = "2024",
    address = "St. Julian{'}s, Malta",
    publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics",
    url = "",
    pages = "406--419",
    abstract = "Text segmentation is a fundamental task in natural language processing, where documents are split into contiguous sections. However, prior research in this area has been constrained by limited datasets, which are either small in scale, synthesized, or only contain well-structured documents. In this paper, we address these limitations by introducing a novel benchmark YTSeg focusing on spoken content that is inherently more unstructured and both topically and structurally diverse. As part of this work, we introduce an efficient hierarchical segmentation model MiniSeg, that outperforms state-of-the-art baselines. Lastly, we expand the notion of text segmentation to a more practical {``}smart chaptering{''} task that involves the segmentation of unstructured content, the generation of meaningful segment titles, and a potential real-time application of the models.",


The dataset is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA) 4.0 license. We note that we do not own the copyright of the videos and as such opted to release the dataset with a non-commercial license, with the intended use to be in research and education.

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