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TheBloke's LLM work is generously supported by a grant from andreessen horowitz (a16z)

Alfred 40B 1023 - AWQ


This repo contains AWQ model files for LightOn AI's Alfred 40B 1023.

These files were quantised using hardware kindly provided by Massed Compute.

About AWQ

AWQ is an efficient, accurate and blazing-fast low-bit weight quantization method, currently supporting 4-bit quantization. Compared to GPTQ, it offers faster Transformers-based inference with equivalent or better quality compared to the most commonly used GPTQ settings.

It is supported by:

Repositories available

Prompt template: Alfred

<start_system>You are Alfred, a helpful assistant trained by LightOn. Knowledge cutoff: November 2022. Current date: 16 November, 2023<end_message><start_user>{prompt}<end_message><start_assistant>

Provided files, and AWQ parameters

I currently release 128g GEMM models only. The addition of group_size 32 models, and GEMV kernel models, is being actively considered.

Models are released as sharded safetensors files.

Branch Bits GS AWQ Dataset Seq Len Size
main 4 128 wikitext 2048 23.32 GB

How to easily download and use this model in text-generation-webui

Please make sure you're using the latest version of text-generation-webui.

It is strongly recommended to use the text-generation-webui one-click-installers unless you're sure you know how to make a manual install.

  1. Click the Model tab.
  2. Under Download custom model or LoRA, enter TheBloke/alfred-40B-1023-AWQ.
  3. Click Download.
  4. The model will start downloading. Once it's finished it will say "Done".
  5. In the top left, click the refresh icon next to Model.
  6. In the Model dropdown, choose the model you just downloaded: alfred-40B-1023-AWQ
  7. Select Loader: AutoAWQ.
  8. Click Load, and the model will load and is now ready for use.
  9. If you want any custom settings, set them and then click Save settings for this model followed by Reload the Model in the top right.
  10. Once you're ready, click the Text Generation tab and enter a prompt to get started!

Multi-user inference server: vLLM

Documentation on installing and using vLLM can be found here.

  • Please ensure you are using vLLM version 0.2 or later.
  • When using vLLM as a server, pass the --quantization awq parameter.

For example:

python3 -m vllm.entrypoints.api_server --model TheBloke/alfred-40B-1023-AWQ --quantization awq --dtype auto
  • When using vLLM from Python code, again set quantization=awq.

For example:

from vllm import LLM, SamplingParams

prompts = [
    "Tell me about AI",
    "Write a story about llamas",
    "What is 291 - 150?",
    "How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?",
prompt_template=f'''<start_system>You are Alfred, a helpful assistant trained by LightOn. Knowledge cutoff: November 2022. Current date: 16 November, 2023<end_message><start_user>{prompt}<end_message><start_assistant>

prompts = [prompt_template.format(prompt=prompt) for prompt in prompts]

sampling_params = SamplingParams(temperature=0.8, top_p=0.95)

llm = LLM(model="TheBloke/alfred-40B-1023-AWQ", quantization="awq", dtype="auto")

outputs = llm.generate(prompts, sampling_params)

# Print the outputs.
for output in outputs:
    prompt = output.prompt
    generated_text = output.outputs[0].text
    print(f"Prompt: {prompt!r}, Generated text: {generated_text!r}")

Multi-user inference server: Hugging Face Text Generation Inference (TGI)

Use TGI version 1.1.0 or later. The official Docker container is: ghcr.io/huggingface/text-generation-inference:1.1.0

Example Docker parameters:

--model-id TheBloke/alfred-40B-1023-AWQ --port 3000 --quantize awq --max-input-length 3696 --max-total-tokens 4096 --max-batch-prefill-tokens 4096

Example Python code for interfacing with TGI (requires huggingface-hub 0.17.0 or later):

pip3 install huggingface-hub
from huggingface_hub import InferenceClient

endpoint_url = "https://your-endpoint-url-here"

prompt = "Tell me about AI"
prompt_template=f'''<start_system>You are Alfred, a helpful assistant trained by LightOn. Knowledge cutoff: November 2022. Current date: 16 November, 2023<end_message><start_user>{prompt}<end_message><start_assistant>

client = InferenceClient(endpoint_url)
response = client.text_generation(prompt,

print(f"Model output: ", response)

Inference from Python code using Transformers

Install the necessary packages

pip3 install --upgrade "autoawq>=0.1.6" "transformers>=4.35.0"

Note that if you are using PyTorch 2.0.1, the above AutoAWQ command will automatically upgrade you to PyTorch 2.1.0.

If you are using CUDA 11.8 and wish to continue using PyTorch 2.0.1, instead run this command:

pip3 install https://github.com/casper-hansen/AutoAWQ/releases/download/v0.1.6/autoawq-0.1.6+cu118-cp310-cp310-linux_x86_64.whl

If you have problems installing AutoAWQ using the pre-built wheels, install it from source instead:

pip3 uninstall -y autoawq
git clone https://github.com/casper-hansen/AutoAWQ
cd AutoAWQ
pip3 install .

Transformers example code (requires Transformers 4.35.0 and later)

from transformers import AutoModelForCausalLM, AutoTokenizer, TextStreamer

model_name_or_path = "TheBloke/alfred-40B-1023-AWQ"

tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained(model_name_or_path)
model = AutoModelForCausalLM.from_pretrained(

# Using the text streamer to stream output one token at a time
streamer = TextStreamer(tokenizer, skip_prompt=True, skip_special_tokens=True)

prompt = "Tell me about AI"
prompt_template=f'''<start_system>You are Alfred, a helpful assistant trained by LightOn. Knowledge cutoff: November 2022. Current date: 16 November, 2023<end_message><start_user>{prompt}<end_message><start_assistant>

# Convert prompt to tokens
tokens = tokenizer(

generation_params = {
    "do_sample": True,
    "temperature": 0.7,
    "top_p": 0.95,
    "top_k": 40,
    "max_new_tokens": 512,
    "repetition_penalty": 1.1

# Generate streamed output, visible one token at a time
generation_output = model.generate(

# Generation without a streamer, which will include the prompt in the output
generation_output = model.generate(

# Get the tokens from the output, decode them, print them
token_output = generation_output[0]
text_output = tokenizer.decode(token_output)
print("model.generate output: ", text_output)

# Inference is also possible via Transformers' pipeline
from transformers import pipeline

pipe = pipeline(

pipe_output = pipe(prompt_template)[0]['generated_text']
print("pipeline output: ", pipe_output)


The files provided are tested to work with:


For further support, and discussions on these models and AI in general, join us at:

TheBloke AI's Discord server

Thanks, and how to contribute

Thanks to the chirper.ai team!

Thanks to Clay from gpus.llm-utils.org!

I've had a lot of people ask if they can contribute. I enjoy providing models and helping people, and would love to be able to spend even more time doing it, as well as expanding into new projects like fine tuning/training.

If you're able and willing to contribute it will be most gratefully received and will help me to keep providing more models, and to start work on new AI projects.

Donaters will get priority support on any and all AI/LLM/model questions and requests, access to a private Discord room, plus other benefits.

Special thanks to: Aemon Algiz.

Patreon special mentions: Brandon Frisco, LangChain4j, Spiking Neurons AB, transmissions 11, Joseph William Delisle, Nitin Borwankar, Willem Michiel, Michael Dempsey, vamX, Jeffrey Morgan, zynix, jjj, Omer Bin Jawed, Sean Connelly, jinyuan sun, Jeromy Smith, Shadi, Pawan Osman, Chadd, Elijah Stavena, Illia Dulskyi, Sebastain Graf, Stephen Murray, terasurfer, Edmond Seymore, Celu Ramasamy, Mandus, Alex, biorpg, Ajan Kanaga, Clay Pascal, Raven Klaugh, 阿明, K, ya boyyy, usrbinkat, Alicia Loh, John Villwock, ReadyPlayerEmma, Chris Smitley, Cap'n Zoog, fincy, GodLy, S_X, sidney chen, Cory Kujawski, OG, Mano Prime, AzureBlack, Pieter, Kalila, Spencer Kim, Tom X Nguyen, Stanislav Ovsiannikov, Michael Levine, Andrey, Trailburnt, Vadim, Enrico Ros, Talal Aujan, Brandon Phillips, Jack West, Eugene Pentland, Michael Davis, Will Dee, webtim, Jonathan Leane, Alps Aficionado, Rooh Singh, Tiffany J. Kim, theTransient, Luke @flexchar, Elle, Caitlyn Gatomon, Ari Malik, subjectnull, Johann-Peter Hartmann, Trenton Dambrowitz, Imad Khwaja, Asp the Wyvern, Emad Mostaque, Rainer Wilmers, Alexandros Triantafyllidis, Nicholas, Pedro Madruga, SuperWojo, Harry Royden McLaughlin, James Bentley, Olakabola, David Ziegler, Ai Maven, Jeff Scroggin, Nikolai Manek, Deo Leter, Matthew Berman, Fen Risland, Ken Nordquist, Manuel Alberto Morcote, Luke Pendergrass, TL, Fred von Graf, Randy H, Dan Guido, NimbleBox.ai, Vitor Caleffi, Gabriel Tamborski, knownsqashed, Lone Striker, Erik Bjäreholt, John Detwiler, Leonard Tan, Iucharbius

Thank you to all my generous patrons and donaters!

And thank you again to a16z for their generous grant.

Original model card: LightOn AI's Alfred 40B 1023

Model Card for Alfred-40B-1023

a witty and elegant butler with a falcon on his shoulder, smile, flat illustration, simple shapes, colorful, lo-fi aesthetics

Alfred-40B-1023 is a finetuned version of Falcon-40B, with an extended context length of 8192 tokens. Finetuning was performed in October 2023. Alfred-40B-1023 is made available under the Apache 2.0 License.

Model Details

Model Description

* work done while at LightOn

  • Model type: Causal decoder-only;
  • Language(s) (NLP): English, German, Spanish, French (and limited capabilities in Italian, Portuguese, Polish, Dutch, Romanian, Czech, Swedish);
  • License: Apache 2.0 license.
  • Finetuned from model: Falcon-40B
  • Training date: October 2023 (1023).


Direct Use

Alfred-40B-1023 can be used as a chat model or as an instruct model.

For both instruct and chat mode, the model has been trained with chat tokens <start_system>, <start_user>, <start_assistant>, and <end_message>. These can be integrated into the prompt in the follwoing way:

<start_system>You are Alfred, a helpful assistant trained by LightOn. Knowledge cutoff: November 2022. Current date: 16 November, 2023<end_message><start_user>{user query}<end_message><start_assistant>

The stop word <end_message> should be used.

Out-of-Scope Use

Production use without adequate assessment of risks and mitigation; any use cases which may be considered irresponsible or harmful.

Bias, Risks, and Limitations

Alfred-40B-1023 is a finetune of Falcon-40B. As such, it is trained mostly on English, German, Spanish, French, with limited capabilities also in Italian, Portuguese, Polish, Dutch, Romanian, Czech, Swedish. It will not generalize appropriately to other languages. Furthermore, as it is trained on a large-scale corpora representative of the web, it will carry the stereotypes and biases commonly encountered online.


We recommend users of Alfred-40B-1023 to implement appropriate guardrails and precautions in any production use.

How to Get Started with the Model

Use the code below to get started with the model.

from transformers import AutoTokenizer, AutoModelForCausalLM
import transformers
import torch

model = "lightonai/alfred-40b-1023"
tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained("lightonai/alfred-0923-tokenizer")

pipeline = transformers.pipeline(

sequences = pipeline(
   "<start_system>You are Alfred, a helpful assistant trained by LightOn. Knowledge cutoff: November 2022. Current date: 16 November, 2023<end_message><start_user>Write me an email to my boss, explaining how the company could benefit by using LightOns platform for Large Language Models, Paradigm.<end_message><start_assistant>",
for seq in sequences:
    print(f"Result: {seq['generated_text']}")

Training Details

Training Data

Alfred-40B-1023 was trained on a mixture of publicly available and in-house curated datasets. The training data is composed of 50 % short context tasks, 45 % long context tasks and 5 % RefinedWeb.

Short context sources
internal is a collection of synthetic and human-generated datasets created by Ligthon, tailored towards the use cases of our clients.
Long context sources

internal-long-context is a collection of synthetic datasets generated by LightOn, tailored towards the use cases of our clients.

During training, we apply regular language modeling loss for a partition of the prompts in the long context data.

Pretraining objective source

Training Procedure

Alfred-40B-1023 was trained on 128 A100 40GB GPUs, using a 3D parallelism strategy (TP=8, PP=2, DP=8) combined with ZeRO. Alfred has been trained through supervised finetuning on 100 megatokens, with a learning rate decayed with a cosine schedule.


All datasets have been filtered, up or downsampled, and adapted to our chat token format.

Context length extension

We extend the context length to 8K with a custom method that we name NTK-YaRN. As guessable from its name, our extension method draws inspiration from NTK-aware interpolation and YaRN.

During our context length extension efforts, we experimented with various methods suitable for RoPE embeddings. These include vanilla positional interpolation, NTK-aware interpolation, NTK-by-parts, and lastly YaRN.

YaRN looked very promising when applied at test-time, however finetuning with YaRN was not successful in our experiments. When extending the context length at training-time, NTK-aware interpolation was the most successful out of the already existing methods. Some of our results from trying different long context extension methods are shared in the Evaluation section below. We acknowledge that the same parameter values as proposed in the YaRN-paper have been used in our YaRN experiments, and that these potentially could have other optimal values for our particular setup.


Similarly to NTK-aware interpolation (NTK), NTK-YaRN involves increasing the base of the RoPE embeddings. In the original implementation of NTK-aware interpolation the new base b' is adapted according to the following formula:

b=b×sDD2 b' = b \times s^{\frac{|D|}{|D|-2}}

where b is the original base, s the scaling factor of the context length, and |D| the model's head dimension.

However, we find (similar to other actors) that increasing the base slightly more is even better. The value of b' could probably be optimized even further, but for these experiments we have settled with the following value:

b=b×(s+1)DD2 b' = b \times (s+1)^{\frac{|D|}{|D|-2}}

In the following parts of this model card, context length extension with this extended scaling of the base is referred to as NTK-Margin. For NTK-YaRN, the extended scaling of the base is combined with the modification of the computation of the attention weights made in YaRN, where the query and key matrices are scaled by the factor m.

m=1+0.1×log(s) m = 1 + 0.1 \times \log(s)

Scaling the query and key matrices this way substantially reduces the initial grad norm when applying a context length extension method in our training runs.

To cite NTK-YaRN, please refer to the model bibtex in the bottom of this model card.


Context length extension strategies

Training losses

After experimenting on a 7B scale, we finally run a selected partition of the extension methods on a 40B scale. In the figure below, we display the resulting training losses when training a 40B model with the different extension methods, ceteris paribus.

Training loss curves for extension methods

Initially, YaRN has the lowest training loss, which can be seen as a reflection of the fact that YaRN was the most successful extension method at test time. However all the other methods surpasse YaRN in terms of training loss already after a handful of megatokens. Comparing NTK-Margin vs NTK-YaRN, we can note that the scaling of Q and K matrices makes the training loss lower in the beginning, however NTK-YaRN's advantage over NTK-Margin decreases as the training goes on. Comparing NTK-Margin with NTK in turn, it seems like the larger value of the base in NTK-Margin gives an initial boost in training loss, however this advantage decreases as training goes on.

Performance on Long Context Benchmarks

We evaluate the context length extension methods on an own benchmark, consisting of four tasks.

For each task, we have created 3 subtasks - one for each of the three context lengths 2K, 4K and 8K. In total, we thus have 12 subtasks.

In order to get an aggregated score that values each subtask equally, we normalize the scores for each subtask and then calculate the mean of the normalized scores for each extension method.

Aggregated scores on long context benchmarks

On these benchmarks, YaRN clearly lags behind. NTK-YaRN is the winning method, however NTK-Margin is so close that more extensive research is needed to verify that NTK-YaRN really is superior to NTK-Margin, especially when trained for longer.

Comparison to 2K baseline

In order to track any potential degradation on 2K context tasks due to the context length extension, we compare our 8K model against a 2K model trained in a similar setup for 100 megatokens. When training the 2K baseline, we don't include any long context data.

We conduct the comparison by evaluating the models on a selection of tasks from EleutherAI harness, as well as ranking model outputs internally.

Evaluation of 2K vs 8K version of alfred-40b-2023

Notably, our 8K model not only performs on par with our 2K model on most of our EleutherAI harness tasks, in fact it outperforms the 2K model on a majority of the tasks. Reading comprehension is the only subcategory for which our 8K model is outperformed by the 2K model.

We recognize that there is a discrepancy between performance on classical NLP benchmarks and how humans perceive the model quality. When model outputs (limited to 2K context lengths) are ranked by LightOn employees internally, the 2K and 8K have strikingly similar performance. However, a few rare failure modes have been noted for the 8K version, which are not seen when using the 2K model. These failure modes are likely to be fixable with better composition of the long context data.

Compute Infrastructure


Alfred-40B-1023 was trained on AWS SageMaker, on 128 A100 40GB GPUs in P4d instances.


Alfred-40B-1023 was trained with a custom codebase. Training leverages a 3D parallelism approach combined with ZeRO, as well as high-performance kernels such as FlashAttention.

Model Card Contact

Please open a Community Discussion for any support request related to using Alfred with HuggingFace transformers.

For any other inquiry: contact@lighton.ai


If you find the model useful in your work, please use the following bibtex when citing.

  author={Hallström, Oskar and Chatelain, Amélie and Thiriet, Clément and Séailles, Julien and Cavaillès, Adrien and Marmet, Axel},
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Finetuned from

Datasets used to train TheBloke/alfred-40B-1023-AWQ