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id (int32)UNIQUE_STORY_INDEX (string)offset (int32)length (int32)magnitude (int32)comment (string)number (int64)
0
"0"
16
4
0
"With a total of 1500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state."
1,500
1
"1"
65
5
0
"Alabama is the thirtieth-largest state in the United States with 52419 sqmi of total area: 3.2% of the area is water, making Alabama 23rd in the amount of surface water, also giving it the second-largest inland waterway system in the United States."
52,419
2
"2"
122
4
0
"The state ranges in elevation from sea level at Mobile Bay to nearly half a mile in the northeast, to wit Mount Cheaha at 2413 feet ."
2,413
3
"3"
27
2
0
"Alabama's land consists of 22 million acres of forest or 67% of total land area. ["
22
4
"4"
2
1
0
"A 5 miles -wide meteorite impact crater is located in Elmore County, just north of Montgomery."
5
5
"5"
2
4
0
"A 1000 feet -wide meteorite hit the area about 80 million years ago."
1,000
6
"6"
31
2
0
"Alabama receives an average of 56 inches of rainfall annually and enjoys a lengthy growing season of up to 300 days in the southern part of the state."
56
7
"7"
92
2
0
"Summers in Alabama are among the hottest in the U.S., with high temperatures averaging over 90 °F throughout the summer in some parts of the state."
90
9
"9"
55
1
0
"The annual average snowfall for the Birmingham area is 2 inches per year."
2
10
"10"
33
3
0
"Alabama's highest temperature of 112 °F was recorded on September 5, 1925, in the unincorporated community of Centerville."
112
11
"11"
18
5
0
"The record low of -27.0 °F occurred on January 30, 1966, in New Market."
-27
12
"12"
72
3
0
"Thomas Lincoln bought or leased farms in Kentucky before losing all but 200 acres of his land in court disputes over property titles."
200
13
"13"
75
2
0
"Overcoming financial challenges, Thomas eventually obtained clear title to 80 acres of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek Community in Indiana."
80
14
"14"
202
2
0
"In March 1830, partly out of fear of another milk sickness outbreak, several members of the extended Lincoln family, including Thomas, moved west to Illinois, a free state, and settled in Macon County, 10 miles west of Decatur."
10
15
"15"
2
1
0
"A 6 feet floral arrangement in the shape of a dollar sign was placed near her casket."
6
16
"16"
16
7
0
"With an area of 2381741 sqkm , Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, and the largest by area in the African Union and the Arab world."
2,381,741
17
"17"
35
4
0
"The highest point is Mount Tahat ( 3003 meters )."
3,003
18
"18"
23
4
0
"They are located about 1500 kilometers south of the capital, Algiers, and just east of Tamanghasset."
1,500
19
"19"
95
4
0
"Precipitation is heaviest in the northern part of eastern Algeria, where it reaches as much as 1000 mm in some years."
1,000
20
"20"
90
3
0
"Among these, in the summer time when winds are heavy and gusty, temperatures can go up to 110 °F ."
110
22
"22"
79
6
0
"The Algerian road network is the densest in Africa; its length is estimated at 180000 kilometers of highways, with more than 3,756 structures and a paving rate of 85%."
180,000
23
"23"
15
4
0
"It is a 3-way, 1216 kilometers highway, linking Annaba in the extreme east to the Tlemcen in the far west."
1,216
24
"24"
12
2
0
"in Labadea, 20 miles east of Delphi, Trophonius, another son of Apollo, killed his brother and fled to the cave where he was also afterwards consulted as an oracle."
20
25
"25"
60
1
0
"There, he was pegged to the rock floor, covering an area of 9 acres , where a pair of vultures feasted daily on his liver."
9
26
"26"
66
3
0
"Andorra is the sixth-smallest nation in Europe, having an area of 468 sqkm and a population of approximately ."
468
27
"27"
89
4
0
"Its capital, Andorra la Vella, is the highest capital city in Europe, at an elevation of 1023 meters above sea level."
1,023
29
"29"
181
3
0
"These are dissected by three narrow valleys in a Y shape that combine into one as the main stream, the Gran Valira river, leaves the country for Spain (at Andorra's lowest point of 840 meters )."
840
30
"30"
23
3
0
"Andorra's land area is 468 sqkm ."
468
31
"31"
90
3
0
"One of the main sources of income in Andorra is tourism from ski resorts which total over 175 kilometers of ski ground."
175
33
"33"
149
1
0
"Andorra has no railways, although the line connecting Latour-de-Carol and Toulouse, which in turn connects to France's TGVs at Toulouse, runs within 2 kilometers of the Andorran border."
2
34
"34"
278
2
0
"There are no airports for fixed-wing aircraft within Andorra's borders but there are, however, heliports in La Massana (Camí Heliport), Arinsal and Escaldes-Engordany with commercial helicopter services and an airport located in the neighbouring Spanish comarca of Alt Urgell, 12 kilometers south of the Andorran-Spanish border."
12
38
"38"
211
4
0
"In 2012, Andorra raised its first national cricket team and played a home match against the Dutch Fellowship of Fairly Odd Places Cricket Club, the first match played in the history of Andorra at an altitude of 1300 meters ."
1,300
39
"39"
125
1
0
"The smallest amphibian (and vertebrate) in the world is a frog from New Guinea (Paedophryne amauensis) with a length of just 7 mm ."
7
41
"41"
28
1
0
"It has an average length of 7 mm and is part of a genus that contains four of the world's ten smallest frog species."
7
46
"46"
27
2
0
"Most salamanders are under 15 cms long."
15
47
"47"
148
3
0
"The adults vary in length from 8 to 75 centimetres (3 to 30 inches) with the exception of Thomson's caecilian (Caecilia thompsoni), which can reach 150 cms ."
150
49
"49"
62
2
0
"A similar proportion, when moved experimentally a distance of 30 meters , found their way back to their home base."
30
50
"50"
81
3
0
"Alaska is the only non-contiguous U.S. state on continental North America; about 500 miles of British Columbia (Canada) separates Alaska from Washington."
500
51
"51"
161
1
0
"Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart."
3
52
"52"
3
6
0
"At 663268 sqmi it is more than twice the size of Texas and—counting territorial waters—larger than Texas, California, and Montana combined. ("
663,268
53
"53"
64
3
0
"Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea."
500
54
"54"
83
4
0
"More than 300 small volcanic islands make up this chain, which stretches more than 1200 miles into the Pacific Ocean."
1,200
55
"55"
43
5
0
"With its myriad islands, Alaska has nearly 34000 miles of tidal shoreline."
34,000
56
"56"
115
5
0
"Unimak Island, for example, is home to Mount Shishaldin, which is an occasionally smoldering volcano that rises to 10000 feet above the North Pacific."
10,000
57
"57"
124
2
0
"One of the world's largest tides occurs in Turnagain Arm, just south of Anchorage, where tidal differences can be more than 35 feet ."
35
58
"58"
40
6
0
"Marshlands and wetland permafrost cover 188320 sqmi (mostly in northern, western and southwest flatlands)."
188,320
59
"59"
25
5
0
"Glacier ice covers about 28957 sqmi of Alaska."
28,957
60
"60"
69
4
0
"The Bering Glacier is the largest glacier in North America, covering 2008 sqmi alone."
2,008
61
"61"
48
2
0
"Of these, the Bureau of Land Management manages 87 million acres , or 23.8% of the state."
87
62
"62"
54
2
0
"It is the world's largest wildlife refuge, comprising 16 million acres ."
16
63
"63"
53
3
0
"Of the remaining land area, the state of Alaska owns 101 million acres , its entitlement under the Alaska Statehood Act."
101
64
"64"
8
2
0
"Another 44 million acres are owned by 12 regional, and scores of local, Native corporations created under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) of 1971."
44
67
"67"
193
2
0
"An area stretching from the northern side of the Seward Peninsula to the Kobuk River valley (i. e., the region around Kotzebue Sound) is technically a desert, with portions receiving less than 10 inches of precipitation annually."
10
68
"68"
82
3
0
"On the other extreme, some locations between Dillingham and Bethel average around 100 inches of precipitation."
100
69
"69"
136
5
0
"The summers may have temperatures reaching into the 90s °F (the low-to-mid 30s °C), while in the winter, the temperature can fall below -60.0 °F ."
-60
70
"70"
57
2
0
"Precipitation is sparse in the Interior, often less than 10 inches a year, but what precipitation falls in the winter tends to stay the entire winter."
10
72
"72"
42
5
0
"The lowest official Alaska temperature is -80.0 °F in Prospect Creek on January 23, 1971, one degree above the lowest temperature recorded in continental North America (in Snag, Yukon, Canada)."
-80
73
"73"
58
2
0
"Even in July, the average low temperature in Utqiagvik is 34 °F . ["
34
74
"74"
84
2
0
"Precipitation is light in this part of Alaska, with many places averaging less than 10 inches per year, mostly as snow which stays on the ground almost the entire year."
10
82
"82"
99
3
0
"The Tanana Valley is another notable agricultural locus, especially the Delta Junction area, about 100 miles southeast of Fairbanks, with a sizable concentration of farms growing agronomic crops; these farms mostly lie north and east of Fort Greely."
100
84
"84"
50
4
0
"The Susitna River bridge on the Denali Highway is 1036 feet long."
1,036
85
"85"
262
2
0
"One unique feature of the Alaska Highway system is the Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel, an active Alaska Railroad tunnel recently upgraded to provide a paved roadway link with the isolated community of Whittier on Prince William Sound to the Seward Highway about 50 miles southeast of Anchorage at Portage."
50
86
"86"
3
1
0
"At 2 miles , the tunnel was the longest road tunnel in North America until 2007."
2
87
"87"
18
1
0
"completion of the 3 miles Interstate 93 tunnel as part of the "Big Dig" project in Boston, Massachusetts."
3
88
"88"
19
2
0
"A stretch of about 60 miles of track along an area north of Talkeetna remains inaccessible by road; the railroad provides the only transportation to rural homes and cabins in the area."
60
90
"90"
46
2
0
"In 1940, Huxley relocated from Hollywood to a 40 acres ranchito in the high desert hamlet of Llano, California, in northern Los Angeles County."
40
93
"93"
33
2
0
"calculating tray"), is typically 20 cms tall and comes in various widths depending on the operator."
20
94
"94"
135
3
0
"Its viscosity is similar to that of cold molasses while the material obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil boiling at 525 Coulomb is sometimes referred to as "refined bitumen"."
525
95
"95"
125
6
0
"The Canadian province of Alberta has most of the world's reserves of natural asphalt in the Athabasca oil sands, which cover 142000 sqkm , an area larger than England."
142,000
96
"96"
99
6
0
"The Canadian province of Alberta has most of the world's reserves, in three huge deposits covering 142000 sqkm , an area larger than England or New York state."
142,000
98
"98"
4
3
0
"The 1.0 kilometers long Euphrates Tunnel beneath the river Euphrates at Babylon in the time of Queen Semiramis (c. 800 BC) was reportedly constructed of burnt bricks covered with bitumen as a waterproofing agent."
1
103
"103"
67
3
0
"Asphalt is typically stored and transported at temperatures around 150 °C ."
150
106
"106"
93
2
0
"They spent about two and a quarter hours together outside the spacecraft, and they collected 47 pounds of lunar material to bring back to Earth."
47
107
"107"
5
3
0
"Five 0.5 pounds PPKs were carried on Apollo 11: three (one for each astronaut) were stowed on Columbia before launch, and two on Eagle."
0
108
"108"
53
2
0
"In May 1969, Apollo 10's lunar module flew to within 15 kilometers of Site 2, and reported it was acceptable."
15
109
"109"
23
4
0
"At 1230 on May 20, the 5443 tonnes assembly departed the Vehicle Assembly Building atop the crawler-transporter, bound for Launch Pad 39A, part of Launch Complex 39, while Apollo 10 was still on its way to the Moon."
5,443
111
"111"
126
2
0
"In the thirty orbits that followed, the crew saw passing views of their landing site in the southern Sea of Tranquility about 12 miles southwest of the crater Sabine D. The site was selected in part because it had been characterized as relatively flat and smooth by the automated Ranger 8 and Surveyor 5 landers and the Lunar Orbiter mapping spacecraft and unlikely to present major landing or EVA challenges."
12
113
"113"
40
4
0
"Five minutes into the descent burn, and 6000 feet above the surface of the Moon, the LM guidance computer (LGC) distracted the crew with the first of several unexpected 1201 and 1202 program alarms."
6,000
114
"114"
133
3
0
"When Armstrong again looked outside, he saw that the computer's landing target was in a boulder-strewn area just north and east of a 300 feet crater (later determined to be West crater), so he took semi-automatic control."
300
115
"115"
4
3
0
"Now 107 feet above the surface, Armstrong knew their propellant supply was dwindling and was determined to land at the first possible landing site."
107
116
"116"
22
3
0
"As he got closer, now 250 feet above the surface, he discovered his new landing site had a crater in it."
250
117
"117"
14
3
0
"They were now 100 feet from the surface, with only 90 seconds of propellant remaining."
100
118
"118"
49
2
0
"A light informed Aldrin that at least one of the 67 inches probes hanging from Eagle's footpads had touched the surface a few moments before the landing and he said: "Contact light!""
67
119
"119"
52
3
0
"Eagle landed at 20:17:40 UTC on Sunday July 20 with 216 pounds of usable fuel remaining."
216
120
"120"
22
3
0
"Then Armstrong walked 196 feet from the LM to snap photos at the rim of Little West Crater while Aldrin collected two core samples."
196
121
"121"
138
1
0
"He used the geologist's hammer to pound in the tubes—the only time the hammer was used on Apollo 11—but was unable to penetrate more than 6 inches deep."
6
122
"122"
16
1
0
"Aldrin shoveled 6 kilograms of soil into the box of rocks in order to pack them in tightly."
6
123
"123"
80
2
0
"With some difficulty the astronauts lifted film and two sample boxes containing 21 kilograms of lunar surface material to the LM hatch using a flat cable pulley device called the Lunar Equipment Conveyor (LEC)."
21
124
"124"
103
2
0
"Film taken from the LM ascent stage upon liftoff from the Moon reveals the American flag, planted some 25 feet from the descent stage, whipping violently in the exhaust of the ascent stage engine."
25
125
"125"
28
3
0
"A new location was selected 215 nautical miles northeast."
215
129
"129"
136
2
0
"After touchdown on Hornet at 17:53 UTC, the helicopter was lowered by the elevator into the hangar bay, where the astronauts walked the 30 feet to the Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF), where they would begin the Earth-based portion of their 21 days of quarantine."
30
132
"132"
31
2
0
"The projection was joined by a 40 feet wide recreation of the Kennedy Space Center countdown clock and two large video screens showing archival footage to recreate the time leading up to the moon landing."
40
134
"134"
37
4
0
"SC/LM Adapter (connects LTA to CSM): 4060 pounds"
4,060
135
"135"
5
5
0
"LTA: 19900 pounds The mass for LTA-B was less than that of a flying LM, because it was essentially a boilerplate descent stage."
19,900
136
"136"
78
5
0
"A fully loaded, flight-ready LM, like the Eagle from Apollo 11, had a mass of 33278 pounds , including propellants."
33,278
137
"137"
102
1
0
"The Apollo 8 spacecraft was placed on top of the rocket on September 21, and the rocket made the slow 3 miles journey to the launch pad on October 9."
3
138
"138"
49
3
0
"Apollo lunar missions would begin with a nominal 100 nautical miles circular Earth parking orbit."
100
140
"140"
43
1
0
"Propellant venting increased the apogee by 6 nautical miles over the 2 hours, 44 minutes, and 30 seconds spent in the parking orbit."
6
143
"143"
70
2
0
"The standard lunar orbit for Apollo missions was planned as a nominal 60 nautical miles circular orbit above the Moon's surface."
60
147
"147"
51
6
0
"Apollo 8 achieved a maximum distance from Earth of 203752 nautical miles ."
203,752
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)
YAML Metadata Error: "licenses" is deprecated. Use "license" instead.
YAML Metadata Error: "languages" is deprecated. Use "language" instead.

Dataset Card Creation Guide

Dataset Summary

Wiki-Convert is a 900,000+ sentences dataset of precise number annotations from English Wikipedia. It relies on Wiki contributors' annotations in the form of a {{Convert}} template.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

  • sequence-modeling: The dataset can be used to train a model for [Language Mddeling], which consists in [TASK DESCRIPTION]. Success on this task is typically measured by achieving a low perplexity.

Languages

The dataset is extracted from English Wikipedia, hence overwhelmingly contains English text.

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

Each row in the json file contains metadata about the source Wikipedia sentence, along with annotations for a single number, e.g., number: 10 in the below example. The annotations are inspired by Numeracy-600K and are in the form of length and offset from the beginning of the sentence.

{
  'id': 1080801, 'UNIQUE_STORY_INDEX': '1080801', 'offset': 83, 'length': 2, 'magnitude': 0, 'comment': "Like all Type UB III submarines, UB-117 carried 10 torpedoes and was armed with a  10 cms deck gun. ''", 'number': 10
}

Please refer to https://github.com/avi-jit/numeracy-literacy for more details.

Data Splits

Tain Dev Test
Input Sentences 739,583 92,447 92,449

License

Provided under MIT License.

Citation

@inproceedings{thawani-etal-2021-numeracy,
    title = "Numeracy enhances the Literacy of Language Models",
    author = "Thawani, Avijit  and
      Pujara, Jay  and
      Ilievski, Filip",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing",
    month = nov,
    year = "2021",
    address = "Online and Punta Cana, Dominican Republic",
    publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics",
    url = "https://aclanthology.org/2021.emnlp-main.557",
    pages = "6960--6967",
    abstract = "Specialized number representations in NLP have shown improvements on numerical reasoning tasks like arithmetic word problems and masked number prediction. But humans also use numeracy to make better sense of world concepts, e.g., you can seat 5 people in your {`}room{'} but not 500. Does a better grasp of numbers improve a model{'}s understanding of other concepts and words? This paper studies the effect of using six different number encoders on the task of masked word prediction (MWP), as a proxy for evaluating literacy. To support this investigation, we develop Wiki-Convert, a 900,000 sentence dataset annotated with numbers and units, to avoid conflating nominal and ordinal number occurrences. We find a significant improvement in MWP for sentences containing numbers, that exponent embeddings are the best number encoders, yielding over 2 points jump in prediction accuracy over a BERT baseline, and that these enhanced literacy skills also generalize to contexts without annotated numbers. We release all code at https://git.io/JuZXn.",
}

Thanks to @avi-jit for adding this dataset.

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