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In Britain, improvements in coaching technologies and roads helped to increase stage coach speeds in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, while the railway construction boom of the 1830s and 1840s led to a massive reduction in journey times, and the emergence of distinctly new experiences and geographies.
Britain’s railway companies were among the nation’s largest employers in the nineteenth century, and they facilitated the mobility of passengers and important commodities.
The railways brought a new technology and vast engineering and architectural structures into Britain’s rural and urban landscapes.
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Delayed gastric emptying may be a consequence of wine phenolics activating STC-1 cells in the stomach.
These possess the same T2R system as bitter-sensitive receptors in the mouth (see Finger and Kinnamon, 2011).
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The third largest cluster is labeled ‘γ Food Risk Communication’, which includes 75 references with an average publication year of 2003 and a silhouette value of 0.867, indicating a reasonable separation of other research clusters.
Its research front is [62], which describes the history of risk communication, summarizes theoretical avenues, and provides research directions in food-related risks.
It highlights media amplification, public trust, and communication of uncertainty as essential ingredients.
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The histopathological changes of heart, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, ileum, colon and testis were shown in Supplementary information, Fig. S6.
Those organs showed varying levels of edema, increase or infiltration of inflammatory cells on day 3 post infection, while the symptom was relieved slightly on day 6 post infection.
These results suggested that SARS-CoV-2 could infect the respiratory tract resulting in interstitial pneumonia in RMs.
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Separate teams providing care in each of these areas might reduce the risk of cross-contaminations as important as maintaining separate areas throughout the hospital for both Covid-19-positive and negative patients for further care.
If organised differently, Covid-19-positive patients should be transferred to intensive care units, coronary care units or wards in Covid-19 hospitals depending on their clinical status and presentation.
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While their theoretical proposition may not be explicitly stated by the authors, there is clearly an implicit theoretical proposition that the educational intervention would improve DNs knowledge and confidence (theoretical proposition 1, Fig. 2).
This was supported by the quantitative findings which showed significant improvement in the district nurses confidence in their professional competence post intervention.
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Although no conclusions can be made from this study regarding the efficacy of tocilizumab in COVID-19 pneumonia, the survival rates reported are encouraging and suggest that tocilizumab is at least safe in severe COVID-19 infection.
We consider that tocilizumab may also be substituted for anakinra in MIS-C with SHLH features, especially in the setting of active SARS-CoV-2 infection.
For severe disease, the addition of pulsed corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, may be considered.
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From the results of the whole experiment, we not only improved the performance of the training task through 2 weeks of response inhibition training (Go/NoGo and stop-signal tasks), but also more importantly, we found the migration effect of training in the untrained Stroop task and Balloon Analog Risk Task.
The fact that inhibition control plays an important role in people’s complex decision-making process has been verified.
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Of course, intravenous administration of live bacteria is not without risk of side effects.
For instance, preliminary tolerability studies with VNP20009 showed dose-dependent elicitation of cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, which were associated with hypotension, fever, thrombocytopenia, anemia, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting [236].
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Thus, other constraints have apparently limited genome size, even in RNA viruses equipped with proofreading capability.
Further characterization of nidovirus molecular biology, variation, and evolution may provide insight into these other factors.
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A new method is here offered to explore the core points of this topic.
The Emergency Reaction Questionnaire (ERQ), is proposed for predicting one's reaction and behaviour in an emergency.
First, a large item pool was created based on interviews with people facing emergencies on a weekly basis and related literature.
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This figure shows that most of the identified metabolites were in the low abundance region of the chromatogram.
Most of the high abundant peaks are substances derived from column bleeding or the derivatization reagent.
Of the detected 47 metabolites 41 were identified using their fragmentation pattern and retention index.
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Since the disease is often silent, there is a need to raise awareness among the general population on how to avoid infection and to encourage high-risk groups to be tested.
Healthcare professionals should also be educated to avoid ­occupationally acquired infection.
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OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively review the impact of the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) on services in the oral emergency room.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A statistical analysis of epidemiological characteristics and the patients’ diagnoses and treatments in the Emergency Department of Peking University Hospital of Stomatology during the outbreak of COVID‐19 in 2020 compared with those in 2019 in Beijing, China.
RESULTS: There were fewer total visits in 2020 than in 2019 (P = 0.001), and the proportions of patients who were children, adolescents and elderly people were lower in 2020 than in 2019 (P < 0.001).
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Yet, the same is not true for MIMS.
Technological interventions like algorithmic moderation are not possible on encrypted services like WhatsApp (Resende et al., 2019).
Moreover, other technological solutions like limiting message forwarding have proven ineffective at curbing the spread of messages that are considered harmful (de Freitas Melo et al., 2019).
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A new method for stable binding of proteins to a surface has recently been developed by linking proteins via a Leucine zipper (Zhang et al. 2005).
Therefore an elastin mimetic domain is covalently bound to an Octyltrichlorosilane surface by a photoreactive amino acid and UV irradiation, whereas the target protein is fused to the complementary leucine zipper helix.
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As described in Table 1, the set of pseudoknots is divided into the three different classes according to the length of loop .
To account for recursive structure elements, the loop entropies need to be recalculated.
Following the notation in Cao and Chen (48), we first calculate the effective loop lengths.
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Although neurological complications have been described in human COVID-19 patients (34), lung damage is the primary cause of death in most patients (35).
It is evident that there is an urgent need to establish animal models which authentically recapitulate human lung disease which will be important for understanding disease pathogenesis.
However, models in which hACE2 is over-expressed are useful for early vaccine and antiviral studies which use protection from infection or viral replication as an endpoint.
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The diversity of HPeV1-mediated IRF3 activation in different cell types was supported by double-stranded RNA polyI:C stimulation inducing greater phosphorylation of IRF3 in A549 than T84 cells (Fig. 4E); consistently, HPeV1 and polyI:C induced a higher mRNA level of IFNα1 and IFNβ in A549 cells (Fig. 4F and G).
As compared with A549 cells, T84 cells showed a more torpid innate immune response.
Cell type might be a critical factor in viruses triggering antiviral signaling activation.
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After the nuclear export of the vRNP complexes, host cell’s intracellular transport mechanism is required to deliver vRNP complexes to the host plasma membrane for the assembly of viral RNAs and proteins at the final stage of viral replication.
Among the various vesicular compartments found in a cell, the Rab11A+ endosomes are known to recycle endocytosed membrane proteins and lipids to the plasma membrane for membrane homeostasis (112), a property utilized by many RNA viruses, including IAV (87, 113–115).
IAV progeny virus production was found to be significantly reduced in Rab11A+ knockdown human cell lines (116).
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And then, should they be regarded as important as the other?
Clearly, ‘health’ and ‘economy’ are two different things, but they have significant impacts on one another.
An unhealthy society would mean an unhealthy economy, and vice versa.
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The next step is to create the collection of connections between the identified risks.
This is done by leveraging the structure of the supply network and the definition of a function ζ(z) which takes as input the location z in the supply network and will return the neighbors of that location.
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A critical step in the process of viral induced membrane fusion is the activation of the viral fusogen.
While most viruses that enter the cell through low pH endocytosis rely on protonation of certain residues (mostly histidines) of the viral fusogen to trigger fusion, the activating step in the case of other viruses is still ill-defined.
Better understanding of fusion triggering may therefore bring new possibilities for the manipulation of virus entry.
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Activation of the microglia has been regarded as particularly important, as these scavenger cells function both in the inflammatory cascade and the removal of Aβ from the brain [34, 87].
Under conditions of chronic low blood flow and glucose delivery, activated microglia were scarce in areas surrounding Aβ plaques and exhibited impaired functioning [34].
Thus, the reduced capability for these microglia to effectively clear Aβ confers an environment ideal for accumulation, aggregation, and further plaque formation.
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To maintain and improve the current situation of infectious diseases in the ROK, high coverage rate of vaccines in the national immunization program need to be maintained.
Moreover, vaccines that are not included in the national immunization program should be added, and surveillance and control of emerging or re-emerging diseases, especially imported infectious diseases, should be performed properly.
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Mackall et al36,37 have examined the issue of T-cell dose infused during transplantation after multiple-cycle PBSCT, and found no difference in T-cell recovery between patients supported with autologous PBSC and CD34+ PBSC.
Meijer et al38 report that, by maintaining a T/B cell ratio in the graft of ⩾0.25, the risk of EBV-LPD can be significantly reduced in matched unrelated donor BMT.
The role of this in autologous stem cell transplantation must be investigated.
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Lead poisoning has occurred in a variety of animals, but with the increased awareness of the potential for toxicity and environmental contamination and current regulations, such as reduced concentrations in paint and unleaded gasoline, poisoning is uncommon and if it occurs is most common in cattle.
Potential sources include discarded car batteries and old flaking or peeling lead paint in barns and farm buildings.
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All the studied complexes showed very fewer motions as compared with the reference compound.
So from the PCA, we concluded that all compounds showed fewer motions and form a stable complex with Mpro.
From PCA, we conclude that ligand binding leads to the change in protein conformation as well as in dynamics.
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A Grade 2/6 systolic murmur was audible along the left sternal border with no pericardial rub.
There was no wheeze, but a few bilateral basal rales were heard.
The liver edge was palpable 5 cm below the right costal margin.
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Critical global leadership development can be supported by cultivating a third space (Soja 1994) between home, school, and other local contexts which provides opportunities for youth to develop agency and to be empowered to interrogate injustices that they experience and witness in their communities (Allen-Handy and Thomas-EL 2018; Allen-Handy et al. 2019; Baldridge et al. 2017; Conner and Rosen 2016; Ginwright 2004; Kirshner 2015; Sung and Allen-Handy 2019; Sung and Coleman 2019).
For example, elements of youth activism and critical research have been noted to be essential for youth to develop critical consciousness and leadership capabilities. (
Cammarota and Fine 2008; Dolan et al. 2015).
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Research on immediate human responses to an emergency will assist with the long-term physical and mental health of affected people or their social environment.
Given the limitations and paucity of previous research associated with emergency behaviour, the present findings are promising as we seek to establish a new way of studying this area.
Of course, these are the first steps towards a new method.
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In certain circumstances of ruling in or ruling out a suspect, the specific IgE may be of value.
Those individuals unfortunate to have allergies have problems due to IgE against allergens (such as ragweed, peanut, or cat dander).
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Virus titers after spiking were below the expected dilution factor in six of the eight blood units used.
In one PC and in one plasma unit used for EBOV inactivation and in all four blood units used for MERS‐CoV inactivation, the virus titers before PI treatment were up to 1 log lower than expected from a 1‐in‐10 dilution.
However, no additional reduction in virus titers was observed during the course of the experiment.
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Huh-7.5 cells were electroporated with HCV Jc1FLAG2(p7-nsGluc2A) RNA (10 μg) as described above to establish random productive infections in the cell population, and then mixed with naïve cells at a ratio of 1:1 before seeding in 12-well plates.
Assembled HCV particles (within 24 – 48 h post-transfection) would transmit to neighboring cells that do not harbor viral RNA during viral spread and form localized foci in ensuing incubation period [48].
Medium was changed 24 h post-electroporation with an overlay medium containing the test drugs or control and 0.5% methylcellulose, and the plates were further incubated for 5 days before analysis of HCV-positive foci through immunostaining.
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In contrast, in male patients, progressive disease was clearly associated with higher age, higher BMI, and poor CD8 T cell activation (Fig. 4d).
Poor CD8 T cell activation and poor IFNγ production by CD8 T cells were significantly correlated with patients’ age, while these correlations were not seen in female patients (Fig. 4d,e).
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In addition to the potent inhibition shown by two sequence-specific shRNAs, the TCID50 and qPCR analyses also demonstrated that, compared with the mock control, the amount of viral RNAs in the negative control pRNAT-NC cells also decreased a little, which suggested a non-specific effect on TGEV replication in PK-15 cells.
Similarly, other researchers have discussed an “off-target” effect induced by siRNA or shRNA in their reports.
Lu et al. [45] found that the non-specific effect was positively related to the concentration of the shRNAs.
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FCV vaccines are available for cats [20]; however, there is a limit on its efficacy because of low or no preventive effect against FCVs with different antigenicity and short-lived immunity [13, 20].
A lack of a robust and reproducible in vitro cultivation system for human noroviruses (HNoVs) has not been developed until recently, thereby hindering the development of effective interventions [21].
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Extracted nucleic acid (46 μL) was combined with AgPath-ID One-Step RT-PCR Reagent (ThermoFisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, 54 μL) and the reaction mixture was loaded into one of the sample ports.
After all ports were loaded the reaction mixtures were distributed throughout the TAC by low speed centrifugation.
This also rehydrates the lyophilized oligonucleotides.
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During the last year we have added three new visualizations to the UniProt website.
Firstly, we have added a method for viewing molecular interactions, secondly a method for viewing the subcellular localization of the proteins and finally we have added a molecular structure viewer.
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A targeted amino acid‐based system was based on the cationic peptide protamine [67].
To the system’s protamine block the C‐terminus of the heavy‐chain Fab fragment of an HIV‐1 envelope antibody was coupled to form a protein construct known as ‘F105‐P’.
This system was highly efficient in binding to and transfection of cells expressing the HIV‐envelope protein, although it is unclear why the HIV‐envelope protein would be internalized.
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Three of the 20 patients who were survivors were invasively intubated.
However, all 3 patients remained intubated at 28 days at the conclusion of the study.
There were no patients who were intubated and then successfully extubated and survived by the conclusion of the study.14 In a cohort of 191 hospitalized patients, 54 were nonsurvivors and 137 were survivors.
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In addition, a religious lifestyle is associated with a higher birth rate (in our study the percentage of parents was twice as high among religious students in comparison with the secular group).
Being isolated with young children could be challenging, as we found higher anxiety level among those students who are parents and reported a heavy burden following closure of schools and kindergartens.
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Interestingly, in the presence of IAV (MOI of 10) the uptake of Fdx into vesicles was clearly enhanced.
At a higher magnification viral particles could be found to co-localize in Fdx loaded vesicles as well as outside these vesicles (Fig. 8B).
Phalloidin staining of actin was used to demonstrate that many virus particles localized to actin-rich protrusions at the periphery of the cell.
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Antibiotics and parenteral fluids are rarely required but may be indicated in severe cases and in neonates.19 Use of antipyretics to control fever is debatable, because fever is an important host defense mechanism.
In a recent meta-analysis of the use of antipyretics in animal models of influenza virus, risk of death increased with the use of certain antipyretics (aspirin, paracetamol, and diclofenac).13
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The appearance of emerging infectious diseases (those caused by a newly recognized agent) and reemerging infectious diseases (those caused by a known agent that has developed enhanced pathogenicity or dramatically increased in incidence) may be due to multiple factors, but perhaps the most important are the alteration of human and nonhuman ecology and environmental change.
Despite the devastating effect that unrecognized and unanticipated diseases may have on the human population, the concept of “emerging infections” did not coalesce until the 1990s.
In 1992, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences published a report that called for the establishment of programs to effectively identify, monitor, and respond to all infectious agents, including newly recognized pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.
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Up till now there is no information available on if and how NSDV/GV manipulates the host innate immune system.
Because of the difficulties in handling CCHFV, there is only limited correlation of studies on virus and on viral proteins.
We provide here the evidence that NSDV/GV is able to inhibit IFN induction as well as IFN action.
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Both represent interferences in person-place interrelationships, expressed in terms of the speed and character of change in a given location, and underline the need to reconsider volume growth tourism models.
As this research contends, a continuing failure to address the socio-psychological consequences on resident communities of burgeoning tourist demand at the macro and local levels will produce negative social outcomes; to the point where municipal governments are toppled (Russo & Scarnato, 2018).
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Both the lack of sufficient co-variance information in the majority of seaport/airport signatures and the location of many seaports/airports on small islands dictated that only ‘Euclidean’ distances could be used as a measure of climatic similarities.
Euclidean distance is defined as the shortest straight-line distance between two points: in this case it is the distance between the centroids of the port climate signatures in nine-dimensional space (ERDAS, 2003).
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There cannot be legal entities who benefit from the pandemics, and those who find themselves in a favorable position must exhibit financial solidarity toward those affected most.
Alternatively, such fortunate entities should be subjected to excess profits taxation, generating the government's emergency revenues in times of crisis.
Even more so, those legal entitles and workers who will be unaffected or mildly affected by the health crisis should continue to cover their responsibilities toward the government regularly.
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RESULTS: Forced air systems with high efficiency filtration were found to provide the best control of asthma triggers: 30–55% lower cat allergen levels, 90–99% lower risk of respiratory infection through the inhalation route of exposure, 90–98% lower environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) levels, and 50–75% lower fungal spore levels than the other ventilation/filtration systems considered.
These results indicate that the use of high efficiency in-duct air cleaners provide an effective means of controlling allergen levels not only in a single room, like a portable air cleaner, but the whole house.
CONCLUSION: These findings are useful for evaluating potential benefits of high efficiency in-duct filtration systems for controlling exposure to asthma triggers indoors and for the design of trials of environmental interventions intended to evaluate their utility in practice.
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mosquitoes and found in sheep and goats.
For many zoonotic agents, the potential to cause infection in accidental hosts, such as humans, exists, but often this represents a dead-end host.
Pathogens such as Anaplasma spp.,
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However, concerns have been raised that extreme insufficiency of testing assays may be leaving many cases undetected in the country.
In response to the emergence of the virus, Bangladesh admittedly reduced international flights, imposed thermal scanner checking, and shut down schools; however, offices maintained their regular schedules until March 26.
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In addition, such bacteria are better able to acquire nutrients, further enhancing their ability to survive and infect the host.
Therefore, anti-adhesive drugs that prevent the adhesion of pathogens to host tissues may offer a novel strategy to fight infectious diseases89.
The alarming increase in drug-resistant bacterial pathogens makes a search for new approaches to fight bacterial infections essential90.
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The extreme C-terminal fragment, generated by caspase cleavage during apoptosis, translocates into the nucleus and further activates the apoptosis machinery.
Interestingly, translocation of the p115 C-terminal fragment happens prior to major Golgi structural changes, indicating it as an early event (Mukherjee and Shields 2009).
The p115 C-terminus is SUMOylated, which regulates its nuclear translocation and amplification of apoptosis signals in a p53-dependent manner (How and Shields 2011; Mukherjee and Shields 2009).
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Idealistically one may aspire to determine set cut-off levels to identify whether an individual’s welfare is unacceptably poor.
Unfortunately, due to the myriad of factors that may influence measures (sex, age, neuter status, time of day, etc. -
see: Cobb et al., 2016 and Mormède et al., 2007); the limited understanding of when and how dysregulation of the system occurs; the lack of correlation with behavioural measures; and the fact that levels increase in response to arousal regardless of its valence, it is not currently possible to determine such a cut-off value for unacceptable welfare.
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Low-intensity seismic activity, though normally not felt by people, probably further damages worn-out pipelines.
Additionally, due to the water shortages, the pipelines remain empty for a considerable amount of time daily, during which time they develop negative pressure and absorb moisture and sewage that has leaked from the nearby, similarly worn-out sewers.
Additionally, after rains, rainwater mixes with sewage and garbage can enter the pipelines through the leaks to contaminate the drinking water supply, making people vulnerable to numerous health hazards (Hasan, 2008).
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TACs and associated positive control materials (Kodani and Winchell, 2012) have been designed for the detection of respiratory pathogens (Kodani et al., 2011, Waller et al., 2014, Steensels et al., 2015), hepatitis genomes (Kodani et al., 2014), enteropathogens (Liu et al., 2014, Liu et al., 2013, Platts-Mills et al., 2014), and bioterrorism agents (Weller et al., 2012, Rachwal et al., 2012).
Assays are independent of each other, so that modification of one primer/probe set will not require revalidation of the entire TAC.
Thus, in the event that an assay is updated, new TACs would only have to be manufactured that incorporate the design change.
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Larger vesicles of higher density would imply an enrichment of cargo within VP40 EVs, which was supported by a greater abundance of proteins detected by MS analysis (Supplementary Table 1).
The increased numbers and diversity of proteins found in EVs from VP40-producing cells could influence the outcomes of recipient cells, particularly if those proteins were associated with nucleic acids.
A collection of RNA-binding proteins was found from MS analysis of EVs from V2C cells, and although we do not yet know the RNAs associated with these proteins, they may be important for activities in recipient cells.
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There was a significant difference between the two isolates, NSDV and GV, regarding the kinetics of activation of the IFNβ promoter.
Activation by the GV isolate was later than that induced by the NSDV isolate and also the transcriptional activation observed was lower when compared to the NSDV isolate (fig. 1b).
This might be due to the fact that the NSDV isolate was previously passaged over 60 times in cell culture, in contrast to the GV isolate which has primarily been maintained in mouse brain culture and has been passed twice in BHK-21 culture in our hands; this difference may have resulted in the NSDV isolate having a reduced efficiency to evade IFN induction, or a more rapid growth in the cultured cells, leading to a more rapid production of one or more PAMPs recognised by the host cell.
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Most importantly, in line with SGH’s standing rule, no affected healthcare workers came to work when they had fever.
There was no evidence of secondary transmission.
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Our spatial mapping has direct relevance to ongoing surveillance and pathogen discovery efforts (
It shows that the global distribution of zoonotic EID risk (and the presence of EID “hotspots”) is concentrated in tropical regions where wildlife biodiversity is high and land-use change is occurring.
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During the initial hypernatremic phase the brain “shrinks” because of the osmotic loss of water.
An influx of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions into the brain, beginning within minutes after the osmotic loss of water, is an acute adaptive response to equalize the sodium imbalance.
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Importantly, reactions will be emotional, and develop through various stages, such as irritation, annoyance, anger and fear (Fig. 3 ).
Depending on an individual's emotional state, responses may be defensive (withdrawing, flight) or offensive (aggressive, fight).
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Similar to HIV and SIV, FIV infects helper T lymphocytes and macrophages in heart lesions.
These cells play an important immunological role, assisting in both humoural and cell-mediated immunity (Hosie et al., 2009).
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In addition, cocaine abuse may be associated with catecholamine-induced contraction band necrosis of the myocardium, eosinophilic myocarditis, or infective endocarditis.
Heroin abuse may cause renal amyloidosis and focal segmental glomeruloslcerosis.
These drugs of abuse may also result in potentially lethal rhabdomyolysis and subsequent renal failure.
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Interestingly, native TRAAK is also insensitive to PLD2 (29).
However, concatenating PLD2 to the N terminus maximally activates TRAAK and introduction of the PLD2 binding domain from TREK-1 renders TRAAK PLD2 sensitive (29).
If PLD2 is responsible for anesthetic sensitivity in TREK-1, we reasoned we could render TRAAK anesthetic sensitive by introducing the PLD2 binding site into the C terminus of TRAAK (Fig. 3A).
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Therefore, the vectors may not be employed for immunization of healthy female subjects of reproductive age or younger, or the subjects may forego later use of antiprogestins for emergency contraception.
In contrast, the HSV-GS vectors may be well suited to be immunization agents or platforms in middle-aged or elderly subjects.
Note that it may be feasible to disable replication of fully activated HSV-GS vectors in latently infected cells through further engineering.
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Cell fusion was observed in Vero cells that co-expressed the HN and F proteins, but not in cells that expressed either the HN or F proteins by themselves, and IAV infection was detected in the syncytia (Fig. 4a).
IAV propagated more efficiently in Vero cells that expressed the HN and F proteins than cells that expressed either the HN or F proteins (Fig. 4b).
These results indicated that cell fusion of IAV-infected cells was the likely cause of the enhanced growth of IAV by coinfection with hPIV2.
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According to the hydrothermal origin hypothesis, the first organisms were chemolithoautotrophs whose metabolism centered around thioester formation reactions 17, 19 similar to the modern acetyl-CoA (Wood-Ljungdahl) pathway [32].
These reactions would have been fuelled by the exergonic reaction between hydrothermal H2 and marine CO2 to produce reduced carbon compounds 32, 35.
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The liver edge was palpable 5 cm below the right costal margin.
After resuscitation in the paediatric emergency room, he was admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit under the differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome and acute myocarditis.
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In Table 2 , we present the basic summary statistic distribution of the stock market volatility series from the sampled economies.
The average, standardized average deviations, minimum, and maximum return values are reported for each economy during the calm period and COVID-19 period.
Generally, these volatility distributions are higher in magnitude during the COVID-19 period relative to the calm period.
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Finally, staying continuously at home, reduced air pollution or the absence of occupational stress may also have enhanced CPAP use by increasing sleep duration and favouring naps.
While a reduction in CPAP adherence has been widely reported in various settings (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorders, sleep disorders) or in clinical trials, a sudden sharp increase (within a month) as seen in this national cohort, has never been reported [4].
However, the clinical impact of this modest increase in CPAP adherence needs to be confirmed on larger cohort with outcome data.
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There were significant differences in the incidences of concomitant chronic medical illnesses (eg, hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease), fever, dry cough and dyspnoea among the two groups (P < .05).
Compared with those in the M group, lymphocyte count (LYM) decreased significantly in the SC group, while the serum levels of C‐reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), creatinine (Cre), D‐dimer, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), myoglobin (MB) and troponin I (cTnl) increased significantly in the SC group (P < .05).
The main therapeutic drugs were antivirals, antibiotics, glucocorticoids, immunomodulators, traditional Chinese medicine preparations and symptomatic support drugs.
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This commentary focuses on adaptation of healthcare delivery system for the containment of COVID-19 in Japan, for knowledge sharing with the global society.
The major related measures adopted in Japan are outlined.
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It has been suggested that because of the generally deleterious nature of most mutations, the adaptive value of the high mutation rates for RNA viruses is debatable, and that there might have been a trade-off between replication rate and copying fidelity (Elena and Sanjuan, 2005).
Mutation rates would be a consequence of rapid RNA replication, and an increase in copying fidelity would come at a cost, resulting in a lower replication rate.
A connection between elongation and error rate has been suggested by results with some viral and cellular polymerases [review (Kunkel and Erie, 2005)].
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FCC will use the extra fund to provide support to food processors with lost sales because of the financial downturn related to the pandemic.
The economic measures are expected to help Canadian businesses cope with financial risks, reduce layoffs, and prevent bankruptcy during the COVID‐19 pandemic and to help businesses rebound and encourage business investments following the pandemic.
Ultimately, what is unclear is how severe the economic impact of COVID‐19 would have been in the absence of government emergency support.
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For example, patients who have had a recent change in antibiotics may have a false-negative BAL/PSB, perhaps early VAP, inadequate BAL technique, or other causes, such as Legionella pneumophila, viruses, or anaerobic bacteria.
However, the quantitative approach may improve de-escalation of antibiotics by targeting the specific pathogens that are causing VAP.
In one large, prospective, randomized trial of 413 patients with suspected VAP, patients receiving invasive management compared to those managed clinically had a lower mortality rate at day 14 (16 and 25%; p = 0.02, but not at day 28), lower mean sepsis-related organ failure assessment scores (p = 0.04), and significantly more antibiotic-free days (11 ± 9 vs. 7 ± 7; p < 0.001).47 Multivariate analysis demonstrated significantly reduced mortality (hazards ratio, 1.54 [CI, 1.10–2.16]; p = 0.01).
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We conducted a prospective study of CAP in immunocompetent military trainees or active duty soldiers admitted for pneumonia to Daejeon Armed Forces Hospital, South Korea from January to May 2015.
Patients are referred to this 500-bed hospital by basic and advanced military training centers and other military hospitals.
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Cough was the chief complaint of the bronchial infections (P < 0.001), including bronchitis (56.0%), COPD (55.5%) and asthma (60.0%).
Out of 1,300 enrolled patients and 583 were diagnosed with chronic diseases, including chronic respiratory disease, cancer, diabetes mellitus, chronic cardiac diseases, cerebrovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and other chronic diseases lasting more than 1 year.
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Given the massive distributional inequalities, this is the alternative of saying that the focus is cast on satisfying unlimited wants of those who can afford them instead of fulfilling even the most basic needs of others.
This final result explicitly opposes Marx's needs‐centered distributional system apparent within a well‐known aphorism “From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs!” (
Marx, 2018, p. 10).
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A 28 year old female HCW was evaluated as part of the routine mental health screening after the duty in the COVID-19 ward.
When asked about the experience of doing duty in the COVID-19 area, she broke down and discussed her experience about how she was ill treated by her colleagues who were directly not in contact with the COVID-19 patients.
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A majority of the participants (42%) were aged 18–29 years.
This might be explained by easy access to internet services and ease of use for the younger generation.
This was a web-based survey, but notably only 51.15% of Nepalese use the internet,10 which is mostly concentrated in urban Nepal.
[ 0, 1 ]
128) hold valuable information for the rational design of glycomimetics.
In cases in which the structure has not yet been solved, homology models can be generated — as is the case for MAG, for example129.
[ 0, 0 ]
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is currently a global health threat attributed to negatively affecting the mental health and well-being of people globally.
The purpose of the present study is to examine the mediating role of optimism-pessimism and psychological inflexibility in the relationship of coronavirus stress with psychological problems among Turkish adults.
[ 1, 0 ]
Of the patients studied, 35%, 50%, and 15% of patients were affected by low, intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer respectively.
The authors found that time from diagnosis to treatment was significantly associated with an increased risk of BCR and clinical recurrence in high risk patients only.
They were able to estimate that the risk of BCR and CR only becomes clinically significant at around 12 ;months after diagnosis [7].
[ 1, 0 ]
For instance, owing to their high curvature, tubules are better suited for surface-dependent functions, such as vesicular transport and inter-organelle signaling, whereas ER sheets immobilize polysomes on their flattened membranes and are thus specialized in protein synthesis, including protein translocation through the ER membrane, proteolytic processing, protein folding and secretion [19,33].
In fact, it has been reported that the translocation machinery is more enriched on ER sheets than in tubules [31].
The flat ER sheets might also be more stable platforms than tubules, which would allow them to better support the bulky membrane-bound polyribosomes required for protein synthesis [6].
[ 0, 0 ]
Detection of multiple viruses in SARI is common, with many possible combinations of viral carriage.
Conventional statistical techniques (eg, regression models, covariance matrices, and temporal plots) have limited capacity to quantify, characterize or identify factors associated with viral carriage groupings.
To assess multiple virus carriage clusters in our setting, we performed nearest-neighbor discrete hierarchical cluster analysis in patients with viral codetection, using the Gower distance [21].
[ 1, 0 ]
Large-scale movement of persons, livestock, food, or goods is now commonplace and provides increasing opportunities for rapid spread of pathogens.
Trichinellae in horsemeat have been transported across the Pacific Ocean and infected consumers in other parts of the world.
[ 1, 0 ]
The bacterial cultures (2.5 × 104 CFU) were mixed with TiO2 or C200 NPs (200 µg/mL in 150 µL of normal saline) using a 200 µL pipetman and placed onto a 24-well cell culture dish.
The bacterium–photocatalyst mixtures were then illuminated with visible light (Classictone incandescent lamp, 60 W, Philips; 90 mW/cm2; lamp target distance 10 cm) for 30 min in 24-well plates.
After illumination, the bacteria-containing solutions (85 µL) were recovered from the 24-well plates.
[ 0, 0 ]
Detainees with disease (whether suspected or diagnosed) who have not been treated or treatment is incomplete should be kept in custody for the minimum time possible.
Immunocompromised individuals with TB are usually too ill to be detained, but if they are, they should be considered at greater risk of transmitting disease to staff.
[ 0, 0 ]
This qRT-PCR assay was used to screen nucleic acids extracted from 498 ticks collected in the Republic of Chad.
One sample was found positive suggesting that DUGV is present in this part of the world.
The molecular assay developed in this study is sensitive, specific and rapid and can be used for research and epidemiological studies.
[ 0, 0 ]
Some horses may show a nasal discharge and mild submandibular lymphadenopathy.
Manipulation of the larynx may induce a cough.
Unless severe, lymphoid hyperplasia has not been associated with poor performance or alterations in arterial blood gases.92
[ 0, 0 ]
Mice expressing an IL-6 transgene in the lung also develop BALT (Goya et al., 2003), but without the accumulation of eosinophils.
The BALT in IL-6 transgenic mice consists primarily of primary B cell follicles without germinal centers.
[ 0, 0 ]
Indeed, dynamic stretching seems to have a positive effect on the neuromuscular system, providing a performance enhancement [55].
However, it should be stressed that static and dynamic stretching probably have two different application rationales.
Regular practice of static stretching is able to increase the joint range of motion (ROM).
[ 0, 0 ]
Phages’ functionality may be, however, associated with their lytic/lysogenic cycles.
For instance, it has been shown that in response to temperature and UV radiation, certain phages are able to decrease bacterial counts.
In addition, intestinal permeability, also regulated by phages community, allows for phage movement in the human gut associated with different disease phenotypes.
[ 0, 0 ]
Group 3: (DF).
It is the smaller group, formed by the Federal District itself, that presented the highest population density and HDI but the lowest area.
It also presented the third number of cases per 100 k inhabitants.
[ 0, 0 ]
For the remaining spots (representing ∼25% of the total spots on the array), we calculated the log2 ratio of DTT treated/untreated for each of the three replicates in the two cells lines.
We then performed hierarchical clustering of the averaged data (Fig. S1).
[ 0, 0 ]
Epidemics represent shared risks that cross borders and all of society.
Health systems, routine care, trust in governments, travel, trade, business—all are disrupted during an epidemic.
[ 1, 0 ]
Among these two ways of definition the second one is generally accepted and applied.
Ponomarenko tested in his paper that choosing which way to define epitope may not influence the results [17].
In this paper we define epitopes by the first way.
[ 0, 0 ]
The real story is another one, David Bruce discovered the microorganism, and Carbone is not so well-known in this respect.
But, he was a victim of this disease.
[ 0, 0 ]
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for scientific-challenges-and-directions

Dataset Summary

The scientific challenges and directions dataset is a collection of 2894 sentences and their surrounding contexts, from 1786 full-text papers in the CORD-19 corpus, labeled for classification of challenges and directions by expert annotators with biomedical and bioNLP backgrounds.

At a high level, our labels are defined as follows:

  • Challenge: A sentence mentioning a problem, difficulty, flaw, limitation, failure, lack of clarity, or knowledge gap.
  • Research direction: A sentence mentioning suggestions or needs for further research, hypotheses, speculations, indications or hints that an issue is worthy of exploration.

The dataset was developed to help scientists and medical professionals discover challenges and potential directions across scientific literature.


The language in the dataset is English as written by authors of the scientific papers in the CORD-19 corpus.

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

For each instance, there is a unique id, a string for the text sentence, a string for the previous sentence, a string for the next sentence, and a list for the challenge and direction labels.

{'id': 'PMC7152165_152',
 'label': [0.0, 0.0],
 'next_sent': 'The railways brought a new technology and vast engineering and architectural structures into Britain’s rural and urban landscapes.',
 'prev_sent': 'In Britain, improvements in coaching technologies and roads helped to increase stage coach speeds in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, while the railway construction boom of the 1830s and 1840s led to a massive reduction in journey times, and the emergence of distinctly new experiences and geographies.',
 'text': 'Britain’s railway companies were among the nation’s largest employers in the nineteenth century, and they facilitated the mobility of passengers and important commodities.'}

Data Fields

  • id: A string as a unique id for the instance. The id is composed of the unique PMC id of the paper, an underscore, and the index of the sentence within the paper.
  • next_sent_: A string of a sentence that is following the text of the instance. If the text is the first in its paragraph the string is saved as '|'.
  • prev_sent_: A string of a sentence that is preceding the text of the instance. If the text is the first in its paragraph the string is saved as '|'.
  • text: A string of the sentence we seek to classify.
  • label: A list of 2 values - the first is the label for challenge and the last of direction. Each value may be either 0, indicating that the text is not challenge or direction, or 1, indicating that the the text is challenge or direction. Each instance can be a challenge, a direction, both, or neither.

Data Splits

The scientific-challenges-and-directions dataset has 3 splits: train, dev, and test. Each instances shows up in only one split. The splits are stratified with no overlap in papers.

Labels Train Dev Test All
Not Challenge, Not Direction 602 146 745 1493
Not Challenge, Direction 106 25 122 253
Challenge, Not Direction 288 73 382 743
Challenge, Direction 155 40 210 405

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

The resource was developed to help scientists and medical professionals discover challenges and potential directions across scientific literature, focusing on a broad corpus pertaining to the COVID-19 pandemic and related historical research.

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

See section 3.1 in our paper.

Who are the source language producers?

The authors of the subset of full-text papers in the CORD-19 dataset, which at the time of creating our dataset included roughly 180K documents.


Annotation process

See section 3.1 in our paper.

Who are the annotators?

Four expert annotators with biomedical and bioNLP backgrounds. For more details see section 3.1 in our paper.

Personal and Sensitive Information

The dataset does not contain any personal information about the authors or annotators.

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

As mentioned, the dataset was developed to help scientists and medical professionals discover challenges and potential directions across scientific literature, focusing on a broad corpus pertaining to the COVID-19 pandemic and related historical research. Studies were conducted to evaluate the utility of the dataset for researchers and medical professionals, in which a prototype based on the dataset was found to outperform other biomedical search tools. For more details see section 4 in our paper. This dataset was also developed for evaluating representational systems for scientific text classification and can be used as such.

Discussion of Biases

The source of the dataset is the full-text papers in the CORD-19 dataset, so biases in CORD-19 may be replicated to our dataset.

Other Known Limitations


Additional Information

Dataset Curators

The dataset was developed by Dan Lahav, Jon Saad Falcon, Bailey Kuehl, Sophie Johnson, Sravanthi Parasa, Noam Shomron, Duen Horng Chau, Diyi Yang, Eric Horvitz, Daniel S. Weld and Tom Hope as part of Tel Aviv University, the Allen Institute for AI, University of Washington, Georgia Institute of Technology, Microsoft and Swedish Medical Group.

It was supported by the Edmond J. Safra Center for Bioinformatics at Tel-Aviv University, ONR grant N00014-18-1-2193, NSF RAPID grant 2040196, the WR-F/Cable Professorship, and AI2.

Licensing Information

[More Information Needed]

Citation Information

If using our dataset and models, please cite:

      title={A Search Engine for Discovery of Scientific Challenges and Directions}, 
      author={Dan Lahav and Jon Saad Falcon and Bailey Kuehl and Sophie Johnson and Sravanthi Parasa and Noam Shomron and Duen Horng Chau and Diyi Yang and Eric Horvitz and Daniel S. Weld and Tom Hope},


Thanks to @Dan-La and @tomhoper for adding this dataset.

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