Diffusers documentation

DreamBooth fine-tuning example

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DreamBooth fine-tuning example

DreamBooth is a method to personalize text-to-image models like stable diffusion given just a few (3~5) images of a subject.

Dreambooth examples from the project's blog Dreambooth examples from the project’s blog.

The Dreambooth training script shows how to implement this training procedure on a pre-trained Stable Diffusion model.

Dreambooth fine-tuning is very sensitive to hyperparameters and easy to overfit. We recommend you take a look at our in-depth analysis with recommended settings for different subjects, and go from there.

Training locally

Installing the dependencies

Before running the scripts, make sure to install the library’s training dependencies. We also recommend to install diffusers from the main github branch.

pip install git+https://github.com/huggingface/diffusers
pip install -U -r diffusers/examples/dreambooth/requirements.txt

xFormers is not part of the training requirements, but we recommend you install it if you can. It could make your training faster and less memory intensive.

After all dependencies have been set up you can configure a 🤗 Accelerate environment with:

accelerate config

In this example we’ll use model version v1-4, so please visit its card and carefully read the license before proceeding.

The command below will download and cache the model weights from the Hub because we use the model’s Hub id CompVis/stable-diffusion-v1-4. You may also clone the repo locally and use the local path in your system where the checkout was saved.

Dog toy example

In this example we’ll use these images to add a new concept to Stable Diffusion using the Dreambooth process. They will be our training data. Please, download them and place them somewhere in your system.

Then you can launch the training script using:

export MODEL_NAME="CompVis/stable-diffusion-v1-4"
export INSTANCE_DIR="path_to_training_images"
export OUTPUT_DIR="path_to_saved_model"

accelerate launch train_dreambooth.py \
  --pretrained_model_name_or_path=$MODEL_NAME  \
  --instance_data_dir=$INSTANCE_DIR \
  --output_dir=$OUTPUT_DIR \
  --instance_prompt="a photo of sks dog" \
  --resolution=512 \
  --train_batch_size=1 \
  --gradient_accumulation_steps=1 \
  --learning_rate=5e-6 \
  --lr_scheduler="constant" \
  --lr_warmup_steps=0 \
  --max_train_steps=400

Training with a prior-preserving loss

Prior preservation is used to avoid overfitting and language-drift. Please, refer to the paper to learn more about it if you are interested. For prior preservation, we use other images of the same class as part of the training process. The nice thing is that we can generate those images using the Stable Diffusion model itself! The training script will save the generated images to a local path we specify.

According to the paper, it’s recommended to generate num_epochs * num_samples images for prior preservation. 200-300 works well for most cases.

export MODEL_NAME="CompVis/stable-diffusion-v1-4"
export INSTANCE_DIR="path_to_training_images"
export CLASS_DIR="path_to_class_images"
export OUTPUT_DIR="path_to_saved_model"

accelerate launch train_dreambooth.py \
  --pretrained_model_name_or_path=$MODEL_NAME  \
  --instance_data_dir=$INSTANCE_DIR \
  --class_data_dir=$CLASS_DIR \
  --output_dir=$OUTPUT_DIR \
  --with_prior_preservation --prior_loss_weight=1.0 \
  --instance_prompt="a photo of sks dog" \
  --class_prompt="a photo of dog" \
  --resolution=512 \
  --train_batch_size=1 \
  --gradient_accumulation_steps=1 \
  --learning_rate=5e-6 \
  --lr_scheduler="constant" \
  --lr_warmup_steps=0 \
  --num_class_images=200 \
  --max_train_steps=800

Saving checkpoints while training

It’s easy to overfit while training with Dreambooth, so sometimes it’s useful to save regular checkpoints during the process. One of the intermediate checkpoints might work better than the final model! To use this feature you need to pass the following argument to the training script:

  --checkpointing_steps=500

This will save the full training state in subfolders of your output_dir. Subfolder names begin with the prefix checkpoint-, and then the number of steps performed so far; for example: checkpoint-1500 would be a checkpoint saved after 1500 training steps.

Resuming training from a saved checkpoint

If you want to resume training from any of the saved checkpoints, you can pass the argument --resume_from_checkpoint and then indicate the name of the checkpoint you want to use. You can also use the special string "latest" to resume from the last checkpoint saved (i.e., the one with the largest number of steps). For example, the following would resume training from the checkpoint saved after 1500 steps:

  --resume_from_checkpoint="checkpoint-1500"

This would be a good opportunity to tweak some of your hyperparameters if you wish.

Performing inference using a saved checkpoint

Saved checkpoints are stored in a format suitable for resuming training. They not only include the model weights, but also the state of the optimizer, data loaders and learning rate.

You can use a checkpoint for inference, but first you need to convert it to an inference pipeline. This is how you could do it:

from accelerate import Accelerator
from diffusers import DiffusionPipeline

# Load the pipeline with the same arguments (model, revision) that were used for training
model_id = "CompVis/stable-diffusion-v1-4"
pipeline = DiffusionPipeline.from_pretrained(model_id)

accelerator = Accelerator()

# Use text_encoder if `--train_text_encoder` was used for the initial training
unet, text_encoder = accelerator.prepare(pipeline.unet, pipeline.text_encoder)

# Restore state from a checkpoint path. You have to use the absolute path here.
accelerator.load_state("/sddata/dreambooth/daruma-v2-1/checkpoint-100")

# Rebuild the pipeline with the unwrapped models (assignment to .unet and .text_encoder should work too)
pipeline = DiffusionPipeline.from_pretrained(
    model_id,
    unet=accelerator.unwrap_model(unet),
    text_encoder=accelerator.unwrap_model(text_encoder),
)

# Perform inference, or save, or push to the hub
pipeline.save_pretrained("dreambooth-pipeline")

Training on a 16GB GPU

With the help of gradient checkpointing and the 8-bit optimizer from bitsandbytes, it’s possible to train dreambooth on a 16GB GPU.

pip install bitsandbytes

Then pass the --use_8bit_adam option to the training script.

export MODEL_NAME="CompVis/stable-diffusion-v1-4"
export INSTANCE_DIR="path_to_training_images"
export CLASS_DIR="path_to_class_images"
export OUTPUT_DIR="path_to_saved_model"

accelerate launch train_dreambooth.py \
  --pretrained_model_name_or_path=$MODEL_NAME  \
  --instance_data_dir=$INSTANCE_DIR \
  --class_data_dir=$CLASS_DIR \
  --output_dir=$OUTPUT_DIR \
  --with_prior_preservation --prior_loss_weight=1.0 \
  --instance_prompt="a photo of sks dog" \
  --class_prompt="a photo of dog" \
  --resolution=512 \
  --train_batch_size=1 \
  --gradient_accumulation_steps=2 --gradient_checkpointing \
  --use_8bit_adam \
  --learning_rate=5e-6 \
  --lr_scheduler="constant" \
  --lr_warmup_steps=0 \
  --num_class_images=200 \
  --max_train_steps=800

Fine-tune the text encoder in addition to the UNet

The script also allows to fine-tune the text_encoder along with the unet. It has been observed experimentally that this gives much better results, especially on faces. Please, refer to our blog for more details.

To enable this option, pass the --train_text_encoder argument to the training script.

Training the text encoder requires additional memory, so training won't fit on a 16GB GPU. You'll need at least 24GB VRAM to use this option.
export MODEL_NAME="CompVis/stable-diffusion-v1-4"
export INSTANCE_DIR="path_to_training_images"
export CLASS_DIR="path_to_class_images"
export OUTPUT_DIR="path_to_saved_model"

accelerate launch train_dreambooth.py \
  --pretrained_model_name_or_path=$MODEL_NAME  \
  --train_text_encoder \
  --instance_data_dir=$INSTANCE_DIR \
  --class_data_dir=$CLASS_DIR \
  --output_dir=$OUTPUT_DIR \
  --with_prior_preservation --prior_loss_weight=1.0 \
  --instance_prompt="a photo of sks dog" \
  --class_prompt="a photo of dog" \
  --resolution=512 \
  --train_batch_size=1 \
  --use_8bit_adam
  --gradient_checkpointing \
  --learning_rate=2e-6 \
  --lr_scheduler="constant" \
  --lr_warmup_steps=0 \
  --num_class_images=200 \
  --max_train_steps=800

Training on a 8 GB GPU:

Using DeepSpeed it’s even possible to offload some tensors from VRAM to either CPU or NVME, allowing training to proceed with less GPU memory.

DeepSpeed needs to be enabled with accelerate config. During configuration, answer yes to “Do you want to use DeepSpeed?“. Combining DeepSpeed stage 2, fp16 mixed precision, and offloading both the model parameters and the optimizer state to CPU, it’s possible to train on under 8 GB VRAM. The drawback is that this requires more system RAM (about 25 GB). See the DeepSpeed documentation for more configuration options.

Changing the default Adam optimizer to DeepSpeed’s special version of Adam deepspeed.ops.adam.DeepSpeedCPUAdam gives a substantial speedup, but enabling it requires the system’s CUDA toolchain version to be the same as the one installed with PyTorch. 8-bit optimizers don’t seem to be compatible with DeepSpeed at the moment.

export MODEL_NAME="CompVis/stable-diffusion-v1-4"
export INSTANCE_DIR="path_to_training_images"
export CLASS_DIR="path_to_class_images"
export OUTPUT_DIR="path_to_saved_model"

accelerate launch train_dreambooth.py \
  --pretrained_model_name_or_path=$MODEL_NAME \
  --instance_data_dir=$INSTANCE_DIR \
  --class_data_dir=$CLASS_DIR \
  --output_dir=$OUTPUT_DIR \
  --with_prior_preservation --prior_loss_weight=1.0 \
  --instance_prompt="a photo of sks dog" \
  --class_prompt="a photo of dog" \
  --resolution=512 \
  --train_batch_size=1 \
  --sample_batch_size=1 \
  --gradient_accumulation_steps=1 --gradient_checkpointing \
  --learning_rate=5e-6 \
  --lr_scheduler="constant" \
  --lr_warmup_steps=0 \
  --num_class_images=200 \
  --max_train_steps=800 \
  --mixed_precision=fp16

Inference

Once you have trained a model, inference can be done using the StableDiffusionPipeline, by simply indicating the path where the model was saved. Make sure that your prompts include the special identifier used during training (sks in the previous examples).

from diffusers import StableDiffusionPipeline
import torch

model_id = "path_to_saved_model"
pipe = StableDiffusionPipeline.from_pretrained(model_id, torch_dtype=torch.float16).to("cuda")

prompt = "A photo of sks dog in a bucket"
image = pipe(prompt, num_inference_steps=50, guidance_scale=7.5).images[0]

image.save("dog-bucket.png")

You may also run inference from any of the saved training checkpoints.