Languages: English
Multilinguality: monolingual
Size Categories: 10K<n<100K
Source Datasets: subjqa
ArXiv:
Dataset Preview
"to reflect their distinct brand identities"
"question: Why did The Sunday Times and The Times launch separate websites in 2010?, context: The Sunday Times has its own website. It previously shared an online presence with The Times, but in May 2010 they both launched their own sites to reflect their distinct brand identities. Since July 2010, the sites have charged for access."
"Why did The Sunday Times and The Times launch separate websites in 2010?"
"It previously shared an online presence with The Times, but in May 2010 they both launched their own sites to reflect their distinct brand identities ."
"The Sunday Times has its own website. It previously shared an online presence with The Times, but in May 2010 they both launched their own sites to reflect their distinct brand identities. Since July 2010, the sites have charged for access."
"It previously shared an online presence with The Times, but in May 2010 they both launched their own sites <hl> to reflect their distinct brand identities <hl> ."
"The Sunday Times has its own website. It previously shared an online presence with The Times, but in May 2010 they both launched their own sites <hl> to reflect their distinct brand identities <hl>. Since July 2010, the sites have charged for access."
"The Sunday Times has its own website. <hl> It previously shared an online presence with The Times, but in May 2010 they both launched their own sites to reflect their distinct brand identities . <hl> Since July 2010, the sites have charged for access."
"5d6733952b22cd4dfcfbf266"
"1853"
"question: In what year did gold extraction turn to more difficult locations?, context: By 1853, most of the easily accessible gold had been collected, and attention turned to extracting gold from more difficult locations. Hydraulic mining was used on ancient gold-bearing gravel beds on hillsides and bluffs in the gold fields.:89 In hydraulic mining, a high-pressure hose directed a powerful stream or jet of water at gold-bearing gravel beds. By the mid-1880s, it is estimated that 11 million ounces (340 t) of gold (worth approximately US$15 billion at December 2010 prices) had been recovered by "hydraulicking". A byproduct of these extraction methods was that large amounts of gravel, silt, heavy metals, and other pollutants went into streams and rivers.:32–36 As of 1999[update], many areas still bear the scars of hydraulic mining, since the resulting exposed earth and downstream gravel deposits do not support plant life.:116–121" "In what year did gold extraction turn to more difficult locations?" "By 1853 , most of the easily accessible gold had been collected, and attention turned to extracting gold from more difficult locations." "By 1853, most of the easily accessible gold had been collected, and attention turned to extracting gold from more difficult locations. Hydraulic mining was used on ancient gold-bearing gravel beds on hillsides and bluffs in the gold fields.:89 In hydraulic mining, a high-pressure hose directed a powerful stream or jet of water at gold-bearing gravel beds. By the mid-1880s, it is estimated that 11 million ounces (340 t) of gold (worth approximately US$15 billion at December 2010 prices) had been recovered by "hydraulicking". A byproduct of these extraction methods was that large amounts of gravel, silt, heavy metals, and other pollutants went into streams and rivers.:32–36 As of 1999[update], many areas still bear the scars of hydraulic mining, since the resulting exposed earth and downstream gravel deposits do not support plant life.:116–121"
"By <hl> 1853 <hl> , most of the easily accessible gold had been collected, and attention turned to extracting gold from more difficult locations."
"By <hl> 1853 <hl>, most of the easily accessible gold had been collected, and attention turned to extracting gold from more difficult locations. Hydraulic mining was used on ancient gold-bearing gravel beds on hillsides and bluffs in the gold fields.:89 In hydraulic mining, a high-pressure hose directed a powerful stream or jet of water at gold-bearing gravel beds. By the mid-1880s, it is estimated that 11 million ounces (340 t) of gold (worth approximately US$15 billion at December 2010 prices) had been recovered by "hydraulicking". A byproduct of these extraction methods was that large amounts of gravel, silt, heavy metals, and other pollutants went into streams and rivers.:32–36 As of 1999[update], many areas still bear the scars of hydraulic mining, since the resulting exposed earth and downstream gravel deposits do not support plant life.:116–121" "<hl> By 1853 , most of the easily accessible gold had been collected, and attention turned to extracting gold from more difficult locations. <hl> Hydraulic mining was used on ancient gold-bearing gravel beds on hillsides and bluffs in the gold fields.:89 In hydraulic mining, a high-pressure hose directed a powerful stream or jet of water at gold-bearing gravel beds. By the mid-1880s, it is estimated that 11 million ounces (340 t) of gold (worth approximately US$15 billion at December 2010 prices) had been recovered by "hydraulicking". A byproduct of these extraction methods was that large amounts of gravel, silt, heavy metals, and other pollutants went into streams and rivers.:32–36 As of 1999[update], many areas still bear the scars of hydraulic mining, since the resulting exposed earth and downstream gravel deposits do not support plant life.:116–121"
"5d6773722b22cd4dfcfbfc3e"
"morning star"
"question: What did Morgenstern mean?, context: Ornamental names used as surnames are more common in communities which adopted (or were forced to adopt) surnames in the 18th and 19th centuries. They occur commonly among Jewish families and in Scandinavia. Examples include "Morgenstern" ("morning star"), "Safire" ("sapphire"), and "Reis" ("branch"). In some cases, such as Chinese Indonesians and Chinese Thais, certain ethnic groups are subject to political pressure to change their surnames, in which case surnames can lose their family-name meaning. For instance, Indonesian business tycoon Liem Swie Liong (林绍良) "indonesianised" his name to Sudono Salim. In this case "Liem" (林) was rendered by "Salim", a name of Arabic origin, while "Sudono", a Javanese name with the honorific prefix "su-" (of Sanskrit origin), was supposed[by whom?] to be a rendering of "Swie Liong". During the era of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade (of Africans) many Africans lost their native names and were forced[by whom?] to take the surnames of their slave masters and any given name the slave master desired."
"What did Morgenstern mean?"
"Examples include "Morgenstern" (" morning star "), "Safire" ("sapphire"), and "Reis" ("branch")."
"Ornamental names used as surnames are more common in communities which adopted (or were forced to adopt) surnames in the 18th and 19th centuries. They occur commonly among Jewish families and in Scandinavia. Examples include "Morgenstern" ("morning star"), "Safire" ("sapphire"), and "Reis" ("branch"). In some cases, such as Chinese Indonesians and Chinese Thais, certain ethnic groups are subject to political pressure to change their surnames, in which case surnames can lose their family-name meaning. For instance, Indonesian business tycoon Liem Swie Liong (林绍良) "indonesianised" his name to Sudono Salim. In this case "Liem" (林) was rendered by "Salim", a name of Arabic origin, while "Sudono", a Javanese name with the honorific prefix "su-" (of Sanskrit origin), was supposed[by whom?] to be a rendering of "Swie Liong". During the era of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade (of Africans) many Africans lost their native names and were forced[by whom?] to take the surnames of their slave masters and any given name the slave master desired."
"Examples include "Morgenstern" (" <hl> morning star <hl> "), "Safire" ("sapphire"), and "Reis" ("branch")."
"Ornamental names used as surnames are more common in communities which adopted (or were forced to adopt) surnames in the 18th and 19th centuries. They occur commonly among Jewish families and in Scandinavia. Examples include "Morgenstern" ("<hl> morning star <hl>"), "Safire" ("sapphire"), and "Reis" ("branch"). In some cases, such as Chinese Indonesians and Chinese Thais, certain ethnic groups are subject to political pressure to change their surnames, in which case surnames can lose their family-name meaning. For instance, Indonesian business tycoon Liem Swie Liong (林绍良) "indonesianised" his name to Sudono Salim. In this case "Liem" (林) was rendered by "Salim", a name of Arabic origin, while "Sudono", a Javanese name with the honorific prefix "su-" (of Sanskrit origin), was supposed[by whom?] to be a rendering of "Swie Liong". During the era of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade (of Africans) many Africans lost their native names and were forced[by whom?] to take the surnames of their slave masters and any given name the slave master desired."
"Ornamental names used as surnames are more common in communities which adopted (or were forced to adopt) surnames in the 18th and 19th centuries. They occur commonly among Jewish families and in Scandinavia. <hl> Examples include "Morgenstern" (" morning star "), "Safire" ("sapphire"), and "Reis" ("branch"). <hl> In some cases, such as Chinese Indonesians and Chinese Thais, certain ethnic groups are subject to political pressure to change their surnames, in which case surnames can lose their family-name meaning. For instance, Indonesian business tycoon Liem Swie Liong (林绍良) "indonesianised" his name to Sudono Salim. In this case "Liem" (林) was rendered by "Salim", a name of Arabic origin, while "Sudono", a Javanese name with the honorific prefix "su-" (of Sanskrit origin), was supposed[by whom?] to be a rendering of "Swie Liong". During the era of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade (of Africans) many Africans lost their native names and were forced[by whom?] to take the surnames of their slave masters and any given name the slave master desired."
"5d66efdb2b22cd4dfcfbe622"
"frictional unemployment"
"question: What is the term for the slight changes caused by people changing places of work and new people just beginning their job search?, context: During the 1940s, the U.S Department of Labor, specifically the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), began collecting employment information via monthly household surveys. Other data series are available back to 1912. The unemployment rate has varied from as low as 1% during World War I to as high as 25% during the Great Depression. More recently, it reached peaks of 10.8% in November 1982 and 10.0% in October 2009. Unemployment tends to rise during recessions and fall during expansions. From 1948-2015, unemployment averaged about 5.8%. There is always some unemployment, with persons changing jobs and new entrants to the labor force searching for jobs. This is referred to as frictional unemployment. For this reason, the Federal Reserve targets the natural rate of unemployment or NAIRU, which was around 5% in 2015. A rate of unemployment below this level would be consistent with rising inflation in theory, as a shortage of workers would bid wages (and thus prices) upward."
"What is the term for the slight changes caused by people changing places of work and new people just beginning their job search?"
"This is referred to as frictional unemployment ."
"During the 1940s, the U.S Department of Labor, specifically the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), began collecting employment information via monthly household surveys. Other data series are available back to 1912. The unemployment rate has varied from as low as 1% during World War I to as high as 25% during the Great Depression. More recently, it reached peaks of 10.8% in November 1982 and 10.0% in October 2009. Unemployment tends to rise during recessions and fall during expansions. From 1948-2015, unemployment averaged about 5.8%. There is always some unemployment, with persons changing jobs and new entrants to the labor force searching for jobs. This is referred to as frictional unemployment. For this reason, the Federal Reserve targets the natural rate of unemployment or NAIRU, which was around 5% in 2015. A rate of unemployment below this level would be consistent with rising inflation in theory, as a shortage of workers would bid wages (and thus prices) upward."
"This is referred to as <hl> frictional unemployment <hl> ."
"During the 1940s, the U.S Department of Labor, specifically the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), began collecting employment information via monthly household surveys. Other data series are available back to 1912. The unemployment rate has varied from as low as 1% during World War I to as high as 25% during the Great Depression. More recently, it reached peaks of 10.8% in November 1982 and 10.0% in October 2009. Unemployment tends to rise during recessions and fall during expansions. From 1948-2015, unemployment averaged about 5.8%. There is always some unemployment, with persons changing jobs and new entrants to the labor force searching for jobs. This is referred to as <hl> frictional unemployment <hl>. For this reason, the Federal Reserve targets the natural rate of unemployment or NAIRU, which was around 5% in 2015. A rate of unemployment below this level would be consistent with rising inflation in theory, as a shortage of workers would bid wages (and thus prices) upward."
"During the 1940s, the U.S Department of Labor, specifically the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), began collecting employment information via monthly household surveys. Other data series are available back to 1912. The unemployment rate has varied from as low as 1% during World War I to as high as 25% during the Great Depression. More recently, it reached peaks of 10.8% in November 1982 and 10.0% in October 2009. Unemployment tends to rise during recessions and fall during expansions. From 1948-2015, unemployment averaged about 5.8%. There is always some unemployment, with persons changing jobs and new entrants to the labor force searching for jobs. <hl> This is referred to as frictional unemployment . <hl> For this reason, the Federal Reserve targets the natural rate of unemployment or NAIRU, which was around 5% in 2015. A rate of unemployment below this level would be consistent with rising inflation in theory, as a shortage of workers would bid wages (and thus prices) upward."
"5d670a0a2b22cd4dfcfbeba2"
"March 1917"
"question: When did Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne?, context: In March 1917, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne and a provisional government quickly filled the vacuum, proclaiming Russia a republic months later. This was followed by the October Revolution by the Bolsheviks, who seized control in a quick coup d'état against the Provisional Government, resulting in the formation of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), the first country in history committed to the establishment of communism. However, large portions of Russia were held under the leadership of either pro-Tsarist or anti-communist military commanders who formed the White movement to oppose the Bolsheviks, resulting in civil war between the Bolsheviks' Red Army and the anti-Bolshevik White Army. Amidst civil war between the Reds and the Whites, the RSFSR inherited the war that the Russian Empire was fighting against Germany that was ended a year later with an armistice. However, that was followed by a brief Allied military intervention by the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Italy, Japan and others against the Bolsheviks."
"When did Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne?"
"In March 1917 , Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne and a provisional government quickly filled the vacuum, proclaiming Russia a republic months later."
"In March 1917, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne and a provisional government quickly filled the vacuum, proclaiming Russia a republic months later. This was followed by the October Revolution by the Bolsheviks, who seized control in a quick coup d'état against the Provisional Government, resulting in the formation of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), the first country in history committed to the establishment of communism. However, large portions of Russia were held under the leadership of either pro-Tsarist or anti-communist military commanders who formed the White movement to oppose the Bolsheviks, resulting in civil war between the Bolsheviks' Red Army and the anti-Bolshevik White Army. Amidst civil war between the Reds and the Whites, the RSFSR inherited the war that the Russian Empire was fighting against Germany that was ended a year later with an armistice. However, that was followed by a brief Allied military intervention by the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Italy, Japan and others against the Bolsheviks."
"In <hl> March 1917 <hl> , Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne and a provisional government quickly filled the vacuum, proclaiming Russia a republic months later."
"In <hl> March 1917 <hl>, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne and a provisional government quickly filled the vacuum, proclaiming Russia a republic months later. This was followed by the October Revolution by the Bolsheviks, who seized control in a quick coup d'état against the Provisional Government, resulting in the formation of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), the first country in history committed to the establishment of communism. However, large portions of Russia were held under the leadership of either pro-Tsarist or anti-communist military commanders who formed the White movement to oppose the Bolsheviks, resulting in civil war between the Bolsheviks' Red Army and the anti-Bolshevik White Army. Amidst civil war between the Reds and the Whites, the RSFSR inherited the war that the Russian Empire was fighting against Germany that was ended a year later with an armistice. However, that was followed by a brief Allied military intervention by the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Italy, Japan and others against the Bolsheviks."
"<hl> In March 1917 , Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne and a provisional government quickly filled the vacuum, proclaiming Russia a republic months later. <hl> This was followed by the October Revolution by the Bolsheviks, who seized control in a quick coup d'état against the Provisional Government, resulting in the formation of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), the first country in history committed to the establishment of communism. However, large portions of Russia were held under the leadership of either pro-Tsarist or anti-communist military commanders who formed the White movement to oppose the Bolsheviks, resulting in civil war between the Bolsheviks' Red Army and the anti-Bolshevik White Army. Amidst civil war between the Reds and the Whites, the RSFSR inherited the war that the Russian Empire was fighting against Germany that was ended a year later with an armistice. However, that was followed by a brief Allied military intervention by the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Italy, Japan and others against the Bolsheviks."
"5d6815ea2b22cd4dfcfc058e"
"Bronze Age"
"question: The manifestation of Neolithic complex began which age?, context: These developments provided the basis for densely populated settlements, specialization and division of labour, trading economies, the development of non-portable art and architecture, centralized administrations and political structures, hierarchical ideologies, depersonalized systems of knowledge (e.g., writing), and property ownership[citation needed]. Personal land and private property ownership led to hierarchical society, class struggle and armies[citation needed]. The first fully developed manifestation of the entire Neolithic complex is seen in the Middle Eastern Sumerian cities (c. 5,500 BP), whose emergence also heralded the beginning of the Bronze Age."
"The manifestation of Neolithic complex began which age?"
"The first fully developed manifestation of the entire Neolithic complex is seen in the Middle Eastern Sumerian cities (c. 5,500 BP), whose emergence also heralded the beginning of the Bronze Age ."
"These developments provided the basis for densely populated settlements, specialization and division of labour, trading economies, the development of non-portable art and architecture, centralized administrations and political structures, hierarchical ideologies, depersonalized systems of knowledge (e.g., writing), and property ownership[citation needed]. Personal land and private property ownership led to hierarchical society, class struggle and armies[citation needed]. The first fully developed manifestation of the entire Neolithic complex is seen in the Middle Eastern Sumerian cities (c. 5,500 BP), whose emergence also heralded the beginning of the Bronze Age."
"The first fully developed manifestation of the entire Neolithic complex is seen in the Middle Eastern Sumerian cities (c. 5,500 BP), whose emergence also heralded the beginning of the <hl> Bronze Age <hl> ."
"These developments provided the basis for densely populated settlements, specialization and division of labour, trading economies, the development of non-portable art and architecture, centralized administrations and political structures, hierarchical ideologies, depersonalized systems of knowledge (e.g., writing), and property ownership[citation needed]. Personal land and private property ownership led to hierarchical society, class struggle and armies[citation needed]. The first fully developed manifestation of the entire Neolithic complex is seen in the Middle Eastern Sumerian cities (c. 5,500 BP), whose emergence also heralded the beginning of the <hl> Bronze Age <hl>."
"These developments provided the basis for densely populated settlements, specialization and division of labour, trading economies, the development of non-portable art and architecture, centralized administrations and political structures, hierarchical ideologies, depersonalized systems of knowledge (e.g., writing), and property ownership[citation needed]. Personal land and private property ownership led to hierarchical society, class struggle and armies[citation needed]. <hl> The first fully developed manifestation of the entire Neolithic complex is seen in the Middle Eastern Sumerian cities (c. 5,500 BP), whose emergence also heralded the beginning of the Bronze Age . <hl>"
"5d673aea2b22cd4dfcfbf338"
"at ordered pair (0, 0)"
"question: What is the spot an ordered pair points out called?, context: A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length. Each reference line is called a coordinate axis or just axis of the system, and the point where they meet is its origin, usually at ordered pair (0, 0). The coordinates can also be defined as the positions of the perpendicular projections of the point onto the two axes, expressed as signed distances from the origin."
"What is the spot an ordered pair points out called?"
"Each reference line is called a coordinate axis or just axis of the system, and the point where they meet is its origin, usually at ordered pair (0, 0) ."
"A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length. Each reference line is called a coordinate axis or just axis of the system, and the point where they meet is its origin, usually at ordered pair (0, 0). The coordinates can also be defined as the positions of the perpendicular projections of the point onto the two axes, expressed as signed distances from the origin."
"Each reference line is called a coordinate axis or just axis of the system, and the point where they meet is its origin, usually <hl> at ordered pair (0, 0) <hl> ."
"A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length. Each reference line is called a coordinate axis or just axis of the system, and the point where they meet is its origin, usually <hl> at ordered pair (0, 0) <hl>. The coordinates can also be defined as the positions of the perpendicular projections of the point onto the two axes, expressed as signed distances from the origin."
"A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length. <hl> Each reference line is called a coordinate axis or just axis of the system, and the point where they meet is its origin, usually at ordered pair (0, 0) . <hl> The coordinates can also be defined as the positions of the perpendicular projections of the point onto the two axes, expressed as signed distances from the origin."
"5d660c702b22cd4dfcfbd6f6"
"During the 1990s"
"question: In what decade did homeless shelters start popping up?, context: The McKinney-Vento Act paved the way for service providers in the coming years. During the 1990s homeless shelters, soup kitchens, and other supportive services sprouted up in cities and towns across the nation. However, despite these efforts and the dramatic economic growth marked by this decade, homeless numbers remained stubbornly high. It became increasingly apparent that simply providing services to alleviate the symptoms of homelessness (i.e. shelter beds, hot meals, psychiatric counseling, etc.), although needed, were not successful at solving the root causes of homelessness."
"In what decade did homeless shelters start popping up?"
"During the 1990s homeless shelters, soup kitchens, and other supportive services sprouted up in cities and towns across the nation."
"The McKinney-Vento Act paved the way for service providers in the coming years. During the 1990s homeless shelters, soup kitchens, and other supportive services sprouted up in cities and towns across the nation. However, despite these efforts and the dramatic economic growth marked by this decade, homeless numbers remained stubbornly high. It became increasingly apparent that simply providing services to alleviate the symptoms of homelessness (i.e. shelter beds, hot meals, psychiatric counseling, etc.), although needed, were not successful at solving the root causes of homelessness."
"<hl> During the 1990s <hl> homeless shelters, soup kitchens, and other supportive services sprouted up in cities and towns across the nation."
"The McKinney-Vento Act paved the way for service providers in the coming years. <hl> During the 1990s <hl> homeless shelters, soup kitchens, and other supportive services sprouted up in cities and towns across the nation. However, despite these efforts and the dramatic economic growth marked by this decade, homeless numbers remained stubbornly high. It became increasingly apparent that simply providing services to alleviate the symptoms of homelessness (i.e. shelter beds, hot meals, psychiatric counseling, etc.), although needed, were not successful at solving the root causes of homelessness."
"The McKinney-Vento Act paved the way for service providers in the coming years. <hl> During the 1990s homeless shelters, soup kitchens, and other supportive services sprouted up in cities and towns across the nation. <hl> However, despite these efforts and the dramatic economic growth marked by this decade, homeless numbers remained stubbornly high. It became increasingly apparent that simply providing services to alleviate the symptoms of homelessness (i.e. shelter beds, hot meals, psychiatric counseling, etc.), although needed, were not successful at solving the root causes of homelessness."
"5d6604552b22cd4dfcfbd5a7"
"13"
"question: How many colonies started preparing war against the British?, context: The Parliament attempted a series of taxes and punishments which met more and more resistance: First Quartering Act (1765); Declaratory Act (1766); Townshend Revenue Act (1767); and Tea Act (1773). In response to the Boston Tea Party Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts: Second Quartering Act (1774); Quebec Act (1774); Massachusetts Government Act (1774); Administration of Justice Act (1774); Boston Port Act (1774); Prohibitory Act (1775). By this point the 13 colonies had organized themselves into the Continental Congress and began setting up shadow governments and drilling their militia in preparation for war."
"How many colonies started preparing war against the British?"
"By this point the 13 colonies had organized themselves into the Continental Congress and began setting up shadow governments and drilling their militia in preparation for war."
"The Parliament attempted a series of taxes and punishments which met more and more resistance: First Quartering Act (1765); Declaratory Act (1766); Townshend Revenue Act (1767); and Tea Act (1773). In response to the Boston Tea Party Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts: Second Quartering Act (1774); Quebec Act (1774); Massachusetts Government Act (1774); Administration of Justice Act (1774); Boston Port Act (1774); Prohibitory Act (1775). By this point the 13 colonies had organized themselves into the Continental Congress and began setting up shadow governments and drilling their militia in preparation for war."
"By this point the <hl> 13 <hl> colonies had organized themselves into the Continental Congress and began setting up shadow governments and drilling their militia in preparation for war."
"The Parliament attempted a series of taxes and punishments which met more and more resistance: First Quartering Act (1765); Declaratory Act (1766); Townshend Revenue Act (1767); and Tea Act (1773). In response to the Boston Tea Party Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts: Second Quartering Act (1774); Quebec Act (1774); Massachusetts Government Act (1774); Administration of Justice Act (1774); Boston Port Act (1774); Prohibitory Act (1775). By this point the <hl> 13 <hl> colonies had organized themselves into the Continental Congress and began setting up shadow governments and drilling their militia in preparation for war."
"The Parliament attempted a series of taxes and punishments which met more and more resistance: First Quartering Act (1765); Declaratory Act (1766); Townshend Revenue Act (1767); and Tea Act (1773). In response to the Boston Tea Party Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts: Second Quartering Act (1774); Quebec Act (1774); Massachusetts Government Act (1774); Administration of Justice Act (1774); Boston Port Act (1774); Prohibitory Act (1775). <hl> By this point the 13 colonies had organized themselves into the Continental Congress and began setting up shadow governments and drilling their militia in preparation for war. <hl>"
"5d67715e2b22cd4dfcfbfbe3"
"40 to 70 m"
"question: Most of the salt in the Baltic Sea is how many meters below sea level?, context: The Baltic Sea flows out through the Danish straits; however, the flow is complex. A surface layer of brackish water discharges 940 km3 (230 cu mi) per year into the North Sea. Due to the difference in salinity, by salinity permeation principle, a sub-surface layer of more saline water moving in the opposite direction brings in 475 km3 (114 cu mi) per year. It mixes very slowly with the upper waters, resulting in a salinity gradient from top to bottom, with most of the salt water remaining below 40 to 70 m (130 to 230 ft) deep. The general circulation is anti-clockwise: northwards along its eastern boundary, and south along the western one ."
"Most of the salt in the Baltic Sea is how many meters below sea level?"
"It mixes very slowly with the upper waters, resulting in a salinity gradient from top to bottom, with most of the salt water remaining below 40 to 70 m (130 to 230 ft) deep."
"The Baltic Sea flows out through the Danish straits; however, the flow is complex. A surface layer of brackish water discharges 940 km3 (230 cu mi) per year into the North Sea. Due to the difference in salinity, by salinity permeation principle, a sub-surface layer of more saline water moving in the opposite direction brings in 475 km3 (114 cu mi) per year. It mixes very slowly with the upper waters, resulting in a salinity gradient from top to bottom, with most of the salt water remaining below 40 to 70 m (130 to 230 ft) deep. The general circulation is anti-clockwise: northwards along its eastern boundary, and south along the western one ."
"It mixes very slowly with the upper waters, resulting in a salinity gradient from top to bottom, with most of the salt water remaining below <hl> 40 to 70 m <hl> (130 to 230 ft) deep."
"The Baltic Sea flows out through the Danish straits; however, the flow is complex. A surface layer of brackish water discharges 940 km3 (230 cu mi) per year into the North Sea. Due to the difference in salinity, by salinity permeation principle, a sub-surface layer of more saline water moving in the opposite direction brings in 475 km3 (114 cu mi) per year. It mixes very slowly with the upper waters, resulting in a salinity gradient from top to bottom, with most of the salt water remaining below <hl> 40 to 70 m <hl> (130 to 230 ft) deep. The general circulation is anti-clockwise: northwards along its eastern boundary, and south along the western one ."
"The Baltic Sea flows out through the Danish straits; however, the flow is complex. A surface layer of brackish water discharges 940 km3 (230 cu mi) per year into the North Sea. Due to the difference in salinity, by salinity permeation principle, a sub-surface layer of more saline water moving in the opposite direction brings in 475 km3 (114 cu mi) per year. <hl> It mixes very slowly with the upper waters, resulting in a salinity gradient from top to bottom, with most of the salt water remaining below 40 to 70 m (130 to 230 ft) deep. <hl> The general circulation is anti-clockwise: northwards along its eastern boundary, and south along the western one ."
"5d6619032b22cd4dfcfbd880"
"Alvin Toffler published Future Shock (1970) and The Third Wave (1980)"
"question: What books did Alvin Toffler publish in 1970 and 1980?, context: Leopold Kohr, author of the 1957 book The Breakdown of Nations—known for its statement “Whenever something is wrong, something is too big”—was a major influence on E.F. Schumacher, author of the 1973 bestseller Small is Beautiful:Economics As If People Mattered . In the next few years a number of best-selling books promoted decentralization. Daniel Bell's The Coming of Post-Industrial Society discussed the need for decentralization and a “comprehensive overhaul of government structure to find the appropriate size and scope of units”, as well as the need to detach functions from current state boundaries, creating regions based on functions like water, transport, education and economics which might have “different ‘overlays’ on the map.” Alvin Toffler published Future Shock (1970) and The Third Wave (1980). Discussing the books in a later interview, Toffler said that industrial-style, centralized, top-down bureaucratic planning would be replaced by a more open, democratic, decentralized style which he called “anticipatory democracy.” Futurist John Naisbitt's 1982 book “Megatrends” was on The New York Times Best Seller list for more than two years and sold 14 million copies. Naisbitt’s book outlines 10 “megatrends”, the fifth of which is from centralization to decentralization. In 1996 David Osborne and Ted Gaebler had a best selling book Reinventing Government proposing decentralist public administration theories which became labeled the "New Public Management"."
"What books did Alvin Toffler publish in 1970 and 1980?"
"Daniel Bell's The Coming of Post-Industrial Society discussed the need for decentralization and a “comprehensive overhaul of government structure to find the appropriate size and scope of units”, as well as the need to detach functions from current state boundaries, creating regions based on functions like water, transport, education and economics which might have “different ‘overlays’ on the map.” Alvin Toffler published Future Shock (1970) and The Third Wave (1980) ."
"Leopold Kohr, author of the 1957 book The Breakdown of Nations—known for its statement “Whenever something is wrong, something is too big”—was a major influence on E.F. Schumacher, author of the 1973 bestseller Small is Beautiful:Economics As If People Mattered . In the next few years a number of best-selling books promoted decentralization. Daniel Bell's The Coming of Post-Industrial Society discussed the need for decentralization and a “comprehensive overhaul of government structure to find the appropriate size and scope of units”, as well as the need to detach functions from current state boundaries, creating regions based on functions like water, transport, education and economics which might have “different ‘overlays’ on the map.” Alvin Toffler published Future Shock (1970) and The Third Wave (1980). Discussing the books in a later interview, Toffler said that industrial-style, centralized, top-down bureaucratic planning would be replaced by a more open, democratic, decentralized style which he called “anticipatory democracy.” Futurist John Naisbitt's 1982 book “Megatrends” was on The New York Times Best Seller list for more than two years and sold 14 million copies. Naisbitt’s book outlines 10 “megatrends”, the fifth of which is from centralization to decentralization. In 1996 David Osborne and Ted Gaebler had a best selling book Reinventing Government proposing decentralist public administration theories which became labeled the "New Public Management"."
"Daniel Bell's The Coming of Post-Industrial Society discussed the need for decentralization and a “comprehensive overhaul of government structure to find the appropriate size and scope of units”, as well as the need to detach functions from current state boundaries, creating regions based on functions like water, transport, education and economics which might have “different ‘overlays’ on the map.” <hl> Alvin Toffler published Future Shock (1970) and The Third Wave (1980) <hl> ."
"Leopold Kohr, author of the 1957 book The Breakdown of Nations—known for its statement “Whenever something is wrong, something is too big”—was a major influence on E.F. Schumacher, author of the 1973 bestseller Small is Beautiful:Economics As If People Mattered . In the next few years a number of best-selling books promoted decentralization. Daniel Bell's The Coming of Post-Industrial Society discussed the need for decentralization and a “comprehensive overhaul of government structure to find the appropriate size and scope of units”, as well as the need to detach functions from current state boundaries, creating regions based on functions like water, transport, education and economics which might have “different ‘overlays’ on the map.” <hl> Alvin Toffler published Future Shock (1970) and The Third Wave (1980) <hl>. Discussing the books in a later interview, Toffler said that industrial-style, centralized, top-down bureaucratic planning would be replaced by a more open, democratic, decentralized style which he called “anticipatory democracy.” Futurist John Naisbitt's 1982 book “Megatrends” was on The New York Times Best Seller list for more than two years and sold 14 million copies. Naisbitt’s book outlines 10 “megatrends”, the fifth of which is from centralization to decentralization. In 1996 David Osborne and Ted Gaebler had a best selling book Reinventing Government proposing decentralist public administration theories which became labeled the "New Public Management"."
"Leopold Kohr, author of the 1957 book The Breakdown of Nations—known for its statement “Whenever something is wrong, something is too big”—was a major influence on E.F. Schumacher, author of the 1973 bestseller Small is Beautiful:Economics As If People Mattered . In the next few years a number of best-selling books promoted decentralization. <hl> Daniel Bell's The Coming of Post-Industrial Society discussed the need for decentralization and a “comprehensive overhaul of government structure to find the appropriate size and scope of units”, as well as the need to detach functions from current state boundaries, creating regions based on functions like water, transport, education and economics which might have “different ‘overlays’ on the map.” Alvin Toffler published Future Shock (1970) and The Third Wave (1980) . <hl> Discussing the books in a later interview, Toffler said that industrial-style, centralized, top-down bureaucratic planning would be replaced by a more open, democratic, decentralized style which he called “anticipatory democracy.” Futurist John Naisbitt's 1982 book “Megatrends” was on The New York Times Best Seller list for more than two years and sold 14 million copies. Naisbitt’s book outlines 10 “megatrends”, the fifth of which is from centralization to decentralization. In 1996 David Osborne and Ted Gaebler had a best selling book Reinventing Government proposing decentralist public administration theories which became labeled the "New Public Management"."
"5d66664f2b22cd4dfcfbdde6"
"Districts"
"question: What does the U.S. Virgin Islands call municipalities?, context: Territories, except the Minor Outlying Islands, are subdivided into municipalities. Guam uses the term Village and the U.S. Virgin Islands uses the term Districts, American Samoa uses the terms district and Unorganized atolls."
"What does the U.S. Virgin Islands call municipalities?"
"Guam uses the term Village and the U.S. Virgin Islands uses the term Districts , American Samoa uses the terms district and Unorganized atolls."
"Territories, except the Minor Outlying Islands, are subdivided into municipalities. Guam uses the term Village and the U.S. Virgin Islands uses the term Districts, American Samoa uses the terms district and Unorganized atolls."
"Guam uses the term Village and the U.S. Virgin Islands uses the term <hl> Districts <hl> , American Samoa uses the terms district and Unorganized atolls."
"Territories, except the Minor Outlying Islands, are subdivided into municipalities. Guam uses the term Village and the U.S. Virgin Islands uses the term <hl> Districts <hl>, American Samoa uses the terms district and Unorganized atolls."
"Territories, except the Minor Outlying Islands, are subdivided into municipalities. <hl> Guam uses the term Village and the U.S. Virgin Islands uses the term Districts , American Samoa uses the terms district and Unorganized atolls. <hl>"
"5d6771d92b22cd4dfcfbfc01"
"there is a unique parse tree"
"question: If the definition has parentheses what does it mean for each formula?, context: The role of the parentheses in the definition is to ensure that any formula can only be obtained in one way by following the inductive definition (in other words, there is a unique parse tree for each formula). This property is known as unique readability of formulas. There are many conventions for where parentheses are used in formulas. For example, some authors use colons or full stops instead of parentheses, or change the places in which parentheses are inserted. Each author's particular definition must be accompanied by a proof of unique readability."
"If the definition has parentheses what does it mean for each formula?"
"The role of the parentheses in the definition is to ensure that any formula can only be obtained in one way by following the inductive definition (in other words, there is a unique parse tree for each formula)."
"The role of the parentheses in the definition is to ensure that any formula can only be obtained in one way by following the inductive definition (in other words, there is a unique parse tree for each formula). This property is known as unique readability of formulas. There are many conventions for where parentheses are used in formulas. For example, some authors use colons or full stops instead of parentheses, or change the places in which parentheses are inserted. Each author's particular definition must be accompanied by a proof of unique readability."
"The role of the parentheses in the definition is to ensure that any formula can only be obtained in one way by following the inductive definition (in other words, <hl> there is a unique parse tree <hl> for each formula)."
"The role of the parentheses in the definition is to ensure that any formula can only be obtained in one way by following the inductive definition (in other words, <hl> there is a unique parse tree <hl> for each formula). This property is known as unique readability of formulas. There are many conventions for where parentheses are used in formulas. For example, some authors use colons or full stops instead of parentheses, or change the places in which parentheses are inserted. Each author's particular definition must be accompanied by a proof of unique readability."
"<hl> The role of the parentheses in the definition is to ensure that any formula can only be obtained in one way by following the inductive definition (in other words, there is a unique parse tree for each formula). <hl> This property is known as unique readability of formulas. There are many conventions for where parentheses are used in formulas. For example, some authors use colons or full stops instead of parentheses, or change the places in which parentheses are inserted. Each author's particular definition must be accompanied by a proof of unique readability."
"5d65c6d42b22cd4dfcfbccce"
"listed 8th"
"question: Rotterdam was ranked what in The Rough Guide Top 10 Cities to visit?, context: The city of Rotterdam is known for the Erasmus University, riverside setting, lively cultural life and its maritime heritage. The near-complete destruction of Rotterdam's city centre during World War II (known as the Rotterdam Blitz) has resulted in a varied architectural landscape including sky-scrapers, which are an uncommon sight in other Dutch cities. Rotterdam is home to some world-famous architecture from renowned architects like Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom, Ben van Berkel and others. Recently Rotterdam was listed 8th in The Rough Guide Top 10 Cities to Visit and was voted 2015 European City of the Year by the Academy of Urbanism."
"Rotterdam was ranked what in The Rough Guide Top 10 Cities to visit?"
"Recently Rotterdam was listed 8th in The Rough Guide Top 10 Cities to Visit and was voted 2015 European City of the Year by the Academy of Urbanism."
"The city of Rotterdam is known for the Erasmus University, riverside setting, lively cultural life and its maritime heritage. The near-complete destruction of Rotterdam's city centre during World War II (known as the Rotterdam Blitz) has resulted in a varied architectural landscape including sky-scrapers, which are an uncommon sight in other Dutch cities. Rotterdam is home to some world-famous architecture from renowned architects like Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom, Ben van Berkel and others. Recently Rotterdam was listed 8th in The Rough Guide Top 10 Cities to Visit and was voted 2015 European City of the Year by the Academy of Urbanism."
"Recently Rotterdam was <hl> listed 8th <hl> in The Rough Guide Top 10 Cities to Visit and was voted 2015 European City of the Year by the Academy of Urbanism."
"The city of Rotterdam is known for the Erasmus University, riverside setting, lively cultural life and its maritime heritage. The near-complete destruction of Rotterdam's city centre during World War II (known as the Rotterdam Blitz) has resulted in a varied architectural landscape including sky-scrapers, which are an uncommon sight in other Dutch cities. Rotterdam is home to some world-famous architecture from renowned architects like Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom, Ben van Berkel and others. Recently Rotterdam was <hl> listed 8th <hl> in The Rough Guide Top 10 Cities to Visit and was voted 2015 European City of the Year by the Academy of Urbanism."
"The city of Rotterdam is known for the Erasmus University, riverside setting, lively cultural life and its maritime heritage. The near-complete destruction of Rotterdam's city centre during World War II (known as the Rotterdam Blitz) has resulted in a varied architectural landscape including sky-scrapers, which are an uncommon sight in other Dutch cities. Rotterdam is home to some world-famous architecture from renowned architects like Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom, Ben van Berkel and others. <hl> Recently Rotterdam was listed 8th in The Rough Guide Top 10 Cities to Visit and was voted 2015 European City of the Year by the Academy of Urbanism. <hl>"
"5d66fcd92b22cd4dfcfbe93a"
"adding the Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution"
"question: What failed in 1982?, context: By the early 1980s, it was largely perceived that women had met their goals and succeeded in changing social attitudes towards gender roles, repealing oppressive laws that were based on sex, integrating the "boys' clubs" such as Military academies, the United States armed forces, NASA, single-sex colleges, men's clubs, and the Supreme Court, and illegalizing gender discrimination. However, in 1982 adding the Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution failed, having been ratified by only 35 states, leaving it three states short of ratification."
"What failed in 1982?"
"However, in 1982 adding the Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution failed, having been ratified by only 35 states, leaving it three states short of ratification."
"By the early 1980s, it was largely perceived that women had met their goals and succeeded in changing social attitudes towards gender roles, repealing oppressive laws that were based on sex, integrating the "boys' clubs" such as Military academies, the United States armed forces, NASA, single-sex colleges, men's clubs, and the Supreme Court, and illegalizing gender discrimination. However, in 1982 adding the Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution failed, having been ratified by only 35 states, leaving it three states short of ratification."
"However, in 1982 <hl> adding the Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution <hl> failed, having been ratified by only 35 states, leaving it three states short of ratification."
"By the early 1980s, it was largely perceived that women had met their goals and succeeded in changing social attitudes towards gender roles, repealing oppressive laws that were based on sex, integrating the "boys' clubs" such as Military academies, the United States armed forces, NASA, single-sex colleges, men's clubs, and the Supreme Court, and illegalizing gender discrimination. However, in 1982 <hl> adding the Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution <hl> failed, having been ratified by only 35 states, leaving it three states short of ratification."
"By the early 1980s, it was largely perceived that women had met their goals and succeeded in changing social attitudes towards gender roles, repealing oppressive laws that were based on sex, integrating the "boys' clubs" such as Military academies, the United States armed forces, NASA, single-sex colleges, men's clubs, and the Supreme Court, and illegalizing gender discrimination. <hl> However, in 1982 adding the Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution failed, having been ratified by only 35 states, leaving it three states short of ratification. <hl>"
"5d677f512b22cd4dfcfbfd81"
"rigidity and aesthetic limitations"
"question: What two adjectives describe modernistic music?, context: Though representing a general return to certain notions of music-making that are often considered to be classical or romantic[citation needed], not all postmodern composers have eschewed the experimentalist or academic tenets of modernism. The works of Dutch composer Louis Andriessen, for example, exhibit experimentalist preoccupation that is decidedly anti-romantic. Eclecticism and freedom of expression, in reaction to the rigidity and aesthetic limitations of modernism, are the hallmarks of the postmodern influence in musical composition."
"What two adjectives describe modernistic music?"
"Eclecticism and freedom of expression, in reaction to the rigidity and aesthetic limitations of modernism, are the hallmarks of the postmodern influence in musical composition."
"Though representing a general return to certain notions of music-making that are often considered to be classical or romantic[citation needed], not all postmodern composers have eschewed the experimentalist or academic tenets of modernism. The works of Dutch composer Louis Andriessen, for example, exhibit experimentalist preoccupation that is decidedly anti-romantic. Eclecticism and freedom of expression, in reaction to the rigidity and aesthetic limitations of modernism, are the hallmarks of the postmodern influence in musical composition."
"Eclecticism and freedom of expression, in reaction to the <hl> rigidity and aesthetic limitations <hl> of modernism, are the hallmarks of the postmodern influence in musical composition."
"Though representing a general return to certain notions of music-making that are often considered to be classical or romantic[citation needed], not all postmodern composers have eschewed the experimentalist or academic tenets of modernism. The works of Dutch composer Louis Andriessen, for example, exhibit experimentalist preoccupation that is decidedly anti-romantic. Eclecticism and freedom of expression, in reaction to the <hl> rigidity and aesthetic limitations <hl> of modernism, are the hallmarks of the postmodern influence in musical composition."
"Though representing a general return to certain notions of music-making that are often considered to be classical or romantic[citation needed], not all postmodern composers have eschewed the experimentalist or academic tenets of modernism. The works of Dutch composer Louis Andriessen, for example, exhibit experimentalist preoccupation that is decidedly anti-romantic. <hl> Eclecticism and freedom of expression, in reaction to the rigidity and aesthetic limitations of modernism, are the hallmarks of the postmodern influence in musical composition. <hl>"
"5d6724c12b22cd4dfcfbf090"
"1991"
"question: In what year did the Gallup poll begin to collect figures on party identification?, context: Prior to the formation of the conservative coalition, which helped realign the Democratic and Republican party ideologies in the mid-1960s, the party had historically advocated classical liberalism and progressivism. The party is a full member of the conservative International Democrat Union as well as the Asia Pacific Democrat Union. It is also an associate member of the Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists, which has close relations to the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom. According to the most recent Gallup poll, 25% of Americans identify as Republican and 16% identify as leaning Republican. In comparison, 30% identify as Democratic and 16% identify as leaning Democratic. The Democratic Party has typically held an overall edge in party identification since Gallup began polling on the issue in 1991. In another Gallup poll, 42% of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents identified as economically and socially conservative, followed by 24% as socially and economically moderate or liberal, 20% as socially moderate or liberal and fiscally conservative, and 10% as socially conservative and fiscally moderate or liberal."
"In what year did the Gallup poll begin to collect figures on party identification?"
"The Democratic Party has typically held an overall edge in party identification since Gallup began polling on the issue in 1991 ."
"Prior to the formation of the conservative coalition, which helped realign the Democratic and Republican party ideologies in the mid-1960s, the party had historically advocated classical liberalism and progressivism. The party is a full member of the conservative International Democrat Union as well as the Asia Pacific Democrat Union. It is also an associate member of the Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists, which has close relations to the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom. According to the most recent Gallup poll, 25% of Americans identify as Republican and 16% identify as leaning Republican. In comparison, 30% identify as Democratic and 16% identify as leaning Democratic. The Democratic Party has typically held an overall edge in party identification since Gallup began polling on the issue in 1991. In another Gallup poll, 42% of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents identified as economically and socially conservative, followed by 24% as socially and economically moderate or liberal, 20% as socially moderate or liberal and fiscally conservative, and 10% as socially conservative and fiscally moderate or liberal."
"The Democratic Party has typically held an overall edge in party identification since Gallup began polling on the issue in <hl> 1991 <hl> ."
"Prior to the formation of the conservative coalition, which helped realign the Democratic and Republican party ideologies in the mid-1960s, the party had historically advocated classical liberalism and progressivism. The party is a full member of the conservative International Democrat Union as well as the Asia Pacific Democrat Union. It is also an associate member of the Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists, which has close relations to the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom. According to the most recent Gallup poll, 25% of Americans identify as Republican and 16% identify as leaning Republican. In comparison, 30% identify as Democratic and 16% identify as leaning Democratic. The Democratic Party has typically held an overall edge in party identification since Gallup began polling on the issue in <hl> 1991 <hl>. In another Gallup poll, 42% of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents identified as economically and socially conservative, followed by 24% as socially and economically moderate or liberal, 20% as socially moderate or liberal and fiscally conservative, and 10% as socially conservative and fiscally moderate or liberal."
"Prior to the formation of the conservative coalition, which helped realign the Democratic and Republican party ideologies in the mid-1960s, the party had historically advocated classical liberalism and progressivism. The party is a full member of the conservative International Democrat Union as well as the Asia Pacific Democrat Union. It is also an associate member of the Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists, which has close relations to the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom. According to the most recent Gallup poll, 25% of Americans identify as Republican and 16% identify as leaning Republican. In comparison, 30% identify as Democratic and 16% identify as leaning Democratic. <hl> The Democratic Party has typically held an overall edge in party identification since Gallup began polling on the issue in 1991 . <hl> In another Gallup poll, 42% of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents identified as economically and socially conservative, followed by 24% as socially and economically moderate or liberal, 20% as socially moderate or liberal and fiscally conservative, and 10% as socially conservative and fiscally moderate or liberal."
"5d673dac2b22cd4dfcfbf3c0"
"Cartesian coordinates"
"question: What is the most common coordinate system in computer graphics?, context: Cartesian coordinates are the foundation of analytic geometry, and provide enlightening geometric interpretations for many other branches of mathematics, such as linear algebra, complex analysis, differential geometry, multivariate calculus, group theory and more. A familiar example is the concept of the graph of a function. Cartesian coordinates are also essential tools for most applied disciplines that deal with geometry, including astronomy, physics, engineering and many more. They are the most common coordinate system used in computer graphics, computer-aided geometric design and other geometry-related data processing."
"What is the most common coordinate system in computer graphics?"
"Cartesian coordinates are the foundation of analytic geometry, and provide enlightening geometric interpretations for many other branches of mathematics, such as linear algebra, complex analysis, differential geometry, multivariate calculus, group theory and more."
"Cartesian coordinates are the foundation of analytic geometry, and provide enlightening geometric interpretations for many other branches of mathematics, such as linear algebra, complex analysis, differential geometry, multivariate calculus, group theory and more. A familiar example is the concept of the graph of a function. Cartesian coordinates are also essential tools for most applied disciplines that deal with geometry, including astronomy, physics, engineering and many more. They are the most common coordinate system used in computer graphics, computer-aided geometric design and other geometry-related data processing."
"<hl> Cartesian coordinates <hl> are the foundation of analytic geometry, and provide enlightening geometric interpretations for many other branches of mathematics, such as linear algebra, complex analysis, differential geometry, multivariate calculus, group theory and more."
"<hl> Cartesian coordinates <hl> are the foundation of analytic geometry, and provide enlightening geometric interpretations for many other branches of mathematics, such as linear algebra, complex analysis, differential geometry, multivariate calculus, group theory and more. A familiar example is the concept of the graph of a function. Cartesian coordinates are also essential tools for most applied disciplines that deal with geometry, including astronomy, physics, engineering and many more. They are the most common coordinate system used in computer graphics, computer-aided geometric design and other geometry-related data processing."
"<hl> Cartesian coordinates are the foundation of analytic geometry, and provide enlightening geometric interpretations for many other branches of mathematics, such as linear algebra, complex analysis, differential geometry, multivariate calculus, group theory and more. <hl> A familiar example is the concept of the graph of a function. Cartesian coordinates are also essential tools for most applied disciplines that deal with geometry, including astronomy, physics, engineering and many more. They are the most common coordinate system used in computer graphics, computer-aided geometric design and other geometry-related data processing."
"5d661c0f2b22cd4dfcfbd905"
"C.D.'s'"
"question: What is the possessive plural of the acronym CD?, context: Multiple options arise when acronyms are spelled with periods and are pluralized: for example, whether compact discs may become C.D.'s, C.D.s, or CDs. Possessive plurals that also include apostrophes for mere pluralization and periods appear especially complex: for example, the C.D.'s' labels (the labels of the compact discs). This is yet another reason to use apostrophes only for possessives and not for plurals. In some instances, however, an apostrophe may increase clarity: for example, if the final letter of an abbreviation is S, as in SOS's (although abbreviations ending with S can also take -es, e.g. SOSes), or when pluralizing an abbreviation that has periods. However, the style guide for the New York Times states that the addition of an apostrophe is necessary when pluralizing all abbreviations, preferring "PC's, TV's and VCR's"."
"What is the possessive plural of the acronym CD?"
"Possessive plurals that also include apostrophes for mere pluralization and periods appear especially complex: for example, the C.D.'s' labels (the labels of the compact discs)."
"Multiple options arise when acronyms are spelled with periods and are pluralized: for example, whether compact discs may become C.D.'s, C.D.s, or CDs. Possessive plurals that also include apostrophes for mere pluralization and periods appear especially complex: for example, the C.D.'s' labels (the labels of the compact discs). This is yet another reason to use apostrophes only for possessives and not for plurals. In some instances, however, an apostrophe may increase clarity: for example, if the final letter of an abbreviation is S, as in SOS's (although abbreviations ending with S can also take -es, e.g. SOSes), or when pluralizing an abbreviation that has periods. However, the style guide for the New York Times states that the addition of an apostrophe is necessary when pluralizing all abbreviations, preferring "PC's, TV's and VCR's"."
"Possessive plurals that also include apostrophes for mere pluralization and periods appear especially complex: for example, the <hl> C.D.'s' <hl> labels (the labels of the compact discs)."
"Multiple options arise when acronyms are spelled with periods and are pluralized: for example, whether compact discs may become C.D.'s, C.D.s, or CDs. Possessive plurals that also include apostrophes for mere pluralization and periods appear especially complex: for example, the <hl> C.D.'s' <hl> labels (the labels of the compact discs). This is yet another reason to use apostrophes only for possessives and not for plurals. In some instances, however, an apostrophe may increase clarity: for example, if the final letter of an abbreviation is S, as in SOS's (although abbreviations ending with S can also take -es, e.g. SOSes), or when pluralizing an abbreviation that has periods. However, the style guide for the New York Times states that the addition of an apostrophe is necessary when pluralizing all abbreviations, preferring "PC's, TV's and VCR's"."
"Multiple options arise when acronyms are spelled with periods and are pluralized: for example, whether compact discs may become C.D.'s, C.D.s, or CDs. <hl> Possessive plurals that also include apostrophes for mere pluralization and periods appear especially complex: for example, the C.D.'s' labels (the labels of the compact discs). <hl> This is yet another reason to use apostrophes only for possessives and not for plurals. In some instances, however, an apostrophe may increase clarity: for example, if the final letter of an abbreviation is S, as in SOS's (although abbreviations ending with S can also take -es, e.g. SOSes), or when pluralizing an abbreviation that has periods. However, the style guide for the New York Times states that the addition of an apostrophe is necessary when pluralizing all abbreviations, preferring "PC's, TV's and VCR's"."
"5d65a9df2b22cd4dfcfbcaf3"
"1807,"
"When did Britain ban the slave trade?"
"Britain banned the slave trade in 1807, imposing stiff fines for any slave found aboard a British ship (see Slave Trade Act 1807)."
"Britain banned the slave trade in <hl> 1807, <hl> imposing stiff fines for any slave found aboard a British ship (see Slave Trade Act 1807)."
"5d66bb422b22cd4dfcfbe486"
"170,000 jobs annually"
"question: In 2006, how many jobs did the arts, film, history, and tourism segments generate for Connecticut?, context: A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 7, 2006, demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than $14 billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually. This provides$9 billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and $1.7 billion in state and local revenue. Two casinos, Foxwoods Resort Casino and Mohegan Sun, number among the state's largest employers; both are located on Native American reservations in the eastern part of Connecticut." "In 2006, how many jobs did the arts, film, history, and tourism segments generate for Connecticut?" "A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 7, 2006, demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than$14 billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually ."
"A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 7, 2006, demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than $14 billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually. This provides$9 billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and $1.7 billion in state and local revenue. Two casinos, Foxwoods Resort Casino and Mohegan Sun, number among the state's largest employers; both are located on Native American reservations in the eastern part of Connecticut." "A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 7, 2006, demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than$14 billion in economic activity and <hl> 170,000 jobs annually <hl> ."
"A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 7, 2006, demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than $14 billion in economic activity and <hl> 170,000 jobs annually <hl>. This provides$9 billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and $1.7 billion in state and local revenue. Two casinos, Foxwoods Resort Casino and Mohegan Sun, number among the state's largest employers; both are located on Native American reservations in the eastern part of Connecticut." "<hl> A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 7, 2006, demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than$14 billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually . <hl> This provides $9 billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and$1.7 billion in state and local revenue. Two casinos, Foxwoods Resort Casino and Mohegan Sun, number among the state's largest employers; both are located on Native American reservations in the eastern part of Connecticut."
"5d6669a62b22cd4dfcfbde4e"
"2 mg/m3"
"question: What is the legal limit on exposure to tin in the workplace?, context: People can be exposed to tin in the workplace by breathing it in, skin contact, and eye contact. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (Permissible exposure limit) for tin exposure in the workplace as 2 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 2 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. At levels of 100 mg/m3, tin is immediately dangerous to life and health."
"What is the legal limit on exposure to tin in the workplace?"
"The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (Permissible exposure limit) for tin exposure in the workplace as 2 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday."
"People can be exposed to tin in the workplace by breathing it in, skin contact, and eye contact. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (Permissible exposure limit) for tin exposure in the workplace as 2 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 2 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. At levels of 100 mg/m3, tin is immediately dangerous to life and health."
"The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (Permissible exposure limit) for tin exposure in the workplace as <hl> 2 mg/m3 <hl> over an 8-hour workday."
"People can be exposed to tin in the workplace by breathing it in, skin contact, and eye contact. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (Permissible exposure limit) for tin exposure in the workplace as <hl> 2 mg/m3 <hl> over an 8-hour workday. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 2 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. At levels of 100 mg/m3, tin is immediately dangerous to life and health."
"People can be exposed to tin in the workplace by breathing it in, skin contact, and eye contact. <hl> The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (Permissible exposure limit) for tin exposure in the workplace as 2 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. <hl> The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 2 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. At levels of 100 mg/m3, tin is immediately dangerous to life and health."
"5d674e7f2b22cd4dfcfbf5ed"
"axial"
"question: What type of load is a column capable of carrying?, context: The capacity of a column to carry axial load depends on the degree of bending it is subjected to, and vice versa. This is represented on an interaction chart and is a complex non-linear relationship."
"What type of load is a column capable of carrying?"
"The capacity of a column to carry axial load depends on the degree of bending it is subjected to, and vice versa."
"The capacity of a column to carry axial load depends on the degree of bending it is subjected to, and vice versa. This is represented on an interaction chart and is a complex non-linear relationship."
"The capacity of a column to carry <hl> axial <hl> load depends on the degree of bending it is subjected to, and vice versa."
"The capacity of a column to carry <hl> axial <hl> load depends on the degree of bending it is subjected to, and vice versa. This is represented on an interaction chart and is a complex non-linear relationship."
"<hl> The capacity of a column to carry axial load depends on the degree of bending it is subjected to, and vice versa. <hl> This is represented on an interaction chart and is a complex non-linear relationship."
"5d681f672b22cd4dfcfc05d2"
"the Palmer United Party, the Australian Motoring Enthusiast Party, the Liberal Democrats, the Family First Party"
"question: What parties besides Green have seats on the crossbench, context: In the current Senate, the Liberal/National Coalition government holds 33 seats and the Australian Labor Party opposition has 25 seats. The crossbench of 18 consists of ten Greens seats, as well as one seat each for the Palmer United Party, the Australian Motoring Enthusiast Party, the Liberal Democrats, the Family First Party, and four independents, Nick Xenophon, John Madigan, Jacqui Lambie and Glenn Lazarus. The Coalition requires votes of at least six non-government Senators to pass legislation."
"What parties besides Green have seats on the crossbench"
"The crossbench of 18 consists of ten Greens seats, as well as one seat each for the Palmer United Party, the Australian Motoring Enthusiast Party, the Liberal Democrats, the Family First Party , and four independents, Nick Xenophon, John Madigan, Jacqui Lambie and Glenn Lazarus."
"In the current Senate, the Liberal/National Coalition government holds 33 seats and the Australian Labor Party opposition has 25 seats. The crossbench of 18 consists of ten Greens seats, as well as one seat each for the Palmer United Party, the Australian Motoring Enthusiast Party, the Liberal Democrats, the Family First Party, and four independents, Nick Xenophon, John Madigan, Jacqui Lambie and Glenn Lazarus. The Coalition requires votes of at least six non-government Senators to pass legislation."
"The crossbench of 18 consists of ten Greens seats, as well as one seat each for <hl> the Palmer United Party, the Australian Motoring Enthusiast Party, the Liberal Democrats, the Family First Party <hl> , and four independents, Nick Xenophon, John Madigan, Jacqui Lambie and Glenn Lazarus."
"In the current Senate, the Liberal/National Coalition government holds 33 seats and the Australian Labor Party opposition has 25 seats. The crossbench of 18 consists of ten Greens seats, as well as one seat each for <hl> the Palmer United Party, the Australian Motoring Enthusiast Party, the Liberal Democrats, the Family First Party <hl>, and four independents, Nick Xenophon, John Madigan, Jacqui Lambie and Glenn Lazarus. The Coalition requires votes of at least six non-government Senators to pass legislation."
"In the current Senate, the Liberal/National Coalition government holds 33 seats and the Australian Labor Party opposition has 25 seats. <hl> The crossbench of 18 consists of ten Greens seats, as well as one seat each for the Palmer United Party, the Australian Motoring Enthusiast Party, the Liberal Democrats, the Family First Party , and four independents, Nick Xenophon, John Madigan, Jacqui Lambie and Glenn Lazarus. <hl> The Coalition requires votes of at least six non-government Senators to pass legislation."
"5d65c6412b22cd4dfcfbcca0"
"Connecticotian"
"question: What term is associated to Cotton Mather?, context: According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter." There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: "Connecticotian" – Cotton Mather in 1702. "Connecticutensian" – Samuel Peters in 1781. "Nutmegger" is sometimes used, as is "Yankee" (the official state song is "Yankee Doodle"), though this usually refers to someone from the wider New England region (and in the Southern United States, to anyone who lives north of the Mason–Dixon line). Linguist Allen Walker Read reports a more playful term, 'connecticutie.' The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn.;" the official postal abbreviation is CT."
"What term is associated to Cotton Mather?"
"There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: " Connecticotian " – Cotton Mather in 1702."
"According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter." There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: "Connecticotian" – Cotton Mather in 1702. "Connecticutensian" – Samuel Peters in 1781. "Nutmegger" is sometimes used, as is "Yankee" (the official state song is "Yankee Doodle"), though this usually refers to someone from the wider New England region (and in the Southern United States, to anyone who lives north of the Mason–Dixon line). Linguist Allen Walker Read reports a more playful term, 'connecticutie.' The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn.;" the official postal abbreviation is CT."
"There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: " <hl> Connecticotian <hl> " – Cotton Mather in 1702."
"According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter." There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: "<hl> Connecticotian <hl>" – Cotton Mather in 1702. "Connecticutensian" – Samuel Peters in 1781. "Nutmegger" is sometimes used, as is "Yankee" (the official state song is "Yankee Doodle"), though this usually refers to someone from the wider New England region (and in the Southern United States, to anyone who lives north of the Mason–Dixon line). Linguist Allen Walker Read reports a more playful term, 'connecticutie.' The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn.;" the official postal abbreviation is CT."
"According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter." <hl> There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: " Connecticotian " – Cotton Mather in 1702. <hl> "Connecticutensian" – Samuel Peters in 1781. "Nutmegger" is sometimes used, as is "Yankee" (the official state song is "Yankee Doodle"), though this usually refers to someone from the wider New England region (and in the Southern United States, to anyone who lives north of the Mason–Dixon line). Linguist Allen Walker Read reports a more playful term, 'connecticutie.' The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn.;" the official postal abbreviation is CT."
"5d65f8852b22cd4dfcfbd489"
"a variety of artisans, shopkeepers, and merchants"
"question: Who provided services to the farming population in 1750?, context: By 1750, a variety of artisans, shopkeepers, and merchants provided services to the growing farming population. Blacksmiths, wheelwrights, and furniture makers set up shops in rural villages. There they built and repaired goods needed by farm families. Stores selling English manufactures such as cloth, iron utensils, and window glass as well as West Indian products like sugar and molasses were set up by traders. The storekeepers of these shops sold their imported goods in exchange for crops and other local products including roof shingles, potash, and barrel staves. These local goods were shipped to towns and cities all along the Atlantic Coast. Enterprising men set up stables and taverns along wagon roads to service this transportation system."
"Who provided services to the farming population in 1750?"
"By 1750, a variety of artisans, shopkeepers, and merchants provided services to the growing farming population."
"By 1750, a variety of artisans, shopkeepers, and merchants provided services to the growing farming population. Blacksmiths, wheelwrights, and furniture makers set up shops in rural villages. There they built and repaired goods needed by farm families. Stores selling English manufactures such as cloth, iron utensils, and window glass as well as West Indian products like sugar and molasses were set up by traders. The storekeepers of these shops sold their imported goods in exchange for crops and other local products including roof shingles, potash, and barrel staves. These local goods were shipped to towns and cities all along the Atlantic Coast. Enterprising men set up stables and taverns along wagon roads to service this transportation system."
"By 1750, <hl> a variety of artisans, shopkeepers, and merchants <hl> provided services to the growing farming population."
"By 1750, <hl> a variety of artisans, shopkeepers, and merchants <hl> provided services to the growing farming population. Blacksmiths, wheelwrights, and furniture makers set up shops in rural villages. There they built and repaired goods needed by farm families. Stores selling English manufactures such as cloth, iron utensils, and window glass as well as West Indian products like sugar and molasses were set up by traders. The storekeepers of these shops sold their imported goods in exchange for crops and other local products including roof shingles, potash, and barrel staves. These local goods were shipped to towns and cities all along the Atlantic Coast. Enterprising men set up stables and taverns along wagon roads to service this transportation system."
"<hl> By 1750, a variety of artisans, shopkeepers, and merchants provided services to the growing farming population. <hl> Blacksmiths, wheelwrights, and furniture makers set up shops in rural villages. There they built and repaired goods needed by farm families. Stores selling English manufactures such as cloth, iron utensils, and window glass as well as West Indian products like sugar and molasses were set up by traders. The storekeepers of these shops sold their imported goods in exchange for crops and other local products including roof shingles, potash, and barrel staves. These local goods were shipped to towns and cities all along the Atlantic Coast. Enterprising men set up stables and taverns along wagon roads to service this transportation system."
"5d65c3302b22cd4dfcfbcbf8"
"x = 0"
"question: What is the value of X in the function f(x) = 1/x?, context: In some parts of mathematics, including recursion theory and functional analysis, it is convenient to study partial functions in which some values of the domain have no association in the graph; i.e., single-valued relations. For example, the function f such that f(x) = 1/x does not define a value for x = 0, since division by zero is not defined. Hence f is only a partial function from the real line to the real line. The term total function can be used to stress the fact that every element of the domain does appear as the first element of an ordered pair in the graph."
"What is the value of X in the function f(x) = 1/x?"
" For example, the function f such that f(x) = 1/x does not define a value for x = 0 , since division by zero is not defined."
"In some parts of mathematics, including recursion theory and functional analysis, it is convenient to study partial functions in which some values of the domain have no association in the graph; i.e., single-valued relations. For example, the function f such that f(x) = 1/x does not define a value for x = 0, since division by zero is not defined. Hence f is only a partial function from the real line to the real line. The term total function can be used to stress the fact that every element of the domain does appear as the first element of an ordered pair in the graph."
" For example, the function f such that f(x) = 1/x does not define a value for <hl> x = 0 <hl> , since division by zero is not defined."
"In some parts of mathematics, including recursion theory and functional analysis, it is convenient to study partial functions in which some values of the domain have no association in the graph; i.e., single-valued relations. For example, the function f such that f(x) = 1/x does not define a value for <hl> x = 0 <hl>, since division by zero is not defined. Hence f is only a partial function from the real line to the real line. The term total function can be used to stress the fact that every element of the domain does appear as the first element of an ordered pair in the graph."
"In some parts of mathematics, including recursion theory and functional analysis, it is convenient to study partial functions in which some values of the domain have no association in the graph; i.e., single-valued relations. <hl> For example, the function f such that f(x) = 1/x does not define a value for x = 0 , since division by zero is not defined. <hl> Hence f is only a partial function from the real line to the real line. The term total function can be used to stress the fact that every element of the domain does appear as the first element of an ordered pair in the graph."
"5d66c5a42b22cd4dfcfbe4a2"
"Intragovernmental Policy Division"
"question: What subsection of the Office of Planning and Management is responsible for coordinating regional planning with the administrative bodies of the planning regions?, context: The state (with the exception of the Town of Stafford in Tolland County) is also divided into 15 planning regions defined by the state Office of Planning and Management. The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as either a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations.""
"What subsection of the Office of Planning and Management is responsible for coordinating regional planning with the administrative bodies of the planning regions?"
"The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions."
"The state (with the exception of the Town of Stafford in Tolland County) is also divided into 15 planning regions defined by the state Office of Planning and Management. The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as either a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations.""
"The <hl> Intragovernmental Policy Division <hl> of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions."
"The state (with the exception of the Town of Stafford in Tolland County) is also divided into 15 planning regions defined by the state Office of Planning and Management. The <hl> Intragovernmental Policy Division <hl> of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as either a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations.""
"The state (with the exception of the Town of Stafford in Tolland County) is also divided into 15 planning regions defined by the state Office of Planning and Management. <hl> The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. <hl> Each region has an administrative body known as either a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations.""
"5d65e8772b22cd4dfcfbd226"
""Mother of the Movement" Betty Friedan"
"question: Who was the mother of the feminism movement?, context: Though it is widely accepted that the movement lasted from the 1960s into the early 1980s, the exact years of the movement are more difficult to pinpoint and are often disputed. The movement is usually believed to have begun in 1963, when "Mother of the Movement" Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, and President John F. Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women released its report on gender inequality. The report, which revealed great discrimination against women in American life, along with Friedan's book, which spoke to the discontent of many women (especially housewives), led to the formation of many local, state, and federal government women's groups as well as many independent feminist organizations. Friedan was referencing a "movement" as early as 1964."
"Who was the mother of the feminism movement?"
"The movement is usually believed to have begun in 1963, when "Mother of the Movement" Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, and President John F. Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women released its report on gender inequality."
"Though it is widely accepted that the movement lasted from the 1960s into the early 1980s, the exact years of the movement are more difficult to pinpoint and are often disputed. The movement is usually believed to have begun in 1963, when "Mother of the Movement" Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, and President John F. Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women released its report on gender inequality. The report, which revealed great discrimination against women in American life, along with Friedan's book, which spoke to the discontent of many women (especially housewives), led to the formation of many local, state, and federal government women's groups as well as many independent feminist organizations. Friedan was referencing a "movement" as early as 1964."
"The movement is usually believed to have begun in 1963, when <hl> "Mother of the Movement" Betty Friedan <hl> published The Feminine Mystique, and President John F. Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women released its report on gender inequality."
"Though it is widely accepted that the movement lasted from the 1960s into the early 1980s, the exact years of the movement are more difficult to pinpoint and are often disputed. The movement is usually believed to have begun in 1963, when <hl> "Mother of the Movement" Betty Friedan <hl> published The Feminine Mystique, and President John F. Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women released its report on gender inequality. The report, which revealed great discrimination against women in American life, along with Friedan's book, which spoke to the discontent of many women (especially housewives), led to the formation of many local, state, and federal government women's groups as well as many independent feminist organizations. Friedan was referencing a "movement" as early as 1964."
"Though it is widely accepted that the movement lasted from the 1960s into the early 1980s, the exact years of the movement are more difficult to pinpoint and are often disputed. <hl> The movement is usually believed to have begun in 1963, when "Mother of the Movement" Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, and President John F. Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women released its report on gender inequality. <hl> The report, which revealed great discrimination against women in American life, along with Friedan's book, which spoke to the discontent of many women (especially housewives), led to the formation of many local, state, and federal government women's groups as well as many independent feminist organizations. Friedan was referencing a "movement" as early as 1964."
"5d6712432b22cd4dfcfbedb6"
"It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times"
"question: What religious sect was this city paramount for it's growth?, context: Founded under the name of Byzantium on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city developed to become one of the most significant in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for almost 16 centuries, during the Roman and Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin (1204–1261), and the Ottoman (1453–1922) empires. It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate."
"It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times , before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate."
"Founded under the name of Byzantium on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city developed to become one of the most significant in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for almost 16 centuries, during the Roman and Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin (1204–1261), and the Ottoman (1453–1922) empires. It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate."
"<hl> It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times <hl> , before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate."
"Founded under the name of Byzantium on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city developed to become one of the most significant in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for almost 16 centuries, during the Roman and Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin (1204–1261), and the Ottoman (1453–1922) empires. <hl> It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times <hl>, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate."
"Founded under the name of Byzantium on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city developed to become one of the most significant in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for almost 16 centuries, during the Roman and Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin (1204–1261), and the Ottoman (1453–1922) empires. <hl> It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times , before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate. <hl>"
"5d65de7f2b22cd4dfcfbd015"
"23 years"
"question: How long did Oxford United take to reach top division?, context: The city's leading football club, Oxford United, are currently in League Two, the fourth tier of league football, though they enjoyed some success in the past in the upper reaches of the league. They were elected to the Football League in 1962, reached the Third Division after three years and the Second Division after six, and most notably reached the First Division in 1985 – 23 years after joining the Football League. They spent three seasons in the top flight, winning the Football League Cup a year after promotion. The 18 years that followed relegation in 1988 saw their fortunes decline gradually, though a brief respite in 1996 saw them win promotion to the new (post Premier League) Division One in 1996 and stay there for three years. They were relegated to the Football Conference in 2006, staying there for four seasons before returning to the Football League in 2010. They play at the Kassam Stadium (named after former chairman Firoz Kassam), which is situated near the Blackbird Leys housing estate and has been their home since relocation from the Manor Ground in 2001. The club's notable former managers include Ian Greaves, Jim Smith, Maurice Evans, Brian Horton and Denis Smith. Notable former players include John Aldridge, Ray Houghton, Tommy Caton, Matt Elliott, Nigel Jemson and Dean Whitehead."
"How long did Oxford United take to reach top division?"
"They were elected to the Football League in 1962, reached the Third Division after three years and the Second Division after six, and most notably reached the First Division in 1985 – 23 years after joining the Football League."
"The city's leading football club, Oxford United, are currently in League Two, the fourth tier of league football, though they enjoyed some success in the past in the upper reaches of the league. They were elected to the Football League in 1962, reached the Third Division after three years and the Second Division after six, and most notably reached the First Division in 1985 – 23 years after joining the Football League. They spent three seasons in the top flight, winning the Football League Cup a year after promotion. The 18 years that followed relegation in 1988 saw their fortunes decline gradually, though a brief respite in 1996 saw them win promotion to the new (post Premier League) Division One in 1996 and stay there for three years. They were relegated to the Football Conference in 2006, staying there for four seasons before returning to the Football League in 2010. They play at the Kassam Stadium (named after former chairman Firoz Kassam), which is situated near the Blackbird Leys housing estate and has been their home since relocation from the Manor Ground in 2001. The club's notable former managers include Ian Greaves, Jim Smith, Maurice Evans, Brian Horton and Denis Smith. Notable former players include John Aldridge, Ray Houghton, Tommy Caton, Matt Elliott, Nigel Jemson and Dean Whitehead."
"They were elected to the Football League in 1962, reached the Third Division after three years and the Second Division after six, and most notably reached the First Division in 1985 – <hl> 23 years <hl> after joining the Football League."
"The city's leading football club, Oxford United, are currently in League Two, the fourth tier of league football, though they enjoyed some success in the past in the upper reaches of the league. They were elected to the Football League in 1962, reached the Third Division after three years and the Second Division after six, and most notably reached the First Division in 1985 – <hl> 23 years <hl> after joining the Football League. They spent three seasons in the top flight, winning the Football League Cup a year after promotion. The 18 years that followed relegation in 1988 saw their fortunes decline gradually, though a brief respite in 1996 saw them win promotion to the new (post Premier League) Division One in 1996 and stay there for three years. They were relegated to the Football Conference in 2006, staying there for four seasons before returning to the Football League in 2010. They play at the Kassam Stadium (named after former chairman Firoz Kassam), which is situated near the Blackbird Leys housing estate and has been their home since relocation from the Manor Ground in 2001. The club's notable former managers include Ian Greaves, Jim Smith, Maurice Evans, Brian Horton and Denis Smith. Notable former players include John Aldridge, Ray Houghton, Tommy Caton, Matt Elliott, Nigel Jemson and Dean Whitehead."
"The city's leading football club, Oxford United, are currently in League Two, the fourth tier of league football, though they enjoyed some success in the past in the upper reaches of the league. <hl> They were elected to the Football League in 1962, reached the Third Division after three years and the Second Division after six, and most notably reached the First Division in 1985 – 23 years after joining the Football League. <hl> They spent three seasons in the top flight, winning the Football League Cup a year after promotion. The 18 years that followed relegation in 1988 saw their fortunes decline gradually, though a brief respite in 1996 saw them win promotion to the new (post Premier League) Division One in 1996 and stay there for three years. They were relegated to the Football Conference in 2006, staying there for four seasons before returning to the Football League in 2010. They play at the Kassam Stadium (named after former chairman Firoz Kassam), which is situated near the Blackbird Leys housing estate and has been their home since relocation from the Manor Ground in 2001. The club's notable former managers include Ian Greaves, Jim Smith, Maurice Evans, Brian Horton and Denis Smith. Notable former players include John Aldridge, Ray Houghton, Tommy Caton, Matt Elliott, Nigel Jemson and Dean Whitehead."
"5d673b9b2b22cd4dfcfbf369"
"Świnoujście harbour"
"question: Which area spotted floating ice in January 2010?, context: It is known that since 1720, the Baltic Sea has frozen over entirely a total of 20 times. The most recent case was in early 1987, which was the most severe winter in Scandinavia since that date. The ice then covered 400,000 km2 (150,000 sq mi). During the winter of 2010–11, which was quite severe compared to those of the last decades, the maximum ice cover was 315,000 km2 (122,000 sq mi), which was reached on 25 February 2011. The ice then extended from the north down to the northern tip of Gotland, with small ice-free areas on either side, and the east coast of the Baltic Sea was covered by an ice sheet about 25 to 100 km (16 to 62 mi) wide all the way to Gdańsk. This was brought about by a stagnant high-pressure area that lingered over central and northern Scandinavia from around 10 to 24 February. After this, strong southern winds pushed the ice further into the north, and much of the waters north of Gotland were again free of ice, which had then packed against the shores of southern Finland. The effects of the afore-mentioned high-pressure area did not reach the southern parts of the Baltic Sea, and thus the entire sea did not freeze over. However, floating ice was additionally observed near Świnoujście harbour in January 2010."
"Which area spotted floating ice in January 2010?"
"However, floating ice was additionally observed near Świnoujście harbour in January 2010."
"It is known that since 1720, the Baltic Sea has frozen over entirely a total of 20 times. The most recent case was in early 1987, which was the most severe winter in Scandinavia since that date. The ice then covered 400,000 km2 (150,000 sq mi). During the winter of 2010–11, which was quite severe compared to those of the last decades, the maximum ice cover was 315,000 km2 (122,000 sq mi), which was reached on 25 February 2011. The ice then extended from the north down to the northern tip of Gotland, with small ice-free areas on either side, and the east coast of the Baltic Sea was covered by an ice sheet about 25 to 100 km (16 to 62 mi) wide all the way to Gdańsk. This was brought about by a stagnant high-pressure area that lingered over central and northern Scandinavia from around 10 to 24 February. After this, strong southern winds pushed the ice further into the north, and much of the waters north of Gotland were again free of ice, which had then packed against the shores of southern Finland. The effects of the afore-mentioned high-pressure area did not reach the southern parts of the Baltic Sea, and thus the entire sea did not freeze over. However, floating ice was additionally observed near Świnoujście harbour in January 2010."
"However, floating ice was additionally observed near <hl> Świnoujście harbour <hl> in January 2010."
"It is known that since 1720, the Baltic Sea has frozen over entirely a total of 20 times. The most recent case was in early 1987, which was the most severe winter in Scandinavia since that date. The ice then covered 400,000 km2 (150,000 sq mi). During the winter of 2010–11, which was quite severe compared to those of the last decades, the maximum ice cover was 315,000 km2 (122,000 sq mi), which was reached on 25 February 2011. The ice then extended from the north down to the northern tip of Gotland, with small ice-free areas on either side, and the east coast of the Baltic Sea was covered by an ice sheet about 25 to 100 km (16 to 62 mi) wide all the way to Gdańsk. This was brought about by a stagnant high-pressure area that lingered over central and northern Scandinavia from around 10 to 24 February. After this, strong southern winds pushed the ice further into the north, and much of the waters north of Gotland were again free of ice, which had then packed against the shores of southern Finland. The effects of the afore-mentioned high-pressure area did not reach the southern parts of the Baltic Sea, and thus the entire sea did not freeze over. However, floating ice was additionally observed near <hl> Świnoujście harbour <hl> in January 2010."
"It is known that since 1720, the Baltic Sea has frozen over entirely a total of 20 times. The most recent case was in early 1987, which was the most severe winter in Scandinavia since that date. The ice then covered 400,000 km2 (150,000 sq mi). During the winter of 2010–11, which was quite severe compared to those of the last decades, the maximum ice cover was 315,000 km2 (122,000 sq mi), which was reached on 25 February 2011. The ice then extended from the north down to the northern tip of Gotland, with small ice-free areas on either side, and the east coast of the Baltic Sea was covered by an ice sheet about 25 to 100 km (16 to 62 mi) wide all the way to Gdańsk. This was brought about by a stagnant high-pressure area that lingered over central and northern Scandinavia from around 10 to 24 February. After this, strong southern winds pushed the ice further into the north, and much of the waters north of Gotland were again free of ice, which had then packed against the shores of southern Finland. The effects of the afore-mentioned high-pressure area did not reach the southern parts of the Baltic Sea, and thus the entire sea did not freeze over. <hl> However, floating ice was additionally observed near Świnoujście harbour in January 2010. <hl>"
"5d661af52b22cd4dfcfbd8d2"
"is placed before a person's given name."
"question: Where is the last name commonly placed Hungary?, context: In most Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking countries, two or more last names (or surnames) may be used. In China, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Madagascar, Taiwan, Vietnam, and parts of India, the family name is placed before a person's given name."
"Where is the last name commonly placed Hungary?"
"In China, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Madagascar, Taiwan, Vietnam, and parts of India, the family name is placed before a person's given name."
"In most Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking countries, two or more last names (or surnames) may be used. In China, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Madagascar, Taiwan, Vietnam, and parts of India, the family name is placed before a person's given name."
"In China, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Madagascar, Taiwan, Vietnam, and parts of India, the family name <hl> is placed before a person's given name. <hl>"
"In most Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking countries, two or more last names (or surnames) may be used. In China, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Madagascar, Taiwan, Vietnam, and parts of India, the family name <hl> is placed before a person's given name. <hl>"
"In most Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking countries, two or more last names (or surnames) may be used. <hl> In China, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Madagascar, Taiwan, Vietnam, and parts of India, the family name is placed before a person's given name. <hl>"
"5d67edaf2b22cd4dfcfc040d"
"14 time national champ"
"question: How many total championships did Marie Braun win?, context: Rotterdam's swimming tradition started with Marie Braun aka Zus (sister) Braun, who was coached to a Gold medal at the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics by her mother Ma Braun, and 3 European titles 3 years later in Paris. In her career as 14 time national champ, she broke 6 world records. Ma Braun later also coached the Rotterdam born, three-times Olympic champion Rie Mastenbroek during the Berlin Olympics in 1936. In later years Inge de Bruijn became a Rotterdam sport icon as triple Olympic Gold medal winner in 2000 and triple European Gold medal winner in 2001."
"How many total championships did Marie Braun win?"
"In her career as 14 time national champ , she broke 6 world records."
"Rotterdam's swimming tradition started with Marie Braun aka Zus (sister) Braun, who was coached to a Gold medal at the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics by her mother Ma Braun, and 3 European titles 3 years later in Paris. In her career as 14 time national champ, she broke 6 world records. Ma Braun later also coached the Rotterdam born, three-times Olympic champion Rie Mastenbroek during the Berlin Olympics in 1936. In later years Inge de Bruijn became a Rotterdam sport icon as triple Olympic Gold medal winner in 2000 and triple European Gold medal winner in 2001."
"In her career as <hl> 14 time national champ <hl> , she broke 6 world records."
"Rotterdam's swimming tradition started with Marie Braun aka Zus (sister) Braun, who was coached to a Gold medal at the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics by her mother Ma Braun, and 3 European titles 3 years later in Paris. In her career as <hl> 14 time national champ <hl>, she broke 6 world records. Ma Braun later also coached the Rotterdam born, three-times Olympic champion Rie Mastenbroek during the Berlin Olympics in 1936. In later years Inge de Bruijn became a Rotterdam sport icon as triple Olympic Gold medal winner in 2000 and triple European Gold medal winner in 2001."
"Rotterdam's swimming tradition started with Marie Braun aka Zus (sister) Braun, who was coached to a Gold medal at the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics by her mother Ma Braun, and 3 European titles 3 years later in Paris. <hl> In her career as 14 time national champ , she broke 6 world records. <hl> Ma Braun later also coached the Rotterdam born, three-times Olympic champion Rie Mastenbroek during the Berlin Olympics in 1936. In later years Inge de Bruijn became a Rotterdam sport icon as triple Olympic Gold medal winner in 2000 and triple European Gold medal winner in 2001."
"5d6730922b22cd4dfcfbf219"
"March 1917"
"question: When did Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne?, context: In March 1917, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne and a provisional government quickly filled the vacuum, proclaiming Russia a republic months later. This was followed by the October Revolution by the Bolsheviks, who seized control in a quick coup d'état against the Provisional Government, resulting in the formation of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), the first country in history committed to the establishment of communism. However, large portions of Russia were held under the leadership of either pro-Tsarist or anti-communist military commanders who formed the White movement to oppose the Bolsheviks, resulting in civil war between the Bolsheviks' Red Army and the anti-Bolshevik White Army. Amidst civil war between the Reds and the Whites, the RSFSR inherited the war that the Russian Empire was fighting against Germany that was ended a year later with an armistice. However, that was followed by a brief Allied military intervention by the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Italy, Japan and others against the Bolsheviks."
"When did Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne?"
"In March 1917 , Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne and a provisional government quickly filled the vacuum, proclaiming Russia a republic months later."
"In March 1917, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne and a provisional government quickly filled the vacuum, proclaiming Russia a republic months later. This was followed by the October Revolution by the Bolsheviks, who seized control in a quick coup d'état against the Provisional Government, resulting in the formation of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), the first country in history committed to the establishment of communism. However, large portions of Russia were held under the leadership of either pro-Tsarist or anti-communist military commanders who formed the White movement to oppose the Bolsheviks, resulting in civil war between the Bolsheviks' Red Army and the anti-Bolshevik White Army. Amidst civil war between the Reds and the Whites, the RSFSR inherited the war that the Russian Empire was fighting against Germany that was ended a year later with an armistice. However, that was followed by a brief Allied military intervention by the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Italy, Japan and others against the Bolsheviks."
"In <hl> March 1917 <hl> , Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne and a provisional government quickly filled the vacuum, proclaiming Russia a republic months later."
"In <hl> March 1917 <hl>, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne and a provisional government quickly filled the vacuum, proclaiming Russia a republic months later. This was followed by the October Revolution by the Bolsheviks, who seized control in a quick coup d'état against the Provisional Government, resulting in the formation of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), the first country in history committed to the establishment of communism. However, large portions of Russia were held under the leadership of either pro-Tsarist or anti-communist military commanders who formed the White movement to oppose the Bolsheviks, resulting in civil war between the Bolsheviks' Red Army and the anti-Bolshevik White Army. Amidst civil war between the Reds and the Whites, the RSFSR inherited the war that the Russian Empire was fighting against Germany that was ended a year later with an armistice. However, that was followed by a brief Allied military intervention by the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Italy, Japan and others against the Bolsheviks."
"<hl> In March 1917 , Tsar Nicholas II abdicated his throne and a provisional government quickly filled the vacuum, proclaiming Russia a republic months later. <hl> This was followed by the October Revolution by the Bolsheviks, who seized control in a quick coup d'état against the Provisional Government, resulting in the formation of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), the first country in history committed to the establishment of communism. However, large portions of Russia were held under the leadership of either pro-Tsarist or anti-communist military commanders who formed the White movement to oppose the Bolsheviks, resulting in civil war between the Bolsheviks' Red Army and the anti-Bolshevik White Army. Amidst civil war between the Reds and the Whites, the RSFSR inherited the war that the Russian Empire was fighting against Germany that was ended a year later with an armistice. However, that was followed by a brief Allied military intervention by the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Italy, Japan and others against the Bolsheviks."
"5d6815dd2b22cd4dfcfc0576"
"question: Who is Michael E. Arth?, context: Homeless advocate and urban designer Michael E. Arth proposed building a Pedestrian village for the adult homeless in Volusia County near Daytona Beach, Florida in 2007. As of 2009, Arth was still working toward trying to consolidate most of the scattered 19 local agencies into an attractive community that would be designed to more effectively address the needs of the chronically adult homeless and the temporarily adult homeless, as well as others who may be having difficulty fitting into the pervasive, automobile-dominated culture. He writes that the current "piecemeal approach" inefficiently spreads out services and work opportunities, and aggravates the problem by polarizing citizens who might otherwise be inclined to help. In response to critics who say that such a village would be like a concentration camp, Arth points out that the U.S. already concentrates their citizens into prisons at 7–8 times the rate of Canada or Europe. "There should be alternative between living on the street and being locked up that addresses the needs of the chronically and temporarily adult homeless." His proposed "Tiger Bay Village" would have a community garden and orchard, a place to hire certified workers, and a work crew to help build and maintain the village. "Little shops in the village center could process and rehabilitate donated clothes and furnishings to be sold to the public." Housing would range from multi-bed barracks to small Katrina cottages depending on a person's contributions to the village, special needs, and income. Arth claims that this would cost less and be far more effective than any of the other solutions tried elsewhere."
"Who is Michael E. Arth?"
"Homeless advocate and urban designer Michael E. Arth proposed building a Pedestrian village for the adult homeless in Volusia County near Daytona Beach, Florida in 2007."
"Homeless advocate and urban designer Michael E. Arth proposed building a Pedestrian village for the adult homeless in Volusia County near Daytona Beach, Florida in 2007. As of 2009, Arth was still working toward trying to consolidate most of the scattered 19 local agencies into an attractive community that would be designed to more effectively address the needs of the chronically adult homeless and the temporarily adult homeless, as well as others who may be having difficulty fitting into the pervasive, automobile-dominated culture. He writes that the current "piecemeal approach" inefficiently spreads out services and work opportunities, and aggravates the problem by polarizing citizens who might otherwise be inclined to help. In response to critics who say that such a village would be like a concentration camp, Arth points out that the U.S. already concentrates their citizens into prisons at 7–8 times the rate of Canada or Europe. "There should be alternative between living on the street and being locked up that addresses the needs of the chronically and temporarily adult homeless." His proposed "Tiger Bay Village" would have a community garden and orchard, a place to hire certified workers, and a work crew to help build and maintain the village. "Little shops in the village center could process and rehabilitate donated clothes and furnishings to be sold to the public." Housing would range from multi-bed barracks to small Katrina cottages depending on a person's contributions to the village, special needs, and income. Arth claims that this would cost less and be far more effective than any of the other solutions tried elsewhere."
"<hl> Homeless advocate and urban designer <hl> Michael E. Arth proposed building a Pedestrian village for the adult homeless in Volusia County near Daytona Beach, Florida in 2007."
"<hl> Homeless advocate and urban designer <hl> Michael E. Arth proposed building a Pedestrian village for the adult homeless in Volusia County near Daytona Beach, Florida in 2007. As of 2009, Arth was still working toward trying to consolidate most of the scattered 19 local agencies into an attractive community that would be designed to more effectively address the needs of the chronically adult homeless and the temporarily adult homeless, as well as others who may be having difficulty fitting into the pervasive, automobile-dominated culture. He writes that the current "piecemeal approach" inefficiently spreads out services and work opportunities, and aggravates the problem by polarizing citizens who might otherwise be inclined to help. In response to critics who say that such a village would be like a concentration camp, Arth points out that the U.S. already concentrates their citizens into prisons at 7–8 times the rate of Canada or Europe. "There should be alternative between living on the street and being locked up that addresses the needs of the chronically and temporarily adult homeless." His proposed "Tiger Bay Village" would have a community garden and orchard, a place to hire certified workers, and a work crew to help build and maintain the village. "Little shops in the village center could process and rehabilitate donated clothes and furnishings to be sold to the public." Housing would range from multi-bed barracks to small Katrina cottages depending on a person's contributions to the village, special needs, and income. Arth claims that this would cost less and be far more effective than any of the other solutions tried elsewhere."
"<hl> Homeless advocate and urban designer Michael E. Arth proposed building a Pedestrian village for the adult homeless in Volusia County near Daytona Beach, Florida in 2007. <hl> As of 2009, Arth was still working toward trying to consolidate most of the scattered 19 local agencies into an attractive community that would be designed to more effectively address the needs of the chronically adult homeless and the temporarily adult homeless, as well as others who may be having difficulty fitting into the pervasive, automobile-dominated culture. He writes that the current "piecemeal approach" inefficiently spreads out services and work opportunities, and aggravates the problem by polarizing citizens who might otherwise be inclined to help. In response to critics who say that such a village would be like a concentration camp, Arth points out that the U.S. already concentrates their citizens into prisons at 7–8 times the rate of Canada or Europe. "There should be alternative between living on the street and being locked up that addresses the needs of the chronically and temporarily adult homeless." His proposed "Tiger Bay Village" would have a community garden and orchard, a place to hire certified workers, and a work crew to help build and maintain the village. "Little shops in the village center could process and rehabilitate donated clothes and furnishings to be sold to the public." Housing would range from multi-bed barracks to small Katrina cottages depending on a person's contributions to the village, special needs, and income. Arth claims that this would cost less and be far more effective than any of the other solutions tried elsewhere."
"5d665d972b22cd4dfcfbdca0"
"in the 2002 elections"
"question: When did the Senate regain?, context: The Senate majority lasted until 2001, when the Senate became split evenly but was regained in the 2002 elections. Both Republican majorities in the House and Senate were held until the Democrats regained control in the mid-term elections of 2006. The Republican Party has since been defined by social conservatism, a preemptive war foreign policy intended to defeat terrorism and promote global democracy, a more powerful executive branch, supply side economics, support for gun ownership, and deregulation."
"When did the Senate regain?"
"The Senate majority lasted until 2001, when the Senate became split evenly but was regained in the 2002 elections ."
"The Senate majority lasted until 2001, when the Senate became split evenly but was regained in the 2002 elections. Both Republican majorities in the House and Senate were held until the Democrats regained control in the mid-term elections of 2006. The Republican Party has since been defined by social conservatism, a preemptive war foreign policy intended to defeat terrorism and promote global democracy, a more powerful executive branch, supply side economics, support for gun ownership, and deregulation."
"The Senate majority lasted until 2001, when the Senate became split evenly but was regained <hl> in the 2002 elections <hl> ."
"The Senate majority lasted until 2001, when the Senate became split evenly but was regained <hl> in the 2002 elections <hl>. Both Republican majorities in the House and Senate were held until the Democrats regained control in the mid-term elections of 2006. The Republican Party has since been defined by social conservatism, a preemptive war foreign policy intended to defeat terrorism and promote global democracy, a more powerful executive branch, supply side economics, support for gun ownership, and deregulation."
"<hl> The Senate majority lasted until 2001, when the Senate became split evenly but was regained in the 2002 elections . <hl> Both Republican majorities in the House and Senate were held until the Democrats regained control in the mid-term elections of 2006. The Republican Party has since been defined by social conservatism, a preemptive war foreign policy intended to defeat terrorism and promote global democracy, a more powerful executive branch, supply side economics, support for gun ownership, and deregulation."
"5d6748f82b22cd4dfcfbf4fe"
"John Heinz"
"question: Which Senator has a History Center that can be visited for free with a Pitt ID?, context: Pitt Arts is a program founded by the University in 1997 to encourage students to explore and connect to the art and cultural opportunities of the City of Pittsburgh via three programs. Art Encounters provides trips to arts events for undergrads that include free tickets, transportation, a catered reception, and encounters with international artists and thinkers. Free Visits grants undergrad and grad students free admission using their Pitt IDs to the Carnegie Museum of Art, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Senator John Heinz History Center, Phipps Conservatory, Mattress Factory, and the Andy Warhol Museum."
"Which Senator has a History Center that can be visited for free with a Pitt ID?"
"Free Visits grants undergrad and grad students free admission using their Pitt IDs to the Carnegie Museum of Art, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Senator John Heinz History Center, Phipps Conservatory, Mattress Factory, and the Andy Warhol Museum."
"Pitt Arts is a program founded by the University in 1997 to encourage students to explore and connect to the art and cultural opportunities of the City of Pittsburgh via three programs. Art Encounters provides trips to arts events for undergrads that include free tickets, transportation, a catered reception, and encounters with international artists and thinkers. Free Visits grants undergrad and grad students free admission using their Pitt IDs to the Carnegie Museum of Art, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Senator John Heinz History Center, Phipps Conservatory, Mattress Factory, and the Andy Warhol Museum."
"Free Visits grants undergrad and grad students free admission using their Pitt IDs to the Carnegie Museum of Art, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Senator <hl> John Heinz <hl> History Center, Phipps Conservatory, Mattress Factory, and the Andy Warhol Museum."
"Pitt Arts is a program founded by the University in 1997 to encourage students to explore and connect to the art and cultural opportunities of the City of Pittsburgh via three programs. Art Encounters provides trips to arts events for undergrads that include free tickets, transportation, a catered reception, and encounters with international artists and thinkers. Free Visits grants undergrad and grad students free admission using their Pitt IDs to the Carnegie Museum of Art, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Senator <hl> John Heinz <hl> History Center, Phipps Conservatory, Mattress Factory, and the Andy Warhol Museum."
"Pitt Arts is a program founded by the University in 1997 to encourage students to explore and connect to the art and cultural opportunities of the City of Pittsburgh via three programs. Art Encounters provides trips to arts events for undergrads that include free tickets, transportation, a catered reception, and encounters with international artists and thinkers. <hl> Free Visits grants undergrad and grad students free admission using their Pitt IDs to the Carnegie Museum of Art, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Senator John Heinz History Center, Phipps Conservatory, Mattress Factory, and the Andy Warhol Museum. <hl>"
"5d676e692b22cd4dfcfbfb69"
"Chief Justice of Connecticut"
"question: What is the official title of the person who runs the highest court in Connecticut?, context: The highest court of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Connecticut Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut. The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes. Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. As of 2015[update] the Chief Justice is Chase T. Rogers."
"What is the official title of the person who runs the highest court in Connecticut?"
"The highest court of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Connecticut Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut ."
"The highest court of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Connecticut Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut. The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes. Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. As of 2015[update] the Chief Justice is Chase T. Rogers."
"The highest court of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Connecticut Supreme Court, headed by the <hl> Chief Justice of Connecticut <hl> ."
"The highest court of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Connecticut Supreme Court, headed by the <hl> Chief Justice of Connecticut <hl>. The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes. Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. As of 2015[update] the Chief Justice is Chase T. Rogers."
"<hl> The highest court of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Connecticut Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut . <hl> The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes. Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. As of 2015[update] the Chief Justice is Chase T. Rogers."
"5d65e58c2b22cd4dfcfbd19b"
"1995"
"question: When did the Istanbul Stock Exchange move to the Sanyar district?, context: Istanbul is home to Borsa Istanbul, the sole exchange entity of Turkey, which combined the former Istanbul Stock Exchange, the Istanbul Gold Exchange, and the Derivatives Exchange of Turkey. The former Istanbul Stock Exchange was originally established as the Ottoman Stock Exchange in 1866. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) in Galata was the financial center of the Ottoman Empire, where the Ottoman Stock Exchange was located. Bankalar Caddesi continued to be Istanbul's main financial district until the 1990s, when most Turkish banks began moving their headquarters to the modern central business districts of Levent and Maslak. In 1995, the Istanbul Stock Exchange (now Borsa Istanbul) moved to its current building in the İstinye quarter of the Sarıyer district. A new central business district is also under construction in Ataşehir and will host the headquarters of various Turkish banks and financial institutions upon completion."
"When did the Istanbul Stock Exchange move to the Sanyar district?"
"In 1995 , the Istanbul Stock Exchange (now Borsa Istanbul) moved to its current building in the İstinye quarter of the Sarıyer district."
"Istanbul is home to Borsa Istanbul, the sole exchange entity of Turkey, which combined the former Istanbul Stock Exchange, the Istanbul Gold Exchange, and the Derivatives Exchange of Turkey. The former Istanbul Stock Exchange was originally established as the Ottoman Stock Exchange in 1866. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) in Galata was the financial center of the Ottoman Empire, where the Ottoman Stock Exchange was located. Bankalar Caddesi continued to be Istanbul's main financial district until the 1990s, when most Turkish banks began moving their headquarters to the modern central business districts of Levent and Maslak. In 1995, the Istanbul Stock Exchange (now Borsa Istanbul) moved to its current building in the İstinye quarter of the Sarıyer district. A new central business district is also under construction in Ataşehir and will host the headquarters of various Turkish banks and financial institutions upon completion."
"In <hl> 1995 <hl> , the Istanbul Stock Exchange (now Borsa Istanbul) moved to its current building in the İstinye quarter of the Sarıyer district."
"Istanbul is home to Borsa Istanbul, the sole exchange entity of Turkey, which combined the former Istanbul Stock Exchange, the Istanbul Gold Exchange, and the Derivatives Exchange of Turkey. The former Istanbul Stock Exchange was originally established as the Ottoman Stock Exchange in 1866. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) in Galata was the financial center of the Ottoman Empire, where the Ottoman Stock Exchange was located. Bankalar Caddesi continued to be Istanbul's main financial district until the 1990s, when most Turkish banks began moving their headquarters to the modern central business districts of Levent and Maslak. In <hl> 1995 <hl>, the Istanbul Stock Exchange (now Borsa Istanbul) moved to its current building in the İstinye quarter of the Sarıyer district. A new central business district is also under construction in Ataşehir and will host the headquarters of various Turkish banks and financial institutions upon completion."
"Istanbul is home to Borsa Istanbul, the sole exchange entity of Turkey, which combined the former Istanbul Stock Exchange, the Istanbul Gold Exchange, and the Derivatives Exchange of Turkey. The former Istanbul Stock Exchange was originally established as the Ottoman Stock Exchange in 1866. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) in Galata was the financial center of the Ottoman Empire, where the Ottoman Stock Exchange was located. Bankalar Caddesi continued to be Istanbul's main financial district until the 1990s, when most Turkish banks began moving their headquarters to the modern central business districts of Levent and Maslak. <hl> In 1995 , the Istanbul Stock Exchange (now Borsa Istanbul) moved to its current building in the İstinye quarter of the Sarıyer district. <hl> A new central business district is also under construction in Ataşehir and will host the headquarters of various Turkish banks and financial institutions upon completion."
"5d65f0cf2b22cd4dfcfbd34d"
"Rodney"
"question: Which historian's methodology and accuracy has come under scrutiny?, context: Other historians have attacked both Rodney's methodology and accuracy. Joseph C. Miller has argued that the social change and demographic stagnation (which he researched on the example of West Central Africa) was caused primarily by domestic factors. Joseph Inikori provided a new line of argument, estimating counterfactual demographic developments in case the Atlantic slave trade had not existed. Patrick Manning has shown that the slave trade did have profound impact on African demographics and social institutions, but criticized Inikori's approach for not taking other factors (such as famine and drought) into account, and thus being highly speculative."
"Which historian's methodology and accuracy has come under scrutiny?"
"Other historians have attacked both Rodney 's methodology and accuracy."
"Other historians have attacked both Rodney's methodology and accuracy. Joseph C. Miller has argued that the social change and demographic stagnation (which he researched on the example of West Central Africa) was caused primarily by domestic factors. Joseph Inikori provided a new line of argument, estimating counterfactual demographic developments in case the Atlantic slave trade had not existed. Patrick Manning has shown that the slave trade did have profound impact on African demographics and social institutions, but criticized Inikori's approach for not taking other factors (such as famine and drought) into account, and thus being highly speculative."
"Other historians have attacked both <hl> Rodney <hl> 's methodology and accuracy."
"Other historians have attacked both <hl> Rodney <hl>'s methodology and accuracy. Joseph C. Miller has argued that the social change and demographic stagnation (which he researched on the example of West Central Africa) was caused primarily by domestic factors. Joseph Inikori provided a new line of argument, estimating counterfactual demographic developments in case the Atlantic slave trade had not existed. Patrick Manning has shown that the slave trade did have profound impact on African demographics and social institutions, but criticized Inikori's approach for not taking other factors (such as famine and drought) into account, and thus being highly speculative."
"<hl> Other historians have attacked both Rodney 's methodology and accuracy. <hl> Joseph C. Miller has argued that the social change and demographic stagnation (which he researched on the example of West Central Africa) was caused primarily by domestic factors. Joseph Inikori provided a new line of argument, estimating counterfactual demographic developments in case the Atlantic slave trade had not existed. Patrick Manning has shown that the slave trade did have profound impact on African demographics and social institutions, but criticized Inikori's approach for not taking other factors (such as famine and drought) into account, and thus being highly speculative."
"5d666b632b22cd4dfcfbde76"
"goods and services"
"question: Owen believes what are manufactured and sold by firms?, context: According to Bruce M. Owen, this does not mean that all firms themselves have to be equally decentralized. He writes: "markets allocate resources through arms-length transactions among decentralized actors. Much of the time, markets work very efficiently, but there is a variety of conditions under which firms do better. Hence, goods and services are produced and sold by firms with various degrees of horizontal and vertical integration." Additionally, he writes that the "economic incentive to expand horizontally or vertically is usually, but not always, compatible with the social interest in maximizing long-run consumer welfare." When it does not, he writes regulation may be necessary."
"Owen believes what are manufactured and sold by firms?"
"Hence, goods and services are produced and sold by firms with various degrees of horizontal and vertical integration.""
"According to Bruce M. Owen, this does not mean that all firms themselves have to be equally decentralized. He writes: "markets allocate resources through arms-length transactions among decentralized actors. Much of the time, markets work very efficiently, but there is a variety of conditions under which firms do better. Hence, goods and services are produced and sold by firms with various degrees of horizontal and vertical integration." Additionally, he writes that the "economic incentive to expand horizontally or vertically is usually, but not always, compatible with the social interest in maximizing long-run consumer welfare." When it does not, he writes regulation may be necessary."
"Hence, <hl> goods and services <hl> are produced and sold by firms with various degrees of horizontal and vertical integration.""
"According to Bruce M. Owen, this does not mean that all firms themselves have to be equally decentralized. He writes: "markets allocate resources through arms-length transactions among decentralized actors. Much of the time, markets work very efficiently, but there is a variety of conditions under which firms do better. Hence, <hl> goods and services <hl> are produced and sold by firms with various degrees of horizontal and vertical integration." Additionally, he writes that the "economic incentive to expand horizontally or vertically is usually, but not always, compatible with the social interest in maximizing long-run consumer welfare." When it does not, he writes regulation may be necessary."
"According to Bruce M. Owen, this does not mean that all firms themselves have to be equally decentralized. He writes: "markets allocate resources through arms-length transactions among decentralized actors. Much of the time, markets work very efficiently, but there is a variety of conditions under which firms do better. <hl> Hence, goods and services are produced and sold by firms with various degrees of horizontal and vertical integration." <hl> Additionally, he writes that the "economic incentive to expand horizontally or vertically is usually, but not always, compatible with the social interest in maximizing long-run consumer welfare." When it does not, he writes regulation may be necessary."
"5d65dc422b22cd4dfcfbcf72"
"It also determines a domain of discourse that specifies the range of the quantifiers"
"question: What does that interpretation also determine?, context: An interpretation of a first-order language assigns a denotation to all non-logical constants in that language. It also determines a domain of discourse that specifies the range of the quantifiers. The result is that each term is assigned an object that it represents, and each sentence is assigned a truth value. In this way, an interpretation provides semantic meaning to the terms and formulas of the language. The study of the interpretations of formal languages is called formal semantics. What follows is a description of the standard or Tarskian semantics for first-order logic. (It is also possible to define game semantics for first-order logic, but aside from requiring the axiom of choice, game semantics agree with Tarskian semantics for first-order logic, so game semantics will not be elaborated herein.)"
"What does that interpretation also determine?"
"It also determines a domain of discourse that specifies the range of the quantifiers ."
"An interpretation of a first-order language assigns a denotation to all non-logical constants in that language. It also determines a domain of discourse that specifies the range of the quantifiers. The result is that each term is assigned an object that it represents, and each sentence is assigned a truth value. In this way, an interpretation provides semantic meaning to the terms and formulas of the language. The study of the interpretations of formal languages is called formal semantics. What follows is a description of the standard or Tarskian semantics for first-order logic. (It is also possible to define game semantics for first-order logic, but aside from requiring the axiom of choice, game semantics agree with Tarskian semantics for first-order logic, so game semantics will not be elaborated herein.)"
"<hl> It also determines a domain of discourse that specifies the range of the quantifiers <hl> ."
"An interpretation of a first-order language assigns a denotation to all non-logical constants in that language. <hl> It also determines a domain of discourse that specifies the range of the quantifiers <hl>. The result is that each term is assigned an object that it represents, and each sentence is assigned a truth value. In this way, an interpretation provides semantic meaning to the terms and formulas of the language. The study of the interpretations of formal languages is called formal semantics. What follows is a description of the standard or Tarskian semantics for first-order logic. (It is also possible to define game semantics for first-order logic, but aside from requiring the axiom of choice, game semantics agree with Tarskian semantics for first-order logic, so game semantics will not be elaborated herein.)"
"An interpretation of a first-order language assigns a denotation to all non-logical constants in that language. <hl> It also determines a domain of discourse that specifies the range of the quantifiers . <hl> The result is that each term is assigned an object that it represents, and each sentence is assigned a truth value. In this way, an interpretation provides semantic meaning to the terms and formulas of the language. The study of the interpretations of formal languages is called formal semantics. What follows is a description of the standard or Tarskian semantics for first-order logic. (It is also possible to define game semantics for first-order logic, but aside from requiring the axiom of choice, game semantics agree with Tarskian semantics for first-order logic, so game semantics will not be elaborated herein.)"
"5d663f2f2b22cd4dfcfbdb7f"
"initialisms"
"question: What are FBI and HTML an example of?, context: Although the word acronym is often used to refer to any abbreviation formed from initial letters, many dictionaries and usage commentators define acronym to mean an abbreviation that is pronounced as a word, in contradistinction to an initialism (or alphabetism)‍—‌an abbreviation formed from a string of initials (and possibly pronounced as individual letters). Some dictionaries include additional senses equating acronym with initialism. The distinction, when made, hinges on whether the abbreviation is pronounced as a word or as a string of individual letters. Examples in reference works that make the distinction include NATO /ˈneɪtoʊ/, scuba /ˈskuːbə/, and radar /ˈreɪdɑːr/ for acronyms - and FBI /ˌɛfˌbiːˈaɪ/, CRT /ˌˈsiːˌɑːrˌtiː/, and HTML /ˌeɪtʃˌtiːˌɛmˈɛl/ for initialisms. The rest of this article uses acronym for both types of abbreviation."
"What are FBI and HTML an example of?"
"Examples in reference works that make the distinction include NATO /ˈneɪtoʊ/, scuba /ˈskuːbə/, and radar /ˈreɪdɑːr/ for acronyms - and FBI /ˌɛfˌbiːˈaɪ/, CRT /ˌˈsiːˌɑːrˌtiː/, and HTML /ˌeɪtʃˌtiːˌɛmˈɛl/ for initialisms ."
"Although the word acronym is often used to refer to any abbreviation formed from initial letters, many dictionaries and usage commentators define acronym to mean an abbreviation that is pronounced as a word, in contradistinction to an initialism (or alphabetism)‍—‌an abbreviation formed from a string of initials (and possibly pronounced as individual letters). Some dictionaries include additional senses equating acronym with initialism. The distinction, when made, hinges on whether the abbreviation is pronounced as a word or as a string of individual letters. Examples in reference works that make the distinction include NATO /ˈneɪtoʊ/, scuba /ˈskuːbə/, and radar /ˈreɪdɑːr/ for acronyms - and FBI /ˌɛfˌbiːˈaɪ/, CRT /ˌˈsiːˌɑːrˌtiː/, and HTML /ˌeɪtʃˌtiːˌɛmˈɛl/ for initialisms. The rest of this article uses acronym for both types of abbreviation."
"Examples in reference works that make the distinction include NATO /ˈneɪtoʊ/, scuba /ˈskuːbə/, and radar /ˈreɪdɑːr/ for acronyms - and FBI /ˌɛfˌbiːˈaɪ/, CRT /ˌˈsiːˌɑːrˌtiː/, and HTML /ˌeɪtʃˌtiːˌɛmˈɛl/ for <hl> initialisms <hl> ."
"Although the word acronym is often used to refer to any abbreviation formed from initial letters, many dictionaries and usage commentators define acronym to mean an abbreviation that is pronounced as a word, in contradistinction to an initialism (or alphabetism)‍—‌an abbreviation formed from a string of initials (and possibly pronounced as individual letters). Some dictionaries include additional senses equating acronym with initialism. The distinction, when made, hinges on whether the abbreviation is pronounced as a word or as a string of individual letters. Examples in reference works that make the distinction include NATO /ˈneɪtoʊ/, scuba /ˈskuːbə/, and radar /ˈreɪdɑːr/ for acronyms - and FBI /ˌɛfˌbiːˈaɪ/, CRT /ˌˈsiːˌɑːrˌtiː/, and HTML /ˌeɪtʃˌtiːˌɛmˈɛl/ for <hl> initialisms <hl>. The rest of this article uses acronym for both types of abbreviation."
"Although the word acronym is often used to refer to any abbreviation formed from initial letters, many dictionaries and usage commentators define acronym to mean an abbreviation that is pronounced as a word, in contradistinction to an initialism (or alphabetism)‍—‌an abbreviation formed from a string of initials (and possibly pronounced as individual letters). Some dictionaries include additional senses equating acronym with initialism. The distinction, when made, hinges on whether the abbreviation is pronounced as a word or as a string of individual letters. <hl> Examples in reference works that make the distinction include NATO /ˈneɪtoʊ/, scuba /ˈskuːbə/, and radar /ˈreɪdɑːr/ for acronyms - and FBI /ˌɛfˌbiːˈaɪ/, CRT /ˌˈsiːˌɑːrˌtiː/, and HTML /ˌeɪtʃˌtiːˌɛmˈɛl/ for initialisms . <hl> The rest of this article uses acronym for both types of abbreviation."
"5d65ac782b22cd4dfcfbcb06"
"London"
"question: Where was Lloyd's located?, context: Excess of loss contracts, like those commonly used for umbrella and general liability insurance, or to insure against property losses, will typically have a low ratio of premium paid to maximum loss recoverable. This ratio (expressed as a percentage), commonly called the "rate on line" for historical reasons related to underwriting practices at Lloyd's of London, will typically be low for contracts that contain reasonably self-evident risk transfer. As the ratio increases to approximate the present value of the limit of coverage, self-evidence decreases and disappears."
"Where was Lloyd's located?"
" This ratio (expressed as a percentage), commonly called the "rate on line" for historical reasons related to underwriting practices at Lloyd's of London , will typically be low for contracts that contain reasonably self-evident risk transfer."
"Excess of loss contracts, like those commonly used for umbrella and general liability insurance, or to insure against property losses, will typically have a low ratio of premium paid to maximum loss recoverable. This ratio (expressed as a percentage), commonly called the "rate on line" for historical reasons related to underwriting practices at Lloyd's of London, will typically be low for contracts that contain reasonably self-evident risk transfer. As the ratio increases to approximate the present value of the limit of coverage, self-evidence decreases and disappears."
" This ratio (expressed as a percentage), commonly called the "rate on line" for historical reasons related to underwriting practices at Lloyd's of <hl> London <hl> , will typically be low for contracts that contain reasonably self-evident risk transfer."
"Excess of loss contracts, like those commonly used for umbrella and general liability insurance, or to insure against property losses, will typically have a low ratio of premium paid to maximum loss recoverable. This ratio (expressed as a percentage), commonly called the "rate on line" for historical reasons related to underwriting practices at Lloyd's of <hl> London <hl>, will typically be low for contracts that contain reasonably self-evident risk transfer. As the ratio increases to approximate the present value of the limit of coverage, self-evidence decreases and disappears."
"Excess of loss contracts, like those commonly used for umbrella and general liability insurance, or to insure against property losses, will typically have a low ratio of premium paid to maximum loss recoverable. <hl> This ratio (expressed as a percentage), commonly called the "rate on line" for historical reasons related to underwriting practices at Lloyd's of London , will typically be low for contracts that contain reasonably self-evident risk transfer. <hl> As the ratio increases to approximate the present value of the limit of coverage, self-evidence decreases and disappears."
"5d65c8432b22cd4dfcfbcd14"
"Many communities and states across the country have created these plans"
"question: Have other states used these same plans?, context: In 2001, the NAEH along with the U.S. ICH encouraged communities to create and implement state and local strategic plans to prevent and end homelessness, focusing on Housing First initiatives to house the chronically homeless population who have many barriers to stability, a cost-benefit analysis of state- and local-level resources, best practice engagement and service innovations, and prevention. Many communities and states across the country have created these plans and have set up measurable goals and targets for the short- and long-term."
"Have other states used these same plans?"
"Many communities and states across the country have created these plans and have set up measurable goals and targets for the short- and long-term."
"In 2001, the NAEH along with the U.S. ICH encouraged communities to create and implement state and local strategic plans to prevent and end homelessness, focusing on Housing First initiatives to house the chronically homeless population who have many barriers to stability, a cost-benefit analysis of state- and local-level resources, best practice engagement and service innovations, and prevention. Many communities and states across the country have created these plans and have set up measurable goals and targets for the short- and long-term."
"<hl> Many communities and states across the country have created these plans <hl> and have set up measurable goals and targets for the short- and long-term."
"In 2001, the NAEH along with the U.S. ICH encouraged communities to create and implement state and local strategic plans to prevent and end homelessness, focusing on Housing First initiatives to house the chronically homeless population who have many barriers to stability, a cost-benefit analysis of state- and local-level resources, best practice engagement and service innovations, and prevention. <hl> Many communities and states across the country have created these plans <hl> and have set up measurable goals and targets for the short- and long-term."
"In 2001, the NAEH along with the U.S. ICH encouraged communities to create and implement state and local strategic plans to prevent and end homelessness, focusing on Housing First initiatives to house the chronically homeless population who have many barriers to stability, a cost-benefit analysis of state- and local-level resources, best practice engagement and service innovations, and prevention. <hl> Many communities and states across the country have created these plans and have set up measurable goals and targets for the short- and long-term. <hl>"
"5d6606412b22cd4dfcfbd5ec"
"capitalist property relations"
"question: What is antagonistic to individual freedom?, context: Accordingly, libertarian socialists believe that "the exercise of power in any institutionalized form—whether economic, political, religious, or sexual—brutalizes both the wielder of power and the one over whom it is exercised". Libertarian socialists generally place their hopes in decentralized means of direct democracy such as libertarian municipalism, citizens' assemblies, or workers' councils. Libertarian socialists are strongly critical of coercive institutions, which often leads them to reject the legitimacy of the state in favor of anarchism. Adherents propose achieving this through decentralization of political and economic power, usually involving the socialization of most large-scale private property and enterprise (while retaining respect for personal property). Libertarian socialism tends to deny the legitimacy of most forms of economically significant private property, viewing capitalist property relations as forms of domination that are antagonistic to individual freedom."
"What is antagonistic to individual freedom?"
"Libertarian socialism tends to deny the legitimacy of most forms of economically significant private property, viewing capitalist property relations as forms of domination that are antagonistic to individual freedom."
"Accordingly, libertarian socialists believe that "the exercise of power in any institutionalized form—whether economic, political, religious, or sexual—brutalizes both the wielder of power and the one over whom it is exercised". Libertarian socialists generally place their hopes in decentralized means of direct democracy such as libertarian municipalism, citizens' assemblies, or workers' councils. Libertarian socialists are strongly critical of coercive institutions, which often leads them to reject the legitimacy of the state in favor of anarchism. Adherents propose achieving this through decentralization of political and economic power, usually involving the socialization of most large-scale private property and enterprise (while retaining respect for personal property). Libertarian socialism tends to deny the legitimacy of most forms of economically significant private property, viewing capitalist property relations as forms of domination that are antagonistic to individual freedom."
"Libertarian socialism tends to deny the legitimacy of most forms of economically significant private property, viewing <hl> capitalist property relations <hl> as forms of domination that are antagonistic to individual freedom."
"Accordingly, libertarian socialists believe that "the exercise of power in any institutionalized form—whether economic, political, religious, or sexual—brutalizes both the wielder of power and the one over whom it is exercised". Libertarian socialists generally place their hopes in decentralized means of direct democracy such as libertarian municipalism, citizens' assemblies, or workers' councils. Libertarian socialists are strongly critical of coercive institutions, which often leads them to reject the legitimacy of the state in favor of anarchism. Adherents propose achieving this through decentralization of political and economic power, usually involving the socialization of most large-scale private property and enterprise (while retaining respect for personal property). Libertarian socialism tends to deny the legitimacy of most forms of economically significant private property, viewing <hl> capitalist property relations <hl> as forms of domination that are antagonistic to individual freedom."
"Accordingly, libertarian socialists believe that "the exercise of power in any institutionalized form—whether economic, political, religious, or sexual—brutalizes both the wielder of power and the one over whom it is exercised". Libertarian socialists generally place their hopes in decentralized means of direct democracy such as libertarian municipalism, citizens' assemblies, or workers' councils. Libertarian socialists are strongly critical of coercive institutions, which often leads them to reject the legitimacy of the state in favor of anarchism. Adherents propose achieving this through decentralization of political and economic power, usually involving the socialization of most large-scale private property and enterprise (while retaining respect for personal property). <hl> Libertarian socialism tends to deny the legitimacy of most forms of economically significant private property, viewing capitalist property relations as forms of domination that are antagonistic to individual freedom. <hl>"
"5d65dc5f2b22cd4dfcfbcf87"
"New York Bay"
"question: What is the new name given to Bay of Santa Margarita?, context: The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of King Francis I that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River, which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named the Bay of Santa Margarita – what is now Upper New York Bay – after Marguerite de Navarre, the elder sister of the king."
"What is the new name given to Bay of Santa Margarita?"
"He entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of King Francis I that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River, which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named the Bay of Santa Margarita – what is now Upper New York Bay – after Marguerite de Navarre, the elder sister of the king."
"The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of King Francis I that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River, which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named the Bay of Santa Margarita – what is now Upper New York Bay – after Marguerite de Navarre, the elder sister of the king."
"He entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of King Francis I that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River, which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named the Bay of Santa Margarita – what is now Upper <hl> New York Bay <hl> – after Marguerite de Navarre, the elder sister of the king."
"The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of King Francis I that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River, which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named the Bay of Santa Margarita – what is now Upper <hl> New York Bay <hl> – after Marguerite de Navarre, the elder sister of the king."
"The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. <hl> He entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of King Francis I that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River, which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named the Bay of Santa Margarita – what is now Upper New York Bay – after Marguerite de Navarre, the elder sister of the king. <hl>"
"5d67e5632b22cd4dfcfc03cc"
"question: What role does a structual engineer play?, context: The structural engineer is the lead designer on these structures, and often the sole designer. In the design of structures such as these, structural safety is of paramount importance (in the UK, designs for dams, nuclear power stations and bridges must be signed off by a chartered engineer)."
"What role does a structual engineer play?"
"The structural engineer is the lead designer on these structures , and often the sole designer."
"The structural engineer is the lead designer on these structures, and often the sole designer. In the design of structures such as these, structural safety is of paramount importance (in the UK, designs for dams, nuclear power stations and bridges must be signed off by a chartered engineer)."
"The structural engineer is the <hl> lead designer on these structures <hl> , and often the sole designer."
"The structural engineer is the <hl> lead designer on these structures <hl>, and often the sole designer. In the design of structures such as these, structural safety is of paramount importance (in the UK, designs for dams, nuclear power stations and bridges must be signed off by a chartered engineer)."
"<hl> The structural engineer is the lead designer on these structures , and often the sole designer. <hl> In the design of structures such as these, structural safety is of paramount importance (in the UK, designs for dams, nuclear power stations and bridges must be signed off by a chartered engineer)."
"5d672a912b22cd4dfcfbf14c"
"eastern shore"
"question: What shore of the Baltic's was among the last in Europe to be converted to Christianity?, context: The lands on the Baltic's eastern shore were among the last in Europe to be converted to Christianity. This finally happened during the Northern Crusades: Finland in the twelfth century by Swedes, and what are now Estonia and Latvia in the early thirteenth century by Danes and Germans (Livonian Brothers of the Sword). The Teutonic Order gained control over parts of the southern and eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, where they set up their monastic state. Lithuania was the last European state to convert to Christianity."
"What shore of the Baltic's was among the last in Europe to be converted to Christianity?"
"The lands on the Baltic's eastern shore were among the last in Europe to be converted to Christianity."
"The lands on the Baltic's eastern shore were among the last in Europe to be converted to Christianity. This finally happened during the Northern Crusades: Finland in the twelfth century by Swedes, and what are now Estonia and Latvia in the early thirteenth century by Danes and Germans (Livonian Brothers of the Sword). The Teutonic Order gained control over parts of the southern and eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, where they set up their monastic state. Lithuania was the last European state to convert to Christianity."
"The lands on the Baltic's <hl> eastern shore <hl> were among the last in Europe to be converted to Christianity."
"The lands on the Baltic's <hl> eastern shore <hl> were among the last in Europe to be converted to Christianity. This finally happened during the Northern Crusades: Finland in the twelfth century by Swedes, and what are now Estonia and Latvia in the early thirteenth century by Danes and Germans (Livonian Brothers of the Sword). The Teutonic Order gained control over parts of the southern and eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, where they set up their monastic state. Lithuania was the last European state to convert to Christianity."
"<hl> The lands on the Baltic's eastern shore were among the last in Europe to be converted to Christianity. <hl> This finally happened during the Northern Crusades: Finland in the twelfth century by Swedes, and what are now Estonia and Latvia in the early thirteenth century by Danes and Germans (Livonian Brothers of the Sword). The Teutonic Order gained control over parts of the southern and eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, where they set up their monastic state. Lithuania was the last European state to convert to Christianity."
"5d665e2f2b22cd4dfcfbdcb4"
"The movement is usually believed to have begun in 1963"
"question: What year do most agree feminism began?, context: Though it is widely accepted that the movement lasted from the 1960s into the early 1980s, the exact years of the movement are more difficult to pinpoint and are often disputed. The movement is usually believed to have begun in 1963, when "Mother of the Movement" Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, and President John F. Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women released its report on gender inequality. The report, which revealed great discrimination against women in American life, along with Friedan's book, which spoke to the discontent of many women (especially housewives), led to the formation of many local, state, and federal government women's groups as well as many independent feminist organizations. Friedan was referencing a "movement" as early as 1964."
"What year do most agree feminism began?"
"The movement is usually believed to have begun in 1963 , when "Mother of the Movement" Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, and President John F. Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women released its report on gender inequality."
"Though it is widely accepted that the movement lasted from the 1960s into the early 1980s, the exact years of the movement are more difficult to pinpoint and are often disputed. The movement is usually believed to have begun in 1963, when "Mother of the Movement" Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, and President John F. Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women released its report on gender inequality. The report, which revealed great discrimination against women in American life, along with Friedan's book, which spoke to the discontent of many women (especially housewives), led to the formation of many local, state, and federal government women's groups as well as many independent feminist organizations. Friedan was referencing a "movement" as early as 1964."
"<hl> The movement is usually believed to have begun in 1963 <hl> , when "Mother of the Movement" Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, and President John F. Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women released its report on gender inequality."
"Though it is widely accepted that the movement lasted from the 1960s into the early 1980s, the exact years of the movement are more difficult to pinpoint and are often disputed. <hl> The movement is usually believed to have begun in 1963 <hl>, when "Mother of the Movement" Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, and President John F. Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women released its report on gender inequality. The report, which revealed great discrimination against women in American life, along with Friedan's book, which spoke to the discontent of many women (especially housewives), led to the formation of many local, state, and federal government women's groups as well as many independent feminist organizations. Friedan was referencing a "movement" as early as 1964."
"Though it is widely accepted that the movement lasted from the 1960s into the early 1980s, the exact years of the movement are more difficult to pinpoint and are often disputed. <hl> The movement is usually believed to have begun in 1963 , when "Mother of the Movement" Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, and President John F. Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women released its report on gender inequality. <hl> The report, which revealed great discrimination against women in American life, along with Friedan's book, which spoke to the discontent of many women (especially housewives), led to the formation of many local, state, and federal government women's groups as well as many independent feminist organizations. Friedan was referencing a "movement" as early as 1964."
"5d6712432b22cd4dfcfbedd7"
"1959"
"question: When did Connecticut pick up an official nickname?, context: The name "Connecticut" originates from the Mohegan word quonehtacut, meaning "place of long tidal river." Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959, is "The Constitution State," based on its colonial constitution of 1638–39 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world. Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as "The Nutmeg State." The origins of the nutmeg connection to Connecticut are unknown. It may have come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg (which in the 18th and 19th centuries was a very valuable spice). It may have originated in the early machined sheet tin nutmeg grinders sold by early Connecticut peddlers. It is also facetiously said to come from Yankee peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers. George Washington gave Connecticut the title of "The Provisions State" because of the material aid the state rendered to the American Revolutionary War effort. Connecticut is also known as "The Land of Steady Habits.""
"When did Connecticut pick up an official nickname?"
"Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959 , is "The Constitution State," based on its colonial constitution of 1638–39 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world."
"The name "Connecticut" originates from the Mohegan word quonehtacut, meaning "place of long tidal river." Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959, is "The Constitution State," based on its colonial constitution of 1638–39 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world. Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as "The Nutmeg State." The origins of the nutmeg connection to Connecticut are unknown. It may have come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg (which in the 18th and 19th centuries was a very valuable spice). It may have originated in the early machined sheet tin nutmeg grinders sold by early Connecticut peddlers. It is also facetiously said to come from Yankee peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers. George Washington gave Connecticut the title of "The Provisions State" because of the material aid the state rendered to the American Revolutionary War effort. Connecticut is also known as "The Land of Steady Habits.""
"Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in <hl> 1959 <hl> , is "The Constitution State," based on its colonial constitution of 1638–39 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world."
"The name "Connecticut" originates from the Mohegan word quonehtacut, meaning "place of long tidal river." Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in <hl> 1959 <hl>, is "The Constitution State," based on its colonial constitution of 1638–39 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world. Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as "The Nutmeg State." The origins of the nutmeg connection to Connecticut are unknown. It may have come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg (which in the 18th and 19th centuries was a very valuable spice). It may have originated in the early machined sheet tin nutmeg grinders sold by early Connecticut peddlers. It is also facetiously said to come from Yankee peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers. George Washington gave Connecticut the title of "The Provisions State" because of the material aid the state rendered to the American Revolutionary War effort. Connecticut is also known as "The Land of Steady Habits.""
"The name "Connecticut" originates from the Mohegan word quonehtacut, meaning "place of long tidal river." <hl> Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959 , is "The Constitution State," based on its colonial constitution of 1638–39 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world. <hl> Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as "The Nutmeg State." The origins of the nutmeg connection to Connecticut are unknown. It may have come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg (which in the 18th and 19th centuries was a very valuable spice). It may have originated in the early machined sheet tin nutmeg grinders sold by early Connecticut peddlers. It is also facetiously said to come from Yankee peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers. George Washington gave Connecticut the title of "The Provisions State" because of the material aid the state rendered to the American Revolutionary War effort. Connecticut is also known as "The Land of Steady Habits.""
"5d65f7ab2b22cd4dfcfbd46b"

### Dataset Summary

This is a subset of QG-Bench, a unified question generation benchmark proposed in "Generative Language Models for Paragraph-Level Question Generation: A Unified Benchmark and Evaluation, EMNLP 2022 main conference". Modified version of SQuADShifts for question generation (QG) task.

• question-generation: The dataset can be used to train a model for question generation. Success on this task is typically measured by achieving a high BLEU4/METEOR/ROUGE-L/BERTScore/MoverScore (see our paper for more in detail).

English (en)

## Dataset Structure

An example of 'train' looks as follows.

{
"question": "has there ever been a legal challange?",
"paragraph": "The status of the Armenian Apostolic Church within the Republic of Armenia is defined in the country's constitution. Article 8.1 of the Constitution of Armenia states: "The Republic of Armenia recognizes the exclusive historical mission of the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church as a national church, in the spiritual life, development of the national culture and preservation of the national identity of the people of Armenia." Among others, ethnographer Hranush Kharatyan has questioned the constitutionality of the phrase "national church".",
"answer": "Among others, ethnographer Hranush Kharatyan has questioned the constitutionality of the phrase "national church",
"sentence": "Article 8.1 of the Constitution of Armenia states: "The Republic of Armenia recognizes the exclusive historical mission of the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church as a national church, in the spiritual life, development of the national culture and preservation of the national identity of the people of Armenia." Among others, ethnographer Hranush Kharatyan has questioned the constitutionality of the phrase "national church",
"paragraph_sentence": "The status of the Armenian Apostolic Church within the Republic of Armenia is defined in the country's constitution. <hl> Article 8.1 of the Constitution of Armenia states: "The Republic of Armenia recognizes the exclusive historical mission of the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church as a national church, in the spiritual life, development of the national culture and preservation of the national identity of the people of Armenia." Among others, ethnographer Hranush Kharatyan has questioned the constitutionality of the phrase "national church". <hl>",
"paragraph_answer": "The status of the Armenian Apostolic Church within the Republic of Armenia is defined in the country's constitution. Article 8.1 of the Constitution of Armenia states: "The Republic of Armenia recognizes the exclusive historical mission of the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church as a national church, in the spiritual life, development of the national culture and preservation of the national identity of the people of Armenia." <hl> Among others, ethnographer Hranush Kharatyan has questioned the constitutionality of the phrase "national church". <hl>",
"sentence_answer": "Article 8.1 of the Constitution of Armenia states: "The Republic of Armenia recognizes the exclusive historical mission of the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church as a national church, in the spiritual life, development of the national culture and preservation of the national identity of the people of Armenia." <hl> Among others, ethnographer Hranush Kharatyan has questioned the constitutionality of the phrase "national church". <hl>"
}


The data fields are the same among all splits.

• question: a string feature.
• paragraph: a string feature.
• answer: a string feature.
• sentence: a string feature.
• paragraph_answer: a string feature, which is same as the paragraph but the answer is highlighted by a special token <hl>.
• paragraph_sentence: a string feature, which is same as the paragraph but a sentence containing the answer is highlighted by a special token <hl>.
• sentence_answer: a string feature, which is same as the sentence but the answer is highlighted by a special token <hl>.

Each of paragraph_answer, paragraph_sentence, and sentence_answer feature is assumed to be used to train a question generation model, but with different information. The paragraph_answer and sentence_answer features are for answer-aware question generation and paragraph_sentence feature is for sentence-aware question generation.

### Data Splits

name train valid test
default (all) 9209 6283 18,844
amazon 3295 1648 4942
new_wiki 2646 1323 3969
nyt 3355 1678 5032
reddit 3268 1634 4901

## Citation Information

@inproceedings{ushio-etal-2022-generative,
title = "{G}enerative {L}anguage {M}odels for {P}aragraph-{L}evel {Q}uestion {G}eneration",
author = "Ushio, Asahi  and
Alva-Manchego, Fernando  and