Efficient Scale-Invariant Generator with Column-Row Entangled Pixel Synthesis

Published on Mar 24, 2023


Any-scale image synthesis offers an efficient and scalable solution to synthesize photo-realistic images at any scale, even going beyond 2K resolution. However, existing GAN-based solutions depend excessively on convolutions and a hierarchical architecture, which introduce inconsistency and the ``texture sticking" issue when scaling the output resolution. From another perspective, INR-based generators are scale-equivariant by design, but their huge memory footprint and slow inference hinder these networks from being adopted in large-scale or real-time systems. In this work, we propose Column-Row Entangled Pixel Synthesis (CREPS), a new generative model that is both efficient and scale-equivariant without using any spatial convolutions or coarse-to-fine design. To save memory footprint and make the system scalable, we employ a novel bi-line representation that decomposes layer-wise feature maps into separate ``thick" column and row encodings. Experiments on various datasets, including FFHQ, LSUN-Church, MetFaces, and Flickr-Scenery, confirm CREPS' ability to synthesize scale-consistent and alias-free images at any arbitrary resolution with proper training and inference speed. Code is available at


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