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The Touch茅23-ValueEval Dataset

Dataset Summary

The Touch茅23-ValueEval Dataset comprises 9324 arguments from six different sources. An arguments source is indicated with the first letter of its Argument ID:

The annotated labels are based on the value taxonomy published in Identifying the Human Values behind Arguments (Kiesel et al. 2022) at ACL'22.

[1] https://language.ml [2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nahj_al-Balagha [3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghurar_al-Hikam_wa_Durar_al-Kalim

Dataset Usage

The default configuration name is main.

from datasets import load_dataset
dataset = load_dataset("webis/Touche23-ValueEval")
print(dataset['train'].info.description)
for argument in iter(dataset['train']):
    print(f"{argument['Argument ID']}: {argument['Stance']} '{argument['Conclusion']}': {argument['Premise']}")

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

Human Value Detection

Languages

The Argument Instances are all monolingual; it only includes English (mostly en-US) documents. The Metadata Instances for some dataset parts additionally state the arguments in their original language and phrasing.

Dataset Structure

Argument Instances

Each argument instance has the following attributes:

  • Argument ID: The unique identifier for the argument within the dataset
  • Conclusion: Conclusion text of the argument
  • Stance: Stance of the Premise towards the `Conclusion; one of "in favor of", "against"
  • Premise: Premise text of the argument
  • Labels: The Labels for each example is an array of 1s (argument resorts to value) and 0s (argument does not resort to value). The order is the same as in the original files.

Additionally, the labels are separated into value-categories, aka. level 2 labels of the value taxonomy (Kiesel et al. 2022b), and human values, aka. level 1 labels of the value taxonomy. This distinction is also reflected in the configuration names:

  • <config>: As the Task is focused mainly on the detection of value-categories, each base configuration (listed below) has the 20 value-categories as labels:
    labels = ["Self-direction: thought", "Self-direction: action", "Stimulation", "Hedonism", "Achievement", "Power: dominance", "Power: resources", "Face", "Security: personal", "Security: societal", "Tradition", "Conformity: rules", "Conformity: interpersonal", "Humility", "Benevolence: caring", "Benevolence: dependability", "Universalism: concern", "Universalism: nature", "Universalism: tolerance", "Universalism: objectivity"]
    
  • <config>-level1: The 54 human values from the level 1 of the value taxonomy are not used for the 2023 task (except for the annotation), but are still listed here for some might find them useful for understanding the value categories. Their order is also the same as in the original files. For more details see the value-categories configuration.

The configuration names (as replacements for <config>) in this dataset are:

  • main: 8865 arguments (sources: A, D, E) with splits train, validation, and test (default configuration name)
    dataset_main_train = load_dataset("webis/Touche23-ValueEval", split="train")
    dataset_main_validation = load_dataset("webis/Touche23-ValueEval", split="validation")
    dataset_main_test = load_dataset("webis/Touche23-ValueEval", split="test")
    
  • nahjalbalagha: 279 arguments (source: F) with split test
    dataset_nahjalbalagha_test = load_dataset("webis/Touche23-ValueEval", name="nahjalbalagha", split="test")
    
  • nyt: 80 arguments (source: G) with split test
    dataset_nyt_test = load_dataset("webis/Touche23-ValueEval", name="nyt", split="test")
    
  • zhihu: 100 arguments (source: C) with split validation
    dataset_zhihu_validation = load_dataset("webis/Touche23-ValueEval", name="zhihu", split="validation")
    

Please note that due to copyright reasons, there currently does not exist a direct download link to the arguments contained in the New york Times dataset. Accessing any of the nyt or nyt-level1 configurations will therefore use the specifically created nyt-downloader program to create and access the arguments locally. See the program's README for further details.

Metadata Instances

The following lists all configuration names for metadata. Each configuration only has a single split named meta.

  • ibm-meta: Each row corresponds to one argument (IDs starting with A) from the IBM-ArgQ-Rank-30kArgs
    • Argument ID: The unique identifier for the argument
    • WA: the quality label according to the weighted-average scoring function
    • MACE-P: the quality label according to the MACE-P scoring function
    • stance_WA: the stance label according to the weighted-average scoring function
    • stance_WA_conf: the confidence in the stance label according to the weighted-average scoring function
    dataset_ibm_metadata = load_dataset("webis/Touche23-ValueEval", name="ibm-meta", split="meta")
    
  • zhihu-meta: Each row corresponds to one argument (IDs starting with C) from the Chinese question-answering website Zhihu
    • Argument ID: The unique identifier for the argument
    • Conclusion Chinese: The original chinese conclusion statement
    • Premise Chinese: The original chinese premise statement
    • URL: Link to the original statement the argument was taken from
    dataset_zhihu_metadata = load_dataset("webis/Touche23-ValueEval", name="zhihu-meta", split="meta")
    
  • gdi-meta: Each row corresponds to one argument (IDs starting with D) from GD IDEAS
    • Argument ID: The unique identifier for the argument
    • URL: Link to the topic the argument was taken from
    dataset_gdi_metadata = load_dataset("webis/Touche23-ValueEval", name="gdi-meta", split="meta")
    
  • cofe-meta: Each row corresponds to one argument (IDs starting with E) from the Conference for the Future of Europe
    • Argument ID: The unique identifier for the argument
    • URL: Link to the comment the argument was taken from
    dataset_cofe_metadata = load_dataset("webis/Touche23-ValueEval", name="cofe-meta", split="meta")
    
  • nahjalbalagha-meta: Each row corresponds to one argument (IDs starting with F). This file contains information on the 279 arguments in nahjalbalagha (or nahjalbalagha-level1) and 1047 additional arguments that were not labeled so far. This data was contributed by the language.ml lab.
    • Argument ID: The unique identifier for the argument
    • Conclusion Farsi: Conclusion text of the argument in Farsi
    • Stance Farsi: Stance of the Premise towards the Conclusion, in Farsi
    • Premise Farsi: Premise text of the argument in Farsi
    • Conclusion English: Conclusion text of the argument in English (translated from Farsi)
    • Stance English: Stance of the Premise towards the Conclusion; one of "in favor of", "against"
    • Premise English: Premise text of the argument in English (translated from Farsi)
    • Source: Source text of the argument; one of "Nahj al-Balagha", "Ghurar al-Hikam wa Durar ak-Kalim"; their Farsi translations were used
    • Method: How the premise was extracted from the source; one of "extracted" (directly taken), "deduced"; the conclusion are deduced
    dataset_nahjalbalagha_metadata = load_dataset("webis/Touche23-ValueEval", name="nahjalbalagha-meta", split="meta")
    
  • nyt-meta: Each row corresponds to one argument (IDs starting with G) from The New York Times
    • Argument ID: The unique identifier for the argument
    • URL: Link to the article the argument was taken from
    • Internet Archive timestamp: Timestamp of the article's version in the Internet Archive that was used
    dataset_nyt_metadata = load_dataset("webis/Touche23-ValueEval", name="nyt-meta", split="meta")
    
  • value-categories: Contains a single JSON-entry with the structure of level 2 and level 1 values regarding the value taxonomy:
    {
      "<value category>": {
        "<level 1 value>": [
          "<exemplary effect a corresponding argument might target>",
          ...
        ], ...
      }, ...
    }
    
    As this configuration contains just a single entry, an example usage could be:
    value_categories = load_dataset("webis/Touche23-ValueEval", name="value-categories", split="meta")[0]
    

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

[More Information Needed]

Licensing Information

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

Citation Information

@Article{mirzakhmedova:2023a,
  author    = {Nailia Mirzakhmedova and Johannes Kiesel and Milad Alshomary and Maximilian Heinrich and Nicolas Handke\
and Xiaoni Cai and Valentin Barriere and Doratossadat Dastgheib and Omid Ghahroodi and {Mohammad Ali} Sadraei\
and Ehsaneddin Asgari and Lea Kawaletz and Henning Wachsmuth and Benno Stein},
  doi       = {10.48550/arXiv.2301.13771},
  journal   = {CoRR},
  month     = jan,
  publisher = {arXiv},
  title     = {{The Touch{\'e}23-ValueEval Dataset for Identifying Human Values behind Arguments}},
  volume    = {abs/2301.13771},
  year      = 2023
}
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