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MoLM

MoLM is a collection of MoE-based language models ranging in scale from 4 billion to 8 billion parameters. This is the repository for the MoLM-700M-8B pretrained model, converted for the Hugging Face Transformers format. Links to other models can be found in the index at the bottom.

Model Usage To load the model, you need install the ModuleFormer package. Then you can load the model with the following code:

from transformers import AutoTokenizer, AutoModelForCausalLM, AutoConfig, AutoModelForSequenceClassification
from moduleformer import ModuleFormerForCausalLM, ModuleFormerConfig, ModuleFormerForSequenceClassification
AutoConfig.register("moduleformer", ModuleFormerConfig)
AutoModelForCausalLM.register(ModuleFormerConfig, ModuleFormerForCausalLM)
AutoModelForSequenceClassification.register(ModuleFormerConfig, ModuleFormerForSequenceClassification)

tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained('ibm/MoLM-700M-8B')
model = AutoModelForCausalLM.from_pretrained('ibm/MoLM-700M-8B')

Model Details MoLM-350M-4B is a MoE-based language model. It has 4 billion parameters, but each input token only activates 350M parameters. Thus, it's computationally equivalent to a 350M dense model. MoLM-700M-4B has 4 billion parameters and is computationally equivalent to a 700M dense model. MoLM-700M-8B has 8 billion parameters and is computationally equivalent to a 700M dense model. All models are trained on 300 billion tokens from publicly available sources. All models are trained on 300 billion tokens from publicly available sources, with a learning rate of 3.0 x 10-4 and a global batch-size of 3M tokens. Model Developers IBM

Variations MoLM comes in two different parameter sizes — 4B and 8B. The 4B models has two variants with different computation cost — 350M and 700M.

Input Models input text only.

Output Models generate text only.

Model Architecture MoLM is an auto-regressive language model that uses the ModuleFormer architecture. It has 16 attention modules in each attention layer and 32 MLP modules in each MLP layer. During inference, in each layer, MoLM-350M-4B and MoLM-700M-8B activate 2 modules for each token, while MoLM-700M-4B activate 4 modules. MoLM-350M-4B and MoLM-700M-4B has 24 blocks and MoLM-700M-8B has 48 blocks.

Status This is a static model trained on an offline dataset. Future versions of the tuned models will be released as we improve model safety with community feedback.

Research Paper "ModuleFormer: Modularity Emerges from Mixture-of-Experts"

Training Data

MoLM models are pretrained on 300 billion tokens of data from publicly available sources.

Evaluation Results

In this section, we report the results for the MoLM models on standard academic benchmarks. For all the evaluations, we use LM evaluations Harness.

Model Latency Memory Throughput Hellaswag PIQA ARC-e ARC-c OBQA
ms GB tokens/sec acc acc acc acc acc
Pythia 410M 554 25 59594 33.72 66.70 51.89 21.42 18.2
GPT-Neo 1.3B 991 23 32857 38.66 71.11 56.19 23.12 21.4
Pythia 1.4B 918 42 35559 40.41 70.84 60.52 26.11 22.2
MoLM-350M-4B 497 27 71017 39.21 70.13 56.44 23.55 20.8
GPT-Neo 2.7B 1737 35 18788 42.71 72.2 61.07 27.47 23.2
Pythia 2.8B 2111 70 15522 45.34 73.99 64.35 29.35 23.8
MoLM-700M-4B 863 27 39931 42.20 73.01 60.82 25.94 22.6
MoLM-700M-8B 939 38 37419 43.33 72.91 62.46 27.90 23.8
Model TriviaQA HumanEval Wikitext
0-shot 1-shot 5-shot pass@1 pass@10 pass@100 PPL
Pythia 410M 2.32 5.02 6.42 1.20 3.85 9.98 20.09
GPT-Neo 1.3B 5.24 8.01 9.74 3.62 6.87 14.50 16.16
Pythia 1.4B 5.30 9.87 12.84 2.19 7.31 14.33 14.71
MoLM-350M-4B 5.40 11.12 13.70 3.04 6.99 13.79 15.15
GPT-Neo 2.7B 4.82 11.23 13.67 4.89 9.54 17.90 13.93
Pythia 2.8B 7.38 15.58 18.98 4.91 11.76 21.54 12.68
MoLM-700M-4B 9.07 14.24 16.49 5.50 10.65 20.27 13.20
MoLM-700M-8B 11.47 16.73 20.75 5.51 12.58 20.40 12.97

Ethical Considerations and Limitations

MoLM is a new technology that carries risks with use. Testing conducted to date has been in English, and has not covered, nor could it cover all scenarios. For these reasons, as with all LLMs, MoLM’s potential outputs cannot be predicted in advance, and the model may in some instances produce inaccurate, biased or other objectionable responses to user prompts. Therefore, before deploying any applications of MoLM, developers should perform safety testing and tuning tailored to their specific applications of the model.

Citation

Please cite the following paper if you use the data or code in this repo.

@article{shen2023moduleformer,
  title={ModuleFormer: Learning Modular Large Language Models From Uncurated Data},
  author={Shen, Yikang and Zhang, Zheyu and Cao, Tianyou and Tan, Shawn and Chen, Zhenfang and Gan, Chuang},
  journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:2306.04640},
  year={2023}
}

MoLM Model Index

Model MoLM
350M-4B Link
700M-4B Link
700M-8B Link
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