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Try GPTQ quantization with PEFT in this notebook and learn more about it’s details in this blog post!

The AutoGPTQ library implements the GPTQ algorithm, a post-training quantization technique where each row of the weight matrix is quantized independently to find a version of the weights that minimizes the error. These weights are quantized to int4, but they’re restored to fp16 on the fly during inference. This can save your memory-usage by 4x because the int4 weights are dequantized in a fused kernel rather than a GPU’s global memory, and you can also expect a speedup in inference because using a lower bitwidth takes less time to communicate.

Before you begin, make sure the following libraries are installed:

pip install auto-gptq
pip install --upgrade accelerate optimum transformers

To quantize a model (currently only supported for text models), you need to create a GPTQConfig class and set the number of bits to quantize to, a dataset to calibrate the weights for quantization, and a tokenizer to prepare the dataset.

from transformers import AutoModelForCausalLM, AutoTokenizer, GPTQConfig

model_id = "facebook/opt-125m"
tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained(model_id)
gptq_config = GPTQConfig(bits=4, dataset="c4", tokenizer=tokenizer)

You could also pass your own dataset as a list of strings, but it is highly recommended to use the same dataset from the GPTQ paper.

dataset = ["auto-gptq is an easy-to-use model quantization library with user-friendly apis, based on GPTQ algorithm."]
gptq_config = GPTQConfig(bits=4, dataset=dataset, tokenizer=tokenizer)

Load a model to quantize and pass the gptq_config to the from_pretrained() method. Set device_map="auto" to automatically offload the model to a CPU to help fit the model in memory, and allow the model modules to be moved between the CPU and GPU for quantization.

quantized_model = AutoModelForCausalLM.from_pretrained(model_id, device_map="auto", quantization_config=gptq_config)

If you’re running out of memory because a dataset is too large, disk offloading is not supported. If this is the case, try passing the max_memory parameter to allocate the amount of memory to use on your device (GPU and CPU):

quantized_model = AutoModelForCausalLM.from_pretrained(model_id, device_map="auto", max_memory={0: "30GiB", 1: "46GiB", "cpu": "30GiB"}, quantization_config=gptq_config)

Depending on your hardware, it can take some time to quantize a model from scratch. It can take ~5 minutes to quantize the facebook/opt-350m model on a free-tier Google Colab GPU, but it’ll take ~4 hours to quantize a 175B parameter model on a NVIDIA A100. Before you quantize a model, it is a good idea to check the Hub if a GPTQ-quantized version of the model already exists.

Once your model is quantized, you can push the model and tokenizer to the Hub where it can be easily shared and accessed. Use the push_to_hub() method to save the GPTQConfig:


You could also save your quantized model locally with the save_pretrained() method. If the model was quantized with the device_map parameter, make sure to move the entire model to a GPU or CPU before saving it. For example, to save the model on a CPU:


# if quantized with device_map set"cpu")

Reload a quantized model with the from_pretrained() method, and set device_map="auto" to automatically distribute the model on all available GPUs to load the model faster without using more memory than needed.

from transformers import AutoModelForCausalLM

model = AutoModelForCausalLM.from_pretrained("{your_username}/opt-125m-gptq", device_map="auto")


ExLlama is a Python/C++/CUDA implementation of the Llama model that is designed for faster inference with 4-bit GPTQ weights (check out these benchmarks). The ExLlama kernel is activated by default when you create a GPTQConfig object. To boost inference speed even further, use the ExLlamaV2 kernels by configuring the exllama_config parameter:

import torch
from transformers import AutoModelForCausalLM, GPTQConfig

gptq_config = GPTQConfig(bits=4, exllama_config={"version":2})
model = AutoModelForCausalLM.from_pretrained("{your_username}/opt-125m-gptq", device_map="auto", quantization_config=gptq_config)

Only 4-bit models are supported, and we recommend deactivating the ExLlama kernels if you’re finetuning a quantized model with PEFT.

The ExLlama kernels are only supported when the entire model is on the GPU. If you’re doing inference on a CPU with AutoGPTQ (version > 0.4.2), then you’ll need to disable the ExLlama kernel. This overwrites the attributes related to the ExLlama kernels in the quantization config of the config.json file.

import torch
from transformers import AutoModelForCausalLM, GPTQConfig
gptq_config = GPTQConfig(bits=4, use_exllama=False)
model = AutoModelForCausalLM.from_pretrained("{your_username}/opt-125m-gptq", device_map="cpu", quantization_config=gptq_config)
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