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TOSS-UP Math - Short Answer
What is the determinant of the 2 by 2 matrix with first row -2, -3 and second row 8, -4?
32
TOSS-UP Biology - Multiple Choice
Which of the following types of microscopy require the specimen to be subjected to a vacuum? W) Fluorescence X) Transmission electron Y) Scanning tunneling Z) Dark field
X) TRANSMISSION ELECTRON
TOSS-UP Earth and Space - Multiple Choice
How does the synodic period of the moon relate to its sidereal period? W) Its synodic period is two days longer X) Its synodic period is one day shorter Y) Its synodic period is one day longer Z) Its synodic period is two days shorter
W) ITS SYNODIC PERIOD IS TWO DAYS LONGER
TOSS-UP Physics - Short Answer
A small ball is fired horizontally off the edge of a table at 3 meters per second, taking 0.4 seconds to hit the ground below. When the ball hits the floor, how far, in meters, is it horizontally from the edge of the table?
1.2
TOSS-UP Chemistry - Multiple Choice
Change in which of the following quantities must be positive for a spontaneous process? W) Gibbs free energy of the system X) Entropy of the system Y) Gibbs free energy of the universe Z) Entropy of the universe
Z) ENTROPY OF THE UNIVERSE
BONUS Energy - Multiple Choice
In a nuclear power plant, the fission reaction directly yields all but which of the following? W) Neutrons X) Fission products Y) Fission gamma rays Z) Electrical current
Z) ELECTRICAL CURRENT
TOSS-UP Biology - Multiple Choice
Most cells are exposed to extracellular glucose concentrations higher than those inside the cell. Glucose is taken up by these cells via which of the following? W) Osmosis X) Active transport Y) Exocytosis Z) Facilitated diffusion
Z) FACILITY DIFFUSION
TOSS-UP Chemistry - Short Answer
Identify all of the following three metals that have soluble chlorides: Silver; Iron; Zinc.
2 AND 3
TOSS-UP Energy - Multiple Choice
Which U.S. state received over 70% of its electricity from hydroelectric power in 2013? W) Maine X) Texas Y) Nebraska Z) Washington
Z) WASHINGTON
TOSS-UP Math - Short Answer
What is the complex conjugate of -4 - 36?
-4 + 36i
TOSS-UP Energy - Short Answer
What type of machine, used by both hydroelectric plants and uranium nuclear power plants, converts kinetic energy to electrical energy?
GENERATOR (DO NOT ACCEPT: TURBINE or TURBINE-GENERATOR)
BONUS Energy - Short Answer
Characterized by its "rotten-egg smell," what gas released by geothermal plants is of great environmental concern?
HYDROGEN SULFIDE (ACCEPT: H\({}{2}\)S)
TOSS-UP Earth and Space - Multiple Choice
Which of the following is true about radiometric dating? W) All parent material in a mineral is converted to the daughter product X) When the quantities of parent and daughter products are equal, two half-lives have transpired Y) The number of radioactive atoms that decay during one half life is always the same Z) The percentage of radioactive atoms that decay during one half life is always the same
Z) THE PERCENTAGE OF RADIOACTIVE ATOMS THAT DECAY DURING ONE HALF LIFE IS ALWAYS THE SAME
TOSS-UP Biology - Multiple Choice
The size of most mammalian cells is closest to which of the following? W) 1 picometer X) 1 micrometer Y) 1 millimeter Z) 1 centimeter
X) 1 MICROMETER
TOSS-UP Math - Short Answer
What is the derivative with respect to \(x\) of -5 divided by \(x^{6}\)?
30/\(x^{7}\) (DO NOT ACCEPT: 30\(x^{-7}\))
BONUS Math - Short Answer
What are the linear factors of the polynomial \(2ab+3a-8b-12\)?
\(a-4\) AND \(2b+3\)
TOSS-UP Chemistry - Multiple Choice
Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding alloys? W) Alloys are generally more brittle than the metals from which they are made X) Alloys are generally harder than the metals from which they are made Y) Alloys are generally better electric conductors than the metals from which they are made Z) Alloys are generally worse thermal conductors than the metals from which they are made
Y) ALLOYS ARE GENERALLY BETTER ELECTRIC CONDUCTORS THAN THE METALS FROM WHICH THEY ARE MADE
BONUS Chemistry - Multiple Choice
Which of the following techniques would be most useful for determining the change in enthalpy of a reaction? W) Visible light spectroscopy X) Calorimetry [cal-or-IH-metree] Y) Crystallography Z) Gravimetry [graa-VIH-metree]
X) CALORIMETRY
TOSS-UP Physics - Short Answer
What general term refers to lighting that uses LEDs as sources of illumination rather than electrical filaments, plasma, or gas?
SOLID-STATE LIGHTING (ACCEPT: SSL)
TOSS-UP Chemistry - Short Answer
A cylinder has an internal diameter of 3 centimeters and a piston is depressed 20 centimeters with a pressure of 2 atmospheres. Assuming that atmospheric pressure is 1 x 10\({}^{5}\) pascals, to two significant figures and in joules, how much work is done during the compression?
28
TOSS-UP Physics - Short Answer
What particular type of Raman scattering occurs when the emitted photon is of higher wavelength than the incident one?
STOKES
TOSS-UP Math - Multiple Choice
Let f(x) be a continuous and differentiable function on the closed interval [3,6]. Which of the following could be the x-value guaranteed by the Mean Value Theorem for this situation? W) 2 X) 3 Y) 5 Z) 7
Y) 5
BONUS Math - Short Answer
One dimension of a cube is increased by 1, another is decreased by 1, and the other is left unchanged. If the new solid has a volume 5 less than that of the original cube, what was the volume of the original cube?
125
TOSS-UP Biology - Short Answer
The selective loss of dopaminergic [dope-ah-min-UR-jik] neurons in the substantia nigra [NYE-grahl] is characteristic of what neurodegenerative disease?
PARKINSON'S DISEASE (ACCEPT: PARKINSONISM)
BONUS Biology - Short Answer
Chondrocytes are associated with what structural material found in joints and spinal disks?
CATILAGE
TOSS-UP Energy - Short Answer
If a solar power farm doesn't operate for 28% of the time in a month, what is its month-averaged capacity factor?
72% (ACCEPT: 0.72)
TOSS-UP Chemistry - Short Answer
What allotrope of phosphorous is thermodynamically stable at room temperature and pressure and is structured as puckered sheets of linked atoms connected in 6-membered rings?
BLACK PHOSPHORUS
TOSS-UP Physics - Multiple Choice
Which of the following statements correctly summarizes the zeroth law of thermodynamics? W) If each of two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they must be in thermal equilibrium with each other X) When energy passes as work, heat, or with matter, into or out of a system, its internal energy changes in accord with the law of conservation of energy Y) In a natural thermodynamic process, the sum of the entropies of the participating thermodynamic systems increases Z) The entropy of a system approaches a constant value as the temperature approaches absolute zero
W) IF EACH OF TWO SYSTEMS ARE IN THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM WITH A THIRD SYSTEM, THEY MUST BE IN THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM WITH EACH OTHER
TOSS-UP Earth and Space - Multiple Choice
Which of the following low pressure systems typically has the weakest sustained wind speed? W) Tropical storm X) Tropical depression Y) Hurricane Z) Tropical wave
Z) TROPICAL WAVE
TOSS-UP Math - Short Answer
How many points of intersection are there for the graphs of \(y=3^{x}\) and \(y=-x^{2}+5\)?
2
TOSS-UP Chemistry - Short Answer
What general type of bond is formed when two lobes of an orbital of one atom overlap two lobes of an orbital of the other atom?
PI BOND
TOSS-UP Energy - Multiple Choice
Which of the following percentages is closest to the percent of energy used in Texas in 2014 that was generated by wind? W) 10 X) 20 Y) 30 Z) 40
W) 10
TOSS-UP Biology - Short Answer
Identify all of the following three macromolecules that are digested primarily in the stomach: Starches; Nucleic acids; Proteins.
3 (ACCEPT: PROTEINS)
TOSS-UP Earth and Space - Multiple Choice
Which of the following is NOT an example of an ichnofossil? W) Shell X) Burrow Y) Corpolite Z) Urolite
W) SHELL
TOSS-UP Physics - Short Answer
An ionization chamber smoke detector uses the radiation from a small amount of radioactive material to detect the presence of smoke. What type of radiation is it that ionizes oxygen and nitrogen molecules, providing a steady current in the chamber, and then when impeded by smoke, disrupts the current, triggering the alarm?
ALPHA (ACCEPT: ALPHA PARTICLES OR ALPHA DECAY)
BONUS Earth and Space \(-\) Short Answer
What formation of porous sand and gravel, covering 450,000 square kilometers just east of the Rocky Mountains, is the largest aquifer in the United States?
OGALLALA FORMATION (ACCEPT: OGALLALA AQUIFER)
TOSS-UP Biology \(-\) Short Answer
During DNA replication, what protein is responsible for negatively supercoiling the DNA to relieve strain?
TOPOISOMERASE (ACCEPT: DNA TOPOISOMERASE)
BONUS Biology \(-\) Short Answer
What type of muscle contraction is NOT associated with a change in length?
ISOMETRIC
TOSS-UP Math - Short Answer
Identifify all of the four quadrants in which cosecant is positive.
1 and 2 (ACCEPT: FIRST and SECOND)
BONUS Math - Short Answer
What is the image of the point (0, when it is reflected across the line \(y=x-1\)?
\((1,-1)\)
TOSS-UP Physics - Short Answer
A 100-kilogram box filled with coffee is sitting on your concrete garage floor. You decide to move the box, but you're going to push the box rather than lift it. How much force, in newtons to the nearest integer, must you exert on the box in order to get it moving, if the coefficient of static friction is 0.25?
245
BONUS Physics - Multiple Choice
An oscillating system has a characteristic frequency of 10 radians per second and an effective spring constant of 200 Newtons per meter. What is the effective mass, in kilograms, of the oscillator? W) 1 X) 2 Y) 5 Z) 10
X) 2
TOSS-UP Chemistry - Multiple Choice
Which of the following values, in volts, is closest to the standard emf [E-M-F] produced by the Daniell cell? W) 0.6 X) 0.8 Y) 1.1 Z) 1.5
Y) 1.1
TOSS-UP Energy - Multiple Choice
Which of the following is the International Energy Agency's stance on energy subsidies? W) They should be phased out X) There should be greater international collaboration on subsidies Y) Subsides are necessary for energy sustainability Z) Subsides are necessary to reduce greenhouse emissions
W) THEY SHOULD BE PHASED OUT
TOSS-UP Earth and Space - Short Answer
What is the plutonic equivalent of andesite?
DIORITE
BONUS Earth and Space - Short Answer
Identify all of the following four objects around which accretion disks are sometimes present: White dwarfs; Protostars; Stellar mass black holes; Supermassive black holes.
ALL OF THEM
TOSS-UP Biology - Short Answer
Tandem mass spectrometry is a technique that can be used to determine the primary structure of a protein. What two amino acids can mass spectrometry NOT differentiate?
ISOLEUCINE AND LEUCINE
BONUS Biology - Short Answer
A glutamate to valine mutation is well-known to be responsible for what disease that is associated with resistance to malaria?
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA
TOSS-UP Math - Short Answer
If \(n\) is an odd integer, how many lines of symmetry does a regular n-gon have?
\(n\)
TOSS-UP Chemistry - Short Answer
By what process can a molecule in the singlet excited state relax to the ground state with concomitant [Kon-koh-MIT-ent] emission of light?
FLUORESCENCE
TOSS-UP Physics - Short Answer
An RC circuit contains a 10-ohm resistor and a 20-millifarad capacitor. How long, in milliseconds, would it take for the voltage to fall by a factor of e\({}^{-2}\)?
400
BONUS Physics - Short Answer
To one significant figure, how fast, in meters per second, would you be moving if you started at rest and accelerated at a constant rate of one meter per second squared for an entire year?
30 MILLION
TOSS-UP Biology - Multiple Choice
Your teacher has a passion for studying human immunoglobulins, but they have to be dimers. What immunoglobulin does your teacher study? W) IgD X) IgA Y) IgM Z) IgE
X) IgA
TOSS-UP Energy - Short Answer
After a nuclear reactor is shut down and fission stops, the fuel continues to produce a lower, but significant, amount of heat for several years. What is the term for this residual heat energy?
DECAY HEAT
TOSS-UP Math - Multiple Choice
Which of the following best describes the type of conic section represented by the equation \(x^{2}+10x+y^{2}\ +16\) equals zero? W) Circle X) Ellipse Y) Hyperbola Z) Parabola
W) CIRCLE
TOSS-UP Chemistry - Short Answer
What class of molecules is characterized by the functional group containing atoms C-O-O-H?
CARBOXYLIC ACID (DO NOT ACCEPT: ORGANIC ACID)
TOSS-UP Math - Multiple Choice
Which of the following is equivalent to cosine56\({}^{\circ}\)cosine23\({}^{\circ}\) - sine23\({}^{\circ}\)sine56\({}^{\circ}\)? W) sine 33\({}^{\circ}\) X) cosine 33\({}^{\circ}\) Y) sine 79\({}^{\circ}\) Z) cosine 79\({}^{\circ}\)
Z) COSINE 79\({}^{\circ}\)
TOSS-UP Earth and Space - Short Answer
What fast-flowing, narrow currents form above sharp air mass boundaries in the atmospheres of rotating planets, including Earth?
JET STREAMS
TOSS-UP Biology - Short Answer
Identify all of the following three structures that can be found in both bacteria and plants: Nucleus; Peroxisome [per-OX-ih-sowm]; Mitochondndrion.
NONE OF THEM
TOSS-UP Energy - Multiple Choice
Which of the following experimental batteries is able to charge in less than a minute? W) Copper ion X) Chromium ion Y) Aluminum ion Z) Silicon
Y) ALUMINUM ION
TOSS-UP Earth and Space - Multiple Choice Which of the following is NOT true of the lunar maria? W) They formed within the first one billion years of the moon's history X) They cover about 50% of the moon's surface Y) They are composed of iron-rich basalt Z) They are more abundant on the near side of the moon Answer: X) THEY COVER ABOUT 50% OF THE MOON'S SURFACE Bonus Earth and Space - Short Answer
Order the following three groups of photosynthetic organisms by their time of appearance on Earth, from first to last: Cyanobacteria [sye-ANNO-bacteria]; C4 plants; Ferns.
1, 3, 2 (CYANOBACTERIA, FERNS, C4 PLANTS)
TOSS-UP Energy - Short Answer
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory revealed an electric vehicle, patterned after a Shelby Cobra, at the 2015 North American International Auto Show that was built using what process?
3D PRINTING (ACCEPT: ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, ADDITIVE PROCESS)
## BONUS Biology \(-\) Short Answer
What amino acid possesses a secondary amine functionality and as a result, has special constraints on its secondary structure?
PROLINE
## BONUS Math \(-\) Multiple Choice
According to the rational root theorem, which of the following is NOT a possible solution to the equation \(x^{3}-2x^{2}+x-2=0\)?
W) -1 X) \( icefrac{{1}}{{2}}\) Y) 1 Z) 2 X) \( icefrac{{1}}{{2}}\)
TOSS-UP Physics - Multiple Choice
In a DC/DC converter, the electrical energy is stored in which elements of the circuit? W) Capacitors and inductors X) Resistive elements Y) Switching element Z) Diodes and protection circuitry
W) CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS
TOSS-UP Biology - Multiple Choice
p53 is a protein associated with which of the following processes? W) Cell cycle X) Transcription Y) Electron transport chain Z) Heme synthesis
W) CELL CYCLE
TOSS-UP Chemistry \(-\) Short Answer
How many valence electrons does atomic silicon have?
FOUR
BONUS Chemistry \(-\) Short Answer
Identify all of the following three quantities that increase when the electron in a hydrogen atom transitions from 1s to 2s: Energy of the electron; Value of azimuthal quantum number; Value of principal quantum number.
1 AND 3
TOSS-UP Math \(-\) Short Answer
What is the 4th term of the geometric series with first term 400 and second term 120?
10.8 (ACCEPT: 10 4/5, 54/5)
BONUS Math \(-\) Short Answer
Simplify the following expression involving the complex number \(i\): \(i+2i^{2}+3i^{3}+4i^{4}\)
\(2-2i\)23) Earth and Space - Multiple Choice Which of the following metamorphic rocks cannot originate from shale?
TOSS-UP Chemistry - Short Answer
Order the following three solvents from least to greatest by the pKa of acetic acid when dissolved in that solvent: DMSO; Water; Methanol.
2, 3, 1
BONUS Chemistry - Short Answer
Order the following three colors of light from least energetic to most energetic: Yellow; Violet; Red.
3, 1, 2
TOSS-UP Energy - Short Answer
Identify all of the following three statements that illustrate disadvantages of hydroelectricity plants: Water used to run the plant may be reliant on precipitation; The plants can produce a lot of pollution; Aquatic habitats near the plants may be destroyed.
1 AND 3
BONUS Energy - Multiple Choice
Which of the following establishes renewable energy use goals for the U.S. by a specific date? W) Net Metering Agreement X) National Renewable Energy Target Contract Y) Solar Guerrillas Pact Z) Renewable Energy Portfolio Standards
Z) RENEWABLE ENERGY PORTFOLIO STANDARDS
TOSS-UP Math - Short Answer
What is the sum of the largest prime number less than 50 and the largest prime number less than 100?
144
BONUS Math - Short Answer
The bob on a pendulum swings through an arc 6 feet long when the string swings through an angle of 0.5 radians. What is the length of the pendulum in feet?
12
TOSS-UP Earth and Space - Multiple Choice
Which of the following is always true during the month of July? W) The Earth is near its orbital perihelion X) The Southern Hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun Y) The sun does not rise over the Drake Passage Z) The sun does not set over Svalbard
Z) THE SUN DOES NOT SET OVER SVALBARD
BONUS Earth and Space - Short Answer
What is the resolving power, in arc seconds to one decimal place, of a 56.0 centimeter diffraction-limited telescope observing in the V band?
0.2
TOSS-UP Physics - Short Answer
What fundamental force mediates the decay of a neutron into a proton, an electron, and a neutrino?
WEAK FORCE (ACCEPT: WEAK NUCLEAR FORCE; WEAK NUCLEAR; WEAK)
TOSS-UP Biology - Short Answer
What group of biotech-relevant enzymes, derived from bacteria, often recognize specific palindromic sequences of nucleic acids and introduce a double-stranded break?
RESTRICTION ENZYMES (ACCEPT: RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASES)
## BONUS Chemistry - Short Answer
Identify all of the following three statements that are true regarding carbon and graphite: Carbon atoms in diamond are sp3 hybridized; Graphite is a better conductor of electricity than diamond; Graphite carbon is tetrahedral.
1 AND 2
## BONUS Earth and Space - Short Answer
Identify all of the following three statements that are TRUE regarding calderas: Calderas can form atop shield volcanoes; Basalt-filled calderas tend to result from explosive eruptions; Calderas can be found on Venus and Io.
1 AND 3
TOSS-UP Physics - Short Answer
What thermodynamic cycle, most often found in jet engines, uses adiabatic compression and expansion processes as well as isobaric heating and cooling processes?
BRAYTON CYCLE
BONUS Physics - Multiple Choice
A former Russian service officer died in November 2006 after being diagnosed with acute radiation syndrome. During the investigation into his death, authorities were able to trace his activities, in part, because his body had excreted trace amounts of which of the following radioactive isotopes, which he had recently ingested? W) Polonium-210 with a half-life of 138 days X) Bismuth-213 with a half-life of 45 minutes Y) Technetium-99 with a half-life of 6 hours Z) Uranium-238 with half-life of 4.5 billion years
W) POLONIUM-210 WITH A HALF-LIFE OF 138 DAYS
TOSS-UP Energy - Short Answer
What environmental secondary pollutant results from sulfur dioxide that is produced during the combustion of fossil fuels?
ACID PRECIPITATION (ACCEPT: ACID RAIN, SULFURIC ACID, HzSO4)
BONUS Energy - Short Answer
During operation of a nuclear power plant, some non-fuel uranium-238 present in the fuel is converted to a different element, which then acts as fuel to provide about 1/3 of the total energy. What is this second element?
PLUTONIUM
TOSS-UP Math - Multiple Choice
In the conversion of the rectangular coordinates (-8, into polar coordinates, to the nearest whole number, what is the degree measure of the angle? W) 127 X) 143 Y) 307 Z) 323
X) 143
TOSS-UP Biology - Short Answer
What enzyme, found in the human stomach, is activated by hydrochloric acid and breaks down proteins?
PEPSIN
## BONUS Chemistry - Short Answer
Identify all of the following three statements that are TRUE concerning colligative properties: Boiling point elevation is proportional to the molality of particles in a solution; The Van't Hoff factor for calcium chloride is close to 2; Adding a solid solute often increases the vapor pressure of a solution.
1
## BONUS Math - Short Answer
What is the remainder when \(3x^{3}+6x^{2}-7x+2\) is divided by the binomial \(x+4\)?
-6617) Physics - Multiple Choice What is the name of the postulate of quantum mechanics that requires that quantum mechanical systems behave classically as quantum numbers approach infinity?
TOSS-UP Earth and Space - Short Answer
What region of the H-R diagram, named after a Japanese astrophysicist, is occupied by protostars of fewer than 3 solar masses?
HAYASHI TRACK
TOSS-UP Math - Short Answer
A special coin has a 1/3 probability of landing on heads, and a 2/3 probability of landing on tails. In a series of three coin flips, what is the probability of the outcome sequence heads, heads, tails?
2/27
TOSS-UP Earth and Space - Multiple Choice
If the ambient air cools 8 degrees Celsius for each kilometer of vertical elevation you gain as you ascend a low mountain in Tennessee, which of the following most likely describes the stability of the local atmosphere? W) Absolutely unstable X) Conditionally unstable Y) Neutrally stable Z) Absolutely stable
X) CONDITIONALLY UNSTABLE
TOSS-UP Biology \(-\) Short Answer
To prevent the body from metabolizing Drug G too quickly, a pharmaceutical company develops Substance Q to be taken concurrently with Drug G. If Substance Q binds to the enzyme catalyzing the metabolism of Drug G and alters its active site, what type of inhibition is occuring?
NON-COMPETITIVE INhibition
TOSS-UP Chemistry \(-\) Short Answer
Consider a gaseous mixture of helium and molecular hydrogen that is allowed to equilibrate to a constant internal temperature. What is the ratio of the root-mean-square speed of hydrogen molecules to that of helium atoms?
SQUARE ROOT OF 2 (ACCEPT: \(\sqrt{2}\) TO 1)
TOSS-UP Physics - Short Answer
By what process can a quantum particle cross potential energy hills without expending any energy?
QUANTUM TUNNELING (ACCEPT: TUNNELING)
TOSS-UP Earth and Space \(-\) Short Answer
What class of barred spiral galaxies has the most tightly wound arms?
SBa (ACCEPT: a)
BONUS Earth and Space \(-\) Multiple Choice
Which of the following rock types would be most susceptible to chemical weathering by tropical rainfall? W) Granite X) Andesite Y) Dacite Z) Basalt
Z) BASALT
TOSS-UP Energy \(-\) Short Answer
What energy use comprises the greatest percentage of energy used in commercial buildings in the US?
HEATING
BONUS Energy \(-\) Short Answer
Uranium-235 and plutonium-239 can be used as fuel in a reactor because they are fissile. Uranium-238, the most abundant form of natural uranium, is NOT fissile, but can be converted to plutonium by absorbing neutrons. What term describes material that can be converted to fuel in this way?
FERTILE

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