Trainer

The Trainer and TFTrainer classes provide an API for feature-complete training in most standard use cases. It’s used in most of the example scripts.

Before instantiating your Trainer/TFTrainer, create a TrainingArguments/TFTrainingArguments to access all the points of customization during training.

The API supports distributed training on multiple GPUs/TPUs, mixed precision through NVIDIA Apex and Native AMP for PyTorch and tf.keras.mixed_precision for TensorFlow.

Both Trainer and TFTrainer contain the basic training loop which supports the above features. To inject custom behavior you can subclass them and override the following methods:

  • get_train_dataloader/get_train_tfdataset – Creates the training DataLoader (PyTorch) or TF Dataset.

  • get_eval_dataloader/get_eval_tfdataset – Creates the evaluation DataLoader (PyTorch) or TF Dataset.

  • get_test_dataloader/get_test_tfdataset – Creates the test DataLoader (PyTorch) or TF Dataset.

  • log – Logs information on the various objects watching training.

  • create_optimizer_and_scheduler – Sets up the optimizer and learning rate scheduler if they were not passed at init. Note, that you can also subclass or override the create_optimizer and create_scheduler methods separately.

  • create_optimizer – Sets up the optimizer if it wasn’t passed at init.

  • create_scheduler – Sets up the learning rate scheduler if it wasn’t passed at init.

  • compute_loss - Computes the loss on a batch of training inputs.

  • training_step – Performs a training step.

  • prediction_step – Performs an evaluation/test step.

  • run_model (TensorFlow only) – Basic pass through the model.

  • evaluate – Runs an evaluation loop and returns metrics.

  • predict – Returns predictions (with metrics if labels are available) on a test set.

Warning

The Trainer class is optimized for 🤗 Transformers models and can have surprising behaviors when you use it on other models. When using it on your own model, make sure:

  • your model always return tuples or subclasses of ModelOutput.

  • your model can compute the loss if a labels argument is provided and that loss is returned as the first element of the tuple (if your model returns tuples)

  • your model can accept multiple label arguments (use the label_names in your TrainingArguments to indicate their name to the Trainer) but none of them should be named "label".

Here is an example of how to customize Trainer using a custom loss function for multi-label classification:

from torch import nn
from transformers import Trainer

class MultilabelTrainer(Trainer):
    def compute_loss(self, model, inputs, return_outputs=False):
        labels = inputs.get("labels")
        outputs = model(**inputs)
        logits = outputs.get('logits')
        loss_fct = nn.BCEWithLogitsLoss()
        loss = loss_fct(logits.view(-1, self.model.config.num_labels),
                        labels.float().view(-1, self.model.config.num_labels))
        return (loss, outputs) if return_outputs else loss

Another way to customize the training loop behavior for the PyTorch Trainer is to use callbacks that can inspect the training loop state (for progress reporting, logging on TensorBoard or other ML platforms…) and take decisions (like early stopping).

Trainer

class transformers.Trainer(model: torch.nn.modules.module.Module = None, args: transformers.training_args.TrainingArguments = None, data_collator: Optional[NewType.<locals>.new_type] = None, train_dataset: Optional[torch.utils.data.dataset.Dataset] = None, eval_dataset: Optional[torch.utils.data.dataset.Dataset] = None, tokenizer: Optional[transformers.tokenization_utils_base.PreTrainedTokenizerBase] = None, model_init: Callable[transformers.modeling_utils.PreTrainedModel] = None, compute_metrics: Optional[Callable[transformers.trainer_utils.EvalPrediction, Dict]] = None, callbacks: Optional[List[transformers.trainer_callback.TrainerCallback]] = None, optimizers: Tuple[torch.optim.optimizer.Optimizer, torch.optim.lr_scheduler.LambdaLR] = (None, None))[source]

Trainer is a simple but feature-complete training and eval loop for PyTorch, optimized for 🤗 Transformers.

Parameters
  • model (PreTrainedModel or torch.nn.Module, optional) –

    The model to train, evaluate or use for predictions. If not provided, a model_init must be passed.

    Note

    Trainer is optimized to work with the PreTrainedModel provided by the library. You can still use your own models defined as torch.nn.Module as long as they work the same way as the 🤗 Transformers models.

  • args (TrainingArguments, optional) – The arguments to tweak for training. Will default to a basic instance of TrainingArguments with the output_dir set to a directory named tmp_trainer in the current directory if not provided.

  • data_collator (DataCollator, optional) – The function to use to form a batch from a list of elements of train_dataset or eval_dataset. Will default to default_data_collator() if no tokenizer is provided, an instance of DataCollatorWithPadding() otherwise.

  • train_dataset (torch.utils.data.Dataset or torch.utils.data.IterableDataset, optional) –

    The dataset to use for training. If it is an datasets.Dataset, columns not accepted by the model.forward() method are automatically removed.

    Note that if it’s a torch.utils.data.IterableDataset with some randomization and you are training in a distributed fashion, your iterable dataset should either use a internal attribute generator that is a torch.Generator for the randomization that must be identical on all processes (and the Trainer will manually set the seed of this generator at each epoch) or have a set_epoch() method that internally sets the seed of the RNGs used.

  • eval_dataset (torch.utils.data.Dataset, optional) – The dataset to use for evaluation. If it is an datasets.Dataset, columns not accepted by the model.forward() method are automatically removed.

  • tokenizer (PreTrainedTokenizerBase, optional) – The tokenizer used to preprocess the data. If provided, will be used to automatically pad the inputs the maximum length when batching inputs, and it will be saved along the model to make it easier to rerun an interrupted training or reuse the fine-tuned model.

  • model_init (Callable[[], PreTrainedModel], optional) –

    A function that instantiates the model to be used. If provided, each call to train() will start from a new instance of the model as given by this function.

    The function may have zero argument, or a single one containing the optuna/Ray Tune/SigOpt trial object, to be able to choose different architectures according to hyper parameters (such as layer count, sizes of inner layers, dropout probabilities etc).

  • compute_metrics (Callable[[EvalPrediction], Dict], optional) – The function that will be used to compute metrics at evaluation. Must take a EvalPrediction and return a dictionary string to metric values.

  • callbacks (List of TrainerCallback, optional) –

    A list of callbacks to customize the training loop. Will add those to the list of default callbacks detailed in here.

    If you want to remove one of the default callbacks used, use the Trainer.remove_callback() method.

  • optimizers (Tuple[torch.optim.Optimizer, torch.optim.lr_scheduler.LambdaLR, optional) – A tuple containing the optimizer and the scheduler to use. Will default to an instance of AdamW on your model and a scheduler given by get_linear_schedule_with_warmup() controlled by args.

Important attributes:

  • model – Always points to the core model. If using a transformers model, it will be a PreTrainedModel subclass.

  • model_wrapped – Always points to the most external model in case one or more other modules wrap the original model. This is the model that should be used for the forward pass. For example, under DeepSpeed, the inner model is wrapped in DeepSpeed and then again in torch.nn.DistributedDataParallel. If the inner model hasn’t been wrapped, then self.model_wrapped is the same as self.model.

  • is_model_parallel – Whether or not a model has been switched to a model parallel mode (different from data parallelism, this means some of the model layers are split on different GPUs).

  • place_model_on_device – Whether or not to automatically place the model on the device - it will be set to False if model parallel or deepspeed is used, or if the default TrainingArguments.place_model_on_device is overridden to return False .

  • is_in_train – Whether or not a model is currently running train (e.g. when evaluate is called while in train)

add_callback(callback)[source]

Add a callback to the current list of TrainerCallback.

Parameters

callback (type or TrainerCallback) – A TrainerCallback class or an instance of a TrainerCallback. In the first case, will instantiate a member of that class.

compute_loss(model, inputs, return_outputs=False)[source]

How the loss is computed by Trainer. By default, all models return the loss in the first element.

Subclass and override for custom behavior.

create_optimizer()[source]

Setup the optimizer.

We provide a reasonable default that works well. If you want to use something else, you can pass a tuple in the Trainer’s init through optimizers, or subclass and override this method in a subclass.

create_optimizer_and_scheduler(num_training_steps: int)[source]

Setup the optimizer and the learning rate scheduler.

We provide a reasonable default that works well. If you want to use something else, you can pass a tuple in the Trainer’s init through optimizers, or subclass and override this method (or create_optimizer and/or create_scheduler) in a subclass.

create_scheduler(num_training_steps: int, optimizer: torch.optim.optimizer.Optimizer = None)[source]

Setup the scheduler. The optimizer of the trainer must have been set up either before this method is called or passed as an argument.

Parameters

num_training_steps (int) – The number of training steps to do.

evaluate(eval_dataset: Optional[torch.utils.data.dataset.Dataset] = None, ignore_keys: Optional[List[str]] = None, metric_key_prefix: str = 'eval') → Dict[str, float][source]

Run evaluation and returns metrics.

The calling script will be responsible for providing a method to compute metrics, as they are task-dependent (pass it to the init compute_metrics argument).

You can also subclass and override this method to inject custom behavior.

Parameters
  • eval_dataset (Dataset, optional) – Pass a dataset if you wish to override self.eval_dataset. If it is an datasets.Dataset, columns not accepted by the model.forward() method are automatically removed. It must implement the __len__ method.

  • ignore_keys (Lst[str], optional) – A list of keys in the output of your model (if it is a dictionary) that should be ignored when gathering predictions.

  • metric_key_prefix (str, optional, defaults to "eval") – An optional prefix to be used as the metrics key prefix. For example the metrics “bleu” will be named “eval_bleu” if the prefix is “eval” (default)

Returns

A dictionary containing the evaluation loss and the potential metrics computed from the predictions. The dictionary also contains the epoch number which comes from the training state.

evaluation_loop(dataloader: torch.utils.data.dataloader.DataLoader, description: str, prediction_loss_only: Optional[bool] = None, ignore_keys: Optional[List[str]] = None, metric_key_prefix: str = 'eval') → transformers.trainer_utils.EvalLoopOutput[source]

Prediction/evaluation loop, shared by Trainer.evaluate() and Trainer.predict().

Works both with or without labels.

floating_point_ops(inputs: Dict[str, Union[torch.Tensor, Any]])[source]

For models that inherit from PreTrainedModel, uses that method to compute the number of floating point operations for every backward + forward pass. If using another model, either implement such a method in the model or subclass and override this method.

Parameters

inputs (Dict[str, Union[torch.Tensor, Any]]) – The inputs and targets of the model.

Returns

The number of floating-point operations.

Return type

int

get_eval_dataloader(eval_dataset: Optional[torch.utils.data.dataset.Dataset] = None) → torch.utils.data.dataloader.DataLoader[source]

Returns the evaluation DataLoader.

Subclass and override this method if you want to inject some custom behavior.

Parameters

eval_dataset (torch.utils.data.Dataset, optional) – If provided, will override self.eval_dataset. If it is an datasets.Dataset, columns not accepted by the model.forward() method are automatically removed. It must implement __len__.

get_test_dataloader(test_dataset: torch.utils.data.dataset.Dataset) → torch.utils.data.dataloader.DataLoader[source]

Returns the test DataLoader.

Subclass and override this method if you want to inject some custom behavior.

Parameters

test_dataset (torch.utils.data.Dataset, optional) – The test dataset to use. If it is an datasets.Dataset, columns not accepted by the model.forward() method are automatically removed. It must implement __len__.

get_train_dataloader() → torch.utils.data.dataloader.DataLoader[source]

Returns the training DataLoader.

Will use no sampler if self.train_dataset does not implement __len__, a random sampler (adapted to distributed training if necessary) otherwise.

Subclass and override this method if you want to inject some custom behavior.

Launch an hyperparameter search using optuna or Ray Tune or SigOpt. The optimized quantity is determined by compute_objective, which defaults to a function returning the evaluation loss when no metric is provided, the sum of all metrics otherwise.

Warning

To use this method, you need to have provided a model_init when initializing your Trainer: we need to reinitialize the model at each new run. This is incompatible with the optimizers argument, so you need to subclass Trainer and override the method create_optimizer_and_scheduler() for custom optimizer/scheduler.

Parameters
  • hp_space (Callable[["optuna.Trial"], Dict[str, float]], optional) – A function that defines the hyperparameter search space. Will default to default_hp_space_optuna() or default_hp_space_ray() or default_hp_space_sigopt() depending on your backend.

  • compute_objective (Callable[[Dict[str, float]], float], optional) – A function computing the objective to minimize or maximize from the metrics returned by the evaluate method. Will default to default_compute_objective().

  • n_trials (int, optional, defaults to 100) – The number of trial runs to test.

  • direction (str, optional, defaults to "minimize") – Whether to optimize greater or lower objects. Can be "minimize" or "maximize", you should pick "minimize" when optimizing the validation loss, "maximize" when optimizing one or several metrics.

  • backend (str or HPSearchBackend, optional) – The backend to use for hyperparameter search. Will default to optuna or Ray Tune or SigOpt, depending on which one is installed. If all are installed, will default to optuna.

  • kwargs

    Additional keyword arguments passed along to optuna.create_study or ray.tune.run. For more information see:

Returns

All the information about the best run.

Return type

transformers.trainer_utils.BestRun

init_git_repo()[source]

Initializes a git repo in self.args.hub_model_id.

is_local_process_zero() → bool[source]

Whether or not this process is the local (e.g., on one machine if training in a distributed fashion on several machines) main process.

is_world_process_zero() → bool[source]

Whether or not this process is the global main process (when training in a distributed fashion on several machines, this is only going to be True for one process).

log(logs: Dict[str, float]) → None[source]

Log logs on the various objects watching training.

Subclass and override this method to inject custom behavior.

Parameters

logs (Dict[str, float]) – The values to log.

log_metrics(split, metrics)

Log metrics in a specially formatted way

Under distributed environment this is done only for a process with rank 0.

Parameters
  • split (str) – Mode/split name: one of train, eval, test

  • metrics (Dict[str, float]) – The metrics returned from train/evaluate/predictmetrics: metrics dict

Notes on memory reports:

In order to get memory usage report you need to install psutil. You can do that with pip install psutil.

Now when this method is run, you will see a report that will include:

init_mem_cpu_alloc_delta   =     1301MB
init_mem_cpu_peaked_delta  =      154MB
init_mem_gpu_alloc_delta   =      230MB
init_mem_gpu_peaked_delta  =        0MB
train_mem_cpu_alloc_delta  =     1345MB
train_mem_cpu_peaked_delta =        0MB
train_mem_gpu_alloc_delta  =      693MB
train_mem_gpu_peaked_delta =        7MB

Understanding the reports:

  • the first segment, e.g., train__, tells you which stage the metrics are for. Reports starting with init_ will be added to the first stage that gets run. So that if only evaluation is run, the memory usage for the __init__ will be reported along with the eval_ metrics.

  • the third segment, is either cpu or gpu, tells you whether it’s the general RAM or the gpu0 memory metric.

  • *_alloc_delta - is the difference in the used/allocated memory counter between the end and the start of the stage - it can be negative if a function released more memory than it allocated.

  • *_peaked_delta - is any extra memory that was consumed and then freed - relative to the current allocated memory counter - it is never negative. When you look at the metrics of any stage you add up alloc_delta + peaked_delta and you know how much memory was needed to complete that stage.

The reporting happens only for process of rank 0 and gpu 0 (if there is a gpu). Typically this is enough since the main process does the bulk of work, but it could be not quite so if model parallel is used and then other GPUs may use a different amount of gpu memory. This is also not the same under DataParallel where gpu0 may require much more memory than the rest since it stores the gradient and optimizer states for all participating GPUS. Perhaps in the future these reports will evolve to measure those too.

The CPU RAM metric measures RSS (Resident Set Size) includes both the memory which is unique to the process and the memory shared with other processes. It is important to note that it does not include swapped out memory, so the reports could be imprecise.

The CPU peak memory is measured using a sampling thread. Due to python’s GIL it may miss some of the peak memory if that thread didn’t get a chance to run when the highest memory was used. Therefore this report can be less than reality. Using tracemalloc would have reported the exact peak memory, but it doesn’t report memory allocations outside of python. So if some C++ CUDA extension allocated its own memory it won’t be reported. And therefore it was dropped in favor of the memory sampling approach, which reads the current process memory usage.

The GPU allocated and peak memory reporting is done with torch.cuda.memory_allocated() and torch.cuda.max_memory_allocated(). This metric reports only “deltas” for pytorch-specific allocations, as torch.cuda memory management system doesn’t track any memory allocated outside of pytorch. For example, the very first cuda call typically loads CUDA kernels, which may take from 0.5 to 2GB of GPU memory.

Note that this tracker doesn’t account for memory allocations outside of Trainer’s __init__, train, evaluate and predict calls.

Because evaluation calls may happen during train, we can’t handle nested invocations because torch.cuda.max_memory_allocated is a single counter, so if it gets reset by a nested eval call, train’s tracker will report incorrect info. If this pytorch issue gets resolved it will be possible to change this class to be re-entrant. Until then we will only track the outer level of train, evaluate and predict methods. Which means that if eval is called during train, it’s the latter that will account for its memory usage and that of the former.

This also means that if any other tool that is used along the Trainer calls torch.cuda.reset_peak_memory_stats, the gpu peak memory stats could be invalid. And the Trainer will disrupt the normal behavior of any such tools that rely on calling torch.cuda.reset_peak_memory_stats themselves.

For best performance you may want to consider turning the memory profiling off for production runs.

metrics_format(metrics: Dict[str, float]) → Dict[str, float]

Reformat Trainer metrics values to a human-readable format

Parameters

metrics (Dict[str, float]) – The metrics returned from train/evaluate/predict

Returns

The reformatted metrics

Return type

metrics (Dict[str, float])

num_examples(dataloader: torch.utils.data.dataloader.DataLoader) → int[source]

Helper to get number of samples in a DataLoader by accessing its dataset.

Will raise an exception if the underlying dataset does not implement method __len__

pop_callback(callback)[source]

Remove a callback from the current list of TrainerCallback and returns it.

If the callback is not found, returns None (and no error is raised).

Parameters

callback (type or TrainerCallback) – A TrainerCallback class or an instance of a TrainerCallback. In the first case, will pop the first member of that class found in the list of callbacks.

Returns

The callback removed, if found.

Return type

TrainerCallback

predict(test_dataset: torch.utils.data.dataset.Dataset, ignore_keys: Optional[List[str]] = None, metric_key_prefix: str = 'test') → transformers.trainer_utils.PredictionOutput[source]

Run prediction and returns predictions and potential metrics.

Depending on the dataset and your use case, your test dataset may contain labels. In that case, this method will also return metrics, like in evaluate().

Parameters
  • test_dataset (Dataset) – Dataset to run the predictions on. If it is an datasets.Dataset, columns not accepted by the model.forward() method are automatically removed. Has to implement the method __len__

  • ignore_keys (Lst[str], optional) – A list of keys in the output of your model (if it is a dictionary) that should be ignored when gathering predictions.

  • metric_key_prefix (str, optional, defaults to "test") – An optional prefix to be used as the metrics key prefix. For example the metrics “bleu” will be named “test_bleu” if the prefix is “test” (default)

Note

If your predictions or labels have different sequence length (for instance because you’re doing dynamic padding in a token classification task) the predictions will be padded (on the right) to allow for concatenation into one array. The padding index is -100.

Returns: NamedTuple A namedtuple with the following keys:

  • predictions (np.ndarray): The predictions on test_dataset.

  • label_ids (np.ndarray, optional): The labels (if the dataset contained some).

  • metrics (Dict[str, float], optional): The potential dictionary of metrics (if the dataset contained labels).

prediction_loop(dataloader: torch.utils.data.dataloader.DataLoader, description: str, prediction_loss_only: Optional[bool] = None, ignore_keys: Optional[List[str]] = None, metric_key_prefix: str = 'eval') → transformers.trainer_utils.PredictionOutput[source]

Prediction/evaluation loop, shared by Trainer.evaluate() and Trainer.predict().

Works both with or without labels.

prediction_step(model: torch.nn.modules.module.Module, inputs: Dict[str, Union[torch.Tensor, Any]], prediction_loss_only: bool, ignore_keys: Optional[List[str]] = None) → Tuple[Optional[torch.Tensor], Optional[torch.Tensor], Optional[torch.Tensor]][source]

Perform an evaluation step on model using obj:inputs.

Subclass and override to inject custom behavior.

Parameters
  • model (nn.Module) – The model to evaluate.

  • inputs (Dict[str, Union[torch.Tensor, Any]]) –

    The inputs and targets of the model.

    The dictionary will be unpacked before being fed to the model. Most models expect the targets under the argument labels. Check your model’s documentation for all accepted arguments.

  • prediction_loss_only (bool) – Whether or not to return the loss only.

  • ignore_keys (Lst[str], optional) – A list of keys in the output of your model (if it is a dictionary) that should be ignored when gathering predictions.

Returns

A tuple with the loss, logits and labels (each being optional).

Return type

Tuple[Optional[torch.Tensor], Optional[torch.Tensor], Optional[torch.Tensor]]

push_to_hub(commit_message: Optional[str] = 'End of training', blocking: bool = True, **kwargs) → str[source]

Upload self.model and self.tokenizer to the 🤗 model hub on the repo self.args.hub_model_id.

Parameters
  • commit_message (str, optional, defaults to "End of training") – Message to commit while pushing.

  • blocking (bool, optional, defaults to True) – Whether the function should return only when the git push has finished.

  • kwargs – Additional keyword arguments passed along to create_model_card().

Returns

The url of the commit of your model in the given repository if blocking=False, a tuple with the url of the commit and an object to track the progress of the commit if blocking=True

remove_callback(callback)[source]

Remove a callback from the current list of TrainerCallback.

Parameters

callback (type or TrainerCallback) – A TrainerCallback class or an instance of a TrainerCallback. In the first case, will remove the first member of that class found in the list of callbacks.

save_metrics(split, metrics, combined=True)

Save metrics into a json file for that split, e.g. train_results.json.

Under distributed environment this is done only for a process with rank 0.

Parameters
  • split (str) – Mode/split name: one of train, eval, test, all

  • metrics (Dict[str, float]) – The metrics returned from train/evaluate/predict

  • combined (bool, optional, defaults to True) – Creates combined metrics by updating all_results.json with metrics of this call

To understand the metrics please read the docstring of log_metrics(). The only difference is that raw unformatted numbers are saved in the current method.

save_model(output_dir: Optional[str] = None)[source]

Will save the model, so you can reload it using from_pretrained().

Will only save from the main process.

save_state()

Saves the Trainer state, since Trainer.save_model saves only the tokenizer with the model

Under distributed environment this is done only for a process with rank 0.

train(resume_from_checkpoint: Optional[Union[bool, str]] = None, trial: Union[optuna.Trial, Dict[str, Any]] = None, ignore_keys_for_eval: Optional[List[str]] = None, **kwargs)[source]

Main training entry point.

Parameters
  • resume_from_checkpoint (str or bool, optional) – If a str, local path to a saved checkpoint as saved by a previous instance of Trainer. If a bool and equals True, load the last checkpoint in args.output_dir as saved by a previous instance of Trainer. If present, training will resume from the model/optimizer/scheduler states loaded here.

  • trial (optuna.Trial or Dict[str, Any], optional) – The trial run or the hyperparameter dictionary for hyperparameter search.

  • ignore_keys_for_eval (List[str], optional) – A list of keys in the output of your model (if it is a dictionary) that should be ignored when gathering predictions for evaluation during the training.

  • kwargs – Additional keyword arguments used to hide deprecated arguments

training_step(model: torch.nn.modules.module.Module, inputs: Dict[str, Union[torch.Tensor, Any]]) → torch.Tensor[source]

Perform a training step on a batch of inputs.

Subclass and override to inject custom behavior.

Parameters
  • model (nn.Module) – The model to train.

  • inputs (Dict[str, Union[torch.Tensor, Any]]) –

    The inputs and targets of the model.

    The dictionary will be unpacked before being fed to the model. Most models expect the targets under the argument labels. Check your model’s documentation for all accepted arguments.

Returns

The tensor with training loss on this batch.

Return type

torch.Tensor

Seq2SeqTrainer

class transformers.Seq2SeqTrainer(model: torch.nn.modules.module.Module = None, args: transformers.training_args.TrainingArguments = None, data_collator: Optional[NewType.<locals>.new_type] = None, train_dataset: Optional[torch.utils.data.dataset.Dataset] = None, eval_dataset: Optional[torch.utils.data.dataset.Dataset] = None, tokenizer: Optional[transformers.tokenization_utils_base.PreTrainedTokenizerBase] = None, model_init: Callable[transformers.modeling_utils.PreTrainedModel] = None, compute_metrics: Optional[Callable[transformers.trainer_utils.EvalPrediction, Dict]] = None, callbacks: Optional[List[transformers.trainer_callback.TrainerCallback]] = None, optimizers: Tuple[torch.optim.optimizer.Optimizer, torch.optim.lr_scheduler.LambdaLR] = (None, None))[source]
evaluate(eval_dataset: Optional[torch.utils.data.dataset.Dataset] = None, ignore_keys: Optional[List[str]] = None, metric_key_prefix: str = 'eval', max_length: Optional[int] = None, num_beams: Optional[int] = None) → Dict[str, float][source]

Run evaluation and returns metrics.

The calling script will be responsible for providing a method to compute metrics, as they are task-dependent (pass it to the init compute_metrics argument).

You can also subclass and override this method to inject custom behavior.

Parameters
  • eval_dataset (Dataset, optional) – Pass a dataset if you wish to override self.eval_dataset. If it is an datasets.Dataset, columns not accepted by the model.forward() method are automatically removed. It must implement the __len__ method.

  • ignore_keys (List[str], optional) – A list of keys in the output of your model (if it is a dictionary) that should be ignored when gathering predictions.

  • metric_key_prefix (str, optional, defaults to "eval") – An optional prefix to be used as the metrics key prefix. For example the metrics “bleu” will be named “eval_bleu” if the prefix is "eval" (default)

  • max_length (int, optional) – The maximum target length to use when predicting with the generate method.

  • num_beams (int, optional) – Number of beams for beam search that will be used when predicting with the generate method. 1 means no beam search.

Returns

A dictionary containing the evaluation loss and the potential metrics computed from the predictions. The dictionary also contains the epoch number which comes from the training state.

predict(test_dataset: torch.utils.data.dataset.Dataset, ignore_keys: Optional[List[str]] = None, metric_key_prefix: str = 'eval', max_length: Optional[int] = None, num_beams: Optional[int] = None) → transformers.trainer_utils.PredictionOutput[source]

Run prediction and returns predictions and potential metrics.

Depending on the dataset and your use case, your test dataset may contain labels. In that case, this method will also return metrics, like in evaluate().

Parameters
  • test_dataset (Dataset) – Dataset to run the predictions on. If it is an datasets.Dataset, columns not accepted by the model.forward() method are automatically removed. Has to implement the method __len__

  • ignore_keys (List[str], optional) – A list of keys in the output of your model (if it is a dictionary) that should be ignored when gathering predictions.

  • metric_key_prefix (str, optional, defaults to "eval") – An optional prefix to be used as the metrics key prefix. For example the metrics “bleu” will be named “eval_bleu” if the prefix is "eval" (default)

  • max_length (int, optional) – The maximum target length to use when predicting with the generate method.

  • num_beams (int, optional) – Number of beams for beam search that will be used when predicting with the generate method. 1 means no beam search.

Note

If your predictions or labels have different sequence lengths (for instance because you’re doing dynamic padding in a token classification task) the predictions will be padded (on the right) to allow for concatenation into one array. The padding index is -100.

Returns: NamedTuple A namedtuple with the following keys:

  • predictions (np.ndarray): The predictions on test_dataset.

  • label_ids (np.ndarray, optional): The labels (if the dataset contained some).

  • metrics (Dict[str, float], optional): The potential dictionary of metrics (if the dataset contained labels).

TFTrainer

class transformers.TFTrainer(model: transformers.modeling_tf_utils.TFPreTrainedModel, args: transformers.training_args_tf.TFTrainingArguments, train_dataset: Optional[tensorflow.python.data.ops.dataset_ops.DatasetV2] = None, eval_dataset: Optional[tensorflow.python.data.ops.dataset_ops.DatasetV2] = None, compute_metrics: Optional[Callable[transformers.trainer_utils.EvalPrediction, Dict]] = None, tb_writer: Optional[tensorflow.python.ops.summary_ops_v2.SummaryWriter] = None, optimizers: Tuple[keras.optimizer_v2.optimizer_v2.OptimizerV2, keras.optimizer_v2.learning_rate_schedule.LearningRateSchedule] = None, None)[source]

TFTrainer is a simple but feature-complete training and eval loop for TensorFlow, optimized for 🤗 Transformers.

Parameters
  • model (TFPreTrainedModel) – The model to train, evaluate or use for predictions.

  • args (TFTrainingArguments) – The arguments to tweak training.

  • train_dataset (Dataset, optional) – The dataset to use for training. The dataset should yield tuples of (features, labels) where features is a dict of input features and labels is the labels. If labels is a tensor, the loss is calculated by the model by calling model(features, labels=labels). If labels is a dict, such as when using a QuestionAnswering head model with multiple targets, the loss is instead calculated by calling model(features, **labels).

  • eval_dataset (Dataset, optional) – The dataset to use for evaluation. The dataset should yield tuples of (features, labels) where features is a dict of input features and labels is the labels. If labels is a tensor, the loss is calculated by the model by calling model(features, labels=labels). If labels is a dict, such as when using a QuestionAnswering head model with multiple targets, the loss is instead calculated by calling model(features, **labels).

  • compute_metrics (Callable[[EvalPrediction], Dict], optional) – The function that will be used to compute metrics at evaluation. Must take a EvalPrediction and return a dictionary string to metric values.

  • tb_writer (tf.summary.SummaryWriter, optional) – Object to write to TensorBoard.

  • optimizers (Tuple[tf.keras.optimizers.Optimizer, tf.keras.optimizers.schedules.LearningRateSchedule], optional) – A tuple containing the optimizer and the scheduler to use. The optimizer default to an instance of tf.keras.optimizers.Adam if args.weight_decay_rate is 0 else an instance of AdamWeightDecay. The scheduler will default to an instance of tf.keras.optimizers.schedules.PolynomialDecay if args.num_warmup_steps is 0 else an instance of WarmUp.

create_optimizer_and_scheduler(num_training_steps: int)[source]

Setup the optimizer and the learning rate scheduler.

We provide a reasonable default that works well. If you want to use something else, you can pass a tuple in the TFTrainer’s init through optimizers, or subclass and override this method.

evaluate(eval_dataset: Optional[tensorflow.python.data.ops.dataset_ops.DatasetV2] = None) → Dict[str, float][source]

Run evaluation and returns metrics.

The calling script will be responsible for providing a method to compute metrics, as they are task-dependent (pass it to the init compute_metrics argument).

Parameters

eval_dataset (Dataset, optional) – Pass a dataset if you wish to override self.eval_dataset. The dataset should yield tuples of (features, labels) where features is a dict of input features and labels is the labels. If labels is a tensor, the loss is calculated by the model by calling model(features, labels=labels). If labels is a dict, such as when using a QuestionAnswering head model with multiple targets, the loss is instead calculated by calling model(features, **labels).

Returns

A dictionary containing the evaluation loss and the potential metrics computed from the predictions.

get_eval_tfdataset(eval_dataset: Optional[tensorflow.python.data.ops.dataset_ops.DatasetV2] = None) → tensorflow.python.data.ops.dataset_ops.DatasetV2[source]

Returns the evaluation Dataset.

Parameters

eval_dataset (Dataset, optional) – If provided, will override self.eval_dataset. The dataset should yield tuples of (features, labels) where features is a dict of input features and labels is the labels. If labels is a tensor, the loss is calculated by the model by calling model(features, labels=labels). If labels is a dict, such as when using a QuestionAnswering head model with multiple targets, the loss is instead calculated by calling model(features, **labels).

Subclass and override this method if you want to inject some custom behavior.

get_test_tfdataset(test_dataset: tensorflow.python.data.ops.dataset_ops.DatasetV2) → tensorflow.python.data.ops.dataset_ops.DatasetV2[source]

Returns a test Dataset.

Parameters

test_dataset (Dataset) – The dataset to use. The dataset should yield tuples of (features, labels) where features is a dict of input features and labels is the labels. If labels is a tensor, the loss is calculated by the model by calling model(features, labels=labels). If labels is a dict, such as when using a QuestionAnswering head model with multiple targets, the loss is instead calculated by calling model(features, **labels).

Subclass and override this method if you want to inject some custom behavior.

get_train_tfdataset() → tensorflow.python.data.ops.dataset_ops.DatasetV2[source]

Returns the training Dataset.

Subclass and override this method if you want to inject some custom behavior.

log(logs: Dict[str, float]) → None[source]

Log logs on the various objects watching training.

Subclass and override this method to inject custom behavior.

Parameters

logs (Dict[str, float]) – The values to log.

predict(test_dataset: tensorflow.python.data.ops.dataset_ops.DatasetV2) → transformers.trainer_utils.PredictionOutput[source]

Run prediction and returns predictions and potential metrics.

Depending on the dataset and your use case, your test dataset may contain labels. In that case, this method will also return metrics, like in evaluate().

Parameters

test_dataset (Dataset) – Dataset to run the predictions on. The dataset should yield tuples of (features, labels) where features is a dict of input features and labels is the labels. If labels is a tensor, the loss is calculated by the model by calling model(features, labels=labels). If labels is a dict, such as when using a QuestionAnswering head model with multiple targets, the loss is instead calculated by calling model(features, **labels)

Returns: NamedTuple A namedtuple with the following keys:

  • predictions (np.ndarray): The predictions on test_dataset.

  • label_ids (np.ndarray, optional): The labels (if the dataset contained some).

  • metrics (Dict[str, float], optional): The potential dictionary of metrics (if the dataset contained labels).

prediction_loop(dataset: tensorflow.python.data.ops.dataset_ops.DatasetV2, steps: int, num_examples: int, description: str, prediction_loss_only: Optional[bool] = None) → transformers.trainer_utils.PredictionOutput[source]

Prediction/evaluation loop, shared by evaluate() and predict().

Works both with or without labels.

prediction_step(features: tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor, labels: tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor, nb_instances_in_global_batch: tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor) → tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor[source]

Compute the prediction on features and update the loss with labels.

Subclass and override to inject some custom behavior.

run_model(features, labels, training)[source]

Computes the loss of the given features and labels pair.

Subclass and override this method if you want to inject some custom behavior.

Parameters
  • features (tf.Tensor) – A batch of input features.

  • labels (tf.Tensor) – A batch of labels.

  • training (bool) – Whether or not to run the model in training mode.

Returns

The loss and logits.

Return type

A tuple of two tf.Tensor

save_model(output_dir: Optional[str] = None)[source]

Will save the model, so you can reload it using from_pretrained().

setup_comet()[source]

Setup the optional Comet.ml integration.

Environment:
COMET_MODE:

(Optional): str - “OFFLINE”, “ONLINE”, or “DISABLED”

COMET_PROJECT_NAME:

(Optional): str - Comet.ml project name for experiments

COMET_OFFLINE_DIRECTORY:

(Optional): str - folder to use for saving offline experiments when COMET_MODE is “OFFLINE”

For a number of configurable items in the environment, see here

setup_wandb()[source]

Setup the optional Weights & Biases (wandb) integration.

One can subclass and override this method to customize the setup if needed. Find more information here. You can also override the following environment variables:

Environment:
WANDB_PROJECT:

(Optional): str - “huggingface” by default, set this to a custom string to store results in a different project.

WANDB_DISABLED:

(Optional): boolean - defaults to false, set to “true” to disable wandb entirely.

train() → None[source]

Train method to train the model.

training_step(features, labels, nb_instances_in_global_batch)[source]

Perform a training step on features and labels.

Subclass and override to inject some custom behavior.

TrainingArguments

class transformers.TrainingArguments(output_dir: str, overwrite_output_dir: bool = False, do_train: bool = False, do_eval: bool = False, do_predict: bool = False, evaluation_strategy: transformers.trainer_utils.IntervalStrategy = 'no', prediction_loss_only: bool = False, per_device_train_batch_size: int = 8, per_device_eval_batch_size: int = 8, per_gpu_train_batch_size: Optional[int] = None, per_gpu_eval_batch_size: Optional[int] = None, gradient_accumulation_steps: int = 1, eval_accumulation_steps: Optional[int] = None, learning_rate: float = 5e-05, weight_decay: float = 0.0, adam_beta1: float = 0.9, adam_beta2: float = 0.999, adam_epsilon: float = 1e-08, max_grad_norm: float = 1.0, num_train_epochs: float = 3.0, max_steps: int = - 1, lr_scheduler_type: transformers.trainer_utils.SchedulerType = 'linear', warmup_ratio: float = 0.0, warmup_steps: int = 0, log_level: Optional[str] = 'passive', log_level_replica: Optional[str] = 'passive', log_on_each_node: bool = True, logging_dir: Optional[str] = None, logging_strategy: transformers.trainer_utils.IntervalStrategy = 'steps', logging_first_step: bool = False, logging_steps: int = 500, logging_nan_inf_filter: str = True, save_strategy: transformers.trainer_utils.IntervalStrategy = 'steps', save_steps: int = 500, save_total_limit: Optional[int] = None, save_on_each_node: bool = False, no_cuda: bool = False, seed: int = 42, fp16: bool = False, fp16_opt_level: str = 'O1', fp16_backend: str = 'auto', fp16_full_eval: bool = False, local_rank: int = - 1, xpu_backend: str = None, tpu_num_cores: Optional[int] = None, tpu_metrics_debug: bool = False, debug: str = '', dataloader_drop_last: bool = False, eval_steps: int = None, dataloader_num_workers: int = 0, past_index: int = - 1, run_name: Optional[str] = None, disable_tqdm: Optional[bool] = None, remove_unused_columns: Optional[bool] = True, label_names: Optional[List[str]] = None, load_best_model_at_end: Optional[bool] = False, metric_for_best_model: Optional[str] = None, greater_is_better: Optional[bool] = None, ignore_data_skip: bool = False, sharded_ddp: str = '', deepspeed: Optional[str] = None, label_smoothing_factor: float = 0.0, adafactor: bool = False, group_by_length: bool = False, length_column_name: Optional[str] = 'length', report_to: Optional[List[str]] = None, ddp_find_unused_parameters: Optional[bool] = None, dataloader_pin_memory: bool = True, skip_memory_metrics: bool = True, use_legacy_prediction_loop: bool = False, push_to_hub: bool = False, resume_from_checkpoint: Optional[str] = None, hub_model_id: str = None, hub_strategy: transformers.trainer_utils.HubStrategy = 'every_save', hub_token: str = None, gradient_checkpointing: bool = False, push_to_hub_model_id: str = None, push_to_hub_organization: str = None, push_to_hub_token: str = None, mp_parameters: str = '')[source]

TrainingArguments is the subset of the arguments we use in our example scripts which relate to the training loop itself.

Using HfArgumentParser we can turn this class into argparse arguments that can be specified on the command line.

Parameters
  • output_dir (str) – The output directory where the model predictions and checkpoints will be written.

  • overwrite_output_dir (bool, optional, defaults to False) – If True, overwrite the content of the output directory. Use this to continue training if output_dir points to a checkpoint directory.

  • do_train (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to run training or not. This argument is not directly used by Trainer, it’s intended to be used by your training/evaluation scripts instead. See the example scripts for more details.

  • do_eval (bool, optional) – Whether to run evaluation on the validation set or not. Will be set to True if evaluation_strategy is different from "no". This argument is not directly used by Trainer, it’s intended to be used by your training/evaluation scripts instead. See the example scripts for more details.

  • do_predict (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to run predictions on the test set or not. This argument is not directly used by Trainer, it’s intended to be used by your training/evaluation scripts instead. See the example scripts for more details.

  • evaluation_strategy (str or IntervalStrategy, optional, defaults to "no") –

    The evaluation strategy to adopt during training. Possible values are:

    • "no": No evaluation is done during training.

    • "steps": Evaluation is done (and logged) every eval_steps.

    • "epoch": Evaluation is done at the end of each epoch.

  • prediction_loss_only (bool, optional, defaults to False) – When performing evaluation and generating predictions, only returns the loss.

  • per_device_train_batch_size (int, optional, defaults to 8) – The batch size per GPU/TPU core/CPU for training.

  • per_device_eval_batch_size (int, optional, defaults to 8) – The batch size per GPU/TPU core/CPU for evaluation.

  • gradient_accumulation_steps (int, optional, defaults to 1) –

    Number of updates steps to accumulate the gradients for, before performing a backward/update pass.

    Warning

    When using gradient accumulation, one step is counted as one step with backward pass. Therefore, logging, evaluation, save will be conducted every gradient_accumulation_steps * xxx_step training examples.

  • eval_accumulation_steps (int, optional) – Number of predictions steps to accumulate the output tensors for, before moving the results to the CPU. If left unset, the whole predictions are accumulated on GPU/TPU before being moved to the CPU (faster but requires more memory).

  • learning_rate (float, optional, defaults to 5e-5) – The initial learning rate for AdamW optimizer.

  • weight_decay (float, optional, defaults to 0) – The weight decay to apply (if not zero) to all layers except all bias and LayerNorm weights in AdamW optimizer.

  • adam_beta1 (float, optional, defaults to 0.9) – The beta1 hyperparameter for the AdamW optimizer.

  • adam_beta2 (float, optional, defaults to 0.999) – The beta2 hyperparameter for the AdamW optimizer.

  • adam_epsilon (float, optional, defaults to 1e-8) – The epsilon hyperparameter for the AdamW optimizer.

  • max_grad_norm (float, optional, defaults to 1.0) – Maximum gradient norm (for gradient clipping).

  • num_train_epochs (float, optional, defaults to 3.0) – Total number of training epochs to perform (if not an integer, will perform the decimal part percents of the last epoch before stopping training).

  • max_steps (int, optional, defaults to -1) – If set to a positive number, the total number of training steps to perform. Overrides num_train_epochs.

  • lr_scheduler_type (str or SchedulerType, optional, defaults to "linear") – The scheduler type to use. See the documentation of SchedulerType for all possible values.

  • warmup_ratio (float, optional, defaults to 0.0) – Ratio of total training steps used for a linear warmup from 0 to learning_rate.

  • warmup_steps (int, optional, defaults to 0) – Number of steps used for a linear warmup from 0 to learning_rate. Overrides any effect of warmup_ratio.

  • log_level (str, optional, defaults to passive) – Logger log level to use on the main process. Possible choices are the log levels as strings: ‘debug’, ‘info’, ‘warning’, ‘error’ and ‘critical’, plus a ‘passive’ level which doesn’t set anything and lets the application set the level.

  • log_level_replica (str, optional, defaults to passive) – Logger log level to use on replicas. Same choices as log_level

  • log_on_each_node (bool, optional, defaults to True) – In multinode distributed training, whether to log using log_level once per node, or only on the main node.

  • logging_dir (str, optional) – TensorBoard log directory. Will default to output_dir/runs/**CURRENT_DATETIME_HOSTNAME**.

  • logging_strategy (str or IntervalStrategy, optional, defaults to "steps") –

    The logging strategy to adopt during training. Possible values are:

    • "no": No logging is done during training.

    • "epoch": Logging is done at the end of each epoch.

    • "steps": Logging is done every logging_steps.

  • logging_first_step (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to log and evaluate the first global_step or not.

  • logging_steps (int, optional, defaults to 500) – Number of update steps between two logs if logging_strategy="steps".

  • logging_nan_inf_filter (bool, optional, defaults to True) –

    Whether to filter nan and inf losses for logging. If set to obj:True the loss of every step that is nan or inf is filtered and the average loss of the current logging window is taken instead.

    Note

    logging_nan_inf_filter only influences the logging of loss values, it does not change the behavior the gradient is computed or applied to the model.

  • save_strategy (str or IntervalStrategy, optional, defaults to "steps") –

    The checkpoint save strategy to adopt during training. Possible values are:

    • "no": No save is done during training.

    • "epoch": Save is done at the end of each epoch.

    • "steps": Save is done every save_steps.

  • save_steps (int, optional, defaults to 500) – Number of updates steps before two checkpoint saves if save_strategy="steps".

  • save_total_limit (int, optional) – If a value is passed, will limit the total amount of checkpoints. Deletes the older checkpoints in output_dir.

  • save_on_each_node (bool, optional, defaults to False) –

    When doing multi-node distributed training, whether to save models and checkpoints on each node, or only on the main one.

    This should not be activated when the different nodes use the same storage as the files will be saved with the same names for each node.

  • no_cuda (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to not use CUDA even when it is available or not.

  • seed (int, optional, defaults to 42) – Random seed that will be set at the beginning of training. To ensure reproducibility across runs, use the model_init() function to instantiate the model if it has some randomly initialized parameters.

  • fp16 (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to use 16-bit (mixed) precision training instead of 32-bit training.

  • fp16_opt_level (str, optional, defaults to ‘O1’) – For fp16 training, Apex AMP optimization level selected in [‘O0’, ‘O1’, ‘O2’, and ‘O3’]. See details on the Apex documentation.

  • fp16_backend (str, optional, defaults to "auto") – The backend to use for mixed precision training. Must be one of "auto", "amp" or "apex". "auto" will use AMP or APEX depending on the PyTorch version detected, while the other choices will force the requested backend.

  • fp16_full_eval (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to use full 16-bit precision evaluation instead of 32-bit. This will be faster and save memory but can harm metric values.

  • local_rank (int, optional, defaults to -1) – Rank of the process during distributed training.

  • xpu_backend (str, optional) – The backend to use for xpu distributed training. Must be one of "mpi" or "ccl".

  • tpu_num_cores (int, optional) – When training on TPU, the number of TPU cores (automatically passed by launcher script).

  • dataloader_drop_last (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to drop the last incomplete batch (if the length of the dataset is not divisible by the batch size) or not.

  • eval_steps (int, optional) – Number of update steps between two evaluations if evaluation_strategy="steps". Will default to the same value as logging_steps if not set.

  • dataloader_num_workers (int, optional, defaults to 0) – Number of subprocesses to use for data loading (PyTorch only). 0 means that the data will be loaded in the main process.

  • past_index (int, optional, defaults to -1) – Some models like TransformerXL or XLNet can make use of the past hidden states for their predictions. If this argument is set to a positive int, the Trainer will use the corresponding output (usually index 2) as the past state and feed it to the model at the next training step under the keyword argument mems.

  • run_name (str, optional) – A descriptor for the run. Typically used for wandb logging.

  • disable_tqdm (bool, optional) – Whether or not to disable the tqdm progress bars and table of metrics produced by NotebookTrainingTracker in Jupyter Notebooks. Will default to True if the logging level is set to warn or lower (default), False otherwise.

  • remove_unused_columns (bool, optional, defaults to True) –

    If using datasets.Dataset datasets, whether or not to automatically remove the columns unused by the model forward method.

    (Note that this behavior is not implemented for TFTrainer yet.)

  • label_names (List[str], optional) –

    The list of keys in your dictionary of inputs that correspond to the labels.

    Will eventually default to ["labels"] except if the model used is one of the XxxForQuestionAnswering in which case it will default to ["start_positions", "end_positions"].

  • load_best_model_at_end (bool, optional, defaults to False) –

    Whether or not to load the best model found during training at the end of training.

    Note

    When set to True, the parameters save_strategy needs to be the same as eval_strategy, and in the case it is “steps”, save_steps must be a round multiple of eval_steps.

  • metric_for_best_model (str, optional) –

    Use in conjunction with load_best_model_at_end to specify the metric to use to compare two different models. Must be the name of a metric returned by the evaluation with or without the prefix "eval_". Will default to "loss" if unspecified and load_best_model_at_end=True (to use the evaluation loss).

    If you set this value, greater_is_better will default to True. Don’t forget to set it to False if your metric is better when lower.

  • greater_is_better (bool, optional) –

    Use in conjunction with load_best_model_at_end and metric_for_best_model to specify if better models should have a greater metric or not. Will default to:

    • True if metric_for_best_model is set to a value that isn’t "loss" or "eval_loss".

    • False if metric_for_best_model is not set, or set to "loss" or "eval_loss".

  • ignore_data_skip (bool, optional, defaults to False) – When resuming training, whether or not to skip the epochs and batches to get the data loading at the same stage as in the previous training. If set to True, the training will begin faster (as that skipping step can take a long time) but will not yield the same results as the interrupted training would have.

  • sharded_ddp (bool, str or list of ShardedDDPOption, optional, defaults to False) –

    Use Sharded DDP training from FairScale (in distributed training only). This is an experimental feature.

    A list of options along the following:

    • "simple": to use first instance of sharded DDP released by fairscale (ShardedDDP) similar to ZeRO-2.

    • "zero_dp_2": to use the second instance of sharded DPP released by fairscale (FullyShardedDDP) in Zero-2 mode (with reshard_after_forward=False).

    • "zero_dp_3": to use the second instance of sharded DPP released by fairscale (FullyShardedDDP) in Zero-3 mode (with reshard_after_forward=True).

    • "offload": to add ZeRO-offload (only compatible with "zero_dp_2" and "zero_dp_3").

    If a string is passed, it will be split on space. If a bool is passed, it will be converted to an empty list for False and ["simple"] for True.

  • deepspeed (str or dict, optional) – Use Deepspeed. This is an experimental feature and its API may evolve in the future. The value is either the location of DeepSpeed json config file (e.g., ds_config.json) or an already loaded json file as a dict

  • label_smoothing_factor (float, optional, defaults to 0.0) – The label smoothing factor to use. Zero means no label smoothing, otherwise the underlying onehot-encoded labels are changed from 0s and 1s to label_smoothing_factor/num_labels and 1 - label_smoothing_factor + label_smoothing_factor/num_labels respectively.

  • debug (str or list of DebugOption, optional, defaults to "") –

    Enable one or more debug features. This is an experimental feature.

    Possible options are:

    • "underflow_overflow": detects overflow in model’s input/outputs and reports the last frames that led to the event

    • "tpu_metrics_debug": print debug metrics on TPU

    The options should be separated by whitespaces.

  • adafactor (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether or not to use the Adafactor optimizer instead of AdamW.

  • group_by_length (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether or not to group together samples of roughly the same length in the training dataset (to minimize padding applied and be more efficient). Only useful if applying dynamic padding.

  • length_column_name (str, optional, defaults to "length") – Column name for precomputed lengths. If the column exists, grouping by length will use these values rather than computing them on train startup. Ignored unless group_by_length is True and the dataset is an instance of Dataset.

  • report_to (str or List[str], optional, defaults to "all") – The list of integrations to report the results and logs to. Supported platforms are "azure_ml", "comet_ml", "mlflow", "tensorboard" and "wandb". Use "all" to report to all integrations installed, "none" for no integrations.

  • ddp_find_unused_parameters (bool, optional) – When using distributed training, the value of the flag find_unused_parameters passed to DistributedDataParallel. Will default to False if gradient checkpointing is used, True otherwise.

  • dataloader_pin_memory (bool, optional, defaults to True) – Whether you want to pin memory in data loaders or not. Will default to True.

  • skip_memory_metrics (bool, optional, defaults to True) – Whether to skip adding of memory profiler reports to metrics. This is skipped by default because it slows down the training and evaluation speed.

  • push_to_hub (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether or not to upload the trained model to the hub after training. If this is activated, and output_dir exists, it needs to be a local clone of the repository to which the Trainer will be pushed.

  • resume_from_checkpoint (str, optional) – The path to a folder with a valid checkpoint for your model. This argument is not directly used by Trainer, it’s intended to be used by your training/evaluation scripts instead. See the example scripts for more details.

  • hub_model_id (str, optional) –

    The name of the repository to keep in sync with the local output_dir. It can be a simple model ID in which case the model will be pushed in your namespace. Otherwise it should be the whole repository name, for instance "user_name/model", which allows you to push to an organization you are a member of with "organization_name/model". Will default to user_name/output_dir_name with output_dir_name being the name of output_dir.

    Will default to to the name of output_dir.

  • hub_strategy (str or HubStrategy, optional, defaults to "every_save") –

    Defines the scope of what is pushed to the Hub and when. Possible values are:

    • "end": push the model, its configuration, the tokenizer (if passed along to the Trainer) and a draft of a model card at the end of training.

    • "every_save": push the model, its configuration, the tokenizer (if passed along to the Trainer) and a draft of a model card each time there is a model save. The pushes are asynchronous to not block training, and in case the save are very frequent, a new push is only attempted if the previous one is finished. A last push is made with the final model at the end of training.

    • "checkpoint": like "every_save" but the latest checkpoint is also pushed in a subfolder named last-checkpoint, allowing you to resume training easily with trainer.train(resume_from_checkpoint="last-checkpoint").

    • "all_checkpoints": like "checkpoint" but all checkpoints are pushed like they appear in the output folder (so you will get one checkpoint folder per folder in your final repository)

  • hub_token (str, optional) – The token to use to push the model to the Hub. Will default to the token in the cache folder obtained with huggingface-cli login.

  • gradient_checkpointing (bool, optional, defaults to False) – If True, use gradient checkpointing to save memory at the expense of slower backward pass.

property device

The device used by this process.

property eval_batch_size

The actual batch size for evaluation (may differ from per_gpu_eval_batch_size in distributed training).

get_process_log_level()[source]

Returns the log level to be used depending on whether this process is the main process of node 0, main process of node non-0, or a non-main process.

For the main process the log level defaults to logging.INFO unless overridden by log_level argument.

For the replica processes the log level defaults to logging.WARNING unless overridden by log_level_replica argument.

The choice between the main and replica process settings is made according to the return value of should_log.

get_warmup_steps(num_training_steps: int)[source]

Get number of steps used for a linear warmup.

property local_process_index

The index of the local process used.

main_process_first(local=True, desc='work')[source]

A context manager for torch distributed environment where on needs to do something on the main process, while blocking replicas, and when it’s finished releasing the replicas.

One such use is for datasets’s map feature which to be efficient should be run once on the main process, which upon completion saves a cached version of results and which then automatically gets loaded by the replicas.

Parameters
  • local (bool, optional, defaults to True) – if True first means process of rank 0 of each node if False first means process of rank 0 of node rank 0 In multi-node environment with a shared filesystem you most likely will want to use local=False so that only the main process of the first node will do the processing. If however, the filesystem is not shared, then the main process of each node will need to do the processing, which is the default behavior.

  • desc (str, optional, defaults to "work") – a work description to be used in debug logs

property n_gpu

The number of GPUs used by this process.

Note

This will only be greater than one when you have multiple GPUs available but are not using distributed training. For distributed training, it will always be 1.

property parallel_mode

The current mode used for parallelism if multiple GPUs/TPU cores are available. One of:

  • ParallelMode.NOT_PARALLEL: no parallelism (CPU or one GPU).

  • ParallelMode.NOT_DISTRIBUTED: several GPUs in one single process (uses torch.nn.DataParallel).

  • ParallelMode.DISTRIBUTED: several GPUs, each having its own process (uses torch.nn.DistributedDataParallel).

  • ParallelMode.TPU: several TPU cores.

property place_model_on_device

Can be subclassed and overridden for some specific integrations.

property process_index

The index of the current process used.

property should_log

Whether or not the current process should produce log.

property should_save

Whether or not the current process should write to disk, e.g., to save models and checkpoints.

to_dict()[source]

Serializes this instance while replace Enum by their values (for JSON serialization support). It obfuscates the token values by removing their value.

to_json_string()[source]

Serializes this instance to a JSON string.

to_sanitized_dict() → Dict[str, Any][source]

Sanitized serialization to use with TensorBoard’s hparams

property train_batch_size

The actual batch size for training (may differ from per_gpu_train_batch_size in distributed training).

property world_size

The number of processes used in parallel.

Seq2SeqTrainingArguments

class transformers.Seq2SeqTrainingArguments(output_dir: str, overwrite_output_dir: bool = False, do_train: bool = False, do_eval: bool = False, do_predict: bool = False, evaluation_strategy: transformers.trainer_utils.IntervalStrategy = 'no', prediction_loss_only: bool = False, per_device_train_batch_size: int = 8, per_device_eval_batch_size: int = 8, per_gpu_train_batch_size: Optional[int] = None, per_gpu_eval_batch_size: Optional[int] = None, gradient_accumulation_steps: int = 1, eval_accumulation_steps: Optional[int] = None, learning_rate: float = 5e-05, weight_decay: float = 0.0, adam_beta1: float = 0.9, adam_beta2: float = 0.999, adam_epsilon: float = 1e-08, max_grad_norm: float = 1.0, num_train_epochs: float = 3.0, max_steps: int = - 1, lr_scheduler_type: transformers.trainer_utils.SchedulerType = 'linear', warmup_ratio: float = 0.0, warmup_steps: int = 0, log_level: Optional[str] = 'passive', log_level_replica: Optional[str] = 'passive', log_on_each_node: bool = True, logging_dir: Optional[str] = None, logging_strategy: transformers.trainer_utils.IntervalStrategy = 'steps', logging_first_step: bool = False, logging_steps: int = 500, logging_nan_inf_filter: str = True, save_strategy: transformers.trainer_utils.IntervalStrategy = 'steps', save_steps: int = 500, save_total_limit: Optional[int] = None, save_on_each_node: bool = False, no_cuda: bool = False, seed: int = 42, fp16: bool = False, fp16_opt_level: str = 'O1', fp16_backend: str = 'auto', fp16_full_eval: bool = False, local_rank: int = - 1, xpu_backend: str = None, tpu_num_cores: Optional[int] = None, tpu_metrics_debug: bool = False, debug: str = '', dataloader_drop_last: bool = False, eval_steps: int = None, dataloader_num_workers: int = 0, past_index: int = - 1, run_name: Optional[str] = None, disable_tqdm: Optional[bool] = None, remove_unused_columns: Optional[bool] = True, label_names: Optional[List[str]] = None, load_best_model_at_end: Optional[bool] = False, metric_for_best_model: Optional[str] = None, greater_is_better: Optional[bool] = None, ignore_data_skip: bool = False, sharded_ddp: str = '', deepspeed: Optional[str] = None, label_smoothing_factor: float = 0.0, adafactor: bool = False, group_by_length: bool = False, length_column_name: Optional[str] = 'length', report_to: Optional[List[str]] = None, ddp_find_unused_parameters: Optional[bool] = None, dataloader_pin_memory: bool = True, skip_memory_metrics: bool = True, use_legacy_prediction_loop: bool = False, push_to_hub: bool = False, resume_from_checkpoint: Optional[str] = None, hub_model_id: str = None, hub_strategy: transformers.trainer_utils.HubStrategy = 'every_save', hub_token: str = None, gradient_checkpointing: bool = False, push_to_hub_model_id: str = None, push_to_hub_organization: str = None, push_to_hub_token: str = None, mp_parameters: str = '', sortish_sampler: bool = False, predict_with_generate: bool = False, generation_max_length: Optional[int] = None, generation_num_beams: Optional[int] = None)[source]

TrainingArguments is the subset of the arguments we use in our example scripts which relate to the training loop itself.

Using HfArgumentParser we can turn this class into argparse arguments that can be specified on the command line.

Parameters
  • output_dir (str) – The output directory where the model predictions and checkpoints will be written.

  • overwrite_output_dir (bool, optional, defaults to False) – If True, overwrite the content of the output directory. Use this to continue training if output_dir points to a checkpoint directory.

  • do_train (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to run training or not. This argument is not directly used by Trainer, it’s intended to be used by your training/evaluation scripts instead. See the example scripts for more details.

  • do_eval (bool, optional) – Whether to run evaluation on the validation set or not. Will be set to True if evaluation_strategy is different from "no". This argument is not directly used by Trainer, it’s intended to be used by your training/evaluation scripts instead. See the example scripts for more details.

  • do_predict (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to run predictions on the test set or not. This argument is not directly used by Trainer, it’s intended to be used by your training/evaluation scripts instead. See the example scripts for more details.

  • evaluation_strategy (str or IntervalStrategy, optional, defaults to "no") –

    The evaluation strategy to adopt during training. Possible values are:

    • "no": No evaluation is done during training.

    • "steps": Evaluation is done (and logged) every eval_steps.

    • "epoch": Evaluation is done at the end of each epoch.

  • prediction_loss_only (bool, optional, defaults to False) – When performing evaluation and generating predictions, only returns the loss.

  • per_device_train_batch_size (int, optional, defaults to 8) – The batch size per GPU/TPU core/CPU for training.

  • per_device_eval_batch_size (int, optional, defaults to 8) – The batch size per GPU/TPU core/CPU for evaluation.

  • gradient_accumulation_steps (int, optional, defaults to 1) –

    Number of updates steps to accumulate the gradients for, before performing a backward/update pass.

    Warning

    When using gradient accumulation, one step is counted as one step with backward pass. Therefore, logging, evaluation, save will be conducted every gradient_accumulation_steps * xxx_step training examples.

  • eval_accumulation_steps (int, optional) – Number of predictions steps to accumulate the output tensors for, before moving the results to the CPU. If left unset, the whole predictions are accumulated on GPU/TPU before being moved to the CPU (faster but requires more memory).

  • learning_rate (float, optional, defaults to 5e-5) – The initial learning rate for AdamW optimizer.

  • weight_decay (float, optional, defaults to 0) – The weight decay to apply (if not zero) to all layers except all bias and LayerNorm weights in AdamW optimizer.

  • adam_beta1 (float, optional, defaults to 0.9) – The beta1 hyperparameter for the AdamW optimizer.

  • adam_beta2 (float, optional, defaults to 0.999) – The beta2 hyperparameter for the AdamW optimizer.

  • adam_epsilon (float, optional, defaults to 1e-8) – The epsilon hyperparameter for the AdamW optimizer.

  • max_grad_norm (float, optional, defaults to 1.0) – Maximum gradient norm (for gradient clipping).

  • num_train_epochs (float, optional, defaults to 3.0) – Total number of training epochs to perform (if not an integer, will perform the decimal part percents of the last epoch before stopping training).

  • max_steps (int, optional, defaults to -1) – If set to a positive number, the total number of training steps to perform. Overrides num_train_epochs.

  • lr_scheduler_type (str or SchedulerType, optional, defaults to "linear") – The scheduler type to use. See the documentation of SchedulerType for all possible values.

  • warmup_ratio (float, optional, defaults to 0.0) – Ratio of total training steps used for a linear warmup from 0 to learning_rate.

  • warmup_steps (int, optional, defaults to 0) – Number of steps used for a linear warmup from 0 to learning_rate. Overrides any effect of warmup_ratio.

  • log_level (str, optional, defaults to passive) – Logger log level to use on the main process. Possible choices are the log levels as strings: ‘debug’, ‘info’, ‘warning’, ‘error’ and ‘critical’, plus a ‘passive’ level which doesn’t set anything and lets the application set the level.

  • log_level_replica (str, optional, defaults to passive) – Logger log level to use on replicas. Same choices as log_level

  • log_on_each_node (bool, optional, defaults to True) – In multinode distributed training, whether to log using log_level once per node, or only on the main node.

  • logging_dir (str, optional) – TensorBoard log directory. Will default to output_dir/runs/**CURRENT_DATETIME_HOSTNAME**.

  • logging_strategy (str or IntervalStrategy, optional, defaults to "steps") –

    The logging strategy to adopt during training. Possible values are:

    • "no": No logging is done during training.

    • "epoch": Logging is done at the end of each epoch.

    • "steps": Logging is done every logging_steps.

  • logging_first_step (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to log and evaluate the first global_step or not.

  • logging_steps (int, optional, defaults to 500) – Number of update steps between two logs if logging_strategy="steps".

  • logging_nan_inf_filter (bool, optional, defaults to True) –

    Whether to filter nan and inf losses for logging. If set to obj:True the loss of every step that is nan or inf is filtered and the average loss of the current logging window is taken instead.

    Note

    logging_nan_inf_filter only influences the logging of loss values, it does not change the behavior the gradient is computed or applied to the model.

  • save_strategy (str or IntervalStrategy, optional, defaults to "steps") –

    The checkpoint save strategy to adopt during training. Possible values are:

    • "no": No save is done during training.

    • "epoch": Save is done at the end of each epoch.

    • "steps": Save is done every save_steps.

  • save_steps (int, optional, defaults to 500) – Number of updates steps before two checkpoint saves if save_strategy="steps".

  • save_total_limit (int, optional) – If a value is passed, will limit the total amount of checkpoints. Deletes the older checkpoints in output_dir.

  • save_on_each_node (bool, optional, defaults to False) –

    When doing multi-node distributed training, whether to save models and checkpoints on each node, or only on the main one.

    This should not be activated when the different nodes use the same storage as the files will be saved with the same names for each node.

  • no_cuda (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to not use CUDA even when it is available or not.

  • seed (int, optional, defaults to 42) – Random seed that will be set at the beginning of training. To ensure reproducibility across runs, use the model_init() function to instantiate the model if it has some randomly initialized parameters.

  • fp16 (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to use 16-bit (mixed) precision training instead of 32-bit training.

  • fp16_opt_level (str, optional, defaults to ‘O1’) – For fp16 training, Apex AMP optimization level selected in [‘O0’, ‘O1’, ‘O2’, and ‘O3’]. See details on the Apex documentation.

  • fp16_backend (str, optional, defaults to "auto") – The backend to use for mixed precision training. Must be one of "auto", "amp" or "apex". "auto" will use AMP or APEX depending on the PyTorch version detected, while the other choices will force the requested backend.

  • fp16_full_eval (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to use full 16-bit precision evaluation instead of 32-bit. This will be faster and save memory but can harm metric values.

  • local_rank (int, optional, defaults to -1) – Rank of the process during distributed training.

  • xpu_backend (str, optional) – The backend to use for xpu distributed training. Must be one of "mpi" or "ccl".

  • tpu_num_cores (int, optional) – When training on TPU, the number of TPU cores (automatically passed by launcher script).

  • dataloader_drop_last (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to drop the last incomplete batch (if the length of the dataset is not divisible by the batch size) or not.

  • eval_steps (int, optional) – Number of update steps between two evaluations if evaluation_strategy="steps". Will default to the same value as logging_steps if not set.

  • dataloader_num_workers (int, optional, defaults to 0) – Number of subprocesses to use for data loading (PyTorch only). 0 means that the data will be loaded in the main process.

  • past_index (int, optional, defaults to -1) – Some models like TransformerXL or XLNet can make use of the past hidden states for their predictions. If this argument is set to a positive int, the Trainer will use the corresponding output (usually index 2) as the past state and feed it to the model at the next training step under the keyword argument mems.

  • run_name (str, optional) –

    A descriptor for the run. Typically used for wandb logging.

  • disable_tqdm (bool, optional) – Whether or not to disable the tqdm progress bars and table of metrics produced by NotebookTrainingTracker in Jupyter Notebooks. Will default to True if the logging level is set to warn or lower (default), False otherwise.

  • remove_unused_columns (bool, optional, defaults to True) –

    If using datasets.Dataset datasets, whether or not to automatically remove the columns unused by the model forward method.

    (Note that this behavior is not implemented for TFTrainer yet.)

  • label_names (List[str], optional) –

    The list of keys in your dictionary of inputs that correspond to the labels.

    Will eventually default to ["labels"] except if the model used is one of the XxxForQuestionAnswering in which case it will default to ["start_positions", "end_positions"].

  • load_best_model_at_end (bool, optional, defaults to False) –

    Whether or not to load the best model found during training at the end of training.

    Note

    When set to True, the parameters save_strategy needs to be the same as eval_strategy, and in the case it is “steps”, save_steps must be a round multiple of eval_steps.

  • metric_for_best_model (str, optional) –

    Use in conjunction with load_best_model_at_end to specify the metric to use to compare two different models. Must be the name of a metric returned by the evaluation with or without the prefix "eval_". Will default to "loss" if unspecified and load_best_model_at_end=True (to use the evaluation loss).

    If you set this value, greater_is_better will default to True. Don’t forget to set it to False if your metric is better when lower.

  • greater_is_better (bool, optional) –

    Use in conjunction with load_best_model_at_end and metric_for_best_model to specify if better models should have a greater metric or not. Will default to:

    • True if metric_for_best_model is set to a value that isn’t "loss" or "eval_loss".

    • False if metric_for_best_model is not set, or set to "loss" or "eval_loss".

  • ignore_data_skip (bool, optional, defaults to False) – When resuming training, whether or not to skip the epochs and batches to get the data loading at the same stage as in the previous training. If set to True, the training will begin faster (as that skipping step can take a long time) but will not yield the same results as the interrupted training would have.

  • sharded_ddp (bool, str or list of ShardedDDPOption, optional, defaults to False) –

    Use Sharded DDP training from FairScale (in distributed training only). This is an experimental feature.

    A list of options along the following:

    • "simple": to use first instance of sharded DDP released by fairscale (ShardedDDP) similar to ZeRO-2.

    • "zero_dp_2": to use the second instance of sharded DPP released by fairscale (FullyShardedDDP) in Zero-2 mode (with reshard_after_forward=False).

    • "zero_dp_3": to use the second instance of sharded DPP released by fairscale (FullyShardedDDP) in Zero-3 mode (with reshard_after_forward=True).

    • "offload": to add ZeRO-offload (only compatible with "zero_dp_2" and "zero_dp_3").

    If a string is passed, it will be split on space. If a bool is passed, it will be converted to an empty list for False and ["simple"] for True.

  • deepspeed (str or dict, optional) – Use Deepspeed. This is an experimental feature and its API may evolve in the future. The value is either the location of DeepSpeed json config file (e.g., ds_config.json) or an already loaded json file as a dict

  • label_smoothing_factor (float, optional, defaults to 0.0) – The label smoothing factor to use. Zero means no label smoothing, otherwise the underlying onehot-encoded labels are changed from 0s and 1s to label_smoothing_factor/num_labels and 1 - label_smoothing_factor + label_smoothing_factor/num_labels respectively.

  • debug (str or list of DebugOption, optional, defaults to "") –

    Enable one or more debug features. This is an experimental feature.

    Possible options are:

    • "underflow_overflow": detects overflow in model’s input/outputs and reports the last frames that led to the event

    • "tpu_metrics_debug": print debug metrics on TPU

    The options should be separated by whitespaces.

  • adafactor (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether or not to use the Adafactor optimizer instead of AdamW.

  • group_by_length (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether or not to group together samples of roughly the same length in the training dataset (to minimize padding applied and be more efficient). Only useful if applying dynamic padding.

  • length_column_name (str, optional, defaults to "length") – Column name for precomputed lengths. If the column exists, grouping by length will use these values rather than computing them on train startup. Ignored unless group_by_length is True and the dataset is an instance of Dataset.

  • report_to (str or List[str], optional, defaults to "all") – The list of integrations to report the results and logs to. Supported platforms are "azure_ml", "comet_ml", "mlflow", "tensorboard" and "wandb". Use "all" to report to all integrations installed, "none" for no integrations.

  • ddp_find_unused_parameters (bool, optional) – When using distributed training, the value of the flag find_unused_parameters passed to DistributedDataParallel. Will default to False if gradient checkpointing is used, True otherwise.

  • dataloader_pin_memory (bool, optional, defaults to True) – Whether you want to pin memory in data loaders or not. Will default to True.

  • skip_memory_metrics (bool, optional, defaults to True) – Whether to skip adding of memory profiler reports to metrics. This is skipped by default because it slows down the training and evaluation speed.

  • push_to_hub (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether or not to upload the trained model to the hub after training. If this is activated, and output_dir exists, it needs to be a local clone of the repository to which the Trainer will be pushed.

  • resume_from_checkpoint (str, optional) – The path to a folder with a valid checkpoint for your model. This argument is not directly used by Trainer, it’s intended to be used by your training/evaluation scripts instead. See the example scripts for more details.

  • hub_model_id (str, optional) –

    The name of the repository to keep in sync with the local output_dir. It can be a simple model ID in which case the model will be pushed in your namespace. Otherwise it should be the whole repository name, for instance "user_name/model", which allows you to push to an organization you are a member of with "organization_name/model". Will default to user_name/output_dir_name with output_dir_name being the name of output_dir.

    Will default to to the name of output_dir.

  • hub_strategy (str or HubStrategy, optional, defaults to "every_save") –

    Defines the scope of what is pushed to the Hub and when. Possible values are:

    • "end": push the model, its configuration, the tokenizer (if passed along to the Trainer) and a draft of a model card at the end of training.

    • "every_save": push the model, its configuration, the tokenizer (if passed along to the Trainer) and a draft of a model card each time there is a model save. The pushes are asynchronous to not block training, and in case the save are very frequent, a new push is only attempted if the previous one is finished. A last push is made with the final model at the end of training.

    • "checkpoint": like "every_save" but the latest checkpoint is also pushed in a subfolder named last-checkpoint, allowing you to resume training easily with trainer.train(resume_from_checkpoint="last-checkpoint").

    • "all_checkpoints": like "checkpoint" but all checkpoints are pushed like they appear in the output folder (so you will get one checkpoint folder per folder in your final repository)

  • hub_token (str, optional) – The token to use to push the model to the Hub. Will default to the token in the cache folder obtained with huggingface-cli login.

  • gradient_checkpointing (bool, optional, defaults to False) – If True, use gradient checkpointing to save memory at the expense of slower backward pass.

sortish_sampler (bool, optional, defaults to False):

Whether to use a sortish sampler or not. Only possible if the underlying datasets are Seq2SeqDataset for now but will become generally available in the near future.

It sorts the inputs according to lengths in order to minimize the padding size, with a bit of randomness for the training set.

predict_with_generate (bool, optional, defaults to False):

Whether to use generate to calculate generative metrics (ROUGE, BLEU).

generation_max_length (int, optional):

The max_length to use on each evaluation loop when predict_with_generate=True. Will default to the max_length value of the model configuration.

generation_num_beams (int, optional):

The num_beams to use on each evaluation loop when predict_with_generate=True. Will default to the num_beams value of the model configuration.

TFTrainingArguments

class transformers.TFTrainingArguments(output_dir: str, overwrite_output_dir: bool = False, do_train: bool = False, do_eval: bool = False, do_predict: bool = False, evaluation_strategy: transformers.trainer_utils.IntervalStrategy = 'no', prediction_loss_only: bool = False, per_device_train_batch_size: int = 8, per_device_eval_batch_size: int = 8, per_gpu_train_batch_size: Optional[int] = None, per_gpu_eval_batch_size: Optional[int] = None, gradient_accumulation_steps: int = 1, eval_accumulation_steps: Optional[int] = None, learning_rate: float = 5e-05, weight_decay: float = 0.0, adam_beta1: float = 0.9, adam_beta2: float = 0.999, adam_epsilon: float = 1e-08, max_grad_norm: float = 1.0, num_train_epochs: float = 3.0, max_steps: int = - 1, lr_scheduler_type: transformers.trainer_utils.SchedulerType = 'linear', warmup_ratio: float = 0.0, warmup_steps: int = 0, log_level: Optional[str] = 'passive', log_level_replica: Optional[str] = 'passive', log_on_each_node: bool = True, logging_dir: Optional[str] = None, logging_strategy: transformers.trainer_utils.IntervalStrategy = 'steps', logging_first_step: bool = False, logging_steps: int = 500, logging_nan_inf_filter: str = True, save_strategy: transformers.trainer_utils.IntervalStrategy = 'steps', save_steps: int = 500, save_total_limit: Optional[int] = None, save_on_each_node: bool = False, no_cuda: bool = False, seed: int = 42, fp16: bool = False, fp16_opt_level: str = 'O1', fp16_backend: str = 'auto', fp16_full_eval: bool = False, local_rank: int = - 1, xpu_backend: str = None, tpu_num_cores: Optional[int] = None, tpu_metrics_debug: bool = False, debug: str = '', dataloader_drop_last: bool = False, eval_steps: int = None, dataloader_num_workers: int = 0, past_index: int = - 1, run_name: Optional[str] = None, disable_tqdm: Optional[bool] = None, remove_unused_columns: Optional[bool] = True, label_names: Optional[List[str]] = None, load_best_model_at_end: Optional[bool] = False, metric_for_best_model: Optional[str] = None, greater_is_better: Optional[bool] = None, ignore_data_skip: bool = False, sharded_ddp: str = '', deepspeed: Optional[str] = None, label_smoothing_factor: float = 0.0, adafactor: bool = False, group_by_length: bool = False, length_column_name: Optional[str] = 'length', report_to: Optional[List[str]] = None, ddp_find_unused_parameters: Optional[bool] = None, dataloader_pin_memory: bool = True, skip_memory_metrics: bool = True, use_legacy_prediction_loop: bool = False, push_to_hub: bool = False, resume_from_checkpoint: Optional[str] = None, hub_model_id: str = None, hub_strategy: transformers.trainer_utils.HubStrategy = 'every_save', hub_token: str = None, gradient_checkpointing: bool = False, push_to_hub_model_id: str = None, push_to_hub_organization: str = None, push_to_hub_token: str = None, mp_parameters: str = '', tpu_name: str = None, tpu_zone: str = None, gcp_project: str = None, poly_power: float = 1.0, xla: bool = False)[source]

TrainingArguments is the subset of the arguments we use in our example scripts which relate to the training loop itself.

Using HfArgumentParser we can turn this class into argparse arguments that can be specified on the command line.

Parameters
  • output_dir (str) – The output directory where the model predictions and checkpoints will be written.

  • overwrite_output_dir (bool, optional, defaults to False) – If True, overwrite the content of the output directory. Use this to continue training if output_dir points to a checkpoint directory.

  • do_train (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to run training or not. This argument is not directly used by Trainer, it’s intended to be used by your training/evaluation scripts instead. See the example scripts for more details.

  • do_eval (bool, optional) – Whether to run evaluation on the validation set or not. Will be set to True if evaluation_strategy is different from "no". This argument is not directly used by Trainer, it’s intended to be used by your training/evaluation scripts instead. See the example scripts for more details.

  • do_predict (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to run predictions on the test set or not. This argument is not directly used by Trainer, it’s intended to be used by your training/evaluation scripts instead. See the example scripts for more details.

  • evaluation_strategy (str or IntervalStrategy, optional, defaults to "no") –

    The evaluation strategy to adopt during training. Possible values are:

    • "no": No evaluation is done during training.

    • "steps": Evaluation is done (and logged) every eval_steps.

    • "epoch": Evaluation is done at the end of each epoch.

  • per_device_train_batch_size (int, optional, defaults to 8) – The batch size per GPU/TPU core/CPU for training.

  • per_device_eval_batch_size (int, optional, defaults to 8) – The batch size per GPU/TPU core/CPU for evaluation.

  • gradient_accumulation_steps

    (int, optional, defaults to 1): Number of updates steps to accumulate the gradients for, before performing a backward/update pass.

    Warning

    When using gradient accumulation, one step is counted as one step with backward pass. Therefore, logging, evaluation, save will be conducted every gradient_accumulation_steps * xxx_step training examples.

  • learning_rate (float, optional, defaults to 5e-5) – The initial learning rate for Adam.

  • weight_decay (float, optional, defaults to 0) – The weight decay to apply (if not zero).

  • adam_beta1 (float, optional, defaults to 0.9) – The beta1 hyperparameter for the Adam optimizer.

  • adam_beta2 (float, optional, defaults to 0.999) – The beta2 hyperparameter for the Adam optimizer.

  • adam_epsilon (float, optional, defaults to 1e-8) – The epsilon hyperparameter for the Adam optimizer.

  • max_grad_norm (float, optional, defaults to 1.0) – Maximum gradient norm (for gradient clipping).

  • num_train_epochs (float, optional, defaults to 3.0) – Total number of training epochs to perform.

  • max_steps (int, optional, defaults to -1) – If set to a positive number, the total number of training steps to perform. Overrides num_train_epochs.

  • warmup_ratio (float, optional, defaults to 0.0) – Ratio of total training steps used for a linear warmup from 0 to learning_rate.

  • warmup_steps (int, optional, defaults to 0) – Number of steps used for a linear warmup from 0 to learning_rate. Overrides any effect of warmup_ratio.

  • logging_dir (str, optional) – TensorBoard log directory. Will default to runs/**CURRENT_DATETIME_HOSTNAME**.

  • logging_strategy (str or IntervalStrategy, optional, defaults to "steps") –

    The logging strategy to adopt during training. Possible values are:

    • "no": No logging is done during training.

    • "epoch": Logging is done at the end of each epoch.

    • "steps": Logging is done every logging_steps.

  • logging_first_step (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to log and evaluate the first global_step or not.

  • logging_steps (int, optional, defaults to 500) – Number of update steps between two logs if logging_strategy="steps".

  • save_strategy (str or IntervalStrategy, optional, defaults to "steps") –

    The checkpoint save strategy to adopt during training. Possible values are:

    • "no": No save is done during training.

    • "epoch": Save is done at the end of each epoch.

    • "steps": Save is done every save_steps.

  • save_steps (int, optional, defaults to 500) – Number of updates steps before two checkpoint saves if save_strategy="steps".

  • save_total_limit (int, optional) – If a value is passed, will limit the total amount of checkpoints. Deletes the older checkpoints in output_dir.

  • no_cuda (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to not use CUDA even when it is available or not.

  • seed (int, optional, defaults to 42) – Random seed that will be set at the beginning of training.

  • fp16 (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to use 16-bit (mixed) precision training (through NVIDIA Apex) instead of 32-bit training.

  • fp16_opt_level (str, optional, defaults to ‘O1’) – For fp16 training, Apex AMP optimization level selected in [‘O0’, ‘O1’, ‘O2’, and ‘O3’]. See details on the Apex documentation.

  • local_rank (int, optional, defaults to -1) – During distributed training, the rank of the process.

  • tpu_num_cores (int, optional) – When training on TPU, the number of TPU cores (automatically passed by launcher script).

  • debug (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to activate the trace to record computation graphs and profiling information or not.

  • dataloader_drop_last (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether to drop the last incomplete batch (if the length of the dataset is not divisible by the batch size) or not.

  • eval_steps (int, optional, defaults to 1000) – Number of update steps before two evaluations.

  • past_index (int, optional, defaults to -1) – Some models like TransformerXL or :doc`XLNet <../model_doc/xlnet>` can make use of the past hidden states for their predictions. If this argument is set to a positive int, the Trainer will use the corresponding output (usually index 2) as the past state and feed it to the model at the next training step under the keyword argument mems.

  • tpu_name (str, optional) – The name of the TPU the process is running on.

  • tpu_zone (str, optional) – The zone of the TPU the process is running on. If not specified, we will attempt to automatically detect from metadata.

  • gcp_project (str, optional) – Google Cloud Project name for the Cloud TPU-enabled project. If not specified, we will attempt to automatically detect from metadata.

  • run_name (str, optional) – A descriptor for the run. Notably used for wandb logging.

  • xla (bool, optional) – Whether to activate the XLA compilation or not.

property eval_batch_size

The actual batch size for evaluation (may differ from per_gpu_eval_batch_size in distributed training).

property n_gpu

The number of replicas (CPUs, GPUs or TPU cores) used in this training.

property n_replicas

The number of replicas (CPUs, GPUs or TPU cores) used in this training.

property strategy

The strategy used for distributed training.

property train_batch_size

The actual batch size for training (may differ from per_gpu_train_batch_size in distributed training).

Checkpoints

By default, Trainer will save all checkpoints in the output_dir you set in the TrainingArguments you are using. Those will go in subfolder named checkpoint-xxx with xxx being the step at which the training was at.

Resuming training from a checkpoint can be done when calling train() with either:

  • resume_from_checkpoint=True which will resume training from the latest checkpoint

  • resume_from_checkpoint=checkpoint_dir which will resume training from the specific checkpoint in the directory passed.

In addition, you can easily save your checkpoints on the Model Hub when using push_to_hub=True. By default, all the models saved in intermediate checkpoints are saved in different commits, but not the optimizer state. You can adapt the hub-strategy value of your TrainingArguments to either:

  • "checkpoint": the latest checkpoint is also pushed in a subfolder named last-checkpoint, allowing you to resume training easily with trainer.train(resume_from_checkpoint="output_dir/last-checkpoint").

  • "all_checkpoints": all checkpoints are pushed like they appear in the output folder (so you will get one checkpoint folder per folder in your final repository)

Logging

By default Trainer will use logging.INFO for the main process and logging.WARNING for the replicas if any.

These defaults can be overridden to use any of the 5 logging levels with TrainingArguments’s arguments:

  • log_level - for the main process

  • log_level_replica - for the replicas

Further, if TrainingArguments’s log_on_each_node is set to False only the main node will use the log level settings for its main process, all other nodes will use the log level settings for replicas.

Note that Trainer is going to set transformers’s log level separately for each node in its __init__(). So you may want to set this sooner (see the next example) if you tap into other transformers functionality before creating the Trainer object.

Here is an example of how this can be used in an application:

[...]
logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

# Setup logging
logging.basicConfig(
    format="%(asctime)s - %(levelname)s - %(name)s - %(message)s",
    datefmt="%m/%d/%Y %H:%M:%S",
    handlers=[logging.StreamHandler(sys.stdout)],
)

# set the main code and the modules it uses to the same log-level according to the node
log_level = training_args.get_process_log_level()
logger.setLevel(log_level)
datasets.utils.logging.set_verbosity(log_level)
transformers.utils.logging.set_verbosity(log_level)

trainer = Trainer(...)

And then if you only want to see warnings on the main node and all other nodes to not print any most likely duplicated warnings you could run it as:

my_app.py ... --log_level warning --log_level_replica error

In the multi-node environment if you also don’t want the logs to repeat for each node’s main process, you will want to change the above to:

my_app.py ... --log_level warning --log_level_replica error --log_on_each_node 0

and then only the main process of the first node will log at the “warning” level, and all other processes on the main node and all processes on other nodes will log at the “error” level.

If you need your application to be as quiet as possible you could do:

my_app.py ... --log_level error --log_level_replica error --log_on_each_node 0

(add --log_on_each_node 0 if on multi-node environment)

Randomness

When resuming from a checkpoint generated by Trainer all efforts are made to restore the python, numpy and pytorch RNG states to the same states as they were at the moment of saving that checkpoint, which should make the “stop and resume” style of training as close as possible to non-stop training.

However, due to various default non-deterministic pytorch settings this might not fully work. If you want full determinism please refer to Controlling sources of randomness. As explained in the document, that some of those settings that make things deterministic (.e.g., torch.backends.cudnn.deterministic) may slow things down, therefore this can’t be done by default, but you can enable those yourself if needed.

Trainer Integrations

The Trainer has been extended to support libraries that may dramatically improve your training time and fit much bigger models.

Currently it supports third party solutions, DeepSpeed and FairScale, which implement parts of the paper ZeRO: Memory Optimizations Toward Training Trillion Parameter Models, by Samyam Rajbhandari, Jeff Rasley, Olatunji Ruwase, Yuxiong He.

This provided support is new and experimental as of this writing.

CUDA Extension Installation Notes

As of this writing, both FairScale and Deepspeed require compilation of CUDA C++ code, before they can be used.

While all installation issues should be dealt with through the corresponding GitHub Issues of FairScale and Deepspeed, there are a few common issues that one may encounter while building any PyTorch extension that needs to build CUDA extensions.

Therefore, if you encounter a CUDA-related build issue while doing one of the following or both:

pip install fairscale
pip install deepspeed

please, read the following notes first.

In these notes we give examples for what to do when pytorch has been built with CUDA 10.2. If your situation is different remember to adjust the version number to the one you are after.

Possible problem #1

While, Pytorch comes with its own CUDA toolkit, to build these two projects you must have an identical version of CUDA installed system-wide.

For example, if you installed pytorch with cudatoolkit==10.2 in the Python environment, you also need to have CUDA 10.2 installed system-wide.

The exact location may vary from system to system, but /usr/local/cuda-10.2 is the most common location on many Unix systems. When CUDA is correctly set up and added to the PATH environment variable, one can find the installation location by doing:

which nvcc

If you don’t have CUDA installed system-wide, install it first. You will find the instructions by using your favorite search engine. For example, if you’re on Ubuntu you may want to search for: ubuntu cuda 10.2 install.

Possible problem #2

Another possible common problem is that you may have more than one CUDA toolkit installed system-wide. For example you may have:

/usr/local/cuda-10.2
/usr/local/cuda-11.0

Now, in this situation you need to make sure that your PATH and LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variables contain the correct paths to the desired CUDA version. Typically, package installers will set these to contain whatever the last version was installed. If you encounter the problem, where the package build fails because it can’t find the right CUDA version despite you having it installed system-wide, it means that you need to adjust the 2 aforementioned environment variables.

First, you may look at their contents:

echo $PATH
echo $LD_LIBRARY_PATH

so you get an idea of what is inside.

It’s possible that LD_LIBRARY_PATH is empty.

PATH lists the locations of where executables can be found and LD_LIBRARY_PATH is for where shared libraries are to looked for. In both cases, earlier entries have priority over the later ones. : is used to separate multiple entries.

Now, to tell the build program where to find the specific CUDA toolkit, insert the desired paths to be listed first by doing:

export PATH=/usr/local/cuda-10.2/bin:$PATH
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/cuda-10.2/lib64:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH

Note that we aren’t overwriting the existing values, but prepending instead.

Of course, adjust the version number, the full path if need be. Check that the directories you assign actually do exist. lib64 sub-directory is where the various CUDA .so objects, like libcudart.so reside, it’s unlikely that your system will have it named differently, but if it is adjust it to reflect your reality.

Possible problem #3

Some older CUDA versions may refuse to build with newer compilers. For example, you my have gcc-9 but it wants gcc-7.

There are various ways to go about it.

If you can install the latest CUDA toolkit it typically should support the newer compiler.

Alternatively, you could install the lower version of the compiler in addition to the one you already have, or you may already have it but it’s not the default one, so the build system can’t see it. If you have gcc-7 installed but the build system complains it can’t find it, the following might do the trick:

sudo ln -s /usr/bin/gcc-7  /usr/local/cuda-10.2/bin/gcc
sudo ln -s /usr/bin/g++-7  /usr/local/cuda-10.2/bin/g++

Here, we are making a symlink to gcc-7 from /usr/local/cuda-10.2/bin/gcc and since /usr/local/cuda-10.2/bin/ should be in the PATH environment variable (see the previous problem’s solution), it should find gcc-7 (and g++7) and then the build will succeed.

As always make sure to edit the paths in the example to match your situation.

FairScale

By integrating FairScale the Trainer provides support for the following features from the ZeRO paper:

  1. Optimizer State Sharding

  2. Gradient Sharding

  3. Model Parameters Sharding (new and very experimental)

  4. CPU offload (new and very experimental)

You will need at least two GPUs to use this feature.

Installation:

Install the library via pypi:

pip install fairscale

or via transformersextras:

pip install transformers[fairscale]

(will become available starting from transformers==4.6.0)

or find more details on the FairScale’s GitHub page.

If you’re still struggling with the build, first make sure to read CUDA Extension Installation Notes.

If it’s still not resolved the build issue, here are a few more ideas.

fairscale seems to have an issue with the recently introduced by pip build isolation feature. If you have a problem with it, you may want to try one of:

pip install fairscale --no-build-isolation .

or:

git clone https://github.com/facebookresearch/fairscale/
cd fairscale
rm -r dist build
python setup.py bdist_wheel
pip uninstall -y fairscale
pip install dist/fairscale-*.whl

fairscale also has issues with building against pytorch-nightly, so if you use it you may have to try one of:

pip uninstall -y fairscale; pip install fairscale --pre \
-f https://download.pytorch.org/whl/nightly/cu110/torch_nightly.html \
--no-cache --no-build-isolation

or:

pip install -v --disable-pip-version-check . \
-f https://download.pytorch.org/whl/nightly/cu110/torch_nightly.html --pre

Of course, adjust the urls to match the cuda version you use.

If after trying everything suggested you still encounter build issues, please, proceed with the GitHub Issue of FairScale.

Usage:

To use the first version of Sharded data-parallelism, add --sharded_ddp simple to the command line arguments, and make sure you have added the distributed launcher -m torch.distributed.launch --nproc_per_node=NUMBER_OF_GPUS_YOU_HAVE if you haven’t been using it already.

For example here is how you could use it for run_translation.py with 2 GPUs:

python -m torch.distributed.launch --nproc_per_node=2 examples/pytorch/translation/run_translation.py \
--model_name_or_path t5-small --per_device_train_batch_size 1   \
--output_dir output_dir --overwrite_output_dir \
--do_train --max_train_samples 500 --num_train_epochs 1 \
--dataset_name wmt16 --dataset_config "ro-en" \
--source_lang en --target_lang ro \
--fp16 --sharded_ddp simple

Notes:

  • This feature requires distributed training (so multiple GPUs).

  • It is not implemented for TPUs.

  • It works with --fp16 too, to make things even faster.

  • One of the main benefits of enabling --sharded_ddp simple is that it uses a lot less GPU memory, so you should be able to use significantly larger batch sizes using the same hardware (e.g. 3x and even bigger) which should lead to significantly shorter training time.

  1. To use the second version of Sharded data-parallelism, add --sharded_ddp zero_dp_2 or --sharded_ddp zero_dp_3 to the command line arguments, and make sure you have added the distributed launcher -m torch.distributed.launch --nproc_per_node=NUMBER_OF_GPUS_YOU_HAVE if you haven’t been using it already.

For example here is how you could use it for run_translation.py with 2 GPUs:

python -m torch.distributed.launch --nproc_per_node=2 examples/pytorch/translation/run_translation.py \
--model_name_or_path t5-small --per_device_train_batch_size 1   \
--output_dir output_dir --overwrite_output_dir \
--do_train --max_train_samples 500 --num_train_epochs 1 \
--dataset_name wmt16 --dataset_config "ro-en" \
--source_lang en --target_lang ro \
--fp16 --sharded_ddp zero_dp_2

zero_dp_2 is an optimized version of the simple wrapper, while zero_dp_3 fully shards model weights, gradients and optimizer states.

Both are compatible with adding cpu_offload to enable ZeRO-offload (activate it like this: --sharded_ddp "zero_dp_2 cpu_offload").

Notes:

  • This feature requires distributed training (so multiple GPUs).

  • It is not implemented for TPUs.

  • It works with --fp16 too, to make things even faster.

  • The cpu_offload additional option requires --fp16.

  • This is an area of active development, so make sure you have a source install of fairscale to use this feature as some bugs you encounter may have been fixed there already.

Known caveats:

  • This feature is incompatible with --predict_with_generate in the run_translation.py script.

  • Using --sharded_ddp zero_dp_3 requires wrapping each layer of the model in the special container FullyShardedDataParallelism of fairscale. It should be used with the option auto_wrap if you are not doing this yourself: --sharded_ddp "zero_dp_3 auto_wrap".

DeepSpeed

Moved to Trainer Deepspeed Integration.

Installation

Moved to Installation.

Deployment with multiple GPUs

Moved to Deployment with multiple GPUs.

Deployment with one GPU

Moved to Deployment with one GPU.

Deployment in Notebooks

Moved to Deployment in Notebooks.

Configuration

Moved to Configuration.

Passing Configuration

Moved to Passing Configuration.

Shared Configuration

Moved to Shared Configuration.

ZeRO

Moved to ZeRO.

ZeRO-2 Config

Moved to ZeRO-2 Config.

ZeRO-3 Config

Moved to ZeRO-3 Config.

NVMe Support

Moved to NVMe Support.

ZeRO-2 vs ZeRO-3 Performance

Moved to ZeRO-2 vs ZeRO-3 Performance.

ZeRO-2 Example

Moved to ZeRO-2 Example.

ZeRO-3 Example

Moved to ZeRO-3 Example.

Optimizer and Scheduler

Optimizer

Moved to Optimizer.

Scheduler

Moved to Scheduler.

fp32 Precision

Moved to fp32 Precision.

Automatic Mixed Precision

Moved to Automatic Mixed Precision.

Batch Size

Moved to Batch Size.

Gradient Accumulation

Moved to Gradient Accumulation.

Gradient Clipping

Moved to Gradient Clipping.

Getting The Model Weights Out

Moved to Getting The Model Weights Out.