upos-multi-fast / README.md
---
tags:
- flair
- token-classification
- sequence-tagger-model
language:
- en
- de
- fr
- it
- nl
- pl
- es
- sv
- da
- no
- fi
- cs
datasets:
- ontonotes
widget:
- text: "Ich liebe Berlin, as they say."
---
## Multilingual Universal Part-of-Speech Tagging in Flair (fast model)
This is the fast multilingual universal part-of-speech tagging model that ships with [Flair](https://github.com/flairNLP/flair/).
F1-Score: **92,88** (12 UD Treebanks covering English, German, French, Italian, Dutch, Polish, Spanish, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Finnish and Czech)
Predicts universal POS tags:
| **tag** | **meaning** |
|---------------------------------|-----------|
|ADJ | adjective |
| ADP | adposition |
| ADV | adverb |
| AUX | auxiliary |
| CCONJ | coordinating conjunction |
| DET | determiner |
| INTJ | interjection |
| NOUN | noun |
| NUM | numeral |
| PART | particle |
| PRON | pronoun |
| PROPN | proper noun |
| PUNCT | punctuation |
| SCONJ | subordinating conjunction |
| SYM | symbol |
| VERB | verb |
| X | other |
Based on [Flair embeddings](https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/C18-1139/) and LSTM-CRF.
---
### Demo: How to use in Flair
Requires: **[Flair](https://github.com/flairNLP/flair/)** (`pip install flair`)
```python
from flair.data import Sentence
from flair.models import SequenceTagger
# load tagger
tagger = SequenceTagger.load("flair/upos-multi-fast")
# make example sentence
sentence = Sentence("Ich liebe Berlin, as they say. ")
# predict NER tags
tagger.predict(sentence)
# print sentence
print(sentence)
# print predicted NER spans
print('The following NER tags are found:')
# iterate over entities and print
for entity in sentence.get_spans('pos'):
print(entity)
```
This yields the following output:
```
Span [1]: "Ich" [− Labels: PRON (0.9999)]
Span [2]: "liebe" [− Labels: VERB (0.9999)]
Span [3]: "Berlin" [− Labels: PROPN (0.9997)]
Span [4]: "," [− Labels: PUNCT (1.0)]
Span [5]: "as" [− Labels: SCONJ (0.9991)]
Span [6]: "they" [− Labels: PRON (0.9998)]
Span [7]: "say" [− Labels: VERB (0.9998)]
Span [8]: "." [− Labels: PUNCT (1.0)]
```
So, the words "*Ich*" and "*they*" are labeled as **pronouns** (PRON), while "*liebe*" and "*say*" are labeled as **verbs** (VERB) in the multilingual sentence "*Ich liebe Berlin, as they say*".
---
### Training: Script to train this model
The following Flair script was used to train this model:
```python
from flair.data import MultiCorpus
from flair.datasets import UD_ENGLISH, UD_GERMAN, UD_FRENCH, UD_ITALIAN, UD_POLISH, UD_DUTCH, UD_CZECH, \
UD_DANISH, UD_SPANISH, UD_SWEDISH, UD_NORWEGIAN, UD_FINNISH
from flair.embeddings import StackedEmbeddings, FlairEmbeddings
# 1. make a multi corpus consisting of 12 UD treebanks (in_memory=False here because this corpus becomes large)
corpus = MultiCorpus([
UD_ENGLISH(in_memory=False),
UD_GERMAN(in_memory=False),
UD_DUTCH(in_memory=False),
UD_FRENCH(in_memory=False),
UD_ITALIAN(in_memory=False),
UD_SPANISH(in_memory=False),
UD_POLISH(in_memory=False),
UD_CZECH(in_memory=False),
UD_DANISH(in_memory=False),
UD_SWEDISH(in_memory=False),
UD_NORWEGIAN(in_memory=False),
UD_FINNISH(in_memory=False),
])
# 2. what tag do we want to predict?
tag_type = 'upos'
# 3. make the tag dictionary from the corpus
tag_dictionary = corpus.make_tag_dictionary(tag_type=tag_type)
# 4. initialize each embedding we use
embedding_types = [
# contextual string embeddings, forward
FlairEmbeddings('multi-forward-fast'),
# contextual string embeddings, backward
FlairEmbeddings('multi-backward-fast'),
]
# embedding stack consists of Flair and GloVe embeddings
embeddings = StackedEmbeddings(embeddings=embedding_types)
# 5. initialize sequence tagger
from flair.models import SequenceTagger
tagger = SequenceTagger(hidden_size=256,
embeddings=embeddings,
tag_dictionary=tag_dictionary,
tag_type=tag_type,
use_crf=False)
# 6. initialize trainer
from flair.trainers import ModelTrainer
trainer = ModelTrainer(tagger, corpus)
# 7. run training
trainer.train('resources/taggers/upos-multi-fast',
train_with_dev=True,
max_epochs=150)
```
---
### Cite
Please cite the following paper when using this model.
```
@inproceedings{akbik2018coling,
title={Contextual String Embeddings for Sequence Labeling},
author={Akbik, Alan and Blythe, Duncan and Vollgraf, Roland},
booktitle = {{COLING} 2018, 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics},
pages = {1638--1649},
year = {2018}
}
```
---
### Issues?
The Flair issue tracker is available [here](https://github.com/flairNLP/flair/issues/).