Holistic Attention Network (HAN)

HAN model pre-trained on DIV2K (800 images training, augmented to 4000 images, 100 images validation) for 2x, 3x and 4x image super resolution. It was introduced in the paper Single Image Super-Resolution via a Holistic Attention Network by Niu et al. (2020) and first released in this repository.

The goal of image super resolution is to restore a high resolution (HR) image from a single low resolution (LR) image. The image below shows the ground truth (HR), the bicubic upscaling and model upscaling.

Comparing Bicubic upscaling against the models x4 upscaling on Set5 Image 4

Model description

Informative features play a crucial role in the single image super-resolution task. Channel attention has been demonstrated to be effective for preserving information-rich features in each layer. However, channel attention treats each convolution layer as a separate process that misses the correlation among different layers. To address this problem, we propose a new holistic attention network (HAN), which consists of a layer attention module (LAM) and a channel-spatial attention module (CSAM), to model the holistic interdependencies among layers, channels, and positions. Specifically, the proposed LAM adaptively emphasizes hierarchical features by considering correlations among layers. Meanwhile, CSAM learns the confidence at all the positions of each channel to selectively capture more informative features. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed HAN performs favorably against the state-of-the-art single image super- resolution approaches.

Intended uses & limitations

You can use the pre-trained models for upscaling your images 2x, 3x and 4x. You can also use the trainer to train a model on your own dataset.

How to use

The model can be used with the super_image library:

pip install super-image

Here is how to use a pre-trained model to upscale your image:

from super_image import HanModel, ImageLoader
from PIL import Image
import requests

url = 'https://paperswithcode.com/media/datasets/Set5-0000002728-07a9793f_zA3bDjj.jpg'
image = Image.open(requests.get(url, stream=True).raw)

model = HanModel.from_pretrained('eugenesiow/han', scale=2)      # scale 2, 3 and 4 models available
inputs = ImageLoader.load_image(image)
preds = model(inputs)

ImageLoader.save_image(preds, './scaled_2x.png')                        # save the output 2x scaled image to `./scaled_2x.png`
ImageLoader.save_compare(inputs, preds, './scaled_2x_compare.png')      # save an output comparing the super-image with a bicubic scaling

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Training data

The models for 2x, 3x and 4x image super resolution were pretrained on DIV2K, a dataset of 800 high-quality (2K resolution) images for training, augmented to 4000 images and uses a dev set of 100 validation images (images numbered 801 to 900).

Training procedure


We follow the pre-processing and training method of Wang et al.. Low Resolution (LR) images are created by using bicubic interpolation as the resizing method to reduce the size of the High Resolution (HR) images by x2, x3 and x4 times. During training, RGB patches with size of 64×64 from the LR input are used together with their corresponding HR patches. Data augmentation is applied to the training set in the pre-processing stage where five images are created from the four corners and center of the original image.

We need the huggingface datasets library to download the data:

pip install datasets

The following code gets the data and preprocesses/augments the data.

from datasets import load_dataset
from super_image.data import EvalDataset, TrainDataset, augment_five_crop

augmented_dataset = load_dataset('eugenesiow/Div2k', 'bicubic_x4', split='train')\
    .map(augment_five_crop, batched=True, desc="Augmenting Dataset")                                # download and augment the data with the five_crop method
train_dataset = TrainDataset(augmented_dataset)                                                     # prepare the train dataset for loading PyTorch DataLoader
eval_dataset = EvalDataset(load_dataset('eugenesiow/Div2k', 'bicubic_x4', split='validation'))      # prepare the eval dataset for the PyTorch DataLoader


The model was trained on GPU. The training code is provided below:

from super_image import Trainer, TrainingArguments, HanModel, HanConfig

training_args = TrainingArguments(
    output_dir='./results',                 # output directory
    num_train_epochs=1000,                  # total number of training epochs

config = HanConfig(
    scale=4,                                # train a model to upscale 4x
model = HanModel(config)

trainer = Trainer(
    model=model,                         # the instantiated model to be trained
    args=training_args,                  # training arguments, defined above
    train_dataset=train_dataset,         # training dataset
    eval_dataset=eval_dataset            # evaluation dataset


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Evaluation results

The evaluation metrics include PSNR and SSIM.

Evaluation datasets include:

The results columns below are represented below as PSNR/SSIM. They are compared against a Bicubic baseline.

Dataset Scale Bicubic han
Set5 2x 33.64/0.9292 ****
Set5 3x 30.39/0.8678 ****
Set5 4x 28.42/0.8101 31.21/0.8778
Set14 2x 30.22/0.8683 ****
Set14 3x 27.53/0.7737 ****
Set14 4x 25.99/0.7023 28.18/0.7712
BSD100 2x 29.55/0.8425 ****
BSD100 3x 27.20/0.7382 ****
BSD100 4x 25.96/0.6672 28.09/0.7533
Urban100 2x 26.66/0.8408 ****
Urban100 3x ****
Urban100 4x 23.14/0.6573 25.1/0.7497

Comparing Bicubic upscaling against the models x4 upscaling on Set5 Image 2

You can find a notebook to easily run evaluation on pretrained models below:

Open In Colab

BibTeX entry and citation info

      title={Single Image Super-Resolution via a Holistic Attention Network}, 
      author={Ben Niu and Weilei Wen and Wenqi Ren and Xiangde Zhang and Lianping Yang and Shuzhen Wang and Kaihao Zhang and Xiaochun Cao and Haifeng Shen},
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