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This repository contains the IndicBARTSS checkpoint finetuned on the 11 languages of IndicParaphrase dataset. For finetuning details, see the paper.

  • Supported languages: Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi, Odiya, Punjabi, Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, and Telugu. Not all of these languages are supported by mBART50 and mT5.
  • The model is much smaller than the mBART and mT5(-base) models, so less computationally expensive for decoding.
  • Trained on large Indic language corpora (5.53 million sentences).
  • Unlike MultiIndicParaphraseGeneration each language is written in its own script, so you do not need to perform any script mapping to/from Devanagari.

Using this model in transformers

from transformers import MBartForConditionalGeneration, AutoModelForSeq2SeqLM
from transformers import AlbertTokenizer, AutoTokenizer
tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained("ai4bharat/MultiIndicParaphraseGenerationSS", do_lower_case=False, use_fast=False, keep_accents=True)
# Or use tokenizer = AlbertTokenizer.from_pretrained("ai4bharat/MultiIndicParaphraseGenerationSS", do_lower_case=False, use_fast=False, keep_accents=True)
model = AutoModelForSeq2SeqLM.from_pretrained("ai4bharat/MultiIndicParaphraseGenerationSS")
# Or use model = MBartForConditionalGeneration.from_pretrained("ai4bharat/MultiIndicParaphraseGenerationSS")

# Some initial mapping
bos_id = tokenizer._convert_token_to_id_with_added_voc("<s>")
eos_id = tokenizer._convert_token_to_id_with_added_voc("</s>")
pad_id = tokenizer._convert_token_to_id_with_added_voc("<pad>")

# To get lang_id use any of ['<2as>', '<2bn>', '<2en>', '<2gu>', '<2hi>', '<2kn>', '<2ml>', '<2mr>', '<2or>', '<2pa>', '<2ta>', '<2te>']
# First tokenize the input. The format below is how IndicBART was trained so the input should be "Sentence </s> <2xx>" where xx is the language code. Similarly, the output should be "<2yy> Sentence </s>".
inp = tokenizer("दिल्ली यूनिवर्सिटी देश की प्रसिद्ध यूनिवर्सिटी में से एक है. </s> <2hi>", add_special_tokens=False, return_tensors="pt", padding=True).input_ids 

# For generation. Pardon the messiness. Note the decoder_start_token_id.

model_output=model.generate(inp, use_cache=True,no_repeat_ngram_size=3,encoder_no_repeat_ngram_size=3, num_beams=4, max_length=20, min_length=1, early_stopping=True, pad_token_id=pad_id, bos_token_id=bos_id, eos_token_id=eos_id, decoder_start_token_id=tokenizer._convert_token_to_id_with_added_voc("<2hi>"))

# Decode to get output strings
decoded_output=tokenizer.decode(model_output[0], skip_special_tokens=True, clean_up_tokenization_spaces=False)
print(decoded_output) #दिल्ली यूनिवर्सिटी भारत की सबसे बड़ी यूनिवर्सिटी है।


Scores on the IndicParaphrase test sets are as follows:

Language BLEU / Self-BLEU / iBLEU
as 1.19 / 1.64 / 0.34
bn 10.04 / 1.08 / 6.70
gu 18.69 / 1.62 / 12.60
hi 25.05 / 1.75 / 17.01
kn 13.14 / 1.89 / 8.63
ml 8.71 / 1.36 / 5.69
mr 18.50 / 1.49 / 12.50
or 23.02 / 2.68 / 15.31
pa 17.61 / 1.37 / 11.92
ta 16.25 / 2.13 / 10.74
te 14.16 / 2.29 / 9.23


If you use this model, please cite the following paper:

  title={IndicNLG Suite: Multilingual Datasets for Diverse NLG Tasks in Indic Languages},
  author={Aman Kumar and Himani Shrotriya and Prachi Sahu and Raj Dabre and Ratish Puduppully and Anoop Kunchukuttan and Amogh Mishra and Mitesh M. Khapra and Pratyush Kumar},
  url = "https://arxiv.org/abs/2203.05437"
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Dataset used to train ai4bharat/MultiIndicParaphraseGenerationSS

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