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Model Card for CLIP-convnext_large_d.laion2B-s26B-b102K-augreg

Table of Contents

  1. Model Details
  2. Uses
  3. Training Details
  4. Evaluation
  5. Acknowledgements
  6. Citation

Model Details

Model Description

A series of CLIP ConvNeXt-Large (w/ extra text depth, vision MLP head) models trained on LAION-2B (english), a subset of LAION-5B, using OpenCLIP.

Goals:

  • Explore an alternative to ViT and ResNet (w/ AttentionPooling) CLIP models that scales well with model size and image resolution

Firsts:

  • First known ConvNeXt CLIP models trained at scale in the range of CLIP ViT-L/16, ViT-L14, and RN50x16
  • First released model weights exploring increase of augmentation + regularization for image tower via adding (greater scale range of RRC, random erasing, stochastic depth)

The models utilize:

  • the timm ConvNeXt-Large model (convnext_large) as the image tower
  • a MLP (fc - gelu - drop - fc) head in vision tower instead of the single projection of other CLIP models
  • a text tower with same width but 4 layers more depth than ViT-L / RN50x16 models (depth 16, embed dim 768).

The models are trained at 256x256 (working on 384 variants) image resolution.

At 256x256, the ConvNext-Large-D used roughly 1/2 the training FLOPs to achieve accuracy greater than previous L/14 model trained on LAION-2B. L/14 model is ~1.65x more GMAC, 1.45x more activations, and 1.22x more parameters. The ConvNeXt was trained with 26B samples-seen and L/14 with 34B.

Model Dataset Resolution AugReg Top-1 ImageNet Zero-Shot (%)
convnext_large_d.laion2b_s26b_b102k-augreg LAION-2B 256x256 RRC (0.33, 1.0), RE (0.35), SD (0.1), D(0.1) 75.9
convnext_large_d_320.laion2b_s29b_b131k-ft LAION-2B 320x320 RRC (0.5, 1.0), RE (0.4), SD (0.1), D(0.0) 76.6
convnext_large_d_320.laion2b_s29b_b131k-ft-soup LAION-2B 320x320 RRC (0.5, 1.0), RE (0.4), SD (0.1), D(0.0) 76.9

RRC = Random Resize Crop (crop pcts), RE = Random Erasing (prob), SD = Stochastic Depth (prob) -- image tower only, D = Dropout (prob) -- image tower head only

LAION-A = LAION Aesthetic, an ~900M sample subset of LAION-2B with pHash dedupe and asthetic score filtering.

Model training done by Ross Wightman on the stability.ai cluster.

Uses

As per the original OpenAI CLIP model card, this model is intended as a research output for research communities. We hope that this model will enable researchers to better understand and explore zero-shot, arbitrary image classification. We also hope it can be used for interdisciplinary studies of the potential impact of such model.

The OpenAI CLIP paper includes a discussion of potential downstream impacts to provide an example for this sort of analysis. Additionally, the LAION-5B blog (https://laion.ai/blog/laion-5b/) and upcoming paper include additional discussion as it relates specifically to the training dataset.

Direct Use

Zero-shot image classification, image and text retrieval, among others.

Downstream Use

Image classification and other image task fine-tuning, linear probe image classification, image generation guiding and conditioning, among others.

Out-of-Scope Use

As per the OpenAI models,

Any deployed use case of the model - whether commercial or not - is currently out of scope. Non-deployed use cases such as image search in a constrained environment, are also not recommended unless there is thorough in-domain testing of the model with a specific, fixed class taxonomy. This is because our safety assessment demonstrated a high need for task specific testing especially given the variability of CLIP’s performance with different class taxonomies. This makes untested and unconstrained deployment of the model in any use case currently potentially harmful.

Certain use cases which would fall under the domain of surveillance and facial recognition are always out-of-scope regardless of performance of the model. This is because the use of artificial intelligence for tasks such as these can be premature currently given the lack of testing norms and checks to ensure its fair use.

Since the model has not been purposefully trained in or evaluated on any languages other than English, its use should be limited to English language use cases.

Further the above notice, the LAION-5B dataset used in training of these models has additional considerations, see below.

Training Details

Training Data

This model was trained with LAION-2B -- A 2 billion sample English subset of LAION-5B (https://laion.ai/blog/laion-5b/).

IMPORTANT NOTE: The motivation behind dataset creation is to democratize research and experimentation around large-scale multi-modal model training and handling of uncurated, large-scale datasets crawled from publically available internet. Our recommendation is therefore to use the dataset for research purposes. Be aware that this large-scale dataset is uncurated. Keep in mind that the uncurated nature of the dataset means that collected links may lead to strongly discomforting and disturbing content for a human viewer. Therefore, please use the demo links with caution and at your own risk. It is possible to extract a β€œsafe” subset by filtering out samples based on the safety tags (using a customized trained NSFW classifier that we built). While this strongly reduces the chance for encountering potentially harmful content when viewing, we cannot entirely exclude the possibility for harmful content being still present in safe mode, so that the warning holds also there. We think that providing the dataset openly to broad research and other interested communities will allow for transparent investigation of benefits that come along with training large-scale models as well as pitfalls and dangers that may stay unreported or unnoticed when working with closed large datasets that remain restricted to a small community. Providing our dataset openly, we however do not recommend using it for creating ready-to-go industrial products, as the basic research about general properties and safety of such large-scale models, which we would like to encourage with this release, is still in progress.

Training Procedure

All models were trained with a global batch size of 102400 for 128 checkpoint intervals of 203.7M samples for a total of ~26B samples seen over training.

For 256x256 models, a slurm script w/ srun below was used on 16 8-GPU (A100 80GB) nodes (Stability).

/opt/slurm/sbin/srun --cpu_bind=v --accel-bind=gn python -m training.main \
    --save-frequency 1 \
    --name "convnext_large_256" \
    --resume 'latest' \
    --train-data="pipe:aws s3 cp s3://mybucket/path/{laion{00000..xxxxx}.tar -" \
    --train-num-samples 203666042 \
    --dataset-type webdataset \
    --precision amp_bfloat16 \
    --beta2 0.98 \
    --warmup 10000 \
    --batch-size=800 \
    --epochs=128 \
    --dataset-resampled \
    --aug-cfg use_timm=True scale='(0.33, 1.0)' re_prob=0.35 \
    --clip-grad-norm 5.0 \
    --lr 1.667e-3 \
    --workers=6 \
    --model "convnext_large_d" \
    --seed 0 \
    --ddp-static-graph \
    --local-loss \
    --gather-with-grad \
    --grad-checkpointing

Evaluation

Evaluation done with code in the LAION CLIP Benchmark suite.

Testing Data, Factors & Metrics

Testing Data

The testing is performed with VTAB+ (A combination of VTAB (https://arxiv.org/abs/1910.04867) w/ additional robustness datasets) for classification and COCO and Flickr for retrieval.

Results

The model achieves a 75.9 top-1 zero-shot accuracy on ImageNet-1k.

An initial round of benchmarks have been performed on a wider range of datasets, to be viewable at https://github.com/LAION-AI/CLIP_benchmark/blob/main/benchmark/results.ipynb

Acknowledgements

Acknowledging stability.ai for compute used to train this model.

Citation

BibTeX:

LAION-5B

@inproceedings{schuhmann2022laionb,
  title={{LAION}-5B: An open large-scale dataset for training next generation image-text models},
  author={Christoph Schuhmann and
          Romain Beaumont and
          Richard Vencu and
          Cade W Gordon and
          Ross Wightman and
          Mehdi Cherti and
          Theo Coombes and
          Aarush Katta and
          Clayton Mullis and
          Mitchell Wortsman and
          Patrick Schramowski and
          Srivatsa R Kundurthy and
          Katherine Crowson and
          Ludwig Schmidt and
          Robert Kaczmarczyk and
          Jenia Jitsev},
  booktitle={Thirty-sixth Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems Datasets and Benchmarks Track},
  year={2022},
  url={https://openreview.net/forum?id=M3Y74vmsMcY}
}

OpenCLIP software

@software{ilharco_gabriel_2021_5143773,
  author       = {Ilharco, Gabriel and
                  Wortsman, Mitchell and
                  Wightman, Ross and
                  Gordon, Cade and
                  Carlini, Nicholas and
                  Taori, Rohan and
                  Dave, Achal and
                  Shankar, Vaishaal and
                  Namkoong, Hongseok and
                  Miller, John and
                  Hajishirzi, Hannaneh and
                  Farhadi, Ali and
                  Schmidt, Ludwig},
  title        = {OpenCLIP},
  month        = jul,
  year         = 2021,
  note         = {If you use this software, please cite it as below.},
  publisher    = {Zenodo},
  version      = {0.1},
  doi          = {10.5281/zenodo.5143773},
  url          = {https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5143773}
}

OpenAI CLIP paper

@inproceedings{Radford2021LearningTV,
  title={Learning Transferable Visual Models From Natural Language Supervision},
  author={Alec Radford and Jong Wook Kim and Chris Hallacy and A. Ramesh and Gabriel Goh and Sandhini Agarwal and Girish Sastry and Amanda Askell and Pamela Mishkin and Jack Clark and Gretchen Krueger and Ilya Sutskever},
  booktitle={ICML},
  year={2021}
}
@Article{liu2022convnet,
  author  = {Zhuang Liu and Hanzi Mao and Chao-Yuan Wu and Christoph Feichtenhofer and Trevor Darrell and Saining Xie},
  title   = {A ConvNet for the 2020s},
  journal = {Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
  year    = {2022},
}
@misc{rw2019timm,
  author = {Ross Wightman},
  title = {PyTorch Image Models},
  year = {2019},
  publisher = {GitHub},
  journal = {GitHub repository},
  doi = {10.5281/zenodo.4414861},
  howpublished = {\url{https://github.com/rwightman/pytorch-image-models}}
}
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