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how long do you have to answer a question in family feud
Family Feud
[ "Family Feud\n\n\n\n\n\nGenre\nGame show\n\n\nCreated by\nMark Goodson\n\n\nDirected by\n\n\n\nPaul Alter (1976–85, 1988–90)\nMarc Breslow (1988–93)\nAndy Felsher (1990–95)\nLenn Goodside (1999–02)\nKen Fuchs (2002–present)\nHugh Bartlett (2013–14)\n\n\n\n\n\nPresented by\n\n\n\nRichard Dawson (1976–85, 1994–95)\nRay Combs (1988–94)\nLouie Anderson (1999–2002)\nRichard Karn (2002–06)\nJohn O'Hurley (2006–10)\nSteve Harvey (2010–present)\n\n\n\n\n\nNarrated by\n\n\n\nGene Wood (1976–85, 1988–95)\nBurton Richardson (1999–2010)\nJoey Fatone (2010–15)\nRubin Ervin (2015–present)\n\n\n\n\n\nTheme music composer\n\n\n\nScore Productions (1976–85, 1988–95, 2002–03, 2008–present)\nEdd Kalehoff (1994–95)\nJohn Lewis Parker (1999–2008)\n\n\n\n\n\nCountry of origin\nUnited States\n\n\nOriginal language(s)\nEnglish\n\n\nProduction\n\n\nProducer(s)\n\n\n\nHoward Felsher (1976–85, 1988–95)\nCathy Dawson (1976–85)\nGary Dawson (1984–85, 1994–95)\n\n\n\n\n\nRunning time\n\n\n\n22–26 minutes:\nABC (1976–85)\nCBS (1988–92)\nSyndicated (1977–85, 1988–95, 1999–present)\n42–44 minutes:\nABC specials (1979–84, 2015–present)\nCBS (1992–93)\nSyndicated (1994–95)\n\n\n\n\n\nProduction company(s)\n\n\n\nMark Goodson-Bill Todman Productions (1976–82)\nMark Goodson Productions (1982–85, 1988–95, 1999–2002)\nFremantleMedia (2002–present)\n\n\n\n\n\nDistributor\n\n\n\nViacom Enterprises (1977–85)\nLBS Communications (1988–91)\nTribune Entertainment (1999–2007)\n20th Television (2007-present)\nDebmar-Mercury (2007–present)\n\n\n\n\n\nRelease\n\n\nOriginal network\n\n\n\nABC (1976–85, 2015–present)\nCBS (1988–93)\nSyndicated (1977–85, 1988–95, 1999–present)\n\n\n\n\n\nOriginal release\nJuly 12, 1976 (1976-07-12) – present\n\n\nChronology\n\n\nRelated shows\n\n\n\n100 latinos dijeron\nCelebrity Family Feud\n¿Qué dice la gente?\n\n\n\n\n\nExternal links\n\n\nWebsite", "Family Feud", "Genre\nGame show", "Created by\nMark Goodson", "Directed by\n\n\n\nPaul Alter (1976–85, 1988–90)\nMarc Breslow (1988–93)\nAndy Felsher (1990–95)\nLenn Goodside (1999–02)\nKen Fuchs (2002–present)\nHugh Bartlett (2013–14)", "Paul Alter (1976–85, 1988–90)\nMarc Breslow (1988–93)\nAndy Felsher (1990–95)\nLenn Goodside (1999–02)\nKen Fuchs (2002–present)\nHugh Bartlett (2013–14)", "Paul Alter (1976–85, 1988–90)", "Marc Breslow (1988–93)", "Andy Felsher (1990–95)", "Lenn Goodside (1999–02)", "Ken Fuchs (2002–present)", "Hugh Bartlett (2013–14)", "Presented by\n\n\n\nRichard Dawson (1976–85, 1994–95)\nRay Combs (1988–94)\nLouie Anderson (1999–2002)\nRichard Karn (2002–06)\nJohn O'Hurley (2006–10)\nSteve Harvey (2010–present)", "Richard Dawson (1976–85, 1994–95)\nRay Combs (1988–94)\nLouie Anderson (1999–2002)\nRichard Karn (2002–06)\nJohn O'Hurley (2006–10)\nSteve Harvey (2010–present)", "Richard Dawson (1976–85, 1994–95)", "Ray Combs (1988–94)", "Louie Anderson (1999–2002)", "Richard Karn (2002–06)", "John O'Hurley (2006–10)", "Steve Harvey (2010–present)", "Narrated by\n\n\n\nGene Wood (1976–85, 1988–95)\nBurton Richardson (1999–2010)\nJoey Fatone (2010–15)\nRubin Ervin (2015–present)", "Gene Wood (1976–85, 1988–95)\nBurton Richardson (1999–2010)\nJoey Fatone (2010–15)\nRubin Ervin (2015–present)", "Gene Wood (1976–85, 1988–95)", "Burton Richardson (1999–2010)", "Joey Fatone (2010–15)", "Rubin Ervin (2015–present)", "Theme music composer\n\n\n\nScore Productions (1976–85, 1988–95, 2002–03, 2008–present)\nEdd Kalehoff (1994–95)\nJohn Lewis Parker (1999–2008)", "Score Productions (1976–85, 1988–95, 2002–03, 2008–present)\nEdd Kalehoff (1994–95)\nJohn Lewis Parker (1999–2008)", "Score Productions (1976–85, 1988–95, 2002–03, 2008–present)", "Edd Kalehoff (1994–95)", "John Lewis Parker (1999–2008)", "Country of origin\nUnited States", "Original language(s)\nEnglish", "Production", "Producer(s)\n\n\n\nHoward Felsher (1976–85, 1988–95)\nCathy Dawson (1976–85)\nGary Dawson (1984–85, 1994–95)", "Howard Felsher (1976–85, 1988–95)\nCathy Dawson (1976–85)\nGary Dawson (1984–85, 1994–95)", "Howard Felsher (1976–85, 1988–95)", "Cathy Dawson (1976–85)", "Gary Dawson (1984–85, 1994–95)", "Running time\n\n\n\n22–26 minutes:\nABC (1976–85)\nCBS (1988–92)\nSyndicated (1977–85, 1988–95, 1999–present)\n42–44 minutes:\nABC specials (1979–84, 2015–present)\nCBS (1992–93)\nSyndicated (1994–95)", "22–26 minutes:\nABC (1976–85)\nCBS (1988–92)\nSyndicated (1977–85, 1988–95, 1999–present)\n42–44 minutes:\nABC specials (1979–84, 2015–present)\nCBS (1992–93)\nSyndicated (1994–95)", "22–26 minutes:", "ABC (1976–85)", "CBS (1988–92)", "Syndicated (1977–85, 1988–95, 1999–present)", "42–44 minutes:", "ABC specials (1979–84, 2015–present)", "CBS (1992–93)", "Syndicated (1994–95)", "Production company(s)\n\n\n\nMark Goodson-Bill Todman Productions (1976–82)\nMark Goodson Productions (1982–85, 1988–95, 1999–2002)\nFremantleMedia (2002–present)", "Mark Goodson-Bill Todman Productions (1976–82)\nMark Goodson Productions (1982–85, 1988–95, 1999–2002)\nFremantleMedia (2002–present)", "Mark Goodson-Bill Todman Productions (1976–82)", "Mark Goodson Productions (1982–85, 1988–95, 1999–2002)", "FremantleMedia (2002–present)", "Distributor\n\n\n\nViacom Enterprises (1977–85)\nLBS Communications (1988–91)\nTribune Entertainment (1999–2007)\n20th Television (2007-present)\nDebmar-Mercury (2007–present)", "Viacom Enterprises (1977–85)\nLBS Communications (1988–91)\nTribune Entertainment (1999–2007)\n20th Television (2007-present)\nDebmar-Mercury (2007–present)", "Viacom Enterprises (1977–85)", "LBS Communications (1988–91)", "Tribune Entertainment (1999–2007)", "20th Television (2007-present)\nDebmar-Mercury (2007–present)", "Release", "Original network\n\n\n\nABC (1976–85, 2015–present)\nCBS (1988–93)\nSyndicated (1977–85, 1988–95, 1999–present)", "ABC (1976–85, 2015–present)\nCBS (1988–93)\nSyndicated (1977–85, 1988–95, 1999–present)", "ABC (1976–85, 2015–present)", "CBS (1988–93)", "Syndicated (1977–85, 1988–95, 1999–present)", "Original release\nJuly 12, 1976 (1976-07-12) – present", "Chronology", "Related shows\n\n\n\n100 latinos dijeron\nCelebrity Family Feud\n¿Qué dice la gente?", "100 latinos dijeron\nCelebrity Family Feud\n¿Qué dice la gente?", "100 latinos dijeron", "Celebrity Family Feud", "¿Qué dice la gente?", "External links", "Website", "Family Feud is an American television game show created by Mark Goodson where two families compete to name the most popular responses to survey questions in order to win cash and prizes. It is considered a spin-off of Match Game, whose panel included original host Richard Dawson.", "The program premiered on ABC on July 12, 1976, and ran as part of its daytime schedule until June 14, 1985. The program was re-launched by CBS on July 4, 1988, and ran until September 10, 1993. Three separate editions for syndication were also produced. The first aired from September 19, 1977, to September 6, 1985. The second aired from September 19, 1988, to September 8, 1995. The current syndicated series premiered on September 20, 1999.", "The ABC network version of the show and the first syndicated series were hosted by Richard Dawson. Ray Combs hosted the CBS series and the first six seasons of the accompanying syndicated version, then was replaced by Dawson for the final season. The 1999 syndicated series has been hosted by Louie Anderson (1999–2002), Richard Karn (2002–06), John O'Hurley (2006–10), and Steve Harvey (2010–present). Announcers for the series have included Gene Wood (1976–85, 1988–95), Burton Richardson (1999–2010, syndication; 2015–present, ABC), Joey Fatone (2010–15), and Rubin Ervin (2015–present).", "The program has spawned multiple regional adaptations in over 50 international markets outside the United States. Within a year of its debut, the original version became the number one game show in daytime television; however, as viewing habits changed, the ratings declined. Harvey's takeover in 2010 increased Nielsen ratings significantly and eventually placed the program among the top five most popular syndicated television shows in the country. In 2013, TV Guide ranked Family Feud third in its list of the 60 greatest game shows of all time.", "Two family teams of five contestants each compete to win cash and prizes. The original version of the show began with the families being introduced, seated opposite each other as if posing for family portraits, after which the host interviewed them.[1]", "Unlike most game shows, there is no minimum age necessary to participate in Family Feud. Each round begins with a \"face-off\" question that serves as a toss-up between two opposing contestants. The host asks a survey question that was previously posed to a group of 100 people (e.g., \"Name the hour that you get up on Sunday mornings.\").[2] A certain number of answers are concealed on the board, ranked by popularity of the survey's responses. Only answers said by at least two people can appear on the board. The first contestant to buzz-in gives an answer; if it is the most popular, his/her family immediately wins the face-off. Otherwise, the opponent responds and the family member providing the higher-ranked answer wins. Ties are broken in favor of the contestant who buzzes-in first. If neither contestant's answer is on the board, the other eight contestants have a chance to respond, one at a time from alternating sides, until an answer is revealed. The family that wins the face-off may choose to play the question or pass control to their opponents (except on the Combs version, when the family who won the face-off automatically gained control of the question).[2]", "The family with control of the question then tries to win the round by guessing all of the remaining concealed answers, with each member giving one answer in sequence. Giving an answer not on the board, or failing to respond within the allotted time, earns one strike. If the family earns three strikes, their opponents are given one chance to \"steal\" the points for the round by guessing any remaining concealed answer; failing to do so awards the points back to the family that originally had control.[2] Any answers on the board that have not been guessed are then revealed.", "While a family has control of a question, the members are not allowed to discuss possible answers with one another; each person must respond individually. However, the opposing family may confer in preparation for an attempt to steal, and their captain must respond for them when such an attempt is made.", "Answers are worth one point for every person in the 100-member survey who gave them. The winning family in each round scores the total points for all revealed answers to that question, including those given during the face-off but excluding the one used to steal (if applicable). The number of answers on the board decreases from round to round, and as the game progresses, certain rounds are played for double or triple point value. The first family to score 300 points wins the game and advances to the Fast Money bonus round for a chance to win a cash bonus. Until 1992, both teams received $1 per point scored.[1]", "Prior to 1999, the game continued as normal until one family reached the necessary total to win. Since then, if neither team reaches the goal after four rounds (or, from 1999 to 2002, if both teams were tied with the same score after the final round), one last question is played for triple value with only the #1 answer displayed.", "The goal of 300 points has been in place in the rules of almost every version of the show. However, when the program premiered in 1976, the goal was 200 points. For the 1984–85 season of both the daytime and syndicated program, the goal was increased to 400 points.[3] For several seasons after the 1999 return to syndication, there was no specific point goal. Instead, four rounds were played, with the last for triple points and only one strike. The family with the most points after the fourth round won the game.", "Two members of the winning family play Fast Money for a chance to win a cash bonus. One contestant is onstage with the host, while the other is sequestered backstage so that he/she cannot hear the first portion of the round. The first contestant is asked five rapid-fire survey questions and has a set time limit in which to answer them (originally 15 seconds, extended to 20 in 1994). The clock begins to run only after the first question is asked, and the first contestant may pass on a question and return to it after all five have been asked, if time remains.", "After the first contestant has either answered all five questions or run out of time, the host reveals how many people in the survey matched each of his/her answers. The board is then cleared except for the total score, and the second contestant is then brought out to answer the same five questions. The same rules are followed, but the time limit is extended by five seconds (originally 20, then extended to 25); in addition, if the second contestant duplicates an answer given by the first, a buzzer sounds and he/she must give another answer. If the two contestants reach a combined total of 200 points or more, the family wins the bonus. If not, they are given $5 per point scored as a consolation prize.[2]", "The grand prize for winning Fast Money has varied. When the program aired in daytime, families played for $5,000.[4][5] The grand prize for syndicated episodes was $10,000 for much of its existence. In 2001, the prize was doubled to $20,000 at the request of then-host Louie Anderson.[6]", "When Family Feud premiered on ABC, network rules dictated how much a family could win. Once any family reached $25,000, they were retired as champions.[7] The accompanying syndicated series that premiered in 1977 featured two new families each episode because of tape bicycling (a practice then common in syndicated television).", "The CBS daytime and syndicated versions which began airing in 1988 also featured returning champions, who could appear for a maximum of five days.[8] For a brief period in the 1994–95 season which aired in syndication, there were no returning champions. For these episodes, two new families competed in this first half of each episode. The second half featured former champion families who appeared on Family Feud between 1977 and 1985, with the winner of the first half of the show playing one of these families in the second half.[9]", "From 1999 to 2002, two new families appeared on each episode. The returning champions rule was reinstated with the same five-day limit starting with the 2002–03 season.[10] Starting with the 2009–10 season, a family that wins five matches also wins a new car.", "In June 1992, the CBS daytime edition of Feud expanded from thirty to sixty minutes and became known as Family Feud Challenge. As part of the change, a new round was added at the start of each game called \"Bullseye\". This round determined the potential Fast Money stake for each team.[11] Each team was given a starting value for their bank and attempted to come up with the top answer to a survey question to add to it. The Bullseye round was added to the syndicated edition in September 1992.", "The first two members of each family appeared at the face-off podium and were asked a question to which only the number-one answer was available. Giving the top answer added the value for that question to the family's bank. The process then repeated with the four remaining members from each family. On the first half of the daytime version, families were staked with $2,500. The first question was worth $500, with each succeeding question worth $500 more than the previous, with the final question worth $2,500. This allowed for a potential maximum bank of $10,000. For the second half of the daytime version, and also on the syndicated version, all values were doubled, making the maximum potential bank $20,000. The team that eventually won the game played for their bank in Fast Money.", "When Richard Dawson returned as host of the program in 1994, the round's name was changed to the \"Bankroll\" round.[12] Although the goal remained of giving only the number-one answer, the format was modified to three questions from five, with only one member of each family participating for all three questions. The initial stake for each family remained the same ($2,500 in the first half of the hour and $5,000 in the second). However, the value for each question was $500, $1,500 and $2,500 in the first half, with values doubling for the second half. This meant a potential maximum bank of $7,000 in the first half and $14,000 in the second.[12]", "The Bullseye round temporarily returned during the 2009–10 season. It was played similarly as the format used from 1992 to 1994 on the syndicated version, with five questions worth from $1,000 to $5,000. However, each family was given a $15,000 starting stake, which meant a potential maximum of a $30,000 bank.", "The ABC and first syndicated versions of Family Feud were hosted by Richard Dawson. As writer David Marc put it, Dawson's on-air personality \"fell somewhere between the brainless sincerity of Wink Martindale and the raunchy cynicism of Chuck Barris\".[13] Dawson showed himself to have insistent affections for all of the female members of each family that competed on the show, regardless of age.[13] Writers Tim Brooks, Jon Ellowitz, and Earle F. Marsh owed Family Feud's popularity to Dawson's \"glib familiarity\" (he had previously played Newkirk on Hogan's Heroes) and \"ready wit\" (from his tenure as a panelist on Match Game).[1] The show's original announcer was Gene Wood,[14] with Johnny Gilbert and Rod Roddy serving as occasional substitutes.[15]", "In 1988, Ray Combs took over Dawson's role as host on CBS and in syndication with Wood returning as announcer and Roddy, Art James, and Charlie O'Donnell serving in that role when Wood was not available.[15] Combs hosted the program until the daytime version's cancellation in 1993 and the syndicated version until the end of the 1993–94 season. Dawson returned to the show at the request of Mark Goodson Productions for the 1994–95 season.[16]", "When Feud returned to syndication in 1999, it was initially hosted by Louie Anderson,[1] with Burton Richardson as the new announcer.[17] Richard Karn was selected to take over for Anderson when season four premiered in 2002,[1] and when season eight premiered in 2006, Karn was replaced by John O'Hurley.[1] In 2010, both O'Hurley and Richardson departed from the show; comedian Steve Harvey was named the new host for season twelve,[18] and a pre-recorded track of former 'N Sync member Joey Fatone's voice was used until 2015,[19] when Rubin Ervin, who has been a member of the production staff as the warmup man for the audience since Harvey took over, became the announcer. (Richardson still announces for Celebrity Family Feud.)", "The first four versions of the show were directed by Paul Alter and produced by Howard Felsher and Cathy Dawson. For the 1988 versions, Gary Dawson worked with the show as a third producer, and Alter was joined by two other directors, Marc Breslow and Andy Felsher.[15] The 1999 version's main staff include executive producer Gabrielle Johnston, supervising producers Kristin Bjorklund and Brian Hawley, and director Ken Fuchs; Johnston and Bjorklund previously worked as associate producers of the 1980s version.[20] The show's classic theme tune was written by an uncredited Walt Levinsky for Score Productions. The themes used from 1999 to 2008 were written by John Lewis Parker.[20] The production rights to the show were originally owned by the production company Goodson shared with his partner Bill Todman, but were sold to their current holder, FremantleMedia, when it acquired all of Goodson and Todman's works in 2002.[20]", "Mark Goodson created Family Feud during the increasing popularity of his earlier game show Match Game, which set daytime ratings records in 1976, and on which Dawson had previously appeared as one of its most popular panelists. Match Game aired on CBS, and by 1976, CBS vice president Fred Silverman (who had originally commissioned Match Game) had moved to a new position as President of ABC. The show premiered on ABC's daytime lineup at 1:30 p.m. (EST) on July 12, 1976, and although it was not an immediate hit, before long it became a ratings winner and eventually surpassed Match Game to become the No. 1 game show in daytime. Due to the expansion of All My Children to one hour in April 1977 (taking up the entire 1 pm. to 2 p.m. hour), the show moved to 11:30 a.m., as the second part of an hour that had daytime reruns of Happy Days (later Laverne & Shirley) as its lead-in. When $20,000 Pyramid was cancelled in June 1980, it moved a half-hour back to 12 noon. [21] It remained the most popular daytime game show until Merv Griffin's game show Wheel of Fortune surpassed it in 1984.[2] From 1978 until 1984, ABC periodically broadcast hour-long primetime \"All-Star Specials\", in which celebrity casts from various primetime lineup TV series competed instead of ordinary families.[1] The popularity of the program inspired Goodson to consider producing a nighttime edition, which launched in syndication on September 18, 1977. Like many other game shows at the time, the nighttime Feud aired once a week; it expanded to twice a week in January 1979,[2] and finally to five nights a week (Monday through Friday) in the fall of 1980. However, the viewing habits of both daytime and syndicated audiences were changing.[2] When Griffin launched Wheel's syndicated version, starring Pat Sajak and Vanna White, in 1983, that show climbed the ratings to the point where it unseated Feud as the highest-rated syndicated show;[22] the syndicated premiere of Wheel's sister show Jeopardy! with Alex Trebek as host also siphoned ratings from Feud with its early success. With declining ratings, and as part of a scheduling reshuffle with two of ABC's half-hour soaps, the show moved back to the 11:30 a.m. timeslot in October 1984, as the second part of a one-hour game show block with Trivia Trap (later All-Star Blitz) as its lead in, hoping to make a dent in the ratings of The Price is Right.", "Despite the ratings decline, there was some interest in keeping the show in production. In a 2011 interview, Dawson recalled a meeting with executives from Viacom Enterprises about keeping the show for one more season. Dawson was growing tired of the grueling taping schedule and initially wanted to stop altogether. After discussing the situation with ABC and Viacom, Dawson said that he would return for a final syndicated season of thirty-nine weeks of episodes but would not continue doing the daytime series. After this, Dawson did not hear from Viacom for approximately a week and once they contacted him again, Dawson was told that Viacom was no longer interested in continuing the syndicated Feud beyond the 1984–85 season.[23] Viacom made this official in January 1985 ahead of that year's NATPE convention, and within a few weeks, ABC decided that it too would not renew Feud for the 1985–86 season.[24] The daytime version came to an end on June 14, 1985.[2] The syndicated version aired its last new episode on May 17, 1985, and continued to air in reruns after that until September 6, 1985.[2]", "Family Feud moved to CBS with Combs hosting on July 4, 1988 at 10:00 a.m. (EST), replacing The $25,000 Pyramid. Like its predecessor, this version also had an accompanying syndicated edition which launched in September of that year. It moved to 10:30 a.m. in January 1991 to make room for a short-lived talk show starring Barbara DeAngelis. At that timeslot, it replaced the daytime Wheel of Fortune which moved back to NBC. [1] In June 1992, the network version expanded from its original half-hour format to a full hour from 10 a.m.-11 a.m., and was retitled The Family Feud Challenge;[1] this new format featured three families per episode, which included two new families competing in the first half-hour for the right to play the returning champions in the second half. The Family Feud Challenge aired its final new episode on March 26, 1993, with reruns airing until September 10.[25] The syndicated Feud, meanwhile, remained in production and entered its sixth season in the fall of 1993.", "However, the ratings picture was not particularly good for the syndicated edition. For much of its run to this point, the syndicated Feud had to deal with stations dropping the series or moving it to undesirable time slots such as overnights. By 1992, the ratings had hit a low point and by the time the sixth season premiered, distributor All American Television was threatening to cancel the series unless ratings improved and changes were made. The responsibility for this fell on Jonathan Goodson, who had taken over his father's company when Mark Goodson died in 1992. One of the options considered was a host change.[16]", "When the revival launched in 1988, Mark Goodson had not even considered former host Richard Dawson to return due to lingering bad feelings between Dawson and the production team. After hiring Ray Combs, Goodson threw his loyalties behind him and refused to consider changing hosts despite the slipping ratings. However, the younger Goodson did not have the ties to Combs that his father did and felt that a change would at least require consideration. After meeting with his staff, Goodson offered Dawson a contract to return as host of the syndicated Feud and the semi-retired Dawson agreed to return. Combs finished out the remainder of the season but, upset by the decision to replace him, he departed from the studio as soon as he signed off on the final episode of his tenure.[16]", "A revamped Family Feud returned for a seventh season in September 1994 with Dawson in his role as host. The show expanded from thirty to sixty minutes, reinstated the Family Feud Challenge format, and did various other things to try to improve the ratings of the show such as build a more modern-looking set, feature families that had previously been champions on the original Feud, and have more themed weeks. Although Dawson did bring a brief ratings surge when he came back, the show could not sustain it long term and Feud came to a conclusion at the end of the 1994–95 season.", "Family Feud returned in syndication on September 20, 1999, with comedian Louie Anderson as host.[26] After Richard Karn took over the show, the format was changed to reintroduce returning champions, allowing them to appear for up to five days. However, even after Karn's takeover, Anderson-hosted episodes continued in reruns that aired on PAX TV/Ion Television.[1] In John O'Hurley's later days, the show's Nielsen ratings were at 1.5 (putting it in danger of cancellation), but when comedian Steve Harvey took over, ratings increased by as much as 40%,[27] and within two short years, the show was rated at 4.0, and had become the fifth most popular syndicated program.[28] Fox News' Paulette Cohn argued that Harvey's \"relatability,\" or \"understanding of what the people at home want to know,\" is what saved the show from cancellation;[29] Harvey himself argued, \"If someone said an answer that was so ridiculous, I knew that the people at home behind the camera had to be going, 'What did they just say?' … They gave this answer that doesn't have a shot in hell of being up there. The fact that I recognize that, that's comedic genius to me. I think that's [made] the difference.\"[29]", "Since Harvey became host, Family Feud has regularly ranked among the top 10 highest-rated programs in all of daytime television programming and third among game shows (behind Wheel of Fortune and Jeopardy!); in February 2014, the show achieved a 6.0 share in the Nielsen ratings, with approximately 8.8 million viewers.[30] In June 2015, Family Feud eclipsed Wheel of Fortune as the most-watched syndicated game show on television.[31]", "Reruns of the Dawson, Combs, and Anderson hosted episodes have been included among Buzzr's acquisitions since its launch on June 1, 2015.[32] On June 13, 2016, American episodes hosted by Harvey began airing on the UK digital terrestrial and satellite channel Challenge.[33]", "Production of Family Feud was shifted from Universal Orlando to Harvey's hometown of Atlanta in 2011, primarily at the Atlanta Civic Center. Harvey was also originating a syndicated radio show from Atlanta, and the state of Georgia also issued tax credits for the production. In 2017, production moved to Los Angeles Center Studios in Los Angeles to accommodate Harvey's new syndicated talk show Steve, returning production of the regular series back to Los Angeles for the first time since 2010.[34][35][36][37]", "Family Feud won the Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Game/Audience Participation Show in 1977, and the show has twice won the Daytime Emmy for Outstanding Game Show Host, once with Dawson (1978) and again with Harvey (2014) and (2017).[38][39] Feud ranked number 3 on Game Show Network (GSN)'s 2006 list of the 50 Greatest Game Shows of All Time,[40] and also on TV Guide's 2013 list of the 60 greatest game shows ever.[41]", "Tara Ariano and Sarah D. Bunting, founders of the website Television Without Pity, wrote that they hated the 1999 syndicated version, saying \"Give us classic Feud every time\", citing both Dawson and Combs as hosts. Additionally, they called Anderson an \"alleged sexual harasser and full-time sphere\".[42]", "It was reported that the public responded negatively to several videos posted on the official Family Feud web site in September 2015 in which contestants on the current version gave sexually explicit answers to survey questions.[43] Dan Gainor of the Media Research Center suggested that the responses are in line with sexual content becoming more commonplace on television.[43]", "The popularity of Family Feud in the United States has led it to become a worldwide franchise, with over 50 adaptations outside the United States. Countries that have aired their own versions of the show include Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and Vietnam, among others.", "Since the show's premiere in 1976, many home versions of Family Feud have been released in various formats. Milton Bradley, Pressman Games, and Endless Games have all released traditional board games based on the show,[44][45] while Imagination Entertainment released the program in a DVD game format.[46]", "The game has been released in other formats by multiple companies; Coleco Adam released the first computer version of the show in 1983, and Sharedata followed in 1987 with versions for MS-DOS, Commodore 64, and Apple II computers.[47] GameTek released versions for Nintendo Entertainment System, Super NES, Genesis, 3DO, and PC (on CD-ROM) between 1990 and 1995.[48] Hasbro Interactive released a version in 2000 for the PC and PlayStation.[49] In 2006, versions were released for PlayStation 2, Game Boy Advance, and PC.[50] Seattle-based Mobliss Inc. also released a mobile version of Family Feud that was available on Sprint, Verizon, and Cingular.[51][52][53] Glu Mobile later released a newer mobile version of Family Feud for other carriers.[54]", "Most recently, in conjunction with Ludia, Ubisoft has video games for multiple platforms. The first of these was entitled Family Feud: 2010 Edition and was released for the Wii, Nintendo DS, and PC in September 2009.[55] Ubisoft then released Family Feud Decades the next year, which featured sets and survey questions from television versions of all four decades the show has been on air.[56] A third game, entitled Family Feud: 2012 Edition was released for the Wii and Xbox 360 in 2011.[57]", "In addition to the home games, a DVD set titled All-Star Family Feud was released on January 8, 2008 and featured a total of 15 celebrity episodes from the original ABC/syndicated versions on its four discs.[58] It was re-issued as The Best of All-Star Family Feud on February 2, 2010.[59]" ]
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when did richmond last play in a preliminary final
Richmond Football Club
[ "Richmond Football Club\n\n\n\n\n\nNames\n\n\nFull name\nRichmond Football Club\n\n\nNickname(s)\nTigers, Tiges\n\n\n2017 season\n\n\nAfter finals\n1st\n\n\nHome-and-away season\n3rd\n\n\nLeading goalkicker\nJack Riewoldt (54)\n\n\nJack Dyer Medal\nDustin Martin\n\n\nClub details\n\n\nFounded\n1885\n\n\nColours\n     Yellow      black\n\n\nCompetition\nAustralian Football League\n\n\nPresident\nPeggy O'Neal\n\n\nCoach\nDamien Hardwick\n\n\nCaptain(s)\nTrent Cotchin\n\n\nPremierships\nVFL/AFL (11):\n1920, 1921, 1932, 1934, 1943, 1967, 1969, 1973, 1974, 1980, 2017\nVFA (2):\n1902, 1905\n\n\nGround(s)\nMelbourne Cricket Ground (capacity: 100,024)\n\n\nTraining ground(s)\nPunt Road Oval\n\n\nUniforms\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nHome\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nAway\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nAlternate\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nOther information\n\n\nOfficial website\nrichmondfc.com.au", "Richmond Football Club", "Names", "Full name\nRichmond Football Club", "Nickname(s)\nTigers, Tiges", "2017 season", "After finals\n1st", "Home-and-away season\n3rd", "Leading goalkicker\nJack Riewoldt (54)", "Jack Dyer Medal\nDustin Martin", "Club details", "Founded\n1885", "Colours\n     Yellow      black", "Competition\nAustralian Football League", "President\nPeggy O'Neal", "Coach\nDamien Hardwick", "Captain(s)\nTrent Cotchin", "Premierships\nVFL/AFL (11):\n1920, 1921, 1932, 1934, 1943, 1967, 1969, 1973, 1974, 1980, 2017\nVFA (2):\n1902, 1905", "Ground(s)\nMelbourne Cricket Ground (capacity: 100,024)", "Training ground(s)\nPunt Road Oval", "Uniforms", "Home\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nAway\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nAlternate", "Home\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nAway\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nAlternate", "Home\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nAway\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nAlternate", "Other information", "Official website\nrichmondfc.com.au", "The Richmond Football Club, nicknamed the Tigers, is a professional Australian rules football club playing in the Australian Football League (AFL), the sport's premier competition. Between its inception in Richmond, Melbourne in 1885 and 1907, the club competed in the Victorian Football Association (VFA), winning two premierships. Richmond joined the Victorian Football League (now known as the AFL) in 1908 and has since won eleven premierships, most recently in 2017.", "Richmond's headquarters and training facilities are located at its original home ground, the Punt Road Oval, which sits adjacent to the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), the club's playing home since 1965. Richmond traditionally wears a black guernsey with a yellow sash. Richmond has a long-standing rivalry with cross-town Carlton, and the two teams compete each year in the opening match of the AFL season.", "The club is coached by Damien Hardwick and its current captain is Trent Cotchin. Four Richmond players have been inducted into the Australian Football Hall of Fame as \"Legends\" of the sport: Kevin Bartlett, Jack Dyer, Royce Hart and Ian Stewart.", "This article or section appears to be slanted towards recent events. Please try to keep recent events in historical perspective and add more content related to non-recent events. (September 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "This article or section appears to be slanted towards recent events. Please try to keep recent events in historical perspective and add more content related to non-recent events. (September 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "A short-lived football club named Richmond was established in 1860 with Tom Wills, one of the founders of Australian rules football, serving as its inaugural secretary and captain.[1][2] Wills' cousin H. C. A. Harrison captained Richmond briefly in the early 1860s before moving to Geelong.[3] This club has no continuity to the present club. A number of teams formed in Richmond during the game's rapid expansion in the 1870s and early 1880s.[4] However, all played at a junior level and it was considered an anomaly that Richmond, one of Melbourne's most prominent suburbs, did not boast a senior side. The wait ended when the Richmond Football Club was officially formed at the Royal Hotel in Richmond on 20 February 1885.[5] A successful application for immediate admission to the Victorian Football Association (VFA) followed. The club shared the Punt Road Oval with the Richmond Cricket Club, one of the strongest cricket clubs in Australia which had been playing on the ground since 1856.[6]", "At first the team wore blue guernseys and caps with yellow and black stripes in the style of the Richmond Cricket Club. The football club soon adopted yellow and black as its official colours. The team was variously called the \"Richmondites\", the \"Wasps\" or, most commonly, the \"Tigers\".", "During the late 1880s, Richmond struggled to make an impression in the VFA, and after a promising season in 1888 (when they finished fifth with eleven wins), the club slipped backwards, in the process losing players to more successful sides. As the local economy slipped into severe depression in the early 1890s and the crowds began to dwindle, some of the VFA's strongest clubs began to agitate for a reform of the competition, and Richmond was not considered part of this elite group, which usually voted as a block at VFA meetings.", "In 1896, Richmond walked off the field in a match against South Melbourne to protest the umpiring, and later in the season, the Tigers had their half-time score annulled against Essendon when it was discovered that they had too many men on the ground. In the closing three weeks of the season, Richmond's cut of the gate takings amounted to just five pounds, and the they finished the season with the wooden spoon.", "In October 1896, the cabal of six strong clubs broke with the association to form the Victorian Football League (VFL). As a struggling club with a poor following, Richmond was not invited to join the new league. Richmond's performances did not immediately improve in the emaciated VFA until the turn of the century.", "The Tigers were boosted by a significant country recruit in 1901. George \"Mallee\" Johnson was an instant sensation and the first true star player at the club. Richmond leapt to third place and then in 1902, with Johnson dominating the ruck, Richmond entered the closing weeks of the season neck and neck with Port Melbourne at the head of the ladder, but Port Melbourne faltered against Williamstown to hand Richmond its first flag.", "Having missed a potential bonanza from a premiership play-off, the VFA decided to emulate the VFL and introduce a finals series in 1903, a fateful decision for the Tigers. After recruiting the competition's leading goalkicker, Jack Hutchinson, and finishing the season as minor premier, Richmond lost both finals and were runner-up. The following season, the club became embroiled in a feud with umpire Allen, whom the Tigers accused of failing to curb field invasions or the dubious tactics of arch-rival North Melbourne. When the two clubs were scheduled to meet in the 1904 VFA Grand Final, Richmond announced that they wouldn't play with Allen as umpire. The VFA called Richmond's bluff, and appointed Allen as umpire for the match, meaning that the Grand Final was scratched and North Melbourne won the premiership on forfeit.", "Richmond were now openly at odds with the VFA, and matters failed to improve in the next few years. The club was campaigning against violence (both on-field and among the crowd), ungentlemanly conduct and poor sportsmanship, issues that plagued the VFA to a far greater extent than the rival VFL since the 1896 split. Richmond cultivated links with some VFL clubs by playing practice matches against them. Richmond knew that they were a major asset to the VFA, had built up a large following and played on one of the best grounds in the competition, where they remained unbeaten for five years. In 1905, Richmond confirmed their status with a second premiership, this time overcoming bitter rivals North Melbourne, \"Mallee\" Johnson had moved to Carlton, but youngster Charlie Ricketts dominated the season and won plaudits among the pressmen, who voted him the best player in the VFA.", "However, Ricketts was also lost to the VFL and injury hit the club hard. In 1906–07, the Tigers played finals without looking likely to win the flag. The club earned a rebuke from the VFA for scheduling a practice match against Geelong before the 1907 season, then went ahead with the commitment and earned further censure. Later in the year it became clear that the VFL wanted to expand its competition and Richmond won a place ahead of North Melbourne, which had been strengthened by an amalgamation with the bankrupt West Melbourne as part of their bid. Richmond were granted admission along with the now defunct University Football Club.", "The first few seasons in the VFL were less than spectacular. Although the club turned up some star players, it let a lot of talent leave and the administration was unstable after George Bennett's death at the end of the 1908 season. In 1916, the side played in the finals for the first time, however, with World War I having reduced the competition to just four clubs, finals qualification was automatic.", "Finally, in 1919, Richmond made their first Grand Final appearance, losing to Collingwood. Richmond stoked a rivalry with Collingwood by recruiting their former skipper Dan Minogue as playing coach and gained vengeance by beating Collingwood in the 1920 VFL Grand Final to secure a first flag in the big league. This was followed by an even better performance the next year. The only club that continued to beat Richmond on a regular basis was Carlton. Finishing minor premier with only one loss for the season in 1921, Carlton were the hottest premiership favourite, yet Richmond managed to beat them in two classic finals matches played over successive weeks to go back-to-back.", "The rest of the decade saw four more Grand Final appearances, all of which would end in frustration. From 1927 to 1929 Richmond became the first club in the VFL to lose three consecutive Grand Finals, all of which were to neighbouring archrivals, Collingwood.", "The next VFL flag came in 1932, with Richmond's triumph over Carlton in a tough encounter which saw Richmond wingman Alan Geddes play the second half with a broken jaw. Another premiership came in 1934, this time against South Melbourne's famed \"Foreign Legion\", avenging Richmond's loss in the 1933 VFL Grand Final.", "Prior to the commencement of the 1940 season, internal problems were brewing between the key personalities at the club. Some felt that the uneven performance of the team was due to Percy Bentley's coaching methods, and that he should be replaced. Jack Dyer walked out on the club and threatened to play in the VFA after his father, a committeeman who was involved with the anti-Bentley faction, lost his position at the board elections. Finally, the matter was resolved and Bentley kept his job, while Dyer returned to training on the eve of the season. The problems appeared to have been solved when Richmond won the semi-final against Melbourne to go straight into the 1940 VFL Grand Final. However, Melbourne reversed this result with a crushing win to pinch the premiership. Richmond had been out-thought by their old mentor Frank 'Checker' Hughes, who had assigned a tagger to negate Dyer. Dyer was furious that Bentley had done nothing to prevent his opponent taking him out of the game. The Richmond committee agreed with this assessment, so when Bentley (after retiring as a player) attempted to negotiate a higher fee to continue his coaching tenure, he was rebuffed. Incensed, Bentley quit Punt Road and moved to Carlton as coach, adding further spice to an already fierce rivalry between the two clubs.", "Despite the tribulations created by the Second World War, Richmond was able to maintain a commendable level of consistency on the field. The club had quite a lot of players in reserved occupations who remained at home, while the administration became adept at securing star players who were temporarily in Melbourne on war service.[citation needed][examples needed] Dyer was a fearsome presence in his role as playing coach, but he was unable to improve Richmond's ability to win finals matches. A loss in the 1942 VFL Grand Final to Essendon (after starting as favourite) meant that over the previous 18 years, Richmond had won two flags but been runner-up eight times. Jack Titus set a still unbeaten record of playing in six losing Grand Final teams. In 1943, Richmond broke through to beat Essendon in a thrilling Grand Final by five points, a win that the club dedicated to ex-player Bill Cosgrove, an RAF pilot who had been killed in action a few weeks before the match. But another Grand Final loss followed in 1944, when Dyer's team failed against Fitzroy on a very hot day.", "In the immediate post-war era, despite an influx of excellent new players, Richmond struggled to make the four, appearing in the finals only once, in 1947. Dyer continued on as coach for three years after his playing retirement at the end of 1949, but was asked to retire by the committee who felt the club needed a shake up. Under a succession of coaches in the 1950s, With the demands of potential players increasing with each passing year, the club refused to allocate sufficient funds to recruit and they failed to replace star players as they retired. When stalwarts such as Des Rowe and dual-Brownlow Medallist Roy Wright left, the team slumped dramatically and finished with a wooden spoon in 1960.", "1966 heralded the start of the Tom Hafey era. Hafey, a former player of the club, was appointed coach and lead the club to winning four premierships under his leadership. They won the 1967 flag in a thrilling encounter with Geelong, ending a 24-year premiership drought. In 1969, it became two in three years as Richmond, who had finished fourth on the ladder, beat the much fancied Carlton in the 1969 VFL Grand Final by 25 points.", "Richmond were dominant in 1972 and were hot favourites in the 1972 VFL Grand Final against Carlton. However, Carlton stunned Richmond in a game of ridiculous high scoring. Even Richmond equalled the then record highest score in a Grand Final of 22.18 (150), but Carlton beat it with 28.9 (177). Richmond got their revenge in an intensely physical clash in the 1973 VFL Grand Final and went back-to-back in 1974 with a strong win against a resurgent North Melbourne.", "Richmond won its next premiership with a then record-breaking margin of 81 points over arch-rivals Collingwood in 1980. After reaching and losing the 1982 VFL Grand Final, it has been a rocky road for Richmond who have struggled to come to grips with the rules and regulations of a modernised VFL, including the draft and salary cap. The successes of the early 1980s were bought at high financial cost through expensive recruiting, and were followed by severe cut backs that saw several top players depart.", "Still smarting from the loss of star players to Collingwood, Richmond set themselves for war with Collingwood in 1984 by signing three of their players: John Annear, Craig Stewart and Phil Walsh. Not only were there big contracts and transfer fees to pay, but the costs of an expensive court action as well.", "Richmond also signed a number of mediocre players on big contracts, and the club's financial situation took a battering. With the team failing to improve, a challenge to the committee was brewing and Richmond's traditional political stability threatened. The rebel group, organised by long-time servant Bill Durham, convinced former player and coach Barry Richardson to be leader. An election in late 1984 failed to clarify the situation.", "Ian Wilson held on to the presidency into the new year. When the one hundredth birthday of the club arrived in February 1985, there was too much dissension to mark the moment fittingly. Eventually, Wilson handed over to Richardson, who had selected his former premiership teammate Paul Sproule to return from Tasmania and take over the coaching position on a guaranteed contract.", "As the season progressed with Richmond still struggling, Sproule came under pressure. Richardson guaranteed his position, but at the end of the year, the committee overruled Richardson and sacked Sproule. Incensed, Richardson walked out of Punt Road, which was in turmoil again. Desperately, Richmond turned back to Tony Jewell, who was appointed coach for a second time, the only man in the club's history to get a second go at the job. Jewell later commented on the destruction wrought on the club during his four-year absence: \"the supporters were gone, the members were gone, the money was gone, ... a real shame.\"", "With the competition set to expand, Richmond made a number of misguided moves in 1986. To fill the vacancy left by Richardson, Richmond wooed high-flying West Australian entrepreneur Alan Bond to become president. Bond came with an agenda to raise money for the club by listing on the stockmarket and relocating to Brisbane. When the latter plan was revealed in the media, a furious reaction from supporters and high-profile club personalities buried the proposal almost immediately. Early in 1987, Bond's tenure at the club ended in farce when he resigned without presiding over a single game. The off-field confusion was reflected in the players' performance as Richmond slumped to only its second wooden spoon in 70 years.", "Although the new president, ex-captain Neville Crowe, had stabilised the club and scored a coup by persuading club legend Kevin Bartlett to coach, The club managed to stay solvent by cutting expenses to the bone and paying only two-thirds of the allowable salary cap. But there was no money for recruiting to improve an impoverished playing list. The club struggled to come to terms with the draft after its inception in 1986, and made a number of poor choices—notably, the number one pick in 1987 was used on a player who had only two games with Richmond.", "Finally, with the economy in serious recession and interest rates touching seventeen per cent, Richmond's creditors came knocking. At one point, an attempt was made to seize the club's 1973 and 1974 premiership trophies as securities for unpaid debts, an embarrassing situation. For a number of years, the exact amount that the club owed was not publicly known. After Bartlett came Allan Jeans, who then passed the job to ex-Richmond premiership player John Northey for 1993. Northey returned the team to the simple long-kicking style of the halcyon days under the legendary Tom Hafey. Along with some draft concessions granted by the AFL, Northey's efforts gradually improved Richmond. The team fumbled an opportunity to make the 1994 finals, then opened 1995 with its best start to a season in 75 years and eventually made it to the preliminary final. With a talented playing list and a strong administration led by Leon Daphne (Richmond's first president from the corporate world, the Alan Bond farce aside), Richmond looked set to become regular finalists again.", "The anticipated success failed to materialise, partly because Richmond allowed the coaching position to again become unstable. With over a year still to run on his contract, John Northey demanded a contract extension that the club refused. This was because of a rumour that some people with an association with the club were pursuing Essendon coach and former Richmond premiership player Kevin Sheedy. So Northey walked out on Richmond and accepted a longer-term contract to coach the Brisbane Bears. Richmond, caught short, appointed the Bears' ex-coach Robert Walls for 1996. After several humiliating thrashings in 1997, Robert Walls became the first Richmond coach to be sacked mid-season. After two-and-a-half seasons under Jeff Gieschen, the club appointed ex-St Kilda captain Danny Frawley. After a Preliminary Final appearance in Frawley's second season, Richmond overestimated the strength of the list and settled for trading for established players rather than drafting youth. Over the next three seasons, the team managed just 18 wins. The administration continued to support Frawley and ensured that he would see out his contract, a far cry from the way many of his predecessors were treated. However, midway through the 2004 season (a season in which Richmond only managed 4 wins, and lost their last 14 H&A matches), Frawley announced he would be relinquishing his role as Richmond coach at seasons' end.", "The 2005 pre-season began with renewed optimism at the club, with No. 1 draft pick Brett Deledio being touted as a future star and leader. However, the Tigers' first match of the season (against Geelong), quickly dashed that hope, as they were thrashed by 62 points. However, this loss would spark a change in the Tigers, and in the next 8 weeks of the season, they would go on to win 7 matches (the one exception being a 68-point loss at the hands of St Kilda in Round 5). This included wins over the then-reigning premiers, Port Adelaide, and over then-runners up, the Brisbane Lions. Sitting pretty at 7 wins and 2 losses, and 3rd on the ladder, the impossible prospect of finals football loomed large. However, in the Round 10 match against Melbourne, star player Nathan Brown suffered a horrible leg injury, that would sideline him for the rest of the season. They went on to lose the match by 57 points, and would only register 3 more wins for the season (one of those was against eventual premiers the Sydney Swans by one point, who had a one-point win against Collingwood the round before), eventually finishing 12th.", "2006, a year which many experts predicted continued improvement for the Tigers, saw them lose their first H&A match by 115 points, against the Western Bulldogs, after which followed losses to St Kilda and West Coast. By the end of Round 3, things were looking grim for the Tigers once again. However, just as they did in 2005, the Tigers would respond to their poor start by winning 8 of their next 11 matches, and by the end of Round 14, the Tigers were in the Top 8 by a game and percentage. However, their spot in the Top 8 would be short lived, as 4 straight losses between Rounds 15 and 18 would effectively end their finals chances. They finished the 2006 season in 9th place, with 11 wins and 11 losses.", "After promising seasons in 2005 and 2006, it was expected that the Tigers would take the next step in 2007, and play finals football. After massive hype in the off-season, the Tigers had a terrible start to the 2007 season, losing their first 9 matches (this included suffering their biggest ever defeat, at the hands of eventual premiers Geelong, by a whopping 157 points). Their first premiership points came in a draw against the Brisbane Lions in Round 10, and their first win of the season didn't come until Round 12 against fellow straggler Melbourne. After Round 18 of the season, the Tigers had registered a mere 1 win, 1 draw, and 16 losses, and were looking like recording their worst ever recorded season. However, late-season victories over old rivals Collingwood in Round 19, and Essendon in Round 21, saved them from this fate. They would eventually finish the year as wooden-spooners, with 3 wins, 1 draw, and 18 losses.", "After the end of the 2007 season, Richmond elected to delist Patrick Bowden, Brent Hartigan, Andrew Krakouer and Carl Peterson. These four joined another four players in leaving Punt Road—veteran Darren Gaspar, Kent Kingsley, Trent Knobel and Ray Hall. While these players left the club Jake King and Angus Graham were elevated off the rookie list.", "Next up came the 2007 AFL Draft, in which the Tigers recruited highly rated midfielder Trent Cotchin with their first pick (No. 2 overall), backman Alex Rance (pick No. 18 overall) and ruckman Dean Putt (pick No. 51 overall). Then, in the pre-season draft, they elected to pick David Gourdis with the number one pick. The Tigers also picked Clayton Collard, Jarrod Silvester, Tristan Cartledge and Cameron Howat for the rookie list. Cam Howat had previously been on the rookie list but was delisted then picked up again.", "Richmond began the 2008 season with a surprise win over Carlton, but from Rounds 2 to 11, registered only two more wins (and a controversial draw against the Western Bulldogs). The club fought back in the latter half of the season, winning eight of its last 11 matches. However, this was not enough to reach the finals, as Richmond finished two premiership points short (and percentage) of 8th placed Collingwood.", "At the start of 2009, Richmond was said to be rising as a team, and they would be in the eight .[citation needed] They had recruited former Brownlow Medal winner Ben Cousins – who had previously been released by the West Coast Eagles due to drug trouble – and they had rising stars in Brett Deledio and Trent Cotchin. However, the club was beaten by 83 points in Round 1 by Carlton, and did not register a win until Round 5, against North Melbourne. With a record of 2–9 after eleven weeks, Terry Wallace stepped down as coach, having announced his intention during the previous week. Jade Rawlings was announced as caretaker senior coach; he adopted a youth policy for the remainder of the year, which saw experienced players Joel Bowden and Matthew Richardson retire by the end of the year. Rawlings led Richmond to three wins and a draw from eleven games. Richmond finished fifteenth with a record of 5–16–1. On 25 August, Damien Hardwick was appointed to be the senior coach from 2010.", "As Jade Rawlings and Craig McRae and Brian Royal left the Tigers assistant coaching panel, Brendon Lade and Justin Leppitsch were appointed as assistant coaches, leaving only Wayne Campbell as a previous Richmond assistant coach. Brendon Gale was also appointed CEO of the Tigers.", "Richmond was not expected to be competitive in 2010, with many commentators predicting the team would win no more than four games. From the 2009 AFL Draft, the Tigers drafted seven new players, which included midfielder Dustin Martin. At the 2010 Pre-season Draft, Richmond recruited young key defender Dylan Grimes, brother of Melbourne defender Jack Grimes.", "Damien Hardwick selected a young team at the start of the season, with four debutants, and only three players (Ben Cousins, Chris Newman and Troy Simmonds) over 25 in the Round 1 loss against Carlton. Richmond was winless after nine games, before a scrappy win over Port Adelaide in Round 10. This was the start of a turnaround in Richmond's form, with the team winning six out of eight games, to sit with a record of 6–12 after eighteen rounds. After losing the final four matches, Richmond finished fifteenth out of sixteen with a record of 6–16. Young key forward Jack Riewoldt finished the season with 78 goals, to win the Coleman Medal.", "Very early in the season, Richmond were criticised for \"partying too much\" in the wake of its winless start to the season; after the Round 3 loss to the Sydney Swans, Richmond players were reported to be at the bar drinking and acting in a disorderly manner.[7]", "Richmond continued to show improvement to finish 12th out of 17 teams in 2011 with eight wins and a draw.", "Jack Riewoldt again led the goalkicking with 62 majors, down on his previous year's tally of 78. Young midfielder Trent Cotchin won his first Jack Dyer Medal with 236 votes.[8] Cotchin also polled the most votes of any Richmond player in the 2011 Brownlow Medal count with 15 votes. Dustin Martin was next best, polling 12 votes.[9]", "Richmond's 2012 season did not see an improvement from the previous three years, as they lost 6 games by 12 points or less and finished 12th for the second year running. They were the first team to be beaten by the Gold Coast in the season, having led by ten points with less than a minute remaining, the Tigers produced what former Sydney Swans coach Paul Roos labelled \"the worst 47 seconds in footy\" to lose by two points.[10] They did, however, defeat both of the eventual grand finalists Hawthorn and Sydney during the season, the only team to do so the entire year. 2012 also saw Richmond have its first Brownlow Medallist in over 40 years when Trent Cotchin polled 26 votes to be the joint winner with Hawthorn's Sam Mitchell.", "2013 saw Richmond claim a victory over Hawthorn (making it one of only two clubs that season to defeat the eventual premiers) and go on to qualify for its first finals series in over a decade.[11][12] However, before 94,690 fans—the largest week-one crowd since the VFL/AFL adopted its current finals system—Richmond lost to Carlton in the first elimination final.[13] Also that year, Peggy O'Neal, an American-born lawyer, became the AFL's first female club president when she got the position at Richmond.[14]", "After its drought-breaking finals appearance the previous year, Richmond failed to live up to expectations in the first half of the 2014 season, losing 10 of its first 13 matches and dropping to 16th place on the ladder. Despite public sentiment that the season was lost, the club rallied behind a five-goal performance by Cotchin to win against St Kilda.[15] It catalysed a nine-match winning streak, with a Round 23 victory against eventual grand-finalists Sydney raising Richmond to 8th on the ladder and putting the club into its first back-to-back finals appearance since 1975. A 57-point loss to Port Adelaide in an elimination final knocked Richmond out in the first week of the finals.[16] Cotchin won the Jack Dyer Medal for the third time in four years, making him the youngest Richmond player to win three club best and fairest awards.[17]", "Richmond faced the prospect of another disappointing season in 2015, losing 4 of its first 6 games. In the following weeks, however, the club registered 4 straight wins, including an upset victory over the previously undefeated Fremantle in Perth,[18] and went on to defeat top-four teams Sydney and reigning premiers Hawthorn. Richmond would go on to win the final four games of the home and away season to finish fifth on the ladder. Facing North Melbourne in an elimination final, Richmond lost by 17 points in front of a crowd of 90,186, making it the club's third consecutive first weeks finals loss.[19]", "In 2016, Richmond failed to qualify for the finals for the first time in four years. Following a comprehensive Round 3 loss to Adelaide, coach Hardwick said the team would have to \"take a little half-step back to go two steps forward.\"[20] It would go on to be the story of the season with several major defeats including one against Greater Western Sydney in which Richmond registered its lowest score since 1961.[21] The club debuted six players and brought in two recruits for their first games in the yellow and black.", "During the preseason period for 2016/17, Richmond made a number of changes to its playing list and coaching staff. Among these changes was the departure of Brett Deledio to Greater Western Sydney, in a three-way deal involving Geelong that saw the Tigers receive a 2017 first-round draft selection from the Cats, as well as a 2017 third-round selection from the Giants. Richmond also attained the services of Gold Coast Suns midfielder Dion Prestia, Geelong player Josh Caddy, and young Sydney Swans ruckman Toby Nankervis in preparation for the 2017 season.", "Richmond began 2017 with 5 straight wins, a feat it had not achieved since 1995. A series of close losses hampered the Tigers throughout the middle of the season, including a 5-point loss to the Western Bulldogs, 2-point loss to Fremantle, and a 3-point loss to the Giants. Richmond ended the season strongly with convincing victories over Fremantle and St Kilda in the final two rounds, elevating the club to 3rd on the ladder. Richmond's first final of the season against the Cats at the MCG attracted a record qualifying final crowd of 95,028; the Tigers won by 51 points. Having advanced to the first preliminary finals for the first time since 2001, Richmond defeated Greater Western Sydney by 36 points in front of a crowd of 94,258 to progress to the Grand Final against Adelaide, their first Grand Final appearance since 1982. The attendance was 100,021, the largest crowd to a grand final since 1986. The Crows led at quarter time and led by as many as 13, but the Tigers took over the game as it progressed and scored seven straight goals at one point. They eventually would win by 48 points – 16.12 (108) to Adelaide's 8.12 (60) – to end their 37-year flag drought.[22] Dustin Martin also became the first player to win a Premiership medal, the Brownlow Medal and the Norm Smith Medal in the same season, while Damien Hardwick was named AFL Coaches Association Coach of the Year. Richmond's jump from 13th to premiers also marked the biggest jump from one AFL season to the next.", "Initially, Richmond saw itself as a gentlemanly and sportsman-like club; it even went to the extent of sacking a player who used poor language. During the early 1900s, the club used the press as a forum to publicise a campaign against violence in the game, which earned the derision of some rival clubs. This image followed the club into the VFL in 1908 and during the First World War the club emphasised the number of men associated with the club who had enlisted and served overseas. But the club's actions in 1916, when it voted with three other clubs seen as representative of the working class (Collingwood, Fitzroy and Carlton) to continue playing football, left no doubt as to which side of the class divide that the Tigers belonged. The club's self-consciously non-confrontational image can be partly attributed to two of long serving presidents—George Bennett (1887–1908) and Frank Tudor (1909–1918). Both were Richmond men and respected parliamentarians who took the view that how the game was played was more important than whether the game was won.", "After World War I, the club's attitude hardened as they attempted to match it with the then power clubs Collingwood and Carlton. Eventually, the Tigers became more prosaic in their approach to recruiting and training.", "The Hafey era transformed Richmond into one of the most feared combinations in the then VFL. The club's football administrator, Graham Richmond, drove the \"win at all costs\" mentality across the whole club, making Richmond a formidable force, winning five premierships from 1967 to 1980.", "Since the Tigers' grand final appearance in 1982, the club has appeared in six finals series (1995, 2001, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2017). Board and coaching instability during the 1980s and 1990s distracted the club and forced its focus away from becoming an on-field force.", "The club's current home jumper design is black and features a yellow sash running from the top left of the jumper to the bottom right. For away games against teams with dark coloured jumpers, the club wears a clash strip with a reverse of this design, a black sash on a yellow base. In its first season, Richmond wore a blue jumper with a thin yellow-and-black sash running from right to left. Between 2011 and 2016, the club guernseys were manufactured by sportswear company BLK, who were known as KooGa Australia prior to 2014,[23] before it went into receivership in November 2016. Puma manufactures the club's on-and-off field apparel.[24]", "Initially, Richmond's club song was Onward the Tigers, set to the tune of Waltzing Matilda. In 1962, Jack Malcolmson, a cabaret singer who was performing regularly at the Richmond Football Club Social Club, was approached to write a new club song and adapted Row, Row, Row (Monaco/Jerome), a show tune from the Ziegfeld Follies of 1912. (America Football Club in Rio de Janeiro uses the same tune for its club song, the Hino do America.)", "The current version of the song used by the club is a 1972 recording performed by the Fable Singers.[25] In 2014, the Herald Sun named it the top club song of any AFL team.[26]", "Oh, we're from Tigerland\nA fighting fury, we're from Tigerland\nIn any weather, you will see us with a grin\nRisking head and shin\nIf we're behind, then never mind\nWe'll fight and fight and win", "Oh, we're from Tigerland", "A fighting fury, we're from Tigerland", "In any weather, you will see us with a grin", "Risking head and shin", "If we're behind, then never mind", "We'll fight and fight and win", "For we're from Tigerland\nWe never weaken 'till the final siren's gone\nLike the tiger of old\nWe're strong and we're bold\nFor we're from Tiger yellow and black\nWe're from Tigerland", "For we're from Tigerland", "We never weaken 'till the final siren's gone", "Like the tiger of old", "We're strong and we're bold", "For we're from Tiger yellow and black", "We're from Tigerland", "Richmond's club mascot is called Tiger \"Stripes\" Dyer, named after AFL legend Jack \"Captain Blood\" Dyer. After taking over from Tiggy (Richmond's earlier mascot), Stripes displays character and attributes synonymous to the club's \"never say die\" attitude. He remains as a solid foundation for fan engagement and is commonly seen as the team's playful and entertaining jokester, prowling the stands and getting among the fans, to be known as the league's most loved mascot.[27][neutrality is disputed]", "The club's home ground is the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) where the team plays most of their home matches in the regular season. The MCG has a capacity of 100,024 and the club usually draws large attendances against Victorian clubs, particularly rivals such as Essendon, Collingwood, Carlton and Hawthorn.", "The club also plays select home games against smaller local and interstate clubs at the smaller capacity Docklands Stadium.", "Richmond's training ground and base of operations is located at the Punt Road Oval, currently branded as the Swinburne Centre, located a few hundred metres from the MCG.", "Club administration since 1908[28]", "[show]Year\nPresident\nChief Executive Officer\nTreasurer\n\n\n2013–present\nPeggy O'Neal\nBrendon Gale\nRobert Dalton\n\n\n2010–2012\nGary March\nBrendon Gale\nRobert Dalton\n\n\nYear\nPresident\nGeneral Manager\nTreasurer\n\n\n2006–2009\nGary March\nSteve Wright\nGarry Cameron\n\n\n2005\nClinton Casey\nGary March\nSteve Wright\nGarry Cameron\n\n\n2004\nClinton Casey\nIan Campbell\nSteve Wright\nGarry Cameron\n\n\n2003\nClinton Casey\nIan Campbell\nGarry Cameron\n\n\n2001–2002\nClinton Casey\nMark Brayshaw\nGarry Cameron\n\n\n2000\nClinton Casey\nMark Brayshaw\nTerry Grigg\n\n\n1999\nLeon Daphne\nJim Malone\nTerry Grigg\n\n\n1995–1998\nLeon Daphne\nJim Malone\nKeith Miller\n\n\n1994\nLeon Daphne\nCameron Schwab\nJim Malone\nKeith Miller\n\n\n1993\nNeville Crowe\nLeon Daphne\nCameron Schwab\nKeith Miller\n\n\n1991–1992\nNeville Crowe\nCameron Schwab\nKeith Miller\n\n\n1989–1990\nNeville Crowe\nCameron Schwab\nMichael Humphris\n\n\n1988\nNeville Cowe\nRichard Doggett\nCameron Schwab\nMichael Humphris\n\n\n1987\nAlan Bond\nNeville Crowe\nRichard Doggett\nMichael Humphris\n\n\n1986\nBill Durham\nKevin Dixon\nRichard Doggett\nJohn McCormack\nMichael Humphris\n\n\n1985\nIan Wilson\nBarry Richardson\nKevin Dixon\nJohn McCormack\n\n\n1981–1984\nIan Wilson\nKevin Dixon\nRon Carson\n\n\n1980\nIan Wilson\nRichard Doggett\nRichard Doggett\n\n\n1979\nIan Wilson\nGareth Andrews\nRichard Doggett\nGareth Andrews\nRichard Doggett\n\n\n1978\nIan Wilson\nGareth Andrews\nGareth Andrews\n\n\n\n\n\n\n[show]Year\nPresident\nSecretary\nTreasurer\n\n\n1977\nIan Wilson\nMax Scales\nMax Scales\n\n\n1974–1976\nIan Wilson\nAlan Schwab\nAlan Schwab\n\n\n1973\nAl Board\nAlan Schwab\nAlan Schwab\n\n\n1972\nAl Board\nAlan Schwab\nPat Kennelly\nAlan Schwab\n\n\n1971\nRay Dunn\nAl Board\nAlan Schwab\nPat Kennelly\n\n\n1970\nRay Dunn\nAlan Schwab\nRon Carson\n\n\n1969\nRay Dunn\nAlan Schwab\nGraeme Richmond\n\n\n1968\nRay Dunn\nGraeme Richmond\nAlan Schwab\nRon Carson\nGraeme Richmond\n\n\n1966–1967\nRay Dunn\nGraeme Richmond\nRon Carson\n\n\n1965\nRay Dunn\nGraeme Richmond\nGraeme Richmond\n\n\n1964\nRay Dunn\nGraeme Richmond\nI Cameron\n\n\n1963\nMaurie Fleming\nGraeme Richmond\nBill Tymms\n\n\n1962\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Tymms\nGraeme Richmond\nBill Tymms\n\n\n1960–1961\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Tymms\nBill Tymms\n\n\n1959\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Tymms\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1958\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Tymms\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1956–1957\nHarry Dyke\nBill Tymms\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1955\nHarry Dyke\nHector Lingwood-Smith\nBill Tymms\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1953–1954\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1952\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nHector Lingwood-Smith\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1950–1951\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1949\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nJack Smith\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1947–1948\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nJack Smith\n\n\n1940–1946\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nCharlie Turner\n\n\n1939\nBarney Herbert\nMaurie Sheahan\nCharlie Turner\n\n\n1938\nLou Roberts\nJohn Smith\nCharlie Turner\n\n\n1937\nLou Roberts\nJohn Smith\nGeorge Smith\n\n\n1936\nLou Roberts\nJohn Smith\nJos Langdon\n\n\n1932–1935\nBarney Herbert\nJohn Smith\nJos Langdon\n\n\n1925–1931\nJack Archer\nPercy Page\nJos Langdon\n\n\n1924\nJack Archer\nPercy Page\nAbe Aarons\n\n\n1921–1923\nAlf Wood\nBill Maybury\nAbe Aarons\n\n\n1919–1920\nAlf Wood\nBill Maybury\nJack Archer\n\n\n1917–1918\nFrank Tudor\nBill Maybury\nJack Archer\n\n\n1913–1916\nFrank Tudor\nBill Lohse\nJack Archer\n\n\n1912\nFrank Tudor\nGeorge Beachcroft\nJames MacDermott\n\n\n1909–1911\nFrank Tudor\nAndrew Manzie\nArchie McNair\n\n\n1908\nGeorge Bennett\nAndrew Manzie\nArchie McNair", "[show]Year\nPresident\nChief Executive Officer\nTreasurer\n\n\n2013–present\nPeggy O'Neal\nBrendon Gale\nRobert Dalton\n\n\n2010–2012\nGary March\nBrendon Gale\nRobert Dalton\n\n\nYear\nPresident\nGeneral Manager\nTreasurer\n\n\n2006–2009\nGary March\nSteve Wright\nGarry Cameron\n\n\n2005\nClinton Casey\nGary March\nSteve Wright\nGarry Cameron\n\n\n2004\nClinton Casey\nIan Campbell\nSteve Wright\nGarry Cameron\n\n\n2003\nClinton Casey\nIan Campbell\nGarry Cameron\n\n\n2001–2002\nClinton Casey\nMark Brayshaw\nGarry Cameron\n\n\n2000\nClinton Casey\nMark Brayshaw\nTerry Grigg\n\n\n1999\nLeon Daphne\nJim Malone\nTerry Grigg\n\n\n1995–1998\nLeon Daphne\nJim Malone\nKeith Miller\n\n\n1994\nLeon Daphne\nCameron Schwab\nJim Malone\nKeith Miller\n\n\n1993\nNeville Crowe\nLeon Daphne\nCameron Schwab\nKeith Miller\n\n\n1991–1992\nNeville Crowe\nCameron Schwab\nKeith Miller\n\n\n1989–1990\nNeville Crowe\nCameron Schwab\nMichael Humphris\n\n\n1988\nNeville Cowe\nRichard Doggett\nCameron Schwab\nMichael Humphris\n\n\n1987\nAlan Bond\nNeville Crowe\nRichard Doggett\nMichael Humphris\n\n\n1986\nBill Durham\nKevin Dixon\nRichard Doggett\nJohn McCormack\nMichael Humphris\n\n\n1985\nIan Wilson\nBarry Richardson\nKevin Dixon\nJohn McCormack\n\n\n1981–1984\nIan Wilson\nKevin Dixon\nRon Carson\n\n\n1980\nIan Wilson\nRichard Doggett\nRichard Doggett\n\n\n1979\nIan Wilson\nGareth Andrews\nRichard Doggett\nGareth Andrews\nRichard Doggett\n\n\n1978\nIan Wilson\nGareth Andrews\nGareth Andrews\n\n\n\n\n\n\n[show]Year\nPresident\nSecretary\nTreasurer\n\n\n1977\nIan Wilson\nMax Scales\nMax Scales\n\n\n1974–1976\nIan Wilson\nAlan Schwab\nAlan Schwab\n\n\n1973\nAl Board\nAlan Schwab\nAlan Schwab\n\n\n1972\nAl Board\nAlan Schwab\nPat Kennelly\nAlan Schwab\n\n\n1971\nRay Dunn\nAl Board\nAlan Schwab\nPat Kennelly\n\n\n1970\nRay Dunn\nAlan Schwab\nRon Carson\n\n\n1969\nRay Dunn\nAlan Schwab\nGraeme Richmond\n\n\n1968\nRay Dunn\nGraeme Richmond\nAlan Schwab\nRon Carson\nGraeme Richmond\n\n\n1966–1967\nRay Dunn\nGraeme Richmond\nRon Carson\n\n\n1965\nRay Dunn\nGraeme Richmond\nGraeme Richmond\n\n\n1964\nRay Dunn\nGraeme Richmond\nI Cameron\n\n\n1963\nMaurie Fleming\nGraeme Richmond\nBill Tymms\n\n\n1962\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Tymms\nGraeme Richmond\nBill Tymms\n\n\n1960–1961\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Tymms\nBill Tymms\n\n\n1959\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Tymms\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1958\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Tymms\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1956–1957\nHarry Dyke\nBill Tymms\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1955\nHarry Dyke\nHector Lingwood-Smith\nBill Tymms\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1953–1954\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1952\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nHector Lingwood-Smith\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1950–1951\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1949\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nJack Smith\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1947–1948\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nJack Smith\n\n\n1940–1946\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nCharlie Turner\n\n\n1939\nBarney Herbert\nMaurie Sheahan\nCharlie Turner\n\n\n1938\nLou Roberts\nJohn Smith\nCharlie Turner\n\n\n1937\nLou Roberts\nJohn Smith\nGeorge Smith\n\n\n1936\nLou Roberts\nJohn Smith\nJos Langdon\n\n\n1932–1935\nBarney Herbert\nJohn Smith\nJos Langdon\n\n\n1925–1931\nJack Archer\nPercy Page\nJos Langdon\n\n\n1924\nJack Archer\nPercy Page\nAbe Aarons\n\n\n1921–1923\nAlf Wood\nBill Maybury\nAbe Aarons\n\n\n1919–1920\nAlf Wood\nBill Maybury\nJack Archer\n\n\n1917–1918\nFrank Tudor\nBill Maybury\nJack Archer\n\n\n1913–1916\nFrank Tudor\nBill Lohse\nJack Archer\n\n\n1912\nFrank Tudor\nGeorge Beachcroft\nJames MacDermott\n\n\n1909–1911\nFrank Tudor\nAndrew Manzie\nArchie McNair\n\n\n1908\nGeorge Bennett\nAndrew Manzie\nArchie McNair", "[show]Year\nPresident\nChief Executive Officer\nTreasurer\n\n\n2013–present\nPeggy O'Neal\nBrendon Gale\nRobert Dalton\n\n\n2010–2012\nGary March\nBrendon Gale\nRobert Dalton\n\n\nYear\nPresident\nGeneral Manager\nTreasurer\n\n\n2006–2009\nGary March\nSteve Wright\nGarry Cameron\n\n\n2005\nClinton Casey\nGary March\nSteve Wright\nGarry Cameron\n\n\n2004\nClinton Casey\nIan Campbell\nSteve Wright\nGarry Cameron\n\n\n2003\nClinton Casey\nIan Campbell\nGarry Cameron\n\n\n2001–2002\nClinton Casey\nMark Brayshaw\nGarry Cameron\n\n\n2000\nClinton Casey\nMark Brayshaw\nTerry Grigg\n\n\n1999\nLeon Daphne\nJim Malone\nTerry Grigg\n\n\n1995–1998\nLeon Daphne\nJim Malone\nKeith Miller\n\n\n1994\nLeon Daphne\nCameron Schwab\nJim Malone\nKeith Miller\n\n\n1993\nNeville Crowe\nLeon Daphne\nCameron Schwab\nKeith Miller\n\n\n1991–1992\nNeville Crowe\nCameron Schwab\nKeith Miller\n\n\n1989–1990\nNeville Crowe\nCameron Schwab\nMichael Humphris\n\n\n1988\nNeville Cowe\nRichard Doggett\nCameron Schwab\nMichael Humphris\n\n\n1987\nAlan Bond\nNeville Crowe\nRichard Doggett\nMichael Humphris\n\n\n1986\nBill Durham\nKevin Dixon\nRichard Doggett\nJohn McCormack\nMichael Humphris\n\n\n1985\nIan Wilson\nBarry Richardson\nKevin Dixon\nJohn McCormack\n\n\n1981–1984\nIan Wilson\nKevin Dixon\nRon Carson\n\n\n1980\nIan Wilson\nRichard Doggett\nRichard Doggett\n\n\n1979\nIan Wilson\nGareth Andrews\nRichard Doggett\nGareth Andrews\nRichard Doggett\n\n\n1978\nIan Wilson\nGareth Andrews\nGareth Andrews", "[show]Year\nPresident\nChief Executive Officer\nTreasurer", "2013–present\nPeggy O'Neal\nBrendon Gale\nRobert Dalton", "2010–2012\nGary March\nBrendon Gale\nRobert Dalton", "Year\nPresident\nGeneral Manager\nTreasurer", "2006–2009\nGary March\nSteve Wright\nGarry Cameron", "2005\nClinton Casey\nGary March\nSteve Wright\nGarry Cameron", "2004\nClinton Casey\nIan Campbell\nSteve Wright\nGarry Cameron", "2003\nClinton Casey\nIan Campbell\nGarry Cameron", "2001–2002\nClinton Casey\nMark Brayshaw\nGarry Cameron", "2000\nClinton Casey\nMark Brayshaw\nTerry Grigg", "1999\nLeon Daphne\nJim Malone\nTerry Grigg", "1995–1998\nLeon Daphne\nJim Malone\nKeith Miller", "1994\nLeon Daphne\nCameron Schwab\nJim Malone\nKeith Miller", "1993\nNeville Crowe\nLeon Daphne\nCameron Schwab\nKeith Miller", "1991–1992\nNeville Crowe\nCameron Schwab\nKeith Miller", "1989–1990\nNeville Crowe\nCameron Schwab\nMichael Humphris", "1988\nNeville Cowe\nRichard Doggett\nCameron Schwab\nMichael Humphris", "1987\nAlan Bond\nNeville Crowe\nRichard Doggett\nMichael Humphris", "1986\nBill Durham\nKevin Dixon\nRichard Doggett\nJohn McCormack\nMichael Humphris", "1985\nIan Wilson\nBarry Richardson\nKevin Dixon\nJohn McCormack", "1981–1984\nIan Wilson\nKevin Dixon\nRon Carson", "1980\nIan Wilson\nRichard Doggett\nRichard Doggett", "1979\nIan Wilson\nGareth Andrews\nRichard Doggett\nGareth Andrews\nRichard Doggett", "1978\nIan Wilson\nGareth Andrews\nGareth Andrews", "[show]Year\nPresident\nSecretary\nTreasurer\n\n\n1977\nIan Wilson\nMax Scales\nMax Scales\n\n\n1974–1976\nIan Wilson\nAlan Schwab\nAlan Schwab\n\n\n1973\nAl Board\nAlan Schwab\nAlan Schwab\n\n\n1972\nAl Board\nAlan Schwab\nPat Kennelly\nAlan Schwab\n\n\n1971\nRay Dunn\nAl Board\nAlan Schwab\nPat Kennelly\n\n\n1970\nRay Dunn\nAlan Schwab\nRon Carson\n\n\n1969\nRay Dunn\nAlan Schwab\nGraeme Richmond\n\n\n1968\nRay Dunn\nGraeme Richmond\nAlan Schwab\nRon Carson\nGraeme Richmond\n\n\n1966–1967\nRay Dunn\nGraeme Richmond\nRon Carson\n\n\n1965\nRay Dunn\nGraeme Richmond\nGraeme Richmond\n\n\n1964\nRay Dunn\nGraeme Richmond\nI Cameron\n\n\n1963\nMaurie Fleming\nGraeme Richmond\nBill Tymms\n\n\n1962\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Tymms\nGraeme Richmond\nBill Tymms\n\n\n1960–1961\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Tymms\nBill Tymms\n\n\n1959\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Tymms\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1958\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Tymms\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1956–1957\nHarry Dyke\nBill Tymms\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1955\nHarry Dyke\nHector Lingwood-Smith\nBill Tymms\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1953–1954\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1952\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nHector Lingwood-Smith\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1950–1951\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1949\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nJack Smith\nBill Quinn\n\n\n1947–1948\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nJack Smith\n\n\n1940–1946\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nCharlie Turner\n\n\n1939\nBarney Herbert\nMaurie Sheahan\nCharlie Turner\n\n\n1938\nLou Roberts\nJohn Smith\nCharlie Turner\n\n\n1937\nLou Roberts\nJohn Smith\nGeorge Smith\n\n\n1936\nLou Roberts\nJohn Smith\nJos Langdon\n\n\n1932–1935\nBarney Herbert\nJohn Smith\nJos Langdon\n\n\n1925–1931\nJack Archer\nPercy Page\nJos Langdon\n\n\n1924\nJack Archer\nPercy Page\nAbe Aarons\n\n\n1921–1923\nAlf Wood\nBill Maybury\nAbe Aarons\n\n\n1919–1920\nAlf Wood\nBill Maybury\nJack Archer\n\n\n1917–1918\nFrank Tudor\nBill Maybury\nJack Archer\n\n\n1913–1916\nFrank Tudor\nBill Lohse\nJack Archer\n\n\n1912\nFrank Tudor\nGeorge Beachcroft\nJames MacDermott\n\n\n1909–1911\nFrank Tudor\nAndrew Manzie\nArchie McNair\n\n\n1908\nGeorge Bennett\nAndrew Manzie\nArchie McNair", "[show]Year\nPresident\nSecretary\nTreasurer", "1977\nIan Wilson\nMax Scales\nMax Scales", "1974–1976\nIan Wilson\nAlan Schwab\nAlan Schwab", "1973\nAl Board\nAlan Schwab\nAlan Schwab", "1972\nAl Board\nAlan Schwab\nPat Kennelly\nAlan Schwab", "1971\nRay Dunn\nAl Board\nAlan Schwab\nPat Kennelly", "1970\nRay Dunn\nAlan Schwab\nRon Carson", "1969\nRay Dunn\nAlan Schwab\nGraeme Richmond", "1968\nRay Dunn\nGraeme Richmond\nAlan Schwab\nRon Carson\nGraeme Richmond", "1966–1967\nRay Dunn\nGraeme Richmond\nRon Carson", "1965\nRay Dunn\nGraeme Richmond\nGraeme Richmond", "1964\nRay Dunn\nGraeme Richmond\nI Cameron", "1963\nMaurie Fleming\nGraeme Richmond\nBill Tymms", "1962\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Tymms\nGraeme Richmond\nBill Tymms", "1960–1961\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Tymms\nBill Tymms", "1959\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Tymms\nBill Quinn", "1958\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Tymms\nBill Quinn", "1956–1957\nHarry Dyke\nBill Tymms\nBill Quinn", "1955\nHarry Dyke\nHector Lingwood-Smith\nBill Tymms\nBill Quinn", "1953–1954\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Quinn", "1952\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nHector Lingwood-Smith\nBill Quinn", "1950–1951\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nBill Quinn", "1949\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nJack Smith\nBill Quinn", "1947–1948\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nJack Smith", "1940–1946\nHarry Dyke\nMaurie Fleming\nCharlie Turner", "1939\nBarney Herbert\nMaurie Sheahan\nCharlie Turner", "1938\nLou Roberts\nJohn Smith\nCharlie Turner", "1937\nLou Roberts\nJohn Smith\nGeorge Smith", "1936\nLou Roberts\nJohn Smith\nJos Langdon", "1932–1935\nBarney Herbert\nJohn Smith\nJos Langdon", "1925–1931\nJack Archer\nPercy Page\nJos Langdon", "1924\nJack Archer\nPercy Page\nAbe Aarons", "1921–1923\nAlf Wood\nBill Maybury\nAbe Aarons", "1919–1920\nAlf Wood\nBill Maybury\nJack Archer", "1917–1918\nFrank Tudor\nBill Maybury\nJack Archer", "1913–1916\nFrank Tudor\nBill Lohse\nJack Archer", "1912\nFrank Tudor\nGeorge Beachcroft\nJames MacDermott", "1909–1911\nFrank Tudor\nAndrew Manzie\nArchie McNair", "1908\nGeorge Bennett\nAndrew Manzie\nArchie McNair", "Richmond has a large supporter base and which is known for its dedication, including its personal cheer squad who attend both home and away matches for the club. Membership record for the club hit 74,000 in 2017 making it one of the most supported clubs in the Australian Football League.", "The building of the fan base was a slow process for Richmond. In the 1890s, the club never sold more than 300 season tickets, but the following was built up with success in the VFA and membership numbered about 2,000 at the time of admission to the VFL in 1908. Between the wars, the club captured the imagination of the residents of Richmond. The successful Tigers were a positive motif for the oppressed working class community which suffered deprivation during the Great Depression. At this time, the Richmond community was almost half Catholic, and this demographic was reflected in the club among the players and officials.", "As Melbourne dramatically spread out in the post-war years, so too did the Richmond supporters. Many were now concentrated in the eastern suburbs, which eventually formed the club's metropolitan recruiting zone. Indeed, at one point during the early development of the Waverley Park ground, the Tigers considered making the stadium its home for this reason. Following the barren period of the 1950s, Richmond was able to tap into the large number of fans by moving home matches to the MCG and almost doubled attendance figures. The Tigers maintained this advantage over the other clubs until the mid-1980s, when poor administration led to a downturn in every area of the club. As the club struggled for funds, the membership plummeted from over 10,000 to under 3,000.", "The greatest display of loyalty from the fans occurred during 1990. Threatened by liquidation, the supporters rallied to pay off the multimillion-dollar debt via the \"Save Our Skins\" campaign.[29] In 2011, the club launched the Fighting Tiger Fund to reduce the club's debt and to allow it to increase spending on the football department in order to be more competitive on field.[30]", "In 2013, the club launched The Roar is Back membership promotion aiming at signing up 60,000 members in a season for the first time ever. Following a successful campaign, on 24 June 2013, Richmond chief executive Brendon Gale confirmed that membership had passed 60,000.[31][32] The club created a limited edition commemorative Sherrin football to celebrate the achievement and it was distributed free to families at the 'Thank you for 60,000 members BBQ/Training Morning' at Punt Road Oval on 29 June 2013. The official membership total for 2013 was 60,321.[33]", "For statistical purposes 30 June is the cut-off date for membership numbers although it does continue to sell memberships. In 2013, after 30 June the club commenced bundling 2013 and 2014 membership years into a special \"Sign up as a member for 2014 and get the rest of 2013 free!\" offer.[34] The 2014 membership total of 66,122[35] gave Richmond the 3rd biggest membership base in the AFL behind Collingwood and Hawthorn (80,793 and 68,650 respectively). This record was again broken in 2015 with the club signing up 70,809 members, still ranking 3rd in total membership numbers. The club averaged the highest crowds in the AFL of 49,841 in 2015, home crowd averaged 53,236 the highest in the 2015 AFL season", "Season\nTicketed\nMembers\nFinishing\nPosition\nTotal\nAttendance\nAverage Home\nAttendance\n\n\n2017\n75,777\n3rd\n1,314,058\n55,958\n\n\n2016\n72,206\n13th\n900,237\n40,921\n\n\n2015\n70,809\n5th\n1,146,335*\n49,841 *\n\n\n2014\n66,122\n8th\n889,658*\n38,681*\n\n\n2013\n60,321\n5th\n1,134,980*\n49,347*\n\n\n2012\n53,027\n12th\n871,504\n39,614\n\n\n2011\n40,184\n12th\n895,290\n40,695\n\n\n2010\n35,960\n15th\n834,590\n37,936\n\n\n2009\n36,985\n15th\n868,855\n39,493\n\n\n2008\n30,820\n9th\n935,002\n42,500\n\n\n2007\n30,044\n16th\n909,203\n41,327\n\n\n2006\n29,406\n9th\n855,556\n38,888\n\n\n2005\n28,029\n12th\n802,885\n36,494\n\n\n2004\n27,133\n16th\n751,982\n34,181\n\n\n2003\n25,101\n13th\n830,841\n37,765\n\n\n2002\n27,251\n14th\n776,113\n35,277\n\n\n2001\n26,501\n3rd\n1,173,875*\n46,955*\n\n\n2000\n26,869\n9th\n853,916\n38,814\n\n\n1999\n29,047\n12th\n885,159\n40,234\n\n\n1998\n27,092\n9th\n1,023,821\n46,537\n\n\n1997\n24,975\n13th\n783,517\n35,614\n\n\n1996\n20,308\n9th\n850,966\n38,680\n\n\n1995\n14,647\n3rd\n1,104,607*\n44,184*\n\n\n1994\n8,229\n9th\n646,301\n29,377\n\n\n1993\n9,918\n14th\n484,041\n24,202\n\n\n1992\n8,158\n13th\n474,575\n21,571", "Season\nTicketed\nMembers\nFinishing\nPosition\nTotal\nAttendance\nAverage Home\nAttendance", "2017\n75,777\n3rd\n1,314,058\n55,958", "2016\n72,206\n13th\n900,237\n40,921", "2015\n70,809\n5th\n1,146,335*\n49,841 *", "2014\n66,122\n8th\n889,658*\n38,681*", "2013\n60,321\n5th\n1,134,980*\n49,347*", "2012\n53,027\n12th\n871,504\n39,614", "2011\n40,184\n12th\n895,290\n40,695", "2010\n35,960\n15th\n834,590\n37,936", "2009\n36,985\n15th\n868,855\n39,493", "2008\n30,820\n9th\n935,002\n42,500", "2007\n30,044\n16th\n909,203\n41,327", "2006\n29,406\n9th\n855,556\n38,888", "2005\n28,029\n12th\n802,885\n36,494", "2004\n27,133\n16th\n751,982\n34,181", "2003\n25,101\n13th\n830,841\n37,765", "2002\n27,251\n14th\n776,113\n35,277", "2001\n26,501\n3rd\n1,173,875*\n46,955*", "2000\n26,869\n9th\n853,916\n38,814", "1999\n29,047\n12th\n885,159\n40,234", "1998\n27,092\n9th\n1,023,821\n46,537", "1997\n24,975\n13th\n783,517\n35,614", "1996\n20,308\n9th\n850,966\n38,680", "1995\n14,647\n3rd\n1,104,607*\n44,184*", "1994\n8,229\n9th\n646,301\n29,377", "1993\n9,918\n14th\n484,041\n24,202", "1992\n8,158\n13th\n474,575\n21,571", "Club records in bold text.\n* Includes three finals in 1995, 2001, 2017 and one final in 2013, 2014, 2015.", "The Official Richmond Cheer Squad is an organised group of passionate supporters who attend every Richmond game whether in Melbourne or interstate. There are also supporter groups located in each state of Australia.[36]", "See Richmond premiership teams", "See Richmond premiership teams", "In 1998, Richmond announced its Team of the 20th Century. The selection of the 22 players shows an even spread of champions from all the eras of the club: Thorp from the club's first premiership wins of 1920–21; McCormack, Strang, Titus and Dyer from the inter-war years; Rowe, Morris and Wright from the battling era after the war; Richardson and Knights from recent times. But the great days from the late 1960s to the early 1980s provide the bulk of the side: Sheedy, Green, Keane, Bourke, Barrot, Clay, Hart, Dean and Bartlett who made up the core of Tom Hafey's teams, and later success stories Weightman and Raines. Ian Stewart, named on the bench, managed selection in a team of the century at two clubs—he was named in the centre of St Kilda's team as well. Richmond has four players denoted below with an asterisk who are also members of AFL Team of the Century. This is the second-most of any club.", "Richmond Team of the Century\n\n\nB:\nKevin Sheedy\n1967–79, 180cm 81k,\n251 games 91 goals\n\nVic Thorp\n1910–25, 178cm 83k,\n263 games 7 goals\n\nMichael Green\n1966–75, 193cm 94k,\n146 games 83 goals\n\n\n\nHB:\nBasil McCormack\n1925–36, 180cm 80k,\n199 games 1 goal\n\nGordon Strang\n1931–38, 185cm 83k,\n116 games 108 goals\n\nMervyn Keane\n1972–84, 185cm 82k,\n238 games 36 goals\n\n\n\nC:\nFrancis Bourke *\n1967–81, 185cm 83k,\n300 games 71 goals\n\nBill Barrot\n1961–70, 180 cm 76k,\n120 games 91 goals\n\nDick Clay\n1966–76, 185cm 85k,\n213 games 80 goals\n\n\n\nHF:\nMatthew Richardson\n1993–2009 , 197cm 103k,\n282 games 800 goals\n\nRoyce Hart *\n1967–77, 187cm 86k,\n187 games 369 goals\n\nRoger Dean\n1957–73, 175cm 73k,\n245 games 204 goals\n\n\n\nF:\nDale Weightman\n1978–93, 170cm 69k,\n274 games 344 goals\n\nJack Titus\n1926–43, 175cm 66k,\n294 games 970 goals\n\nBill Morris\n1942–51, 188cm 86k,\n140 games 98 goals\n\n\n\nFoll:\nRoy Wright\n1946–59, 188cm, 102k,\n195 games 127 goals\n\nJack Dyer * (capt)\n1931–49, 185cm 89k,\n312 games 443 goals\n\nKevin Bartlett\n1965–83, 175cm 71k,\n403 games 778 goals\n\n\n\nInt:\nDes Rowe\n1946–57, 182cm 83k,\n175 games 24 goals\n\nGeoff Raines\n1976–82, 180cm 78k,\n134 games 53 goals\n\nIan Stewart *\n1971–75, 180cm 78k,\n78 games 55 goals\n\n\n\n\nMatthew Knights\n1988–2002, 179cm 74k,\n279 games 141 goals\n\n\n\n\n\nCoach:\nTom Hafey\nPlayed 248 Won 173 Lost 73 Drawn 2", "Richmond Team of the Century", "B:\nKevin Sheedy\n1967–79, 180cm 81k,\n251 games 91 goals\n\nVic Thorp\n1910–25, 178cm 83k,\n263 games 7 goals\n\nMichael Green\n1966–75, 193cm 94k,\n146 games 83 goals", "1967–79, 180cm 81k,\n251 games 91 goals", "1910–25, 178cm 83k,\n263 games 7 goals", "1966–75, 193cm 94k,\n146 games 83 goals", "HB:\nBasil McCormack\n1925–36, 180cm 80k,\n199 games 1 goal\n\nGordon Strang\n1931–38, 185cm 83k,\n116 games 108 goals\n\nMervyn Keane\n1972–84, 185cm 82k,\n238 games 36 goals", "1925–36, 180cm 80k,\n199 games 1 goal", "1931–38, 185cm 83k,\n116 games 108 goals", "1972–84, 185cm 82k,\n238 games 36 goals", "C:\nFrancis Bourke *\n1967–81, 185cm 83k,\n300 games 71 goals\n\nBill Barrot\n1961–70, 180 cm 76k,\n120 games 91 goals\n\nDick Clay\n1966–76, 185cm 85k,\n213 games 80 goals", "1967–81, 185cm 83k,\n300 games 71 goals", "1961–70, 180 cm 76k,\n120 games 91 goals", "1966–76, 185cm 85k,\n213 games 80 goals", "HF:\nMatthew Richardson\n1993–2009 , 197cm 103k,\n282 games 800 goals\n\nRoyce Hart *\n1967–77, 187cm 86k,\n187 games 369 goals\n\nRoger Dean\n1957–73, 175cm 73k,\n245 games 204 goals", "1993–2009 , 197cm 103k,\n282 games 800 goals", "1967–77, 187cm 86k,\n187 games 369 goals", "1957–73, 175cm 73k,\n245 games 204 goals", "F:\nDale Weightman\n1978–93, 170cm 69k,\n274 games 344 goals\n\nJack Titus\n1926–43, 175cm 66k,\n294 games 970 goals\n\nBill Morris\n1942–51, 188cm 86k,\n140 games 98 goals", "1978–93, 170cm 69k,\n274 games 344 goals", "1926–43, 175cm 66k,\n294 games 970 goals", "1942–51, 188cm 86k,\n140 games 98 goals", "Foll:\nRoy Wright\n1946–59, 188cm, 102k,\n195 games 127 goals\n\nJack Dyer * (capt)\n1931–49, 185cm 89k,\n312 games 443 goals\n\nKevin Bartlett\n1965–83, 175cm 71k,\n403 games 778 goals", "1946–59, 188cm, 102k,\n195 games 127 goals", "1931–49, 185cm 89k,\n312 games 443 goals", "1965–83, 175cm 71k,\n403 games 778 goals", "Int:\nDes Rowe\n1946–57, 182cm 83k,\n175 games 24 goals\n\nGeoff Raines\n1976–82, 180cm 78k,\n134 games 53 goals\n\nIan Stewart *\n1971–75, 180cm 78k,\n78 games 55 goals", "1946–57, 182cm 83k,\n175 games 24 goals", "1976–82, 180cm 78k,\n134 games 53 goals", "1971–75, 180cm 78k,\n78 games 55 goals", "Matthew Knights\n1988–2002, 179cm 74k,\n279 games 141 goals", "1988–2002, 179cm 74k,\n279 games 141 goals", "Coach:\nTom Hafey\nPlayed 248 Won 173 Lost 73 Drawn 2", "Played 248 Won 173 Lost 73 Drawn 2", "[2]", "As legends of the game:", "Jack Dyer\nKevin Bartlett\nIan Stewart\nRoyce Hart", "As players of the game:", "Percy Bentley\nFrancis Bourke\nDan Minogue\nBill Morris\nCharlie Pannam\nVic Thorp\nJack Titus\nDale Weightman\nRoy Wright\nMatthew Richardson\nMaurice Rioli", "As coaches of the game:", "Tom Hafey\nFrank 'Checker' Hughes", "Frank 'Checker' Hughes", "The club's hall of fame was created in 2002 with 23 inductees. Below is a list, separated into categories, of members and the year they were inducted. To date, six Richmond \"Immortals\" have been named, the first of whom was Jack Dyer, the year before his death in 2003. Dyer was followed by Kevin Bartlett, Tom Hafey, Francis Bourke, Royce Hart and Vic Thorp.", "Players\nPlayers\nPlayers\nPlayers\nCoaches\nServants\n\n\n\n\nNeil Balme 2010\nBill Barrot 2007\nKevin Bartlett 2002\nPercy Bentley 2002\nMartin Bolger 2005\nFrancis Bourke 2002\nRon Branton 2006\nWayne Campbell 2013\nDick Clay 2002\nDavid Cloke 2007\nRoger Dean 2002\n\n\n\n\nDonald Don 2015\nJack Dyer 2002\nAlec Edmond 2007\nAlan Geddes 2007\nMichael Green 2004\nClarrie Hall 2006\nDick Harris 2004\nRoyce Hart 2002\nFrank Hughes 2004\nHugh James 2005\nJim Jess 2008\n\n\n\n\nMervyn Keane 2005\nMark Lee 2010\nRay Martin 2010\nBasil McCormack 2004\nBill Morris 2002\nTom O'Halloran 2013\nKevin O'Neill 2008\nMax Oppy 2004\nGeoff Raines 2008\nMatthew Richardson 2015\nMichael Roach 2002\n\n\n\n\nDes Rowe 2004\nHavel Rowe 2015\nBarry Rowlings 2015\nKevin Sheedy 2002\nIan Stewart 2013\nVic Thorp 2002\nJack Titus 2002\nWayne Walsh 2013\nDale Weightman 2002\nBryan Wood 2006\nRoy Wright 2002\n\n\n\n\nTom Hafey 2002\nDan Minogue 2002\n\n\n\n\nCharlie Backhouse 2002\nCharlie Callander 2002\nJames Charles 2002\nAllan Cooke 2006\nNeville Crowe 2002\nRay Dunn 2002\nBarney Herbert 2004\nTony Jewell 2002\nBarry Richardson 2004\nGraeme Richmond 2002\nAlice Wills 2002\nIan Wilson 2010", "Players\nPlayers\nPlayers\nPlayers\nCoaches\nServants", "Neil Balme 2010\nBill Barrot 2007\nKevin Bartlett 2002\nPercy Bentley 2002\nMartin Bolger 2005\nFrancis Bourke 2002\nRon Branton 2006\nWayne Campbell 2013\nDick Clay 2002\nDavid Cloke 2007\nRoger Dean 2002\n\n\n\n\nDonald Don 2015\nJack Dyer 2002\nAlec Edmond 2007\nAlan Geddes 2007\nMichael Green 2004\nClarrie Hall 2006\nDick Harris 2004\nRoyce Hart 2002\nFrank Hughes 2004\nHugh James 2005\nJim Jess 2008\n\n\n\n\nMervyn Keane 2005\nMark Lee 2010\nRay Martin 2010\nBasil McCormack 2004\nBill Morris 2002\nTom O'Halloran 2013\nKevin O'Neill 2008\nMax Oppy 2004\nGeoff Raines 2008\nMatthew Richardson 2015\nMichael Roach 2002\n\n\n\n\nDes Rowe 2004\nHavel Rowe 2015\nBarry Rowlings 2015\nKevin Sheedy 2002\nIan Stewart 2013\nVic Thorp 2002\nJack Titus 2002\nWayne Walsh 2013\nDale Weightman 2002\nBryan Wood 2006\nRoy Wright 2002\n\n\n\n\nTom Hafey 2002\nDan Minogue 2002\n\n\n\n\nCharlie Backhouse 2002\nCharlie Callander 2002\nJames Charles 2002\nAllan Cooke 2006\nNeville Crowe 2002\nRay Dunn 2002\nBarney Herbert 2004\nTony Jewell 2002\nBarry Richardson 2004\nGraeme Richmond 2002\nAlice Wills 2002\nIan Wilson 2010", "Neil Balme 2010\nBill Barrot 2007\nKevin Bartlett 2002\nPercy Bentley 2002\nMartin Bolger 2005\nFrancis Bourke 2002\nRon Branton 2006\nWayne Campbell 2013\nDick Clay 2002\nDavid Cloke 2007\nRoger Dean 2002", "Neil Balme 2010", "Bill Barrot 2007", "Kevin Bartlett 2002", "Percy Bentley 2002", "Martin Bolger 2005", "Francis Bourke 2002", "Ron Branton 2006", "Wayne Campbell 2013", "Dick Clay 2002", "David Cloke 2007", "Roger Dean 2002", "Donald Don 2015\nJack Dyer 2002\nAlec Edmond 2007\nAlan Geddes 2007\nMichael Green 2004\nClarrie Hall 2006\nDick Harris 2004\nRoyce Hart 2002\nFrank Hughes 2004\nHugh James 2005\nJim Jess 2008", "Donald Don 2015", "Jack Dyer 2002", "Alec Edmond 2007", "Alan Geddes 2007", "Michael Green 2004", "Clarrie Hall 2006", "Dick Harris 2004", "Royce Hart 2002", "Frank Hughes 2004", "Hugh James 2005", "Jim Jess 2008", "Mervyn Keane 2005\nMark Lee 2010\nRay Martin 2010\nBasil McCormack 2004\nBill Morris 2002\nTom O'Halloran 2013\nKevin O'Neill 2008\nMax Oppy 2004\nGeoff Raines 2008\nMatthew Richardson 2015\nMichael Roach 2002", "Mervyn Keane 2005", "Mark Lee 2010", "Ray Martin 2010", "Basil McCormack 2004", "Bill Morris 2002", "Tom O'Halloran 2013", "Kevin O'Neill 2008", "Max Oppy 2004", "Geoff Raines 2008", "Matthew Richardson 2015", "Michael Roach 2002", "Des Rowe 2004\nHavel Rowe 2015\nBarry Rowlings 2015\nKevin Sheedy 2002\nIan Stewart 2013\nVic Thorp 2002\nJack Titus 2002\nWayne Walsh 2013\nDale Weightman 2002\nBryan Wood 2006\nRoy Wright 2002", "Des Rowe 2004", "Havel Rowe 2015", "Barry Rowlings 2015", "Kevin Sheedy 2002", "Ian Stewart 2013", "Vic Thorp 2002", "Jack Titus 2002", "Wayne Walsh 2013", "Dale Weightman 2002", "Bryan Wood 2006", "Roy Wright 2002", "Tom Hafey 2002\nDan Minogue 2002", "Tom Hafey 2002", "Dan Minogue 2002", "Charlie Backhouse 2002\nCharlie Callander 2002\nJames Charles 2002\nAllan Cooke 2006\nNeville Crowe 2002\nRay Dunn 2002\nBarney Herbert 2004\nTony Jewell 2002\nBarry Richardson 2004\nGraeme Richmond 2002\nAlice Wills 2002\nIan Wilson 2010", "Charlie Backhouse 2002", "Charlie Callander 2002", "James Charles 2002", "Allan Cooke 2006", "Neville Crowe 2002", "Ray Dunn 2002", "Barney Herbert 2004", "Tony Jewell 2002", "Barry Richardson 2004", "Graeme Richmond 2002", "Alice Wills 2002", "Ian Wilson 2010", "[3]", "During the centenary season the tigers announced their 100 Tiger Treasures consisting of 10 awards, each with 10 nominees given by the Richmond Football Club in 2008 to celebrate their centenary year of competition in the VFL/AFL.[37] The awards were mostly given to players but also club moments and campaigns. On Saturday, 28 June Richmond held a centenary celebration at Punt Road Oval before the centenary game at the MCG against arch rivials Carlton later that day.", "Award\nWinner\nNominees\n\n\nBest Individual Performance of the Century\nKevin Bartlett\n\"Put his unique stamp on the 1980 finals series, kicking 21 goals as a half-forward in Richmond's three appearances, including seven in the Grand Final massacre of the Magpies, which earned him the Norm Smith Medal for being best afield.\"\n\n\n\n\nJack Titus\nDoug Strang\nJack Dyer\nRoy Wright\nTommy Hafey\nBill Barrot\nMichael Green\nDavid Cloke\nMatthew Knights\n\n\n\n\n\nClass of the Century\nRoyce Hart\n\"Thrilled Tiger fans for a decade with his match-winning exploits at centre half-forward. His dominance up forward was a major factor in the Club's run of four premierships from 1967–74. He was an extraordinary mark, a deadeye shot for goal, very courageous and, when the ball hit the ground, he swooped on it like a rover.\"\n\n\n\n\nVic Thorp\nBill Morris\nIan Stewart\nKevin Bartlett\nDick Clay\nPaul Sproule\nGeoff Raines\nDale Weightman\nMaurice Rioli\n\n\n\n\n\nThe Strong & the Bold\nJack Dyer\n\"No player in the history of the game epitomises his club more than the man known as 'Captain Blood'. He struck fear into the hearts and minds of all opposition players during the 1930s and 40s. Was renowned for his bone-jarring shirtfronts, which left many an opponent bloodied, battered and bruised. He bled for the Tigers and expected his teammates to do likewise.\"\n\n\n\n\nBasil McCormack\nPercy Bentley\nMax Oppy\nRoger Dean\nMartin Bolger\nDes Rowe\nMatthew Richardson\nKevin Sheedy\nFrancis Bourke\n\n\n\n\n\nDefining Moment\nSave Our Skins\n\"On 15 August 1990, Richmond announced that it needed to raise $1 million by 31 October that year, or it would cease to exist. The Save Our Skins campaign was immediately established to keep the Tigers alive. With Club president Neville Crowe as the figurehead, the SOS campaign did exactly what it set out to achieve, raising the necessary funds to stave off the threat of extinction.\"\n\n\n\n\nJoining The VFL\nThe Sash\nFirst Premiership\nEat 'Em Alive\nJack Dyer's Debut\nThe Theme Song\nMove To The MCG\nTommy Hafey's Appointment As Coach\nBreaking The Drought In '67\nBreaking the 37 Year Drought\n\n\n\n\n\nServant of the Century\nGraeme Richmond\n\"Graeme Richmond filled a variety of important roles at Tigerland over more than 30 years of devoted service. He was a shrewd, ruthless administrator, who never wasted an opportunity that could benefit his beloved Tigers. His strength lay in his relentless persuasiveness—he was a masterly recruiter and negotiator. And, as a speaker, arguably there have been none finer in league football history.\"\n\n\n\n\nCharlie Callander\nCharlie Priestley\nRay Dunn\nAlan Schwab\nAllan Cooke\nMaurie Fleming\nNeville Crowe\nAlice Wills\nIan Wilson\n\n\n\n\n\nBrave Act of the Century\nFrancis Bourke\n\"Bourke collided with teammate Stephen Mount in a tense Round 21, 1980 clash with North Melbourne at Arden Street and had trouble seeing because of the blood streaming down his face. He was subsequently moved from full-back to the opposite end of the ground, where he immediately made his presence felt, taking a diving chest mark and slotting through a crucial goal.\"\n\n\n\n\nBill Burns\nGeorge Smeaton\nEric Moore\nFrancis Bourke\nRoyce Hart\nLaurie Fowler\nRobert Lamb\nTony Free\nMatthew Richardson\n\n\n\n\n\nPremiership of the Century\n1967\n\"Richmond, under coach Tommy Hafey, finished the 1967 home-and-away season on top. The Tigers disposed of Carlton by 40 points in the second-semi, then faced up to a star-studded Geelong combination in the Grand Final. At the end of a spectacular contest, Richmond had broken a 24-year premiership drought. Barrot, Brown, Hart, Dean and Bartlett starred, while unsung hero Ronaldson kicked three vital goals.\"\n\n\n\n\n1920\n1921\n1932\n1934\n1943\n1969\n1973\n1974\n1980\n2017\n\n\n\n\n\nMark of the Century\nMichael Roach\n\"The superstar full-forward was a noted high-flyer during his 200-game career at Tigerland, but the mark he took against Hawthorn at the MCG in 1979 was, almost literally, out of this world. 'Roachy' actually rose so high over a huge nest of Hawk players, he ended up making it a chest mark!\"\n\n\n\n\nThomas O'Halloran\nRoyce Hart\nMalcolm Greenslade\nKevin Sheedy\nBryan Wood\nGeoff Raines\nMichael Mitchell\nDavid Bourke\nMatthew Richardson\n\n\n\n\n\nGoal of the Century\nMichael Mitchell\n\"The little Tiger excitement machine decided to take off on a bit of a trot during the team's final home-and-away match of the 1990 season, against Sydney at the SCG. After gathering the ball deep in defence, 'Mitch' took one bounce, then another, and then five more (seven in total), before calmly drilling home an incredibly inspirational goal.\"\n\n\n\n\nJohn Ronaldson\nBill Barrot\nMichael Roach\nKevin Bartlett\nJimmy Jess\nMatthew Knights\nJoel Bowden\nNathan Brown\nChris Newman\n\n\n\n\n\nControversy of the Century\nWindy Hill Brawl\n\"On 18 May 1974, all hell broke loose at half-time of Richmond's clash with Essendon at Windy Hill as the players were leaving the field . . . A massive brawl erupted, involving players and officials of both clubs. Following a league investigation, several players and officials received suspensions, the heaviest being for Graeme Richmond, who was rubbed out until 31 December and also fined $2000.\"\n\n\n\n\nDean/Barassi Incident In 1963\nCrowe/Nicholls Incident In 1967 Second-Semi\nBarrot/Stewart Swap\nNeil Balme's Rampage, 1973 Grand Final\nJohn Pitura Trade\nJewell/Jones Quarter-Time Brawl\n1980's Trade Wars With Collingwood\nAlan Bond's Brisbane Plan\nJeff Hogg Trade", "Award\nWinner\nNominees", "Best Individual Performance of the Century\nKevin Bartlett\n\"Put his unique stamp on the 1980 finals series, kicking 21 goals as a half-forward in Richmond's three appearances, including seven in the Grand Final massacre of the Magpies, which earned him the Norm Smith Medal for being best afield.\"\n\n\n\n\nJack Titus\nDoug Strang\nJack Dyer\nRoy Wright\nTommy Hafey\nBill Barrot\nMichael Green\nDavid Cloke\nMatthew Knights", "\"Put his unique stamp on the 1980 finals series, kicking 21 goals as a half-forward in Richmond's three appearances, including seven in the Grand Final massacre of the Magpies, which earned him the Norm Smith Medal for being best afield.\"", "Jack Titus\nDoug Strang\nJack Dyer\nRoy Wright\nTommy Hafey\nBill Barrot\nMichael Green\nDavid Cloke\nMatthew Knights", "Class of the Century\nRoyce Hart\n\"Thrilled Tiger fans for a decade with his match-winning exploits at centre half-forward. His dominance up forward was a major factor in the Club's run of four premierships from 1967–74. He was an extraordinary mark, a deadeye shot for goal, very courageous and, when the ball hit the ground, he swooped on it like a rover.\"\n\n\n\n\nVic Thorp\nBill Morris\nIan Stewart\nKevin Bartlett\nDick Clay\nPaul Sproule\nGeoff Raines\nDale Weightman\nMaurice Rioli", "\"Thrilled Tiger fans for a decade with his match-winning exploits at centre half-forward. His dominance up forward was a major factor in the Club's run of four premierships from 1967–74. He was an extraordinary mark, a deadeye shot for goal, very courageous and, when the ball hit the ground, he swooped on it like a rover.\"", "Vic Thorp\nBill Morris\nIan Stewart\nKevin Bartlett\nDick Clay\nPaul Sproule\nGeoff Raines\nDale Weightman\nMaurice Rioli", "The Strong & the Bold\nJack Dyer\n\"No player in the history of the game epitomises his club more than the man known as 'Captain Blood'. He struck fear into the hearts and minds of all opposition players during the 1930s and 40s. Was renowned for his bone-jarring shirtfronts, which left many an opponent bloodied, battered and bruised. He bled for the Tigers and expected his teammates to do likewise.\"\n\n\n\n\nBasil McCormack\nPercy Bentley\nMax Oppy\nRoger Dean\nMartin Bolger\nDes Rowe\nMatthew Richardson\nKevin Sheedy\nFrancis Bourke", "\"No player in the history of the game epitomises his club more than the man known as 'Captain Blood'. He struck fear into the hearts and minds of all opposition players during the 1930s and 40s. Was renowned for his bone-jarring shirtfronts, which left many an opponent bloodied, battered and bruised. He bled for the Tigers and expected his teammates to do likewise.\"", "Basil McCormack\nPercy Bentley\nMax Oppy\nRoger Dean\nMartin Bolger\nDes Rowe\nMatthew Richardson\nKevin Sheedy\nFrancis Bourke", "Defining Moment\nSave Our Skins\n\"On 15 August 1990, Richmond announced that it needed to raise $1 million by 31 October that year, or it would cease to exist. The Save Our Skins campaign was immediately established to keep the Tigers alive. With Club president Neville Crowe as the figurehead, the SOS campaign did exactly what it set out to achieve, raising the necessary funds to stave off the threat of extinction.\"\n\n\n\n\nJoining The VFL\nThe Sash\nFirst Premiership\nEat 'Em Alive\nJack Dyer's Debut\nThe Theme Song\nMove To The MCG\nTommy Hafey's Appointment As Coach\nBreaking The Drought In '67\nBreaking the 37 Year Drought", "\"On 15 August 1990, Richmond announced that it needed to raise $1 million by 31 October that year, or it would cease to exist. The Save Our Skins campaign was immediately established to keep the Tigers alive. With Club president Neville Crowe as the figurehead, the SOS campaign did exactly what it set out to achieve, raising the necessary funds to stave off the threat of extinction.\"", "Joining The VFL\nThe Sash\nFirst Premiership\nEat 'Em Alive\nJack Dyer's Debut\nThe Theme Song\nMove To The MCG\nTommy Hafey's Appointment As Coach\nBreaking The Drought In '67\nBreaking the 37 Year Drought", "Joining The VFL", "Eat 'Em Alive", "Jack Dyer's Debut", "The Theme Song", "Move To The MCG", "Tommy Hafey's Appointment As Coach", "Breaking The Drought In '67", "Breaking the 37 Year Drought", "Servant of the Century\nGraeme Richmond\n\"Graeme Richmond filled a variety of important roles at Tigerland over more than 30 years of devoted service. He was a shrewd, ruthless administrator, who never wasted an opportunity that could benefit his beloved Tigers. His strength lay in his relentless persuasiveness—he was a masterly recruiter and negotiator. And, as a speaker, arguably there have been none finer in league football history.\"\n\n\n\n\nCharlie Callander\nCharlie Priestley\nRay Dunn\nAlan Schwab\nAllan Cooke\nMaurie Fleming\nNeville Crowe\nAlice Wills\nIan Wilson", "\"Graeme Richmond filled a variety of important roles at Tigerland over more than 30 years of devoted service. He was a shrewd, ruthless administrator, who never wasted an opportunity that could benefit his beloved Tigers. His strength lay in his relentless persuasiveness—he was a masterly recruiter and negotiator. And, as a speaker, arguably there have been none finer in league football history.\"", "Charlie Callander\nCharlie Priestley\nRay Dunn\nAlan Schwab\nAllan Cooke\nMaurie Fleming\nNeville Crowe\nAlice Wills\nIan Wilson", "Brave Act of the Century\nFrancis Bourke\n\"Bourke collided with teammate Stephen Mount in a tense Round 21, 1980 clash with North Melbourne at Arden Street and had trouble seeing because of the blood streaming down his face. He was subsequently moved from full-back to the opposite end of the ground, where he immediately made his presence felt, taking a diving chest mark and slotting through a crucial goal.\"\n\n\n\n\nBill Burns\nGeorge Smeaton\nEric Moore\nFrancis Bourke\nRoyce Hart\nLaurie Fowler\nRobert Lamb\nTony Free\nMatthew Richardson", "\"Bourke collided with teammate Stephen Mount in a tense Round 21, 1980 clash with North Melbourne at Arden Street and had trouble seeing because of the blood streaming down his face. He was subsequently moved from full-back to the opposite end of the ground, where he immediately made his presence felt, taking a diving chest mark and slotting through a crucial goal.\"", "Bill Burns\nGeorge Smeaton\nEric Moore\nFrancis Bourke\nRoyce Hart\nLaurie Fowler\nRobert Lamb\nTony Free\nMatthew Richardson", "Premiership of the Century\n1967\n\"Richmond, under coach Tommy Hafey, finished the 1967 home-and-away season on top. The Tigers disposed of Carlton by 40 points in the second-semi, then faced up to a star-studded Geelong combination in the Grand Final. At the end of a spectacular contest, Richmond had broken a 24-year premiership drought. Barrot, Brown, Hart, Dean and Bartlett starred, while unsung hero Ronaldson kicked three vital goals.\"\n\n\n\n\n1920\n1921\n1932\n1934\n1943\n1969\n1973\n1974\n1980\n2017", "\"Richmond, under coach Tommy Hafey, finished the 1967 home-and-away season on top. The Tigers disposed of Carlton by 40 points in the second-semi, then faced up to a star-studded Geelong combination in the Grand Final. At the end of a spectacular contest, Richmond had broken a 24-year premiership drought. Barrot, Brown, Hart, Dean and Bartlett starred, while unsung hero Ronaldson kicked three vital goals.\"", "1920\n1921\n1932\n1934\n1943\n1969\n1973\n1974\n1980\n2017", "Mark of the Century\nMichael Roach\n\"The superstar full-forward was a noted high-flyer during his 200-game career at Tigerland, but the mark he took against Hawthorn at the MCG in 1979 was, almost literally, out of this world. 'Roachy' actually rose so high over a huge nest of Hawk players, he ended up making it a chest mark!\"\n\n\n\n\nThomas O'Halloran\nRoyce Hart\nMalcolm Greenslade\nKevin Sheedy\nBryan Wood\nGeoff Raines\nMichael Mitchell\nDavid Bourke\nMatthew Richardson", "\"The superstar full-forward was a noted high-flyer during his 200-game career at Tigerland, but the mark he took against Hawthorn at the MCG in 1979 was, almost literally, out of this world. 'Roachy' actually rose so high over a huge nest of Hawk players, he ended up making it a chest mark!\"", "Thomas O'Halloran\nRoyce Hart\nMalcolm Greenslade\nKevin Sheedy\nBryan Wood\nGeoff Raines\nMichael Mitchell\nDavid Bourke\nMatthew Richardson", "Goal of the Century\nMichael Mitchell\n\"The little Tiger excitement machine decided to take off on a bit of a trot during the team's final home-and-away match of the 1990 season, against Sydney at the SCG. After gathering the ball deep in defence, 'Mitch' took one bounce, then another, and then five more (seven in total), before calmly drilling home an incredibly inspirational goal.\"\n\n\n\n\nJohn Ronaldson\nBill Barrot\nMichael Roach\nKevin Bartlett\nJimmy Jess\nMatthew Knights\nJoel Bowden\nNathan Brown\nChris Newman", "\"The little Tiger excitement machine decided to take off on a bit of a trot during the team's final home-and-away match of the 1990 season, against Sydney at the SCG. After gathering the ball deep in defence, 'Mitch' took one bounce, then another, and then five more (seven in total), before calmly drilling home an incredibly inspirational goal.\"", "John Ronaldson\nBill Barrot\nMichael Roach\nKevin Bartlett\nJimmy Jess\nMatthew Knights\nJoel Bowden\nNathan Brown\nChris Newman", "Controversy of the Century\nWindy Hill Brawl\n\"On 18 May 1974, all hell broke loose at half-time of Richmond's clash with Essendon at Windy Hill as the players were leaving the field . . . A massive brawl erupted, involving players and officials of both clubs. Following a league investigation, several players and officials received suspensions, the heaviest being for Graeme Richmond, who was rubbed out until 31 December and also fined $2000.\"\n\n\n\n\nDean/Barassi Incident In 1963\nCrowe/Nicholls Incident In 1967 Second-Semi\nBarrot/Stewart Swap\nNeil Balme's Rampage, 1973 Grand Final\nJohn Pitura Trade\nJewell/Jones Quarter-Time Brawl\n1980's Trade Wars With Collingwood\nAlan Bond's Brisbane Plan\nJeff Hogg Trade", "\"On 18 May 1974, all hell broke loose at half-time of Richmond's clash with Essendon at Windy Hill as the players were leaving the field . . . A massive brawl erupted, involving players and officials of both clubs. Following a league investigation, several players and officials received suspensions, the heaviest being for Graeme Richmond, who was rubbed out until 31 December and also fined $2000.\"", "Dean/Barassi Incident In 1963\nCrowe/Nicholls Incident In 1967 Second-Semi\nBarrot/Stewart Swap\nNeil Balme's Rampage, 1973 Grand Final\nJohn Pitura Trade\nJewell/Jones Quarter-Time Brawl\n1980's Trade Wars With Collingwood\nAlan Bond's Brisbane Plan\nJeff Hogg Trade", "Dean/Barassi Incident In 1963", "Crowe/Nicholls Incident In 1967 Second-Semi", "Barrot/Stewart Swap", "Neil Balme's Rampage, 1973 Grand Final", "John Pitura Trade", "Jewell/Jones Quarter-Time Brawl", "1980's Trade Wars With Collingwood", "Alan Bond's Brisbane Plan", "Jeff Hogg Trade", "Trent Cotchin 2013–\nChris Newman 2009–12\nKane Johnson 2005–08\nWayne Campbell 2001–04\nMatthew Knights 1997–00\nTony Free 1994–96\nJeff Hogg 1993\nDale Weightman 1988–92\nMark Lee 1985–87\nBarry Rowlings 1983–84\nDavid Cloke 1982\nBryan Wood 1981\nBruce Monteath 1980\nKevin Bartlett 1979\nKevin Sheedy 1978\nFrancis Bourke 1976–77\nRoyce Hart 1972–75\nRoger Dean 1968–71\nFred Swift 1967\nNeville Crowe 1963–66\nRon Branton 1960–62\nRoy Wright 1958–59\nDes Rowe 1952–57\nBill Morris 1950–51\nJack Dyer 1941–49\nPercy Bentley 1932–40\nMaurie Hunter 1931\nAlan Geddes 1930\nCyril Lilburne 1929\nAlan Geddes 1927–28\nMel Morris 1926\nDan Minogue 1920–25\nBill Thomas 1919\nClarrie Hall 1918\nPercy Maybury 1917\nBill Thomas 1914–16\nHugh James 1913\nTed Ohlsen 1912\nLen Incigneri 1911\nBilly Schmidt 1910\nDick Condon/John Lawson 1909\nCharlie Pannam Snr 1908", "Trent Cotchin 2013–", "Chris Newman 2009–12", "Kane Johnson 2005–08", "Wayne Campbell 2001–04", "Matthew Knights 1997–00", "Tony Free 1994–96", "Jeff Hogg 1993", "Dale Weightman 1988–92", "Mark Lee 1985–87", "Barry Rowlings 1983–84", "David Cloke 1982", "Bryan Wood 1981", "Bruce Monteath 1980", "Kevin Bartlett 1979", "Kevin Sheedy 1978", "Francis Bourke 1976–77", "Royce Hart 1972–75", "Roger Dean 1968–71", "Fred Swift 1967", "Neville Crowe 1963–66", "Ron Branton 1960–62", "Roy Wright 1958–59", "Des Rowe 1952–57", "Bill Morris 1950–51", "Jack Dyer 1941–49", "Percy Bentley 1932–40", "Maurie Hunter 1931", "Alan Geddes 1930", "Cyril Lilburne 1929", "Alan Geddes 1927–28", "Mel Morris 1926", "Dan Minogue 1920–25", "Bill Thomas 1919", "Clarrie Hall 1918", "Percy Maybury 1917", "Bill Thomas 1914–16", "Hugh James 1913", "Ted Ohlsen 1912", "Len Incigneri 1911", "Billy Schmidt 1910", "Dick Condon/John Lawson 1909", "Charlie Pannam Snr 1908", "Damien Hardwick 2010–\nJade Rawlings 2009 (Rounds 12–22)\nTerry Wallace 2005–09 (Rounds 1–11)\nDanny Frawley 2000–04\nJeff Gieschen 1997–99\nRobert Walls 1996–97\nJohn Northey 1993–95\nAllan Jeans 1992\nKevin Bartlett 1988–91\nTony Jewell 1986–87\nPaul Sproule 1985\nMike Patterson 1984\nFrancis Bourke 1982–83\nTony Jewell 1979–81\nBarry Richardson 1977–78\nVerdun Howell 1971\nTom Hafey 1966–76\nJack Titus 1965\nLen Smith 1964–65\nDick Harris 1964\nDes Rowe 1961–63\nAlan McDonald 1957–60\nMax Oppy 1956\nAlby Pannam 1953–55\nJack Dyer 1941–52\nPercy Bentley 1934–40\nBilly Schmidt 1933\nFrank 'Checker' Hughes 1927–32\nMel Morris 1926\nDan Minogue 1920–25\nNorm Clark 1919\nBernie Nolan 1918\nPercy Maybury 1917\nCharlie Ricketts 1914–16\nErn Jenkins 1913\nCharlie Pannam Sr 1912\nLen Incigneri 1911\nAlex 'Joker' Hall 1910\nDick Condon 1908–09", "Damien Hardwick 2010–", "Jade Rawlings 2009 (Rounds 12–22)", "Terry Wallace 2005–09 (Rounds 1–11)", "Danny Frawley 2000–04", "Jeff Gieschen 1997–99", "Robert Walls 1996–97", "John Northey 1993–95", "Allan Jeans 1992", "Kevin Bartlett 1988–91", "Tony Jewell 1986–87", "Paul Sproule 1985", "Mike Patterson 1984", "Francis Bourke 1982–83", "Tony Jewell 1979–81", "Barry Richardson 1977–78", "Verdun Howell 1971", "Tom Hafey 1966–76", "Jack Titus 1965", "Len Smith 1964–65", "Dick Harris 1964", "Des Rowe 1961–63", "Alan McDonald 1957–60", "Max Oppy 1956", "Alby Pannam 1953–55", "Jack Dyer 1941–52", "Percy Bentley 1934–40", "Billy Schmidt 1933", "Frank 'Checker' Hughes 1927–32", "Mel Morris 1926", "Dan Minogue 1920–25", "Norm Clark 1919", "Bernie Nolan 1918", "Percy Maybury 1917", "Charlie Ricketts 1914–16", "Ern Jenkins 1913", "Charlie Pannam Sr 1912", "Len Incigneri 1911", "Alex 'Joker' Hall 1910", "Dick Condon 1908–09", "Richmond Football Club\n\n\nview\ntalk\nedit\n\n\n\n\n\n\nSenior list\nRookie list\nCoaching staff\n\n\n\n\n 1 Nick Vlastuin \n 2 Dylan Grimes \n 3 Dion Prestia \n 4 Dustin Martin \n 5 Brandon Ellis \n 6 Shaun Grigg \n 8 Jack Riewoldt (vc) \n 9 Trent Cotchin (c) \n10 Shane Edwards \n12 David Astbury \n14 Bachar Houli \n15 Jayden Short \n16 Shaun Hampson \n17 Daniel Rioli \n18 Alex Rance (vc) \n21 Jacob Townsend \n22 Josh Caddy \n23 Kane Lambert \n\n\n\n\n\n24 Ben Griffiths \n25 Toby Nankervis \n26 Anthony Miles \n27 Sam Lloyd \n29 Shai Bolton \n30 Reece Conca \n31 Oleg Markov \n32 Corey Ellis \n33 Kamdyn McIntosh \n34 Jack Graham \n35 Nathan Broad \n37 Connor Menadue \n39 Nathan Drummond \n40 Dan Butler \n42 Ryan Garthwaite \n46 Jason Castagna \n47 Ivan Soldo \n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n36 Callum Moore \n41 Mabior Chol \n44 Tyson Stengle \n\n\n\n\nHead coach\n\nDamien Hardwick\n\nAssistant coaches\n\nBlake Caracella (midfield spread)\nAndrew McQualter (midfield stoppage)\nJustin Leppitsch (forwards)\nBen Rutten (defence)\nIvan Maric (ruck)\nXavier Clarke (development)\nRyan Ferguson (development)\nCraig McRae (VFL coach / development)\n\n\n\nLegend:\n\n\n(c) Captain\n(vc) Vice captain\n(B) Category B rookie\n\n\nUpdated: 26 October 2017\nSource(s): Senior list, Rookie list, Coaching staff", "Richmond Football Club\n\n\nview\ntalk\nedit", "view\ntalk\nedit", "Senior list\nRookie list\nCoaching staff", "1 Nick Vlastuin \n 2 Dylan Grimes \n 3 Dion Prestia \n 4 Dustin Martin \n 5 Brandon Ellis \n 6 Shaun Grigg \n 8 Jack Riewoldt (vc) \n 9 Trent Cotchin (c) \n10 Shane Edwards \n12 David Astbury \n14 Bachar Houli \n15 Jayden Short \n16 Shaun Hampson \n17 Daniel Rioli \n18 Alex Rance (vc) \n21 Jacob Townsend \n22 Josh Caddy \n23 Kane Lambert \n\n\n\n\n\n24 Ben Griffiths \n25 Toby Nankervis \n26 Anthony Miles \n27 Sam Lloyd \n29 Shai Bolton \n30 Reece Conca \n31 Oleg Markov \n32 Corey Ellis \n33 Kamdyn McIntosh \n34 Jack Graham \n35 Nathan Broad \n37 Connor Menadue \n39 Nathan Drummond \n40 Dan Butler \n42 Ryan Garthwaite \n46 Jason Castagna \n47 Ivan Soldo \n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n36 Callum Moore \n41 Mabior Chol \n44 Tyson Stengle \n\n\n\n\nHead coach\n\nDamien Hardwick\n\nAssistant coaches\n\nBlake Caracella (midfield spread)\nAndrew McQualter (midfield stoppage)\nJustin Leppitsch (forwards)\nBen Rutten (defence)\nIvan Maric (ruck)\nXavier Clarke (development)\nRyan Ferguson (development)\nCraig McRae (VFL coach / development)\n\n\n\nLegend:\n\n\n(c) Captain\n(vc) Vice captain\n(B) Category B rookie\n\n\nUpdated: 26 October 2017\nSource(s): Senior list, Rookie list, Coaching staff", "1 Nick Vlastuin \n 2 Dylan Grimes \n 3 Dion Prestia \n 4 Dustin Martin \n 5 Brandon Ellis \n 6 Shaun Grigg \n 8 Jack Riewoldt (vc) \n 9 Trent Cotchin (c) \n10 Shane Edwards \n12 David Astbury \n14 Bachar Houli \n15 Jayden Short \n16 Shaun Hampson \n17 Daniel Rioli \n18 Alex Rance (vc) \n21 Jacob Townsend \n22 Josh Caddy \n23 Kane Lambert", " 1 Nick Vlastuin", " 2 Dylan Grimes", " 3 Dion Prestia", " 4 Dustin Martin", " 5 Brandon Ellis", " 6 Shaun Grigg", " 8 Jack Riewoldt (vc)", " 9 Trent Cotchin (c)", "10 Shane Edwards", "12 David Astbury", "14 Bachar Houli", "15 Jayden Short", "16 Shaun Hampson", "17 Daniel Rioli", "18 Alex Rance (vc)", "21 Jacob Townsend", "22 Josh Caddy", "23 Kane Lambert", "24 Ben Griffiths \n25 Toby Nankervis \n26 Anthony Miles \n27 Sam Lloyd \n29 Shai Bolton \n30 Reece Conca \n31 Oleg Markov \n32 Corey Ellis \n33 Kamdyn McIntosh \n34 Jack Graham \n35 Nathan Broad \n37 Connor Menadue \n39 Nathan Drummond \n40 Dan Butler \n42 Ryan Garthwaite \n46 Jason Castagna \n47 Ivan Soldo", "24 Ben Griffiths", "25 Toby Nankervis", "26 Anthony Miles", "27 Sam Lloyd", "29 Shai Bolton", "30 Reece Conca", "31 Oleg Markov", "32 Corey Ellis", "33 Kamdyn McIntosh", "34 Jack Graham", "35 Nathan Broad", "37 Connor Menadue", "39 Nathan Drummond", "40 Dan Butler", "42 Ryan Garthwaite", "46 Jason Castagna", "47 Ivan Soldo", "36 Callum Moore \n41 Mabior Chol \n44 Tyson Stengle", "36 Callum Moore", "41 Mabior Chol", "44 Tyson Stengle", "Damien Hardwick", "Blake Caracella (midfield spread)\nAndrew McQualter (midfield stoppage)\nJustin Leppitsch (forwards)\nBen Rutten (defence)\nIvan Maric (ruck)\nXavier Clarke (development)\nRyan Ferguson (development)\nCraig McRae (VFL coach / development)", "Blake Caracella (midfield spread)", "Andrew McQualter (midfield stoppage)", "Justin Leppitsch (forwards)", "Ben Rutten (defence)", "Ivan Maric (ruck)", "Xavier Clarke (development)", "Ryan Ferguson (development)", "Craig McRae (VFL coach / development)", "Legend:", "(c) Captain\n(vc) Vice captain\n(B) Category B rookie", "(c) Captain", "(vc) Vice captain", "(B) Category B rookie", "Updated: 26 October 2017\nSource(s): Senior list, Rookie list, Coaching staff", "VFL/AFL Premierships\n11 - 1920, 1921, 1932, 1934, 1943, 1967, 1969, 1973, 1974, 1980, 2017\n\n\nVFL/AFL Runner-up\n12 - 1919, 1924, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1931, 1933, 1940, 1942, 1944, 1972, 1982\n\n\nVFL/AFL Reserve Premierships\n9 - 1929, 1946, 1954, 1955, 1966, 1971, 1973, 1977, 1997\n\n\nVFL/AFL Under 19 Premierships\n11 - 1958, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1989\n\n\nMcClelland Trophies\n7 - 1967, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1977, 1982\n\n\nChampions of Australia\n3 - 1969, 1973, 1974\n\n\nVFL Night Series Premierships\n1 - 1962\n\n\nVFL/AFL Lightning Premierships\n1 - 1953\n\n\nVFL/AFL \"Wooden Spoons\"\n6 - 1917, 1960, 1987, 1989, 2004, 2007\n\n\nLast updated: 4 October 2017", "VFL/AFL Premierships\n11 - 1920, 1921, 1932, 1934, 1943, 1967, 1969, 1973, 1974, 1980, 2017", "VFL/AFL Runner-up\n12 - 1919, 1924, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1931, 1933, 1940, 1942, 1944, 1972, 1982", "VFL/AFL Reserve Premierships\n9 - 1929, 1946, 1954, 1955, 1966, 1971, 1973, 1977, 1997", "VFL/AFL Under 19 Premierships\n11 - 1958, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1989", "McClelland Trophies\n7 - 1967, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1977, 1982", "Champions of Australia\n3 - 1969, 1973, 1974", "VFL Night Series Premierships\n1 - 1962", "VFL/AFL Lightning Premierships\n1 - 1953", "VFL/AFL \"Wooden Spoons\"\n6 - 1917, 1960, 1987, 1989, 2004, 2007", "Last updated: 4 October 2017", "Win-Loss record\nPlayed: 2,2317\nWon: 1,126    Lost: 1,083    Drawn: 22   \n\n\nHighest score\n222 (34.18)\nvs. St Kilda, Round 16, 1980 at SCG\n\n\nLowest score\n8 (0.8)\nvs. St Kilda, Round 16, 1961 at Junction Oval\n\n\nGreatest winning margin\n168 points\nvs. North Melbourne, Round 2, 1931 at Punt Road Oval\n\n\nGreatest losing margin\n157 points\nvs. Geelong, Round 6, 2007 at Telstra Dome\n\n\nBiggest match attendance\n119,165\nvs. Carlton, Grand Final, 1969 at MCG\n\n\nBiggest home & away match attendance\n92,436\nvs. Collingwood, Round 4, 1977 at MCG\n\n\nSource:AFL Tables. Last updated: 4 October 2017", "Win-Loss record\nPlayed: 2,2317\nWon: 1,126    Lost: 1,083    Drawn: 22", "Highest score\n222 (34.18)\nvs. St Kilda, Round 16, 1980 at SCG", "Lowest score\n8 (0.8)\nvs. St Kilda, Round 16, 1961 at Junction Oval", "Greatest winning margin\n168 points\nvs. North Melbourne, Round 2, 1931 at Punt Road Oval", "Greatest losing margin\n157 points\nvs. Geelong, Round 6, 2007 at Telstra Dome", "Biggest match attendance\n119,165\nvs. Carlton, Grand Final, 1969 at MCG", "Biggest home & away match attendance\n92,436\nvs. Collingwood, Round 4, 1977 at MCG", "Source:AFL Tables. Last updated: 4 October 2017", "Statistic\nRecord\nPlayer\nSeasons inclusive\n\n\nMost league Best and Fairest awards\n2\nRoy Wright\n1952, 1954\n\n\nMost seasons as league leading goal kicker\n2\nMichael Roach\n1980-81\n\n\nJack Riewoldt\n2010, 2012\n\n\nMost All-Australian selections\n4\nAlex Rance\n2014–2017\n\n\nMost Brownlow Medal votes\n160\nKevin Bartlett\n1965–1983\n\n\nMost club Best & Fairest awards\n6\nJack Dyer\n1932, 1937–1940, 1946\n\n\nMost seasons as club leading goal-kicker\n13\nMatthew Richardson\n1994, 1996–1999, 2001–2008\n\n\nGames played\n403\nKevin Bartlett\n1965–1983\n\n\nGames played as captain\n168\nPercy Bentley\n1932–1940\n\n\nGames as coach\n248\nTom Hafey\n1966–1976\n\n\nGoals\n970\nJack Titus\n1926–1943\n\n\nDisposals\n9151\nKevin Bartlett\n1965–1983\n\n\nKicks\n8293\nKevin Bartlett\n1965–1983\n\n\nHandballs\n2736\nDale Weightman\n1978–1993\n\n\nMarks\n2270\nMatthew Richardson\n1993–2009\n\n\nTackles\n774\nTrent Cotchin\n2008-current\n\n\nHit Outs\n4304\nMark Lee\n1977–1991\n\n\nClearances\n983\nTrent Cotchin\n2008-current\n\n\nInside 50s\n980\nBrett Deledio\n2005-2016\n\n\nRebound 50s\n1006\nJoel Bowden\n1996-2009\n\n\nOne percenters\n1333\nAlex Rance\n2009-current\n\n\nSource:AFL Tables. Last updated 4 October 2017", "Statistic\nRecord\nPlayer\nSeasons inclusive", "Most league Best and Fairest awards\n2\nRoy Wright\n1952, 1954", "Most seasons as league leading goal kicker\n2\nMichael Roach\n1980-81", "Jack Riewoldt\n2010, 2012", "Most All-Australian selections\n4\nAlex Rance\n2014–2017", "Most Brownlow Medal votes\n160\nKevin Bartlett\n1965–1983", "Most club Best & Fairest awards\n6\nJack Dyer\n1932, 1937–1940, 1946", "Most seasons as club leading goal-kicker\n13\nMatthew Richardson\n1994, 1996–1999, 2001–2008", "Games played\n403\nKevin Bartlett\n1965–1983", "Games played as captain\n168\nPercy Bentley\n1932–1940", "Games as coach\n248\nTom Hafey\n1966–1976", "Goals\n970\nJack Titus\n1926–1943", "Disposals\n9151\nKevin Bartlett\n1965–1983", "Kicks\n8293\nKevin Bartlett\n1965–1983", "Handballs\n2736\nDale Weightman\n1978–1993", "Marks\n2270\nMatthew Richardson\n1993–2009", "Tackles\n774\nTrent Cotchin\n2008-current", "Hit Outs\n4304\nMark Lee\n1977–1991", "Clearances\n983\nTrent Cotchin\n2008-current", "Inside 50s\n980\nBrett Deledio\n2005-2016", "Rebound 50s\n1006\nJoel Bowden\n1996-2009", "One percenters\n1333\nAlex Rance\n2009-current", "Source:AFL Tables. Last updated 4 October 2017", "Statistic\nRecord\nPlayer\nOpponent\nMatch\n\n\nGoals\n14\nDoug Strang\nNorth Melbourne\nRound 2, 1931 at Punt Road Oval\n\n\nDisposals\n46\nRobert Wiley\nCarlton\nRound 8, 1980 at MCG\n\n\nKicks\n38\nKevin Bartlett\nGeelong\nRound 17, 1974 at Waverley Park\n\n\nHandballs\n28\nNathan Foley\nBrisbane\nRound 6, 2011 at MCG\n\n\nMarks\n23\nJoel Bowden\nPort Adelaide\nRound 13, 2008 at Football Park\n\n\nTackles\n14\nShane Tuck\nPort Adelaide\nRound 10, 2010 at Football Park\n\n\n14\nAngus Graham\nPort Adelaide\nRound 10, 2010 at Football Park\n\n\nHit Outs\n56\nToby Nankervis\nMelbourne\nRound 5, 2017 at MCG\n\n\nClearances\n15\nWayne Campbell\nFremantle\nRound 19, 2000 at WACA Ground\n\n\nInside 50s\n14\nKane Johnson\nWestern Bulldogs\nRound 17, 2003 at Docklands Stadium\n\n\nRebound 50s\n16\nJoel Bowden\nAdelaide\nRound 8, 2006 at Docklands Stadium\n\n\nOne percenters\n19\nAlex Rance\nGeelong\nRound 21, 2016 at MCG\n\n\nSource:AFL Tables. Last updated 4 October 2017", "Statistic\nRecord\nPlayer\nOpponent\nMatch", "Goals\n14\nDoug Strang\nNorth Melbourne\nRound 2, 1931 at Punt Road Oval", "Disposals\n46\nRobert Wiley\nCarlton\nRound 8, 1980 at MCG", "Kicks\n38\nKevin Bartlett\nGeelong\nRound 17, 1974 at Waverley Park", "Handballs\n28\nNathan Foley\nBrisbane\nRound 6, 2011 at MCG", "Marks\n23\nJoel Bowden\nPort Adelaide\nRound 13, 2008 at Football Park", "Tackles\n14\nShane Tuck\nPort Adelaide\nRound 10, 2010 at Football Park", "14\nAngus Graham\nPort Adelaide\nRound 10, 2010 at Football Park", "Hit Outs\n56\nToby Nankervis\nMelbourne\nRound 5, 2017 at MCG", "Clearances\n15\nWayne Campbell\nFremantle\nRound 19, 2000 at WACA Ground", "Inside 50s\n14\nKane Johnson\nWestern Bulldogs\nRound 17, 2003 at Docklands Stadium", "Rebound 50s\n16\nJoel Bowden\nAdelaide\nRound 8, 2006 at Docklands Stadium", "One percenters\n19\nAlex Rance\nGeelong\nRound 21, 2016 at MCG", "Source:AFL Tables. Last updated 4 October 2017", "Statistic\nRecord\nPlayer\nSeason\n\n\nGoals\n112\nMichael Roach\n1980\n\n\nDisposals\n744\nDustin Martin\n2017\n\n\nKicks\n634\nKevin Bartlett\n1973\n\n\nHandballs\n320\nCraig Lambert\n1991\n\n\nMarks\n224\nMike Green\n1969\n\n\nTackles\n139\nTrent Cotchin\n2017\n\n\nHit Outs\n711\nMark Lee\n1984\n\n\nClearances\n160\nDustin Martin\n2017\n\n\nInside 50s\n159\nNick Daffy\n1998\n\n\nRebound 50s\n190\nJoel Bowden\n2006\n\n\nOne percenters\n242\nAlex Rance\n2017\n\n\nSource:AFL Tables. Last updated 4 October 2017", "Statistic\nRecord\nPlayer\nSeason", "Goals\n112\nMichael Roach\n1980", "Disposals\n744\nDustin Martin\n2017", "Kicks\n634\nKevin Bartlett\n1973", "Handballs\n320\nCraig Lambert\n1991", "Marks\n224\nMike Green\n1969", "Tackles\n139\nTrent Cotchin\n2017", "Hit Outs\n711\nMark Lee\n1984", "Clearances\n160\nDustin Martin\n2017", "Inside 50s\n159\nNick Daffy\n1998", "Rebound 50s\n190\nJoel Bowden\n2006", "One percenters\n242\nAlex Rance\n2017", "Source:AFL Tables. Last updated 4 October 2017", "VFL/AFL Best & Fairest", "Stan Judkins – 1930\nBill Morris – 1948\nRoy Wright – 1952, 1954\nIan Stewart – 1971\nTrent Cotchin – 2012\nDustin Martin – 2017", "Stan Judkins – 1930", "Bill Morris – 1948", "Roy Wright – 1952, 1954", "Ian Stewart – 1971", "Trent Cotchin – 2012", "Dustin Martin – 2017", "VFL/AFL leading goalkicker", "George Bayliss – 1920\nJack Titus – 1940\nDick Harris – 1943\nMichael Roach – 1980, 1981\nJack Riewoldt – 2010, 2012", "George Bayliss – 1920", "Jack Titus – 1940", "Dick Harris – 1943", "Michael Roach – 1980, 1981", "Jack Riewoldt – 2010, 2012", "Grand Final Best & Fairest\nFirst Awarded 1979", "Kevin Bartlett – 1980\nMaurice Rioli – 1982\nDustin Martin – 2017", "Kevin Bartlett – 1980", "Maurice Rioli – 1982", "Dustin Martin – 2017", "AFL Rising Star\nFirst Awarded 1993", "Brett Deledio – 2005", "Brett Deledio – 2005", "Mark of the Year", "Michael Roach – 1979\nGeoff Raines – 1982\nMichael Mitchell – 1990", "Michael Roach – 1979", "Geoff Raines – 1982", "Michael Mitchell – 1990", "Goal of the Year", "Geoff Raines – 1984\nMichael Mitchell – 1990\nDaniel Rioli – 2017", "Geoff Raines – 1984", "Michael Mitchell – 1990", "Daniel Rioli – 2017", "All-Australian selection\nFirst Awarded 1953", "Des Rowe – 1956\nRoy Wright – 1956\nNeville Crowe – 1966\nRoyce Hart – 1969\nDavid Cloke – 1979\nBruce Monteath – 1979\nMichael Roach – 1979\nJim Jess – 1980\nGeoff Raines – 1980\nMark Lee – 1980, 1983, 1985\nMaurice Rioli – 1983, 1986\nDale Weightman – 1985, 1986, 1988\nTerry Wallace – 1988\nWayne Campbell – 1995, 1999\nMatthew Richardson – 1996, 1999, 2008\nMatthew Knights – 1998\nAndrew Kellaway – 2000\nDarren Gaspar – 2000, 2001\nBrad Ottens – 2001\nJoel Bowden – 2005, 2006\nJack Riewoldt – 2010, 2015\nTrent Cotchin – 2012\nBrett Deledio – 2012, 2015\nAlex Rance – 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 (captain)\nDustin Martin – 2016, 2017", "Des Rowe – 1956", "Roy Wright – 1956", "Neville Crowe – 1966", "Royce Hart – 1969", "David Cloke – 1979", "Bruce Monteath – 1979", "Michael Roach – 1979", "Jim Jess – 1980", "Geoff Raines – 1980", "Mark Lee – 1980, 1983, 1985", "Maurice Rioli – 1983, 1986", "Dale Weightman – 1985, 1986, 1988", "Terry Wallace – 1988", "Wayne Campbell – 1995, 1999", "Matthew Richardson – 1996, 1999, 2008", "Matthew Knights – 1998", "Andrew Kellaway – 2000", "Darren Gaspar – 2000, 2001", "Brad Ottens – 2001", "Joel Bowden – 2005, 2006", "Jack Riewoldt – 2010, 2015", "Trent Cotchin – 2012", "Brett Deledio – 2012, 2015", "Alex Rance – 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 (captain)", "Dustin Martin – 2016, 2017", "AFL Coaches Association Champion Player of the Year", "Trent Cotchin – 2012\nDustin Martin – 2017", "Trent Cotchin – 2012", "Dustin Martin – 2017", "AFL Coaches Association Coach of the Year", "Damien Hardwick – 2017", "Damien Hardwick – 2017", "AFL Players Association Most Valuable Player", "Dustin Martin – 2017", "Dustin Martin – 2017", "International Rules Series representatives\nCommenced 1998", "Matthew Richardson – 1996, 1999, 2008\nWayne Campbell – 1998, 1999, 2000\nAndrew Kellaway – 2000, 2002\nDarren Gaspar – 2001\nBrad Ottens – 2001\nJoel Bowden – 2001, 2004\nNathan Brown – 2003, 2004\nBrett Deledio – 2005\nChris Newman – 2005\nAndrew Raines – 2006\nJack Riewoldt – 2010\nJake King – 2011\nRobin Nahas – 2011", "Matthew Richardson – 1996, 1999, 2008", "Wayne Campbell – 1998, 1999, 2000", "Andrew Kellaway – 2000, 2002", "Darren Gaspar – 2001", "Brad Ottens – 2001", "Joel Bowden – 2001, 2004", "Nathan Brown – 2003, 2004", "Brett Deledio – 2005", "Chris Newman – 2005", "Andrew Raines – 2006", "Jack Riewoldt – 2010", "Jake King – 2011", "Robin Nahas – 2011", "Club Best & Fairest", "See Jack Dyer Medal", "See Jack Dyer Medal", "Club leading goalkicker", "See Michael Roach Medal", "See Michael Roach Medal", "Richmond has had a reserves team participate in various competitions since the early 20th century. The reserves competition for the then-Victorian Football League (now trading as the Australian Football League) began in 1919 and the Richmond reserves recorded its first premiership in 1929. In the following 68 years, Richmond went on to win a further eight premierships in reserve-grade football.[38] The Richmond reserves participated in the VFL/AFL reserves, then the Victorian State Football League up to the 1999 season, then in the new Victorian Football League competition in 2000.", "In 2001, the Richmond reserves team was dissolved and the club entered a reserves affiliation with the Coburg Football Club in the VFL, using the latter as a feeder team. This arrangement lasted from 2001 until 2013.[39]", "Richmond ended the affiliation at the end of 2013, seeking to re-establish a more direct developmental structure by operating a stand-alone reserves team.[40] The reformed Richmond (VFL) reserves team has played in the VFL since 2014, playing its home games at the Punt Road Oval, with many staged as curtain raisers to the club's senior home and away games at the nearby Melbourne Cricket Ground.[41] The team is made up of a combination of senior listed AFL players, rookie listed players and VFL exclusive contracted players. The VFL exclusive player list is below.", "Richmond Football Club (reserves)\n\n\nview\ntalk\nedit\n\n\n\n\n\n\nPlaying list\n\nCoaching staff\n\n\n\n\n51 Sam Darley (c) \n52 Anthony Scott \n53 Hugh Beasley \n54 Jacob Ballard \n55 Ryan Bathie \n57 Brandon Wood \n58 Jake Aarts \n59 Ash Morris \n60 Tom Langford \n61 James Fletcher \n62 Jayden Cass \n63 Jack Holden \n\n\n\n\n\n64 Thomas Silvestro \n67 Brenton Credlin \n69 Shaun Mannagh \n74 Tyson Kruse \n75 Lachlan McKenzie \n76 Alex Harnett \n78 Daniel Coffield \n79 Billy Coates \n80 Antony Forato \n81 Danko Bzenic \n86 Zak McCubbin \n88 Max O'Sullivan \n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nHead coach\n\nCraig McRae\n\nAssistant coaches\n\nTom Hunter (forwards)\nXavier Clarke (midfield)\nRyan Ferguson (backline)\nBen Waite (midfield stoppage)\nMarc Sophoulis (development)\n\n\n\nLegend:\n\n\n(c) Captain\n(vc) Vice captain\n\n\nUpdated: 15 March 2017\nSource(s): Playing list, Coaching staff", "Richmond Football Club (reserves)\n\n\nview\ntalk\nedit", "view\ntalk\nedit", "Playing list\n\nCoaching staff", "51 Sam Darley (c) \n52 Anthony Scott \n53 Hugh Beasley \n54 Jacob Ballard \n55 Ryan Bathie \n57 Brandon Wood \n58 Jake Aarts \n59 Ash Morris \n60 Tom Langford \n61 James Fletcher \n62 Jayden Cass \n63 Jack Holden \n\n\n\n\n\n64 Thomas Silvestro \n67 Brenton Credlin \n69 Shaun Mannagh \n74 Tyson Kruse \n75 Lachlan McKenzie \n76 Alex Harnett \n78 Daniel Coffield \n79 Billy Coates \n80 Antony Forato \n81 Danko Bzenic \n86 Zak McCubbin \n88 Max O'Sullivan \n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nHead coach\n\nCraig McRae\n\nAssistant coaches\n\nTom Hunter (forwards)\nXavier Clarke (midfield)\nRyan Ferguson (backline)\nBen Waite (midfield stoppage)\nMarc Sophoulis (development)\n\n\n\nLegend:\n\n\n(c) Captain\n(vc) Vice captain\n\n\nUpdated: 15 March 2017\nSource(s): Playing list, Coaching staff", "51 Sam Darley (c) \n52 Anthony Scott \n53 Hugh Beasley \n54 Jacob Ballard \n55 Ryan Bathie \n57 Brandon Wood \n58 Jake Aarts \n59 Ash Morris \n60 Tom Langford \n61 James Fletcher \n62 Jayden Cass \n63 Jack Holden", "51 Sam Darley (c)", "52 Anthony Scott", "53 Hugh Beasley", "54 Jacob Ballard", "55 Ryan Bathie", "57 Brandon Wood", "58 Jake Aarts", "59 Ash Morris", "60 Tom Langford", "61 James Fletcher", "62 Jayden Cass", "63 Jack Holden", "64 Thomas Silvestro \n67 Brenton Credlin \n69 Shaun Mannagh \n74 Tyson Kruse \n75 Lachlan McKenzie \n76 Alex Harnett \n78 Daniel Coffield \n79 Billy Coates \n80 Antony Forato \n81 Danko Bzenic \n86 Zak McCubbin \n88 Max O'Sullivan", "64 Thomas Silvestro", "67 Brenton Credlin", "69 Shaun Mannagh", "74 Tyson Kruse", "75 Lachlan McKenzie", "76 Alex Harnett", "78 Daniel Coffield", "79 Billy Coates", "80 Antony Forato", "81 Danko Bzenic", "86 Zak McCubbin", "88 Max O'Sullivan", "Craig McRae", "Tom Hunter (forwards)\nXavier Clarke (midfield)\nRyan Ferguson (backline)\nBen Waite (midfield stoppage)\nMarc Sophoulis (development)", "Tom Hunter (forwards)", "Xavier Clarke (midfield)", "Ryan Ferguson (backline)", "Ben Waite (midfield stoppage)", "Marc Sophoulis (development)", "Legend:", "(c) Captain\n(vc) Vice captain", "(c) Captain", "(vc) Vice captain", "Updated: 15 March 2017\nSource(s): Playing list, Coaching staff", "Reserves Premierships (9)[42]\n\n\nYear\nCompetition\nOpponent\nScore\nVenue\n\n\n1929\nVFL Reserves\nGeelong\n12.8 (80) - 7.15 (57)\nMCG\n\n\n1946\nVFL Reserves\nFitzroy\n7.15 (57) - 7.14 (56)\nMCG\n\n\n1954\nVFL Reserves\nMelbourne\n10.20 (80) - 4.9 (33)\nMCG\n\n\n1955\nVFL Reserves\nFootscray\n13.18 (96) - 9.12 (66)\nMCG\n\n\n1966\nVFL Reserves\nCollingwood\n14.11 (95) - 13.12 (90)\nMCG\n\n\n1971\nVFL Reserves\nEssendon\n14.14 (98) - 8.18 (66)\nMCG\n\n\n1973\nVFL Reserves\nGeelong\n17.18 (120) - 8.12 (60)\nMCG\n\n\n1977\nVFL Reserves\nFootscray\n19.18 (132) - 10.15 (75)\nMCG\n\n\n1997\nAFL Reserves (VSFL)\nHawthorn\n17.12 (114) - 10.10 (70)\nMCG", "Reserves Premierships (9)[42]", "Year\nCompetition\nOpponent\nScore\nVenue", "1929\nVFL Reserves\nGeelong\n12.8 (80) - 7.15 (57)\nMCG", "1946\nVFL Reserves\nFitzroy\n7.15 (57) - 7.14 (56)\nMCG", "1954\nVFL Reserves\nMelbourne\n10.20 (80) - 4.9 (33)\nMCG", "1955\nVFL Reserves\nFootscray\n13.18 (96) - 9.12 (66)\nMCG", "1966\nVFL Reserves\nCollingwood\n14.11 (95) - 13.12 (90)\nMCG", "1971\nVFL Reserves\nEssendon\n14.14 (98) - 8.18 (66)\nMCG", "1973\nVFL Reserves\nGeelong\n17.18 (120) - 8.12 (60)\nMCG", "1977\nVFL Reserves\nFootscray\n19.18 (132) - 10.15 (75)\nMCG", "1997\nAFL Reserves (VSFL)\nHawthorn\n17.12 (114) - 10.10 (70)\nMCG", "The Richmond Football Club has licenses for two women's teams: one team in the AFL Women's competition, which will enter the league in 2020; and one team in the VFL Women's competition, which will be fielded for the first time in the 2018 VFLW season. The program, including development pathways, is presently overseen by female football operations manager, Kate Sheahan.[43]", "Richmond has a thin history with women's football, with the club connected to just two women's matches in the 20th century. The first occurred in 1923, with a team dubbed the \"Tigresses\" playing off against the club's junior men's team (Cubs) as a fundraiser for a VFL team's interstate trip. As was the case with women versus men charity matches in that era, the men's team competed in the match in full fancy dress attire. In what was a non-serious affair the women's side (9.14 (68)) defeated the scoreless cubs side.[44] In August 1933 however, an all women's match was held between teams representing the suburbs of Richmond and Carlton in a charity match. While the Carlton team was associated with the club itself, Richmond did not pair with the side that played under its moniker. The match, played at Carlton's home Princes Park drew an estimated crowd of 10,000 and raised funds as part of a VFL bye-week carnival for the Royal Melbourne Hospital.[45]", "In 2016, Richmond was among 13 AFL clubs to bid for licenses to compete in the soon to be formed AFL Women's competition. The club was one of five to miss out, instead being awarded provisional licenses guaranteeing access in later expansions.[46] The following year they would again bid, this time winning the right to entry into the competition's fourth season, to be held in 2020.[47]", "In October 2017, Richmond was granted a license to field a team in the 2018 VFL Women's season.[48] They are to be one of 13 clubs in the competition, including all 10 Victorian-based AFL clubs. The league operates in the winter season (separately to the AFLW compeition), with players not contractually bound to play for the same clubs in both leagues.", "Former men's VFL assistant coach Tom Hunter was named the team's head coach in November 2017. He is additionally responsible for overseeing the womens arm of the club's Next Generation Academy.[49]", "Golfer Greg Norman and cricketers Dennis Lillee and Rod Marsh are famous Richmond supporters, as is actor Russell Crowe. The club also won a famous American supporter in Carolina Panthers quarterback Cam Newton after Newton traveled to Melbourne to visit the team as part of a Gatorade commercial.[50] Comedian Mick Molloy, who also co-hosts The Front Bar, is another famous Richmond supporter." ]
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[ 77 ]
who sang what in the world's come over you
Jack Scott (singer)
[ "Jack Scott\n\n\nBirth name\nGiovanni Domenico Scafone, Jr.\n\n\nBorn\n(1936-01-24) January 24, 1936 (age 82)\nWindsor, Ontario, Canada\n\n\nGenres\nRock and roll\nRockabilly\n\n\nOccupation(s)\nSinger\n\n\nInstruments\nVocals\n\n\nYears active\n1957–present\n\n\nLabels\nABC-Paramount, Carlton, London, Top Rank, Capitol, RCA, Jubilee, Groove, Harvest\n\n\nWebsite\njackscottmusic.com", "Jack Scott", "Birth name\nGiovanni Domenico Scafone, Jr.", "Born\n(1936-01-24) January 24, 1936 (age 82)\nWindsor, Ontario, Canada", "Genres\nRock and roll\nRockabilly", "Occupation(s)\nSinger", "Instruments\nVocals", "Years active\n1957–present", "Labels\nABC-Paramount, Carlton, London, Top Rank, Capitol, RCA, Jubilee, Groove, Harvest", "Website\njackscottmusic.com", "Jack Scott (born Giovanni Domenico Scafone, Jr., January 24, 1936, Windsor, Ontario, Canada[1]) is a Canadian American singer and songwriter. He was the first white rock and roll star to come out of Detroit, Michigan. He was inducted into Canadian Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2011 and has been called \"undeniably the greatest Canadian rock and roll singer of all time.\"[2]", "Scott spent his early childhood in Windsor, Ontario (Canada), across the river from Detroit, Michigan (United States).[1] When he was 10, Scott's family moved to Hazel Park, a Detroit suburb. He grew up listening to hillbilly music and was taught to play the guitar by his Mother Laura. [1] As a teenager, he pursued a singing career and recorded as 'Jack Scott.' At the age of 18, he formed the Southern Drifters.[1] After leading the band for three years, he signed to ABC-Paramount Records as a solo artist in 1957.[1]", "After recording two good-selling local hits for ABC-Paramount in 1957, he switched to the Carlton record label and had a double-sided national hit in 1958 with \"Leroy\" (#11) / \"My True Love\" (#3).[1] The record sold over one million copies, earning Scott his first gold disc.[3] Later in 1958, \"With Your Love\" (#28) reached the Top 40. In all, six of 12 songs on his first album became hit singles. On most of these tracks, he was backed up by the vocal group, the Chantones.[4]", "He served in the United States Army during most of 1959, just after \"Goodbye Baby\" (#8) made the Top Ten. 1959 also saw him chart with \"The Way I Walk\" (#35). Most of his Carlton master tapes were believed lost or destroyed until Rollercoaster Records in England released a vinyl EP, \"Jack Scott Rocks\", and CD, \"The Way I Walk\", which were for the most part mastered from original tapes rather than the disc dubs used for previous reissues.[5]", "At the beginning of 1960, Scott again changed record labels, this time to Top Rank Records.[1] He then recorded four Billboard Hot 100 hits – \"What in the World's Come Over You\" (#5), \"Burning Bridges\" (#3) b/w \"Oh Little One\" (#34), and \"It Only Happened Yesterday\" (#38).[1] \"What in the World's Come Over You\" was Scott's second gold disc winner.[6] Scott continued to record and perform during the 1960s and 1970s.[1] His song \"You're Just Gettin' Better\" reached the country charts in 1974.[1] In May 1977, Scott recorded a Peel session for BBC Radio 1 disc jockey, John Peel.", "Scott had more US singles (19), in a shorter period of time (41 months), than any other recording artist – with the exception of The Beatles, Elvis Presley, Fats Domino and Connie Francis.[7] Scott wrote all of his own hits, except one: \"Burning Bridges.\"[4]", "His legacy ranks him with the top legends of rock and roll. It has been said that \"with the exception of Roy Orbison and Elvis Presley, no white rock and roller of the time ever developed a finer voice with a better range than Jack Scott, or cut a more convincing body of work in Rockabilly, Rock and Roll, Country-Soul, Gospel or Blues\".[4][8]", "In 2011 he was inducted into the Canadian Songwriters Hall of Fame. More recently Scott was nominated for the Hit Parade Hall of Fame. He is still actively singing and touring today and resides in a suburb of Detroit.", "Year\nAlbum\n\n\n1959\nJack Scott (Carlton 12–107)\n\n\n1960\nI Remember Hank Williams (Top Rank RM319)\n\n\n1960\nWhat in the World's Come Over You (Top Rank RM326)\n\n\n1960\nWhat Am I Living For (Carlton 12–122)\n\n\n1960\nThe Spirit Moves Me (Top Rank RM348)\n\n\n1964\nBurning Bridges (Capitol T2035)\n\n\n2015\nWay To Survive (Bluelight BLR 33176)", "Year\nAlbum", "1959\nJack Scott (Carlton 12–107)", "1960\nI Remember Hank Williams (Top Rank RM319)", "1960\nWhat in the World's Come Over You (Top Rank RM326)", "1960\nWhat Am I Living For (Carlton 12–122)", "1960\nThe Spirit Moves Me (Top Rank RM348)", "1964\nBurning Bridges (Capitol T2035)", "2015\nWay To Survive (Bluelight BLR 33176)", "Year\nSingle (A-side, B-side)\nBoth sides from same album except where indicated\nChart Positions\nAlbum\n\n\nUS\nUS R&B\nUS Country\nCAN Country\nUK\n\n\n1957\n\"Baby, She's Gone\"\nb/w \"You Can Bet Your Bottom Dollar\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\nWhat Am I Living For\n\n\n\"Two Timin' Woman\"\nb/w \"I Need Your Love\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n1958\n\"My True Love\" /\n3\n5\n—\n—\n9\nJack Scott\n\n\n\"Leroy\"\n11\n5\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"With Your Love\" /\n28\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"Geraldine\"\n96\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"Goodbye Baby\" /\n8\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"Save My Soul\"\n73\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n1959\n\"I Never Felt Like This\"\nb/w \"Bella\"\n78\n—\n—\n—\n—\nWhat Am I Living For\n\n\n\"The Way I Walk\"\nb/w \"Midgie\"\n35\n—\n—\n—\n30\nJack Scott\n\n\n\"There Comes A Time\"\nb/w \"Baby Marie\"\n71\n—\n—\n—\n—\nWhat Am I Living For\n\n\n1960\n\"What In The World's Come Over You\"\nb/w \"Baby, Baby\"\n5\n7\n—\n—\n11\nWhat In The World's Come Over You\n\n\n\"Burning Bridges\" /\n3\n5\n—\n—\n32\n\n\n\"Oh, Little One\"\n34\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"What Am I Living For\"\nb/w \"Indiana Waltz\" (from Jack Scott)\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\nWhat Am I Living For\n\n\n\"It Only Happened Yesterday\" /\n38\n—\n—\n—\n—\nBurning Bridges\n\n\n\"Cool Water\"\n85\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"No One Will Ever Know\"\nb/w \"Go Wild Little Sadie\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\nNon-album tracks\n\n\n\"Patsy\"\nb/w \"Old Time Religion\" (from The Spirit Moves Me)\n65\n—\n—\n—\n—\nBurning Bridges\n\n\n1961\n\"Is There Something On Your Mind\"\nb/w \"I Found A Woman\" (Non-album track)\n89\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"A Little Feeling (Called Love)\"\nb/w \"Now That I\" (Non-album track)\n91\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"My Dream Come True\"\nb/w \"Strange Desire\" (Non-album track)\n83\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"Steps One And Two\"\nb/w \"One Of These Days\" (Non-album track)\n86\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"If Only\"\nb/w \"Green Green Valley\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\nNon-album tracks\n\n\n1962\n\"Cry Cry Cry\"\nb/w \"Grizzily Bear\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"The Part Where I Cry\"\nb/w \"You Only See What You Wanna See\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"Sad Story\"\nb/w \"I Can't Hold Your Letters (In My Arms)\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n1963\n\"Laugh and The World Laughs With You\"\nb/w \"Strangers\" (Non-album track)\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\nBurning Bridges\n\n\n\"All I See Is Blue\"\nb/w \"Meo Myo\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"There's Trouble Brewin'\"\nb/w \"Jingle Bells Slide\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\nNon-album tracks\n\n\n1964\n\"I Knew You First\"\nb/w \"Blue Skies (Moving In On Me)\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"What A Wonderful Night Out\"\nb/w \"Wiggle On Out\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"Thou Shalt Not Steal\"\nb/w \"I Prayed For An Angel\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"Tall Tales\"\nb/w \"Flakey John\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n1965\n\"I Don't Believe In Tea Leaves\"\nb/w \"Separation's Now Granted\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"Don't Hush The Laughter\"\nb/w \"Let's Learn To Live and Love Again\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n\"I Hope I Think I Wish\"\nb/w \"Looking For Linda\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n1966\n\"Before The Bird Flies\"\nb/w \"Insane\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n1967\n\"My Special Angel\"\nb/w \"I Keep Changing My Mind\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n1970\n\"Billy Jack\"\nb/w \"Mary Marry Me\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n1973\n\"May You Never Be Alone\"\nb/w \"Face To The Wall\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\n\n\n1974\n\"You're Just Gettin' Better\"\nb/w \"As You Take A Walk Through My Mind\"\n—\n—\n92\n—\n—\n\n\n1992\n\"Burning Bridges\" (with Carroll Baker)\n—\n—\n—\n55\n—", "Year\nSingle (A-side, B-side)\nBoth sides from same album except where indicated\nChart Positions\nAlbum", "US\nUS R&B\nUS Country\nCAN Country\nUK", "1957\n\"Baby, She's Gone\"\nb/w \"You Can Bet Your Bottom Dollar\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\nWhat Am I Living For", "\"Two Timin' Woman\"\nb/w \"I Need Your Love\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—", "1958\n\"My True Love\" /\n3\n5\n—\n—\n9\nJack Scott", "\"Leroy\"\n11\n5\n—\n—\n—", "\"With Your Love\" /\n28\n—\n—\n—\n—", "\"Geraldine\"\n96\n—\n—\n—\n—", "\"Goodbye Baby\" /\n8\n—\n—\n—\n—", "\"Save My Soul\"\n73\n—\n—\n—\n—", "1959\n\"I Never Felt Like This\"\nb/w \"Bella\"\n78\n—\n—\n—\n—\nWhat Am I Living For", "\"The Way I Walk\"\nb/w \"Midgie\"\n35\n—\n—\n—\n30\nJack Scott", "\"There Comes A Time\"\nb/w \"Baby Marie\"\n71\n—\n—\n—\n—\nWhat Am I Living For", "1960\n\"What In The World's Come Over You\"\nb/w \"Baby, Baby\"\n5\n7\n—\n—\n11\nWhat In The World's Come Over You", "\"Burning Bridges\" /\n3\n5\n—\n—\n32", "\"Oh, Little One\"\n34\n—\n—\n—\n—", "\"What Am I Living For\"\nb/w \"Indiana Waltz\" (from Jack Scott)\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\nWhat Am I Living For", "\"It Only Happened Yesterday\" /\n38\n—\n—\n—\n—\nBurning Bridges", "\"Cool Water\"\n85\n—\n—\n—\n—", "\"No One Will Ever Know\"\nb/w \"Go Wild Little Sadie\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\nNon-album tracks", "\"Patsy\"\nb/w \"Old Time Religion\" (from The Spirit Moves Me)\n65\n—\n—\n—\n—\nBurning Bridges", "1961\n\"Is There Something On Your Mind\"\nb/w \"I Found A Woman\" (Non-album track)\n89\n—\n—\n—\n—", "\"A Little Feeling (Called Love)\"\nb/w \"Now That I\" (Non-album track)\n91\n—\n—\n—\n—", "\"My Dream Come True\"\nb/w \"Strange Desire\" (Non-album track)\n83\n—\n—\n—\n—", "\"Steps One And Two\"\nb/w \"One Of These Days\" (Non-album track)\n86\n—\n—\n—\n—", "\"If Only\"\nb/w \"Green Green Valley\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\nNon-album tracks", "1962\n\"Cry Cry Cry\"\nb/w \"Grizzily Bear\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—", "\"The Part Where I Cry\"\nb/w \"You Only See What You Wanna See\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—", "\"Sad Story\"\nb/w \"I Can't Hold Your Letters (In My Arms)\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—", "1963\n\"Laugh and The World Laughs With You\"\nb/w \"Strangers\" (Non-album track)\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\nBurning Bridges", "\"All I See Is Blue\"\nb/w \"Meo Myo\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—", "\"There's Trouble Brewin'\"\nb/w \"Jingle Bells Slide\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—\nNon-album tracks", "1964\n\"I Knew You First\"\nb/w \"Blue Skies (Moving In On Me)\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—", "\"What A Wonderful Night Out\"\nb/w \"Wiggle On Out\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—", "\"Thou Shalt Not Steal\"\nb/w \"I Prayed For An Angel\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—", "\"Tall Tales\"\nb/w \"Flakey John\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—", "1965\n\"I Don't Believe In Tea Leaves\"\nb/w \"Separation's Now Granted\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—", "\"Don't Hush The Laughter\"\nb/w \"Let's Learn To Live and Love Again\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—", "\"I Hope I Think I Wish\"\nb/w \"Looking For Linda\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—", "1966\n\"Before The Bird Flies\"\nb/w \"Insane\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—", "1967\n\"My Special Angel\"\nb/w \"I Keep Changing My Mind\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—", "1970\n\"Billy Jack\"\nb/w \"Mary Marry Me\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—", "1973\n\"May You Never Be Alone\"\nb/w \"Face To The Wall\"\n—\n—\n—\n—\n—", "1974\n\"You're Just Gettin' Better\"\nb/w \"As You Take A Walk Through My Mind\"\n—\n—\n92\n—\n—", "1992\n\"Burning Bridges\" (with Carroll Baker)\n—\n—\n—\n55\n—" ]
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[ 14 ]
who produces the most wool in the world
Wool
[ "The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with Australia and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with Australia and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.[1] Wool mainly consists of protein together with a few percent lipids. In this regard it is chemically quite distinct from the more dominant textile, cotton, which is mainly cellulose.[1]", "Wool is produced by follicles which are small cells located in the skin. These follicles are located in the upper layer of the skin called the epidermis and push down into the second skin layer called the dermis as the wool fibers grow. Follicles can be classed as either primary or secondary follicles. Primary follicles produce three types of fiber: kemp, medullated fibers and true wool fibers. Secondary follicles only produce true wool fibers. Medullated fibers share nearly identical characteristics to hair and are long but lack crimp and elasticity. Kemp fibers are very coarse and shed out.[2]", "Wool's scaling and crimp make it easier to spin the fleece by helping the individual fibers attach to each other, so they stay together. Because of the crimp, wool fabrics have greater bulk than other textiles, and they hold air, which causes the fabric to retain heat. Wool has a high specific heat coefficient, so it impedes heat transfer in general. This effect has benefited desert peoples, as Bedouins and Tuaregs use wool clothes for insulation.", "Felting of wool occurs upon hammering or other mechanical agitation as the microscopic barbs on the surface of wool fibers hook together.", "Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it is crimped and elastic.[3]", "The amount of crimp corresponds to the fineness of the wool fibers. A fine wool like Merino may have up to 100 crimps per inch, while coarser wool like karakul may have as few as one or two. In contrast, hair has little if any scale and no crimp, and little ability to bind into yarn. On sheep, the hair part of the fleece is called kemp. The relative amounts of kemp to wool vary from breed to breed and make some fleeces more desirable for spinning, felting, or carding into batts for quilts or other insulating products, including the famous tweed cloth of Scotland.", "Wool fibers readily absorb moisture, but are not hollow. Wool can absorb almost one-third of its own weight in water.[4] Wool absorbs sound like many other fabrics. It is generally a creamy white color, although some breeds of sheep produce natural colors, such as black, brown, silver, and random mixes.", "Wool ignites at a higher temperature than cotton and some synthetic fibers. It has a lower rate of flame spread, a lower rate of heat release, a lower heat of combustion, and does not melt or drip;[5] it forms a char which is insulating and self-extinguishing, and it contributes less to toxic gases and smoke than other flooring products when used in carpets.[6] Wool carpets are specified for high safety environments, such as trains and aircraft. Wool is usually specified for garments for firefighters, soldiers, and others in occupations where they are exposed to the likelihood of fire.[6]", "Wool is considered by the medical profession to be allergenic.[7]", "Sheep shearing is the process by which the woolen fleece of a sheep is cut off. After shearing, the wool is separated into four main categories: fleece (which makes up the vast bulk), broken, bellies, and locks. The quality of fleeces is determined by a technique known as wool classing, whereby a qualified person called a wool classer groups wools of similar gradings together to maximize the return for the farmer or sheep owner. In Australia before being auctioned, all Merino fleece wool is objectively measured for micron, yield (including the amount of vegetable matter), staple length, staple strength, and sometimes color and comfort factor.", "Wool straight off a sheep, known as \"greasy wool\"[8] or \"wool in the grease\", contains a high level of valuable lanolin, as well as the sheep's dead skin and sweat residue, and generally also contains pesticides and vegetable matter from the animal's environment. Before the wool can be used for commercial purposes, it must be scoured, a process of cleaning the greasy wool. Scouring may be as simple as a bath in warm water or as complicated as an industrial process using detergent and alkali in specialized equipment.[9] In north west England, special potash pits were constructed to produce potash used in the manufacture of a soft soap for scouring locally produced white wool.", "In commercial wool, vegetable matter is often removed by chemical carbonization.[citation needed][10] In less-processed wools, vegetable matter may be removed by hand and some of the lanolin left intact through the use of gentler detergents. This semigrease wool can be worked into yarn and knitted into particularly water-resistant mittens or sweaters, such as those of the Aran Island fishermen. Lanolin removed from wool is widely used in cosmetic products such as hand creams.", "Raw wool has many impurities; vegetable matter, sand, dirt and yolk which is a mixture of suint (sweat), grease, urine stains and dung locks. The sheeps body yields many types of wool, with differing strengths, thicknesses, length of staple and impurities. The raw wool (greasy) is processed into 'top'. 'Worsted top' requires strong straight and parallel fibres.", "Common Name\nPart of Sheep\nStyle of Wool\n\n\nFine\nShoulder\nFine uniform and very dense\n\n\nNear\nSides\nFine uniform and strong\n\n\nDownrights\nNeck\nShort and irregular, lower quality\n\n\nChoice\nBack\nShorter staple, open and less strong\n\n\nAbb\nHaunches\nLonger, stronger large staples\n\n\nSeconds\nBelly\nShort, tender, Matted and dirty\n\n\nTop-not\nHead\nStiff, very coarse, rough and kempy\n\n\nBrokes\nForelegs\nShort irregular and faulty\n\n\nCowtail\nHindlegs\nVery strong, coarse and hairy\n\n\nBritch\nTail\nVery coarse, kempy and dirty\n\n\n[11]", "Common Name\nPart of Sheep\nStyle of Wool", "Fine\nShoulder\nFine uniform and very dense", "Near\nSides\nFine uniform and strong", "Downrights\nNeck\nShort and irregular, lower quality", "Choice\nBack\nShorter staple, open and less strong", "Abb\nHaunches\nLonger, stronger large staples", "Seconds\nBelly\nShort, tender, Matted and dirty", "Top-not\nHead\nStiff, very coarse, rough and kempy", "Brokes\nForelegs\nShort irregular and faulty", "Cowtail\nHindlegs\nVery strong, coarse and hairy", "Britch\nTail\nVery coarse, kempy and dirty", "The quality of wool is determined by its fiber diameter, crimp, yield, color, and staple strength. Fiber diameter is the single most important wool characteristic determining quality and price.", "Merino wool is typically 3–5 inches in length and is very fine (between 12 and 24 microns).[12] The finest and most valuable wool comes from Merino hoggets. Wool taken from sheep produced for meat is typically more coarse, and has fibers 1.5 to 6 in (38 to 152 mm) in length. Damage or breaks in the wool can occur if the sheep is stressed while it is growing its fleece, resulting in a thin spot where the fleece is likely to break.[13]", "Wool is also separated into grades based on the measurement of the wool's diameter in microns and also its style. These grades may vary depending on the breed or purpose of the wool. For example:", "Merinos\n\nDiameter in microns\nName\n\n\n< 15.5\nUltrafine Merino[8]\n\n\n15.6 – 18.5\nSuperfine Merino\n\n\n18.6 – 20\nFine Merino[8]\n\n\n20.1 – 23\nMedium Merino\n\n\n> 23\nStrong Merino[8]", "Diameter in microns\nName", "< 15.5\nUltrafine Merino[8]", "15.6 – 18.5\nSuperfine Merino", "18.6 – 20\nFine Merino[8]", "20.1 – 23\nMedium Merino", "> 23\nStrong Merino[8]", "Breeds\n\nBreeds\nDiameter\n\n\nComeback\n21–26 microns, white, 90–180 mm long\n\n\nFine crossbred\n27–31 microns, Corriedales, etc.\n\n\nMedium crossbred\n32–35 microns\n\n\nDowns\n23–34 microns, typically lacks luster and brightness. Examples, Aussiedown, Dorset Horn, Suffolk, etc.[14]\n\n\nCoarse crossbred\n>36 microns\n\n\nCarpet wools\n35–45 microns[8]", "Breeds\nDiameter", "Comeback\n21–26 microns, white, 90–180 mm long", "Fine crossbred\n27–31 microns, Corriedales, etc.", "Medium crossbred\n32–35 microns", "Downs\n23–34 microns, typically lacks luster and brightness. Examples, Aussiedown, Dorset Horn, Suffolk, etc.[14]", "Coarse crossbred\n>36 microns", "Carpet wools\n35–45 microns[8]", "Any wool finer than 25 microns can be used for garments, while coarser grades are used for outerwear or rugs. The finer the wool, the softer it is, while coarser grades are more durable and less prone to pilling.", "The finest Australian and New Zealand Merino wools are known as 1PP, which is the industry benchmark of excellence for Merino wool 16.9 microns and finer. This style represents the top level of fineness, character, color, and style as determined on the basis of a series of parameters in accordance with the original dictates of British wool as applied by the Australian Wool Exchange (AWEX) Council. Only a few dozen of the millions of bales auctioned every year can be classified and marked 1PP.[15]", "In the United States, three classifications of wool are named in the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939.[16] \"Wool\" is \"the fiber from the fleece of the sheep or lamb or hair of the Angora or Cashmere goat (and may include the so-called specialty fibers from the hair of the camel, alpaca, llama, and vicuna) which has never been reclaimed from any woven or felted wool product\".[16] \"Virgin wool\" and \"new wool\" are also used to refer to such never used wool. There are two categories of recycled wool (also called reclaimed or shoddy wool). \"Reprocessed wool\" identifies \"wool which has been woven or felted into a wool product and subsequently reduced to a fibrous state without having been used by the ultimate consumer\".[16] \"Reused wool\" refers to such wool that has been used by the ultimate consumer.[16]", "Wild sheep were more hairy than woolly. Although sheep were domesticated some 9,000 to 11,000 years ago, archaeological evidence from statuary found at sites in Iran suggests selection for woolly sheep may have begun around 6000 BC,[17][18] with the earliest woven wool garments having only been dated to two to three thousand years later.[19] Woolly-sheep were introduced into Europe from the Near East in the early part of the 4th millennium BC. The oldest known European wool textile, ca. 1500 BC, was preserved in a Danish bog.[20] Prior to invention of shears—probably in the Iron Age—the wool was plucked out by hand or by bronze combs. In Roman times, wool, linen, and leather clothed the European population; cotton from India was a curiosity of which only naturalists had heard, and silks, imported along the Silk Road from China, were extravagant luxury goods. Pliny the Elder records in his Natural History that the reputation for producing the finest wool was enjoyed by Tarentum, where selective breeding had produced sheep with superior fleeces, but which required special care.", "In medieval times, as trade connections expanded, the Champagne fairs revolved around the production of wool cloth in small centers such as Provins. The network developed by the annual fairs meant the woolens of Provins might find their way to Naples, Sicily, Cyprus, Majorca, Spain, and even Constantinople.[21] The wool trade developed into serious business, a generator of capital.[22] In the 13th century, the wool trade became the economic engine of the Low Countries and central Italy. By the end of the 14th century, Italy predominated, though Italian production turned to silk in the 16th century.[21] Both industries, based on the export of English raw wool, were rivaled only by the 15th-century sheepwalks of Castile and were a significant source of income to the English crown, which in 1275 had imposed an export tax on wool called the \"Great Custom\". The importance of wool to the English economy can be seen in the fact that since the 14th century, the presiding officer of the House of Lords has sat on the \"Woolsack\", a chair stuffed with wool.", "Economies of scale were instituted in the Cistercian houses, which had accumulated great tracts of land during the 12th and early 13th centuries, when land prices were low and labor still scarce. Raw wool was baled and shipped from North Sea ports to the textile cities of Flanders, notably Ypres and Ghent, where it was dyed and worked up as cloth. At the time of the Black Death, English textile industries accounted for about 10% of English wool production. The English textile trade grew during the 15th century, to the point where export of wool was discouraged. Over the centuries, various British laws controlled the wool trade or required the use of wool even in burials. The smuggling of wool out of the country, known as owling, was at one time punishable by the cutting off of a hand. After the Restoration, fine English woolens began to compete with silks in the international market, partly aided by the Navigation Acts; in 1699, the English crown forbade its American colonies to trade wool with anyone but England herself.", "A great deal of the value of woolen textiles was in the dyeing and finishing of the woven product. In each of the centers of the textile trade, the manufacturing process came to be subdivided into a collection of trades, overseen by an entrepreneur in a system called by the English the \"putting-out\" system, or \"cottage industry\", and the Verlagssystem by the Germans. In this system of producing wool cloth, once perpetuated in the production of Harris tweeds, the entrepreneur provides the raw materials and an advance, the remainder being paid upon delivery of the product. Written contracts bound the artisans to specified terms. Fernand Braudel traces the appearance of the system in the 13th-century economic boom, quoting a document of 1275.[21] The system effectively bypassed the guilds' restrictions.", "Before the flowering of the Renaissance, the Medici and other great banking houses of Florence had built their wealth and banking system on their textile industry based on wool, overseen by the Arte della Lana, the wool guild: wool textile interests guided Florentine policies. Francesco Datini, the \"merchant of Prato\", established in 1383 an Arte della Lana for that small Tuscan city. The sheepwalks of Castile shaped the landscape and the fortunes of the meseta that lies in the heart of the Iberian peninsula; in the 16th century, a unified Spain allowed export of Merino lambs only with royal permission. The German wool market – based on sheep of Spanish origin – did not overtake British wool until comparatively late. The Industrial Revolution introduced mass production technology into wool and wool cloth manufacturing. Australia's colonial economy was based on sheep raising, and the Australian wool trade eventually overtook that of the Germans by 1845, furnishing wool for Bradford, which developed as the heart of industrialized woolens production.", "Due to decreasing demand with increased use of synthetic fibers, wool production is much less than what it was in the past. The collapse in the price of wool began in late 1966 with a 40% drop; with occasional interruptions, the price has tended down. The result has been sharply reduced production and movement of resources into production of other commodities, in the case of sheep growers, to production of meat.[23][24][25]", "Superwash wool (or washable wool) technology first appeared in the early 1970s to produce wool that has been specially treated so it is machine washable and may be tumble-dried. This wool is produced using an acid bath that removes the \"scales\" from the fiber, or by coating the fiber with a polymer that prevents the scales from attaching to each other and causing shrinkage. This process results in a fiber that holds longevity and durability over synthetic materials, while retaining its shape.[26]", "In December 2004, a bale of the then world's finest wool, averaging 11.8 microns, sold for AU$3,000 per kilogram at auction in Melbourne, Victoria. This fleece wool tested with an average yield of 74.5%, 68 mm long, and had 40 newtons per kilotex strength. The result was A$279,000 for the bale.[27] The finest bale of wool ever auctioned was sold for a seasonal record of AU$2690 per kilo during June 2008. This bale was produced by the Hillcreston Pinehill Partnership and measured 11.6 microns, 72.1% yield, and had a 43 newtons per kilotex strength measurement. The bale realized $247,480 and was exported to India.[28]", "In 2007, a new wool suit was developed and sold in Japan that can be washed in the shower, and which dries off ready to wear within hours with no ironing required. The suit was developed using Australian Merino wool, and it enables woven products made from wool, such as suits, trousers, and skirts, to be cleaned using a domestic shower at home.[29]", "In December 2006, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed 2009 to be the International Year of Natural Fibres, so as to raise the profile of wool and other natural fibers.", "Global wool production is about 2 million tonnes per year, of which 60% goes into apparel. Wool comprises ca 3% of the global textile market, but its value is higher owing to dying and other modifications of the material.[1] Australia is a leading producer of wool which is mostly from Merino sheep but has been eclipsed by China in terms of total weight.[30] New Zealand (2016) is the third-largest producer of wool, and the largest producer of crossbred wool. Breeds such as Lincoln, Romney, Drysdale, and Elliotdale produce coarser fibers, and wool from these sheep is usually used for making carpets.", "In the United States, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado have large commercial sheep flocks and their mainstay is the Rambouillet (or French Merino). Also, a thriving home-flock contingent of small-scale farmers raise small hobby flocks of specialty sheep for the hand-spinning market. These small-scale farmers offer a wide selection of fleece. Global woolclip (total amount of wool shorn) 2004/2005[31]", "Australia: 25% of global woolclip (475 million kg greasy, 2004/2005)\n China: 18%\n United States: 17%\n New Zealand: 11%\n Argentina: 3%\n Turkey: 2%\n Iran: 2%\n United Kingdom: 2%\n India: 2%\n Sudan: 2%\n South Africa: 1%", " Australia: 25% of global woolclip (475 million kg greasy, 2004/2005)", " China: 18%", " United States: 17%", " New Zealand: 11%", " Argentina: 3%", " Turkey: 2%", " Iran: 2%", " United Kingdom: 2%", " India: 2%", " Sudan: 2%", " South Africa: 1%", "Organic wool is becoming more and more popular. This wool is very limited in supply and much of it comes from New Zealand and Australia.[32] It is becoming easier to find in clothing and other products, but these products often carry a higher price. Wool is environmentally preferable (as compared to petroleum-based nylon or polypropylene) as a material for carpets, as well, in particular when combined with a natural binding and the use of formaldehyde-free glues.", "Animal rights groups have noted issues with the production of wool, such as mulesing.", "About 85% of wool sold in Australia is sold by open cry auction.[citation needed] \"Sale by sample\" is a method in which a mechanical claw takes a sample from each bale in a line or lot of wool. These grab samples are bulked, objectively measured, and a sample of not less than 4 kg is displayed in a box for the buyer to examine. The Australian Wool Exchange conducts sales primarily in Sydney, Melbourne, Newcastle, and Fremantle. About 80 brokers and agents work throughout Australia.[citation needed]", "About 7% of Australian wool is sold by private treaty on farms or to local wool-handling facilities. This option gives wool growers benefit from reduced transport, warehousing, and selling costs. This method is preferred for small lots or mixed butts to make savings on reclassing and testing.", "About 5% of Australian wool is sold over the internet on an electronic offer board.[citation needed] This option gives wool growers the ability to set firm price targets, reoffer passed-in wool, and offer lots to the market quickly and efficiently. This method works well for tested lots, as buyers use these results to make a purchase. About 97% of wool is sold without sample inspection; however, as of December 2009, 59% of wool listed had been passed in from auction.[citation needed] Growers through certain brokers can allocate their wool to a sale and at what price their wool will be reserved.", "Sale by tender can achieve considerable cost savings on wool clips large enough to make it worthwhile for potential buyers to submit tenders. Some marketing firms sell wool on a consignment basis, obtaining a fixed percentage as commission.", "Forward selling: Some buyers offer a secure price for forward delivery of wool based on estimated measurements or the results of previous clips. Prices are quoted at current market rates and are locked in for the season. Premiums and discounts are added to cover variations in micron, yield, tensile strength, etc., which are confirmed by actual test results when available.[citation needed]", "Another method of selling wool includes sales direct to wool mills.", "The British Wool Marketing Board operates a central marketing system for UK fleece wool with the aim of achieving the best possible net returns for farmers.", "Less than half of New Zealand's wool is sold at auction, while around 45% of farmers sell wool directly to private buyers and end-users.[33]", "United States sheep producers market wool with private or cooperative wool warehouses, but wool pools are common in many states. In some cases, wool is pooled in a local market area, but sold through a wool warehouse. Wool offered with objective measurement test results is preferred. Imported apparel wool and carpet wool goes directly to central markets, where it is handled by the large merchants and manufacturers.[34]", "Shoddy or recycled wool is made by cutting or tearing apart existing wool fabric and respinning the resulting fibers.[35] As this process makes the wool fibers shorter, the remanufactured fabric is inferior to the original. The recycled wool may be mixed with raw wool, wool noil, or another fiber such as cotton to increase the average fiber length. Such yarns are typically used as weft yarns with a cotton warp. This process was invented in the Heavy Woollen District of West Yorkshire and created a microeconomy in this area for many years.", "Rag is a sturdy wool fiber made into yarn and used in many rugged applications such as gloves.", "Worsted is a strong, long-staple, combed wool yarn with a hard surface.[35]", "Woolen is a soft, short-staple, carded wool yarn typically used for knitting.[35] In traditional weaving, woolen weft yarn (for softness and warmth) is frequently combined with a worsted warp yarn for strength on the loom.[36]", "In addition to clothing, wool has been used for blankets, horse rugs, saddle cloths, carpeting, insulation and upholstery. Wool felt covers piano hammers, and it is used to absorb odors and noise in heavy machinery and stereo speakers. Ancient Greeks lined their helmets with felt, and Roman legionnaires used breastplates made of wool felt.", "Wool has also been traditionally used to cover cloth diapers.[citation needed] Wool fiber exteriors are hydrophobic (repel water) and the interior of the wool fiber is hygroscopic (attracts water); this makes a wool garment suitable cover for a wet diaper by inhibiting wicking, so outer garments remain dry. Wool felted and treated with lanolin is water resistant, air permeable, and slightly antibacterial, so it resists the buildup of odor. Some modern cloth diapers use felted wool fabric for covers, and there are several modern commercial knitting patterns for wool diaper covers.", "Initial studies of woolen underwear have found it prevented heat and sweat rashes because it more readily absorbs the moisture than other fibers.[37]", "Merino wool has been used in baby sleep products such as swaddle baby wrap blankets and infant sleeping bags.", "As an animal protein, wool can be used as a soil fertilizer, being a slow-release source of nitrogen.", "Researchers at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology school of fashion and textiles have discovered a blend of wool and Kevlar, the synthetic fiber widely used in body armor, was lighter, cheaper and worked better in damp conditions than Kevlar alone. Kevlar, when used alone, loses about 20% of its effectiveness when wet, so required an expensive waterproofing process. Wool increased friction in a vest with 28–30 layers of fabric, to provide the same level of bullet resistance as 36 layers of Kevlar alone.[38]", "A buyer of Merino wool, Ermenegildo Zegna, has offered awards for Australian wool producers. In 1963, the first Ermenegildo Zegna Perpetual Trophy was presented in Tasmania for growers of \"Superfine skirted Merino fleece\". In 1980, a national award, the Ermenegildo Zegna Trophy for Extrafine Wool Production, was launched. In 2004, this award became known as the Ermenegildo Zegna Unprotected Wool Trophy. In 1998, an Ermenegildo Zegna Protected Wool Trophy was launched for fleece from sheep coated for around nine months of the year.", "In 2002, the Ermenegildo Zegna Vellus Aureum Trophy was launched for wool that is 13.9 microns or finer. Wool from Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, and South Africa may enter, and a winner is named from each country.[39] In April 2008, New Zealand won the Ermenegildo Zegna Vellus Aureum Trophy for the first time with a fleece that measured 10.8 microns. This contest awards the winning fleece weight with the same weight in gold as a prize, hence the name.", "In 2010, an ultrafine, 10-micron fleece, from Windradeen, near Pyramul, New South Wales, won the Ermenegildo Zegna Vellus Aureum International Trophy.[40]", "Since 2000, Loro Piana has awarded a cup for the world's finest bale of wool that produces just enough fabric for 50 tailor-made suits. The prize is awarded to an Australian or New Zealand wool grower who produces the year's finest bale.[41]", "The New England Merino Field days which display local studs, wool, and sheep are held during January, in even numbered years around the Walcha, New South Wales district. The Annual Wool Fashion Awards, which showcase the use of Merino wool by fashion designers, are hosted by the city of Armidale, New South Wales, in March each year. This event encourages young and established fashion designers to display their talents. During each May, Armidale hosts the annual New England Wool Expo to display wool fashions, handicrafts, demonstrations, shearing competitions, yard dog trials, and more.[1]", "In July, the annual Australian Sheep and Wool Show is held in Bendigo, Victoria. This is the largest sheep and wool show in the world, with goats and alpacas, as well as woolcraft competitions and displays, fleece competitions, sheepdog trials, shearing, and wool handling. The largest competition in the world for objectively measured fleeces is the Australian Fleece Competition, which is held annually at Bendigo. In 2008, 475 entries came from all states of Australia, with first and second prizes going to the Northern Tablelands, New South Wales fleeces.[42]" ]
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[ 58 ]
where does alaska the last frontier take place
Alaska: The Last Frontier
[ "Alaska: The Last Frontier\nTitle card (Season 2 onwards)Genre\nReality showSurvival skillsStarring\nOtto Kilcher Charlotte Kilcher Atz Lee Kilcher Jane Kilcher Eivin Kilcher Eve Kilcher Bonnie Kilcher-Dupree Shane KilcherNarrated by\nBray PoorCountry of origin\nUnited StatesOriginal language(s)\nEnglishNo. of seasons\n8No. of episodes\n123ProductionExecutive producer(s)\nDaniel Soiseth Grant Kahler Cameo Wallace Philip DayProduction location(s)\nFritz Creek, AlaskaCamera setup\nMultipleRunning time\nApprox. 44 min (excluding commercials)Distributor\nDiscovery CommunicationsReleaseOriginal network\nDiscovery ChannelPicture format\n16:9Original release\nDecember 29, 2011 – presentExternal links\nWebsite\nProduction website", "Alaska: The Last Frontier", "Title card (Season 2 onwards)", "Genre\nReality showSurvival skills", "Starring\nOtto Kilcher Charlotte Kilcher Atz Lee Kilcher Jane Kilcher Eivin Kilcher Eve Kilcher Bonnie Kilcher-Dupree Shane Kilcher", "Narrated by\nBray Poor", "Country of origin\nUnited States", "Original language(s)\nEnglish", "No. of seasons\n8", "No. of episodes\n123", "Production", "Executive producer(s)\nDaniel Soiseth Grant Kahler Cameo Wallace Philip Day", "Production location(s)\nFritz Creek, Alaska", "Camera setup\nMultiple", "Running time\nApprox. 44 min (excluding commercials)", "Distributor\nDiscovery Communications", "Release", "Original network\nDiscovery Channel", "Picture format\n16:9", "Original release\nDecember 29, 2011 – present", "External links", "Website", "Production website", "Alaska: The Last Frontier is an American reality cable television series on the Discovery Channel, currently in its 7th season of broadcast. The show documents the extended Kilcher family, descendants of Swiss immigrants and Alaskan pioneers, Yule and Ruth Kilcher, at their homestead 11 miles outside of Homer.[1] By living without plumbing or modern heating, the clan chooses to subsist by farming, hunting and preparing for the long winters.[2] The Kilcher family are relatives of the singer Jewel,[1][3] who has appeared on the show.[4]", "Production occurs throughout the year on site. The production crew is based out of California.", "Season\n\nEpisodes\n\nOriginally aired\n\n\nFirst aired\n\nLast aired\n\n\n\n\n1\n\n3\n\nDecember 29, 2011 (2011-12-29)\n\nJanuary 12, 2012 (2012-01-12)\n\n\n\n\n2\n\n15\n\nOctober 2, 2012 (2012-10-02)\n\nJune 15, 2013 (2013-06-15)\n\n\n\n\n3\n\n23\n\nOctober 6, 2013 (2013-10-06)\n\nOctober 5, 2014 (2014-10-05)\n\n\n\n\n4\n\n20\n\nOctober 5, 2014 (2014-10-05)\n\nMarch 1, 2015 (2015-03-01)\n\n\n\n\n5\n\n20\n\nOctober 4, 2015 (2015-10-04)\n\nFebruary 21, 2016 (2016-02-21)\n\n\n\n\n6\n\n20\n\nOctober 9, 2016 (2016-10-09)\n\nFebruary 17, 2017 (2017-02-17)\n\n\n\n\n7\n\n20\n\nSeptember 15, 2017 (2017-09-15)\n\nFebruary 12, 2018 (2018-02-12)", "Season\n\nEpisodes\n\nOriginally aired", "First aired\n\nLast aired", "1\n\n3\n\nDecember 29, 2011 (2011-12-29)\n\nJanuary 12, 2012 (2012-01-12)", "2\n\n15\n\nOctober 2, 2012 (2012-10-02)\n\nJune 15, 2013 (2013-06-15)", "3\n\n23\n\nOctober 6, 2013 (2013-10-06)\n\nOctober 5, 2014 (2014-10-05)", "4\n\n20\n\nOctober 5, 2014 (2014-10-05)\n\nMarch 1, 2015 (2015-03-01)", "5\n\n20\n\nOctober 4, 2015 (2015-10-04)\n\nFebruary 21, 2016 (2016-02-21)", "6\n\n20\n\nOctober 9, 2016 (2016-10-09)\n\nFebruary 17, 2017 (2017-02-17)", "7\n\n20\n\nSeptember 15, 2017 (2017-09-15)\n\nFebruary 12, 2018 (2018-02-12)", "Key", "In the â„– column the number refers to the order it aired during the entire series.\nIn the # column the number refers to the episode number within its season.", "In the â„– column the number refers to the order it aired during the entire series.", "In the # column the number refers to the episode number within its season.", "№\n\n#\n\nTitle\n\nOriginal air date\n11\"Before the Freeze\"December 29, 2011 (2011-12-29)\nWith another brutal winter approaching, and bears having killed two of the family's cattle, they are forced to pin all of their hopes of surviving the winter on one last hunting trip.\n22\"Fueling the Fire\"January 5, 2012 (2012-01-05)\nThe first storm of winter approaches as the family races to finish preparing for the next eight months; Atz herds cattle across flooded glacial rivers.\n33\"Snow, Cold and Darkness\"January 12, 2012 (2012-01-12)\nThe early winter storms have left the entire homestead unprepared. A desperate search for a newborn calf and its mother forces Otto's wife and their youngest son into a night snowstorm while Otto is away building shelter for his herd.", "â„–\n\n#\n\nTitle\n\nOriginal air date", "11\"Before the Freeze\"December 29, 2011 (2011-12-29)", "With another brutal winter approaching, and bears having killed two of the family's cattle, they are forced to pin all of their hopes of surviving the winter on one last hunting trip.", "22\"Fueling the Fire\"January 5, 2012 (2012-01-05)", "The first storm of winter approaches as the family races to finish preparing for the next eight months; Atz herds cattle across flooded glacial rivers.", "33\"Snow, Cold and Darkness\"January 12, 2012 (2012-01-12)", "The early winter storms have left the entire homestead unprepared. A desperate search for a newborn calf and its mother forces Otto's wife and their youngest son into a night snowstorm while Otto is away building shelter for his herd.", "Key", "In the â„– column the number refers to the order it aired during the entire series.\nIn the # column the number refers to the episode number within its season.", "In the â„– column the number refers to the order it aired during the entire series.", "In the # column the number refers to the episode number within its season.", "№\n\n#\n\nTitle\n\nOriginal air date\n41\"Dead of Winter\"October 2, 2012 (2012-10-02)\nThe extended Kilcher family struggle to get through a record-breaking harsh winter. Desperate for food, Atz Lee and Jane venture into the brutal elements in search of food, hoping that ice fishing and hunting will supply their needs. Patriarchs Otto and Atz embark on a dangerous mission to bring aid to a fellow homesteader.\n52\"Spring Has Sprung\"October 9, 2012 (2012-10-09)\nSpring finally arrives on the homestead. Atz Lee enlists his father, Atz, on an early spring black bear hunt, hoping to redeem his failed hunt last fall. Meanwhile, Atz Lee's wife, Jane, endures the open seas alone while fishing for king salmon. Eivin mills lumber and takes on the first build of the season, a large chicken coop to maintain their crucial food source, while also helping his wife, Eve, find a rogue cannibal hen.\n63\"Cattle Drive\"October 16, 2012 (2012-10-16)\nOtto and family battle the elements and predators to drive their cattle to the summer pasture. A missing calf causes Otto and Eivin to head off for a dangerous late night rescue mission. Atz Lee and Jane build a makeshift greenhouse from cast off supplies.\n74\"Range Riding\"October 23, 2012 (2012-10-23)\nAtz begins his summer range riding season to protect Otto's cattle herd. A bear menaces from the edge; a wolf invades the herd. Otto and family race the clock and the elements to gather in winter's hay crop. Eivin and Eve's cannibal hen strikes again.\n85\"The River Wild\"October 30, 2012 (2012-10-30)\nThe Kilchers rally and call in favors to tackle their largest project this season. They have 48 hours to build a long cattle fence and rebuild a cabin, or the treacherous river's tide will trap their barge full of critical equipment for another month.\n96\"Something's Fishy\"November 6, 2012 (2012-11-06)\nWith summer half over, the Kilchers head out fishing, but it's not for fun... at least, not entirely. They need hundreds of pounds of fish to eat and barter with during winter. Each couple has their own time-proven technique for catching salmon, halibut and trout.\n107\"Legend of \"Terrible Island\"\"November 13, 2012 (2012-11-13)\nAtz Lee and Eivin travel 160 miles and brave the bears of \"Terrible Island\" to hunt deer. Otto refuses to admit defeat and will use all the blackpowder he has to remove a pesky stump blocking his progress. Eve helps Charlotte solve a swarming bee problem.\n118\"Fall Feast\"November 20, 2012 (2012-11-20)\nFall arrives; the Kilchers scramble to finish their winter prep. Otto confronts a predator killing calves from inside his herd. Atz Lee and Jane catch and smoke salmon in their secret fish camp. Eivin uses a samurai sword to prepare Thanksgiving dinner.\n129\"Life According To Otto\"November 27, 2012 (2012-11-27)\nCattleman Otto Kilcher sees life a little differently. Some people think he's crazy, but he'll tell you it's just his willingness to accept whatever life brings him. Otto's sense of humor is infectious and his ingenuity inspires family and neighbor alike.\n1310\"Homestead Innovations\"December 4, 2012 (2012-12-04)\n[CLIP SHOW] For the Kilchers, necessity truly is the mother of invention and recycling takes on a whole new level -- from bone yard scavengers and make-do parts to tasty roadkill suppers. And it's not just the Kilcher men who have to be tough and resourceful.\n1411\"Till the Cows Come Home\"May 19, 2013 (2013-05-19)\nLate fall. Half the herd returns early from the summer grazing grounds so the Kilchers drive the rest home across icy rivers. The family rushes to finish other winter prep work but still makes time for a beach-scavenged gourmet picnic.\n1512\"Poopsicle\"May 26, 2013 (2013-05-26)\nOtto gets creative to beat the frozen soil when he realizes he must move the outhouse, now. Eivin takes Eve on her first deerhunt on Afognak Island, which is teeming with wild animals including awake bears. Atz and sons gather trees for a big new project.\n1613\"Eve's Hunting Dilemma\"June 2, 2013 (2013-06-02)\nOtto pulls porcupine quills out of a colt's face. With Eivin's legal quota met, it's up to Eve to bring home more deer meat from their hunting trip, but she's conflicted about the kill. Atz and Atz Lee snare rabbits; Jane gets a lesson in rabbit skinning.\n1714\"Fall Flurry\"June 9, 2013 (2013-06-09)\nThe Kilchers race through the last few days of fall before winter finally hits, prepping the hunter and cattleman cabins, winterizing the bee hive, sorting the root cellar, bottling the raspberry mead, and creating a new field with an excavator and barge.\n1815\"Family Ties\"June 15, 2013 (2013-06-15)\n[CLIP SHOW] With extended scenes, added facts and fan tweets - Take a deeper look at Kilcher family history with archived footage including Yule, the family patriarch and original homesteader. Otto and Atz share parenting insights and Otto and Eivin search for gold.", "â„–\n\n#\n\nTitle\n\nOriginal air date", "41\"Dead of Winter\"October 2, 2012 (2012-10-02)", "The extended Kilcher family struggle to get through a record-breaking harsh winter. Desperate for food, Atz Lee and Jane venture into the brutal elements in search of food, hoping that ice fishing and hunting will supply their needs. Patriarchs Otto and Atz embark on a dangerous mission to bring aid to a fellow homesteader.", "52\"Spring Has Sprung\"October 9, 2012 (2012-10-09)", "Spring finally arrives on the homestead. Atz Lee enlists his father, Atz, on an early spring black bear hunt, hoping to redeem his failed hunt last fall. Meanwhile, Atz Lee's wife, Jane, endures the open seas alone while fishing for king salmon. Eivin mills lumber and takes on the first build of the season, a large chicken coop to maintain their crucial food source, while also helping his wife, Eve, find a rogue cannibal hen.", "63\"Cattle Drive\"October 16, 2012 (2012-10-16)", "Otto and family battle the elements and predators to drive their cattle to the summer pasture. A missing calf causes Otto and Eivin to head off for a dangerous late night rescue mission. Atz Lee and Jane build a makeshift greenhouse from cast off supplies.", "74\"Range Riding\"October 23, 2012 (2012-10-23)", "Atz begins his summer range riding season to protect Otto's cattle herd. A bear menaces from the edge; a wolf invades the herd. Otto and family race the clock and the elements to gather in winter's hay crop. Eivin and Eve's cannibal hen strikes again.", "85\"The River Wild\"October 30, 2012 (2012-10-30)", "The Kilchers rally and call in favors to tackle their largest project this season. They have 48 hours to build a long cattle fence and rebuild a cabin, or the treacherous river's tide will trap their barge full of critical equipment for another month.", "96\"Something's Fishy\"November 6, 2012 (2012-11-06)", "With summer half over, the Kilchers head out fishing, but it's not for fun... at least, not entirely. They need hundreds of pounds of fish to eat and barter with during winter. Each couple has their own time-proven technique for catching salmon, halibut and trout.", "107\"Legend of \"Terrible Island\"\"November 13, 2012 (2012-11-13)", "Atz Lee and Eivin travel 160 miles and brave the bears of \"Terrible Island\" to hunt deer. Otto refuses to admit defeat and will use all the blackpowder he has to remove a pesky stump blocking his progress. Eve helps Charlotte solve a swarming bee problem.", "118\"Fall Feast\"November 20, 2012 (2012-11-20)", "Fall arrives; the Kilchers scramble to finish their winter prep. Otto confronts a predator killing calves from inside his herd. Atz Lee and Jane catch and smoke salmon in their secret fish camp. Eivin uses a samurai sword to prepare Thanksgiving dinner.", "129\"Life According To Otto\"November 27, 2012 (2012-11-27)", "Cattleman Otto Kilcher sees life a little differently. Some people think he's crazy, but he'll tell you it's just his willingness to accept whatever life brings him. Otto's sense of humor is infectious and his ingenuity inspires family and neighbor alike.", "1310\"Homestead Innovations\"December 4, 2012 (2012-12-04)", "[CLIP SHOW] For the Kilchers, necessity truly is the mother of invention and recycling takes on a whole new level -- from bone yard scavengers and make-do parts to tasty roadkill suppers. And it's not just the Kilcher men who have to be tough and resourceful.", "1411\"Till the Cows Come Home\"May 19, 2013 (2013-05-19)", "Late fall. Half the herd returns early from the summer grazing grounds so the Kilchers drive the rest home across icy rivers. The family rushes to finish other winter prep work but still makes time for a beach-scavenged gourmet picnic.", "1512\"Poopsicle\"May 26, 2013 (2013-05-26)", "Otto gets creative to beat the frozen soil when he realizes he must move the outhouse, now. Eivin takes Eve on her first deerhunt on Afognak Island, which is teeming with wild animals including awake bears. Atz and sons gather trees for a big new project.", "1613\"Eve's Hunting Dilemma\"June 2, 2013 (2013-06-02)", "Otto pulls porcupine quills out of a colt's face. With Eivin's legal quota met, it's up to Eve to bring home more deer meat from their hunting trip, but she's conflicted about the kill. Atz and Atz Lee snare rabbits; Jane gets a lesson in rabbit skinning.", "1714\"Fall Flurry\"June 9, 2013 (2013-06-09)", "The Kilchers race through the last few days of fall before winter finally hits, prepping the hunter and cattleman cabins, winterizing the bee hive, sorting the root cellar, bottling the raspberry mead, and creating a new field with an excavator and barge.", "1815\"Family Ties\"June 15, 2013 (2013-06-15)", "[CLIP SHOW] With extended scenes, added facts and fan tweets - Take a deeper look at Kilcher family history with archived footage including Yule, the family patriarch and original homesteader. Otto and Atz share parenting insights and Otto and Eivin search for gold.", "Key", "In the â„– column the number refers to the order it aired during the entire series.\nIn the # column the number refers to the episode number within its season.", "In the â„– column the number refers to the order it aired during the entire series.", "In the # column the number refers to the episode number within its season.", "№\n\n#\n\nTitle\n\nOriginal air date\n191\"Cabin Fever\"October 6, 2013 (2013-10-06)\nAfter 8 months of winter, the Kilchers have cabin fever. Eivin and Atz Lee get caught overnight in the backcountry hunting an Alaskan delicacy. Otto uses ingenuity to get an orphan calf to connect with an unwilling mother. And there's much to do with poo.\n202\"Father-Son Ingenuity\"October 13, 2013 (2013-10-13)\nFamily projects: Before the spring thaw floods the area, Atz Sr and his 3 sons build a bridge across a river using chainsaws and fallen logs. Otto and Eivin create two amphibious crafts from their ATVs. Meanwhile, Atz Lee and Jane build a new smokehouse.\n213\"Spring Has Sprung\"October 20, 2013 (2013-10-20)\nSpringtime on the homestead; Atz and the family goes on a black bear hunt; Atz, Sr.'s confidence wavers; Otto gives CPR to calves; Eve plants the family garden.\n224\"Spring Delicacy\"October 27, 2013 (2013-10-27)\nAtz Lee and Jane climb reefs to hunt for octopus. Jane must face her fear of heights or be trapped by the tide. Otto struggles to keep a newborn calf alive during the annual spring cattle drive. Eve gives Eivin news that will change the homestead forever.\n235\"Parlors and Poop Chutes\"November 3, 2013 (2013-11-03)\nEivin and pregnant Eve decide to finally add running water to their home, but Eivin hits more than water during the installation. Otto builds Charlotte a milking parlor but takes a faceful of fuel in the process. Atz and Atz Lee head out to hunt bear.\n246\"Outhouses, Cow Bras and Bears, Oh My!\"November 10, 2013 (2013-11-10)\nMidsummer: the Kilchers scramble to make the most of 22 hrs of sunlight. Atz tracks down predators killing the herd. Otto gets creative to help a cow with an udder problem. Eivin builds an outhouse. Atz Lee and Jane are startled while fishing for salmon.\n257\"Hunt in the Clouds\"November 17, 2013 (2013-11-17)\nAtz Sr, Atz Lee and Jane travel to the highest peaks to hunt for wild goat. A wasp infestation destroys Eivin and Eve's bee hive and summer honey harvest. Otto and Charlotte get creative to protect what's left of their hay crop so it will last the winter.\n268\"Thanksgiving\"November 24, 2013 (2013-11-24)\nThanksgiving on the homestead. The Kilchers come together to enjoy the fruits of their year-long labor and share each dish's story. From turkey and pumpkin pie to Yule's famous nettlebread and Homesteader pie, nothing comes easy when making this feast.\n279\"A Prickly Situation\"December 1, 2013 (2013-12-01)\nA persistent porcupine nails several of the Kilchers' too-curious animals with quills. Taking them out is a painful and sometimes dangerous procedure. Atz and his family carefully jack up and move an old abandoned cabin. Eve finds her garden decimated.\n2810\"Of Moose and Men\"December 15, 2013 (2013-12-15)\nAtz and Atz Lee swim their horses across a chilly lake to get to bull moose hunting grounds. Bad weather and feeling under the weather won't deter them from the prize. Eivin hunts clams while Eve collects wild mushrooms. Otto and Charlotte bury a friend.\n2911\"Homestead for the Holidays\"December 22, 2013 (2013-12-22)\nHomestead holidays bring gifts of kindness: Otto decides to give his \"Wacky Yak\" to a friend, but the gift rejects the idea of being given. Atz Lee gathers lumps of coal--for the nice--as his gift. Atz deals with cows on ice to bring a friend's herd home.\n3012\"Predators and Prey\"December 29, 2013 (2013-12-29)\n[CLIP SHOW] Grizzly bears, wolves, and coyotes remind the Kilchers that the humans aren't always the apex predator on the homestead, but threats to the Kilcher's food supplies and livelihood also come in many other shapes and sizes and from unexpected places.\n3113\"Marital Maintenance\"January 5, 2014 (2014-01-05)\nWith winter on their doorstep, the Kilchers race to finish their summer projects. Otto's enormous new project strains his marital bliss. Atz's horse strands him on the range. Eivin works some chicken magic. Atz Lee teaches Jane to fell a tree.\n3214\"Call of the Wild\"January 12, 2014 (2014-01-12)\nOtto and Eivin use a duck hunt for some last minute father-son time before Eivin becomes a dad himself. Atz and Atz Lee's father-son bonding time is less fun; they're repairing the new bridge. Jane has her own adventure: fishing--and shooting--halibut.\n3315\"Circle of Life\"January 19, 2014 (2014-01-19)\nAtz Lee and Eivin take a bushplane and brave bears on a remote island to hunt deer. Charlotte scrambles to save a cow that went down during birthing. A very pregnant Eve struggles with the chores while Eivin is away. Atz cleans his chimney Kilcher style. In repeats, this episode has often been referred to as 'Cycle of Life' (such as December 27, 2015 on Discovery Channel).\n3416\"Baby Kilcher Arrives\"January 26, 2014 (2014-01-26)\nThe Kilchers work on last-minute projects before winter comes; Jane faces weather and quicksand on her first cattle drive; Eivin and Eve introduce a new Kilcher.\n3517\"Extreme Seasons\"January 26, 2014 (2014-01-26)\n[CLIP SHOW] The Kilchers adapt to the seasons; rescuing calves; swarms of mosquitoes; Otto tries to live down his fisherman's curse.\n3618\"Mother's Day Special\"May 11, 2014 (2014-05-11)\n[SPECIAL EPISODE] The Kilchers celebrate the women in their lives, including new mother Eve; Atz and Otto remember their mother.\n3719\"Father's Day Special\"June 15, 2014 (2014-06-15)\n[SPECIAL EPISODE] The Kilchers celebrate the men in the family and share stories about their legacy.\n3820\"Kilchers Revealed: Before the Freeze\"August 26, 2014 (2014-08-26)\n[SPECIAL EPISODE] S01E01 with additional clips and interviews. With another brutal winter approaching, and bears having killed two of the family's cattle, they are forced to pin all of their hopes of surviving the winter on one last hunting trip.\n3921\"Kilchers Revealed: Fueling the Fire\"September 2, 2014 (2014-09-02)\n[SPECIAL EPISODE] S01E02 with additional clips and interviews. The first storm of winter approaches as the family races to finish preparing for the next eight months; Atz herds cattle across flooded glacial rivers.\n4022\"Kilchers Revealed: Snow, Cold and Darkness\"September 9, 2014 (2014-09-09)\n[SPECIAL EPISODE] S01E03 with additional clips and interviews. The early winter storms have left the entire homestead unprepared. A desperate search for a newborn calf and its mother forces Otto's wife and their youngest son into a night snowstorm while Otto is away building shelter for his herd.\n4123\"Only on the Homestead\"October 5, 2014 (2014-10-05)\n[CLIP SHOW] Life on the Kilcher homestead is full of surprises. From fashioning a support bra for a milk cow to maintaining one-of-a-kind outhouses to fending off relentless attacks from a pesky porcupine, the family shares what could happen only on the homestead!", "â„–\n\n#\n\nTitle\n\nOriginal air date", "191\"Cabin Fever\"October 6, 2013 (2013-10-06)", "After 8 months of winter, the Kilchers have cabin fever. Eivin and Atz Lee get caught overnight in the backcountry hunting an Alaskan delicacy. Otto uses ingenuity to get an orphan calf to connect with an unwilling mother. And there's much to do with poo.", "202\"Father-Son Ingenuity\"October 13, 2013 (2013-10-13)", "Family projects: Before the spring thaw floods the area, Atz Sr and his 3 sons build a bridge across a river using chainsaws and fallen logs. Otto and Eivin create two amphibious crafts from their ATVs. Meanwhile, Atz Lee and Jane build a new smokehouse.", "213\"Spring Has Sprung\"October 20, 2013 (2013-10-20)", "Springtime on the homestead; Atz and the family goes on a black bear hunt; Atz, Sr.'s confidence wavers; Otto gives CPR to calves; Eve plants the family garden.", "224\"Spring Delicacy\"October 27, 2013 (2013-10-27)", "Atz Lee and Jane climb reefs to hunt for octopus. Jane must face her fear of heights or be trapped by the tide. Otto struggles to keep a newborn calf alive during the annual spring cattle drive. Eve gives Eivin news that will change the homestead forever.", "235\"Parlors and Poop Chutes\"November 3, 2013 (2013-11-03)", "Eivin and pregnant Eve decide to finally add running water to their home, but Eivin hits more than water during the installation. Otto builds Charlotte a milking parlor but takes a faceful of fuel in the process. Atz and Atz Lee head out to hunt bear.", "246\"Outhouses, Cow Bras and Bears, Oh My!\"November 10, 2013 (2013-11-10)", "Midsummer: the Kilchers scramble to make the most of 22 hrs of sunlight. Atz tracks down predators killing the herd. Otto gets creative to help a cow with an udder problem. Eivin builds an outhouse. Atz Lee and Jane are startled while fishing for salmon.", "257\"Hunt in the Clouds\"November 17, 2013 (2013-11-17)", "Atz Sr, Atz Lee and Jane travel to the highest peaks to hunt for wild goat. A wasp infestation destroys Eivin and Eve's bee hive and summer honey harvest. Otto and Charlotte get creative to protect what's left of their hay crop so it will last the winter.", "268\"Thanksgiving\"November 24, 2013 (2013-11-24)", "Thanksgiving on the homestead. The Kilchers come together to enjoy the fruits of their year-long labor and share each dish's story. From turkey and pumpkin pie to Yule's famous nettlebread and Homesteader pie, nothing comes easy when making this feast.", "279\"A Prickly Situation\"December 1, 2013 (2013-12-01)", "A persistent porcupine nails several of the Kilchers' too-curious animals with quills. Taking them out is a painful and sometimes dangerous procedure. Atz and his family carefully jack up and move an old abandoned cabin. Eve finds her garden decimated.", "2810\"Of Moose and Men\"December 15, 2013 (2013-12-15)", "Atz and Atz Lee swim their horses across a chilly lake to get to bull moose hunting grounds. Bad weather and feeling under the weather won't deter them from the prize. Eivin hunts clams while Eve collects wild mushrooms. Otto and Charlotte bury a friend.", "2911\"Homestead for the Holidays\"December 22, 2013 (2013-12-22)", "Homestead holidays bring gifts of kindness: Otto decides to give his \"Wacky Yak\" to a friend, but the gift rejects the idea of being given. Atz Lee gathers lumps of coal--for the nice--as his gift. Atz deals with cows on ice to bring a friend's herd home.", "3012\"Predators and Prey\"December 29, 2013 (2013-12-29)", "[CLIP SHOW] Grizzly bears, wolves, and coyotes remind the Kilchers that the humans aren't always the apex predator on the homestead, but threats to the Kilcher's food supplies and livelihood also come in many other shapes and sizes and from unexpected places.", "3113\"Marital Maintenance\"January 5, 2014 (2014-01-05)", "With winter on their doorstep, the Kilchers race to finish their summer projects. Otto's enormous new project strains his marital bliss. Atz's horse strands him on the range. Eivin works some chicken magic. Atz Lee teaches Jane to fell a tree.", "3214\"Call of the Wild\"January 12, 2014 (2014-01-12)", "Otto and Eivin use a duck hunt for some last minute father-son time before Eivin becomes a dad himself. Atz and Atz Lee's father-son bonding time is less fun; they're repairing the new bridge. Jane has her own adventure: fishing--and shooting--halibut.", "3315\"Circle of Life\"January 19, 2014 (2014-01-19)", "Atz Lee and Eivin take a bushplane and brave bears on a remote island to hunt deer. Charlotte scrambles to save a cow that went down during birthing. A very pregnant Eve struggles with the chores while Eivin is away. Atz cleans his chimney Kilcher style. In repeats, this episode has often been referred to as 'Cycle of Life' (such as December 27, 2015 on Discovery Channel).", "3416\"Baby Kilcher Arrives\"January 26, 2014 (2014-01-26)", "The Kilchers work on last-minute projects before winter comes; Jane faces weather and quicksand on her first cattle drive; Eivin and Eve introduce a new Kilcher.", "3517\"Extreme Seasons\"January 26, 2014 (2014-01-26)", "[CLIP SHOW] The Kilchers adapt to the seasons; rescuing calves; swarms of mosquitoes; Otto tries to live down his fisherman's curse.", "3618\"Mother's Day Special\"May 11, 2014 (2014-05-11)", "[SPECIAL EPISODE] The Kilchers celebrate the women in their lives, including new mother Eve; Atz and Otto remember their mother.", "3719\"Father's Day Special\"June 15, 2014 (2014-06-15)", "[SPECIAL EPISODE] The Kilchers celebrate the men in the family and share stories about their legacy.", "3820\"Kilchers Revealed: Before the Freeze\"August 26, 2014 (2014-08-26)", "[SPECIAL EPISODE] S01E01 with additional clips and interviews. With another brutal winter approaching, and bears having killed two of the family's cattle, they are forced to pin all of their hopes of surviving the winter on one last hunting trip.", "3921\"Kilchers Revealed: Fueling the Fire\"September 2, 2014 (2014-09-02)", "[SPECIAL EPISODE] S01E02 with additional clips and interviews. The first storm of winter approaches as the family races to finish preparing for the next eight months; Atz herds cattle across flooded glacial rivers.", "4022\"Kilchers Revealed: Snow, Cold and Darkness\"September 9, 2014 (2014-09-09)", "[SPECIAL EPISODE] S01E03 with additional clips and interviews. The early winter storms have left the entire homestead unprepared. A desperate search for a newborn calf and its mother forces Otto's wife and their youngest son into a night snowstorm while Otto is away building shelter for his herd.", "4123\"Only on the Homestead\"October 5, 2014 (2014-10-05)", "[CLIP SHOW] Life on the Kilcher homestead is full of surprises. From fashioning a support bra for a milk cow to maintaining one-of-a-kind outhouses to fending off relentless attacks from a pesky porcupine, the family shares what could happen only on the homestead!", "Key", "In the â„– column the number refers to the order it aired during the entire series.\nIn the # column the number refers to the episode number within its season.", "In the â„– column the number refers to the order it aired during the entire series.", "In the # column the number refers to the episode number within its season.", "№\n\n#\n\nTitle\n\nOriginal air date\n421\"A Mild Winter\"October 5, 2014 (2014-10-05)\nThe family faces the fallout from a warm Alaskan winter; an emergency mission to supply and secure hunting cabins; Charlotte and Jane search for a missing newborn calf.\n432\"Moving Toward the Future\"October 11, 2014 (2014-10-11)\nThe family struggles to move a two-ton bridge to allow for crucial access to the head of the bay; Otto and Charlotte fight a threat to their cattle.\n443\"Spring Forward\"October 19, 2014 (2014-10-19)\nThe family bands together to protect its livelihood; Atz Lee and Jane encounter disaster while bear hunting; Atz Sr., Bonnie and Shane defend against grizzlies.\n454\"On The Move\"October 26, 2014 (2014-10-26)\nLife returns to the homestead in the spring; tensions are high on the annual Kilcher cattle drive; Otto tries to maintain control of his crew.\n465\"Loaded for Bear\"November 2, 2014 (2014-11-02)\nAtz Lee and Jane have a run-in with a grizzly bear.\n476\"Greener Pastures\"November 9, 2014 (2014-11-09)\nAtz Lee and Jane fish for salmon; Otto and Eivin work to contain their unruly cattle herd.\n487\"Waste Not, Want Not\"November 16, 2014 (2014-11-16)\nOtto, Charlotte, Eivin & Eve harvest a sterile cow to stock up on meat for winter, repurposing its byproducts to make homesteader soap, and tanning its hide for building corrals. At the head of the bay, Atz Sr.'s range riding skills are tested.\n498\"Thanksgiving On The Homestead\"November 23, 2014 (2014-11-23)\nHomesteaders who work together, give thanks together. Join the Kilcher family as they celebrate Thanksgiving with the friends who helped prepare the homestead for winter.\n509\"Secrets Of The Range Rider\"November 30, 2014 (2014-11-30)\nAt the head of the bay Atz Sr. divulges the secrets of the range rider to Atz Lee & Eivin in preparation of the future. To heat the family's cabin, Otto, Charlotte and August must transform more than 1000 pounds of metal pipe into a working chimney.\n5110\"Journey to Perl Island\"December 14, 2014 (2014-12-14)\nIn this MEGA episode the Kilchers face their biggest challenges yet. Otto, Jane & Shane help a fellow homesteader transport a cabin to the distant and uninhabited Perl Island, but things take a sinister turn when they discover a predator on the loose.\n5211\"Christmas Kaboom!\"December 21, 2014 (2014-12-21)\nIn true homesteader holiday spirit, the Kilchers put their own spin on a Secret Santa gift exchange: hand-making something useful for someone in the family. With gifts ranging from a crossbow to explosives this Christmas special is filled with surprises!\n5312\"The Ties that Bind\"December 28, 2014 (2014-12-28)\n[CLIP SHOW] On the homestead, a strong partnership is key. The Kilcher couples work together to ensure the homestead's survival: from having each other's back during bear hunts to surviving fishing expeditions gone awry to providing backup on building projects.\n5413\"Claims, Cans and Cabins\"January 4, 2015 (2015-01-04)\nOtto, Eivin & August scramble to stake a claim on 10 tons of priceless steel on a distant beach. At the head of the bay, Atz Sr. & Bonnie team up with Atz Lee and Jane to stockpile salmon for the upcoming winter. Shane & Kelli break ground on their cabin.\n5514\"A Hunt Above the Clouds\"January 11, 2015 (2015-01-11)\nAtz and Bonnie battle the sea; Otto, Charlotte and August face off with brown bears.\n5615\"Call of the Cattleman\"January 18, 2015 (2015-01-18)\nThe Kilchers, fellow homesteaders & cattlemen pay tribute to a fallen friend by driving over 100 cattle back home. Atz Lee winterizes the Hunters Cabin, preparing to move further off the homestead. Jane & Eve's halibut fishing trip ends with a bang.\n5716\"Fall Bear Fall\"January 25, 2015 (2015-01-25)\nWith bear season nearly over, the pressure is on Jane & Atz as they set out for their last hunt of the year. While searching for berries, Atz Sr. & Bonnie encounter a black bear of their own. Otto & Charlotte transport precious Cargo.\n5817\"Snowy Roundup\"February 8, 2015 (2015-02-08)\nAt the head of the bay, Atz Sr. has wild game in his sights. Otto & Charlotte face disaster as the tides overpower the herd on the 30-mile journey to the homestead. Atz Lee & Jane tackle a long-overdue task to secure their cabin for the winter.\n5918\"Will Winter Come?\"February 15, 2015 (2015-02-15)\nThe Kilchers finalize their winter preparations; Eivin, Atz Lee, Jane and Shane hunt for deer.\n6019\"Hardcore Homesteading\"February 22, 2015 (2015-02-22)\n[CLIP SHOW] Eivin and Atz Lee acquire meat on Shuyak Island; Otto and Eivin use the excavator; Eivin undertakes a construction job in order to supply water to Eve.6120\"The Super Bull Special\"March 1, 2015 (2015-03-01)\n[CLIP SHOW] From chaotic calves to super bulls, the Kilcher's cattle is the lifeblood of the homestead. Super bull 13-08 survives near-death experiences. Otto transports a new bull to the head of the bay. Atz Sr gives Atz Lee & Eivin lessons in how to ride the range.", "â„–\n\n#\n\nTitle\n\nOriginal air date", "421\"A Mild Winter\"October 5, 2014 (2014-10-05)", "The family faces the fallout from a warm Alaskan winter; an emergency mission to supply and secure hunting cabins; Charlotte and Jane search for a missing newborn calf.", "432\"Moving Toward the Future\"October 11, 2014 (2014-10-11)", "The family struggles to move a two-ton bridge to allow for crucial access to the head of the bay; Otto and Charlotte fight a threat to their cattle.", "443\"Spring Forward\"October 19, 2014 (2014-10-19)", "The family bands together to protect its livelihood; Atz Lee and Jane encounter disaster while bear hunting; Atz Sr., Bonnie and Shane defend against grizzlies.", "454\"On The Move\"October 26, 2014 (2014-10-26)", "Life returns to the homestead in the spring; tensions are high on the annual Kilcher cattle drive; Otto tries to maintain control of his crew.", "465\"Loaded for Bear\"November 2, 2014 (2014-11-02)", "Atz Lee and Jane have a run-in with a grizzly bear.", "476\"Greener Pastures\"November 9, 2014 (2014-11-09)", "Atz Lee and Jane fish for salmon; Otto and Eivin work to contain their unruly cattle herd.", "487\"Waste Not, Want Not\"November 16, 2014 (2014-11-16)", "Otto, Charlotte, Eivin & Eve harvest a sterile cow to stock up on meat for winter, repurposing its byproducts to make homesteader soap, and tanning its hide for building corrals. At the head of the bay, Atz Sr.'s range riding skills are tested.", "498\"Thanksgiving On The Homestead\"November 23, 2014 (2014-11-23)", "Homesteaders who work together, give thanks together. Join the Kilcher family as they celebrate Thanksgiving with the friends who helped prepare the homestead for winter.", "509\"Secrets Of The Range Rider\"November 30, 2014 (2014-11-30)", "At the head of the bay Atz Sr. divulges the secrets of the range rider to Atz Lee & Eivin in preparation of the future. To heat the family's cabin, Otto, Charlotte and August must transform more than 1000 pounds of metal pipe into a working chimney.", "5110\"Journey to Perl Island\"December 14, 2014 (2014-12-14)", "In this MEGA episode the Kilchers face their biggest challenges yet. Otto, Jane & Shane help a fellow homesteader transport a cabin to the distant and uninhabited Perl Island, but things take a sinister turn when they discover a predator on the loose.", "5211\"Christmas Kaboom!\"December 21, 2014 (2014-12-21)", "In true homesteader holiday spirit, the Kilchers put their own spin on a Secret Santa gift exchange: hand-making something useful for someone in the family. With gifts ranging from a crossbow to explosives this Christmas special is filled with surprises!", "5312\"The Ties that Bind\"December 28, 2014 (2014-12-28)", "[CLIP SHOW] On the homestead, a strong partnership is key. The Kilcher couples work together to ensure the homestead's survival: from having each other's back during bear hunts to surviving fishing expeditions gone awry to providing backup on building projects.", "5413\"Claims, Cans and Cabins\"January 4, 2015 (2015-01-04)", "Otto, Eivin & August scramble to stake a claim on 10 tons of priceless steel on a distant beach. At the head of the bay, Atz Sr. & Bonnie team up with Atz Lee and Jane to stockpile salmon for the upcoming winter. Shane & Kelli break ground on their cabin.", "5514\"A Hunt Above the Clouds\"January 11, 2015 (2015-01-11)", "Atz and Bonnie battle the sea; Otto, Charlotte and August face off with brown bears.", "5615\"Call of the Cattleman\"January 18, 2015 (2015-01-18)", "The Kilchers, fellow homesteaders & cattlemen pay tribute to a fallen friend by driving over 100 cattle back home. Atz Lee winterizes the Hunters Cabin, preparing to move further off the homestead. Jane & Eve's halibut fishing trip ends with a bang.", "5716\"Fall Bear Fall\"January 25, 2015 (2015-01-25)", "With bear season nearly over, the pressure is on Jane & Atz as they set out for their last hunt of the year. While searching for berries, Atz Sr. & Bonnie encounter a black bear of their own. Otto & Charlotte transport precious Cargo.", "5817\"Snowy Roundup\"February 8, 2015 (2015-02-08)", "At the head of the bay, Atz Sr. has wild game in his sights. Otto & Charlotte face disaster as the tides overpower the herd on the 30-mile journey to the homestead. Atz Lee & Jane tackle a long-overdue task to secure their cabin for the winter.", "5918\"Will Winter Come?\"February 15, 2015 (2015-02-15)", "The Kilchers finalize their winter preparations; Eivin, Atz Lee, Jane and Shane hunt for deer.", "6019\"Hardcore Homesteading\"February 22, 2015 (2015-02-22)", "[CLIP SHOW] Eivin and Atz Lee acquire meat on Shuyak Island; Otto and Eivin use the excavator; Eivin undertakes a construction job in order to supply water to Eve.", "6120\"The Super Bull Special\"March 1, 2015 (2015-03-01)", "[CLIP SHOW] From chaotic calves to super bulls, the Kilcher's cattle is the lifeblood of the homestead. Super bull 13-08 survives near-death experiences. Otto transports a new bull to the head of the bay. Atz Sr gives Atz Lee & Eivin lessons in how to ride the range.", "Key", "In the â„– column the number refers to the order it aired during the entire series.\nIn the # column the number refers to the episode number within its season.", "In the â„– column the number refers to the order it aired during the entire series.", "In the # column the number refers to the episode number within its season.", "№\n\n#\n\nTitle\n\nOriginal air date\n621\"Big Changes\"October 4, 2015 (2015-10-04)\nThe Kilchers confront the realities of the changing Alaskan climate; and Atz Lee enlists Atz Sr., Otto, Eivin, Bonnie and Jane to help with his dream to build an all-new and remote homestead.\n632\"Blood, Sweat & Beers\"October 11, 2015 (2015-10-11)\nThe Kilchers team up to tame the land after a winter of record-setting warm temperatures. As Otto & Eivin tackle turning raw wilderness into a source of food for generations to come, Atz Sr. battles the elements and a menace at the head of the bay.\n643\"Fear and Floating\"October 18, 2015 (2015-10-18)\nSpring arrives on the homestead. Included: Atz and Atz Lee attempt to tame wild stallions at the head of the bay; at the same time, Otto, Eivin, Charlotte and Jane must innovate to protect their calves and overcome threats to their herd.\n654\"Calling All Bears\"October 25, 2015 (2015-10-25)\nSpring has sprung and there's no shortage of needs on the homestead. Atz Sr. goes bowhunting to restock dwindling food supplies. Meanwhile, Otto, Charlotte and August scramble to protect livestock at the head of the bay; and Atz Lee develops a new foothold in the wilderness.\n665\"Mobility, Mo' Problems\"November 1, 2015 (2015-11-01)\nThe Kilcher family brace for summer on the homestead; Atz Lee treks to forbidding Perl Island for an emergency crash course in wilderness survival; and Jane fights with creatures from the deep for food.\n676\"One Small Flush for Man\"November 8, 2015 (2015-11-08)\nAs spring draws to a close, Otto and August dig into a monumental plumbing project. Included: Eivin attempts to help, but loses control of his truck; Atz Sr. searches for two predators threatening the Kilcher property; Atz Lee and Jane give Shane a hand with his cabin.\n687\"Homestead Harships\"November 15, 2015 (2015-11-15)\n[CLIP SHOW] The challenges of living on the remote and rugged Kilcher homestead are sometimes unforgiving. Life in this raw, untamed wilderness means keeping family close and firearms closer. This episode uses existing footage from previous shows, with the last few minutes devoted to previewing the rest of Season 5.\n698\"Olden Days, Olden Ways\"November 22, 2015 (2015-11-22)\nIn this year's Thanksgiving special, the Kilchers pay tribute to the family's patriarch and matriarch, Yule and Ruth, by preparing a feast using strictly old-fashioned methods.\n709\"No Rain, Big Pain\"November 29, 2015 (2015-11-29)\nA hot summer threatens the Kilcher cattle; Atz Lee joins forces with a remote homesteading master to learn how to tame the frontier; Jane comes face-to-face with a bear; Shane and Kelli make progress on their cabin; and Findlay gets a safe place to play.\n7110\"The Fall\"December 6, 2015 (2015-12-06)\nAfter a feverish summer of work, the Kilchers prepare for winter. Included: Eivin scales treacherous peaks to fill his freezer; Otto helps with Shane's cabin build, while it takes a perilous turn; and for Atz Lee, one fateful step leads to catastrophe.\n7211\"Hard Road Home\"December 13, 2015 (2015-12-13)\nFamily and friends endure unexpected adversity. Included: Otto and Charlotte's urgent rescue mission to Halibut Cove brings jeopardy on the seas; and on the homestead, Atz Sr., Eivin, Shane and Nikos come together in a massive effort to help Atz Lee.\n7312\"A Very Kilcher Christmas\"December 19, 2015 (2015-12-19)\nTis the season on the homestead for the Kilchers to create homemade gifts for their significant others. Otto surprises with an explosive gift to Charlotte, Jane builds a musical present for Atz Lee and Eivin constructs a dual-use vehicle for Eve and Findlay.\n7413\"Cycle of Life\"December 26, 2015 (2015-12-26)\n[CLIP SHOW] The cycle of life on the homestead is continuous. Otto & Charlotte attempt to resuscitate a stillborn calf while Eve learns that taking life during a hunt isn't easy. The Kilchers say goodbye to Bruce Willard as Eivin & Eve welcome new life with Findlay.\n7514\"Recovery Road\"January 3, 2016 (2016-01-03)\nAs fall comes to a close, Atz Lee confronts the reality of recovering from his accident. To feed their families, Eve and Jane venture miles at sea in search of massive halibut. The rush to complete the fall harvest puts Eve and Otto in harm's way.\n7615\"New Beginnings\"January 10, 2016 (2016-01-10)\nThe homestead is brewing with new beginnings. Sparks fly between Otto & Charlotte while building a staircase to prepare for the winter. Atz Lee crosses a critical bridge on his road to recovery & Eiven & Eve welcome the newest member of the Kilcher family.\n7716\"Do or Die\"January 17, 2016 (2016-01-17)\nThe Kilchers find themselves unprepared for winter's arrival. Led by Otto & Charlotte, the family's cattle trek a cold & deadly path. Shane risks losing a year's progress on his unfinished cabin, while the family embarks in two massive hunts.\n7817\"The Last Straw\"January 24, 2016 (2016-01-24)\nOtto receives a terrifying house call, and the prognosis is grim. Atz Lee's return to the Hunter's Cabin is rudely interrupted, and he turns to a veteran homesteader for help. The Kilchers join forces to protect Shane's cabin from winter's fury.\n7918\"Surviving the Seasons\"January 24, 2016 (2016-01-24)\n[CLIP SHOW] Highlights of the series are presented, including a fishing trip in freezing weather; a mission to the bay in Spring; and a fall hunt.\n8019\"The Lost Episode\"February 14, 2016 (2016-02-14)\nA never-before-seen lost episode travels back to before Atz Lee's near-fatal accident, as he planned a surprise ceremony to renew his vows with Jane at the head of the bay. Other Kilchers struggle while preparing for the big event.\n8120\"Truth Be Told\"February 21, 2016 (2016-02-21)\nA behind the scenes episode relives the most memorable moments with previously-unseen footage, proving that they're not crazy- they're Kilchers. Viewer questions are answered & Atz Sr. & Atz Lee perform the premiere of a song chronicling their family.", "â„–\n\n#\n\nTitle\n\nOriginal air date", "621\"Big Changes\"October 4, 2015 (2015-10-04)", "The Kilchers confront the realities of the changing Alaskan climate; and Atz Lee enlists Atz Sr., Otto, Eivin, Bonnie and Jane to help with his dream to build an all-new and remote homestead.", "632\"Blood, Sweat & Beers\"October 11, 2015 (2015-10-11)", "The Kilchers team up to tame the land after a winter of record-setting warm temperatures. As Otto & Eivin tackle turning raw wilderness into a source of food for generations to come, Atz Sr. battles the elements and a menace at the head of the bay.", "643\"Fear and Floating\"October 18, 2015 (2015-10-18)", "Spring arrives on the homestead. Included: Atz and Atz Lee attempt to tame wild stallions at the head of the bay; at the same time, Otto, Eivin, Charlotte and Jane must innovate to protect their calves and overcome threats to their herd.", "654\"Calling All Bears\"October 25, 2015 (2015-10-25)", "Spring has sprung and there's no shortage of needs on the homestead. Atz Sr. goes bowhunting to restock dwindling food supplies. Meanwhile, Otto, Charlotte and August scramble to protect livestock at the head of the bay; and Atz Lee develops a new foothold in the wilderness.", "665\"Mobility, Mo' Problems\"November 1, 2015 (2015-11-01)", "The Kilcher family brace for summer on the homestead; Atz Lee treks to forbidding Perl Island for an emergency crash course in wilderness survival; and Jane fights with creatures from the deep for food.", "676\"One Small Flush for Man\"November 8, 2015 (2015-11-08)", "As spring draws to a close, Otto and August dig into a monumental plumbing project. Included: Eivin attempts to help, but loses control of his truck; Atz Sr. searches for two predators threatening the Kilcher property; Atz Lee and Jane give Shane a hand with his cabin.", "687\"Homestead Harships\"November 15, 2015 (2015-11-15)", "[CLIP SHOW] The challenges of living on the remote and rugged Kilcher homestead are sometimes unforgiving. Life in this raw, untamed wilderness means keeping family close and firearms closer. This episode uses existing footage from previous shows, with the last few minutes devoted to previewing the rest of Season 5.", "698\"Olden Days, Olden Ways\"November 22, 2015 (2015-11-22)", "In this year's Thanksgiving special, the Kilchers pay tribute to the family's patriarch and matriarch, Yule and Ruth, by preparing a feast using strictly old-fashioned methods.", "709\"No Rain, Big Pain\"November 29, 2015 (2015-11-29)", "A hot summer threatens the Kilcher cattle; Atz Lee joins forces with a remote homesteading master to learn how to tame the frontier; Jane comes face-to-face with a bear; Shane and Kelli make progress on their cabin; and Findlay gets a safe place to play.", "7110\"The Fall\"December 6, 2015 (2015-12-06)", "After a feverish summer of work, the Kilchers prepare for winter. Included: Eivin scales treacherous peaks to fill his freezer; Otto helps with Shane's cabin build, while it takes a perilous turn; and for Atz Lee, one fateful step leads to catastrophe.", "7211\"Hard Road Home\"December 13, 2015 (2015-12-13)", "Family and friends endure unexpected adversity. Included: Otto and Charlotte's urgent rescue mission to Halibut Cove brings jeopardy on the seas; and on the homestead, Atz Sr., Eivin, Shane and Nikos come together in a massive effort to help Atz Lee.", "7312\"A Very Kilcher Christmas\"December 19, 2015 (2015-12-19)", "Tis the season on the homestead for the Kilchers to create homemade gifts for their significant others. Otto surprises with an explosive gift to Charlotte, Jane builds a musical present for Atz Lee and Eivin constructs a dual-use vehicle for Eve and Findlay.", "7413\"Cycle of Life\"December 26, 2015 (2015-12-26)", "[CLIP SHOW] The cycle of life on the homestead is continuous. Otto & Charlotte attempt to resuscitate a stillborn calf while Eve learns that taking life during a hunt isn't easy. The Kilchers say goodbye to Bruce Willard as Eivin & Eve welcome new life with Findlay.", "7514\"Recovery Road\"January 3, 2016 (2016-01-03)", "As fall comes to a close, Atz Lee confronts the reality of recovering from his accident. To feed their families, Eve and Jane venture miles at sea in search of massive halibut. The rush to complete the fall harvest puts Eve and Otto in harm's way.", "7615\"New Beginnings\"January 10, 2016 (2016-01-10)", "The homestead is brewing with new beginnings. Sparks fly between Otto & Charlotte while building a staircase to prepare for the winter. Atz Lee crosses a critical bridge on his road to recovery & Eiven & Eve welcome the newest member of the Kilcher family.", "7716\"Do or Die\"January 17, 2016 (2016-01-17)", "The Kilchers find themselves unprepared for winter's arrival. Led by Otto & Charlotte, the family's cattle trek a cold & deadly path. Shane risks losing a year's progress on his unfinished cabin, while the family embarks in two massive hunts.", "7817\"The Last Straw\"January 24, 2016 (2016-01-24)", "Otto receives a terrifying house call, and the prognosis is grim. Atz Lee's return to the Hunter's Cabin is rudely interrupted, and he turns to a veteran homesteader for help. The Kilchers join forces to protect Shane's cabin from winter's fury.", "7918\"Surviving the Seasons\"January 24, 2016 (2016-01-24)", "[CLIP SHOW] Highlights of the series are presented, including a fishing trip in freezing weather; a mission to the bay in Spring; and a fall hunt.", "8019\"The Lost Episode\"February 14, 2016 (2016-02-14)", "A never-before-seen lost episode travels back to before Atz Lee's near-fatal accident, as he planned a surprise ceremony to renew his vows with Jane at the head of the bay. Other Kilchers struggle while preparing for the big event.", "8120\"Truth Be Told\"February 21, 2016 (2016-02-21)", "A behind the scenes episode relives the most memorable moments with previously-unseen footage, proving that they're not crazy- they're Kilchers. Viewer questions are answered & Atz Sr. & Atz Lee perform the premiere of a song chronicling their family.", "Key", "In the â„– column the number refers to the order it aired during the entire series.\nIn the # column the number refers to the episode number within its season.", "In the â„– column the number refers to the order it aired during the entire series.", "In the # column the number refers to the episode number within its season.", "№\n\n#\n\nTitle\n\nOriginal air date\n820\"Epic Adventures\"October 9, 2016 (2016-10-09)\n[CLIP SHOW] For the Kilcher family, life in Alaska is a series of epic adventures. Whether it's a high altitude hunt, a perilous journey to work, or risking it all to help a neighbor in need, nothing they do is for the faint of heart.\n831\"The Great Kilcher Quake\"October 16, 2016 (2016-10-16)\nA massive earthquake hits Southern Alaska and the Kilcher family scrambles to recover. They fight to re-open vital access roads. Atz Lee races towards his dream of a new remote homestead to aid in recovery, creating waves with his wife, Jane.\n842\"Shattered Shelter\"October 16, 2016 (2016-10-16)\nJane, Otto and Charlotte mend the damages to their hay barn; Atz Lee and Atz Sr. collect lumber for building their new homestead; Bonnie builds a new greenhouse.\n853\"Stranded\"October 23, 2016 (2016-10-23)\nStill reeling from the earthquake, the Kilchers rush to make headway on time sensitive projects. Otto, Charlotte, and Eivin travel to rescue a family relic. The first fishing trip of the year leaves Eve and Jane lost at sea.\n864\"Killer Repairs\"October 30, 2016 (2016-10-30)\nWith Otto's surgery looming, the rush to complete projects becomes urgent. The herd's food supply is threatened. Atz Lee and Jane reunite after a month apart when he brings her to his new homestead for the very first time. She's less than impressed.\n875\"Under the Knife\"November 6, 2016 (2016-11-06)\nAfter years of procrastination, Otto goes under the knife. While Charlotte waits, Jane is left to take care of the farm and delivers her first calf alone. Eivin and Atz Lee scout the Head of the Bay, but their findings won’t ease Otto's concerns.\n886\"One Man Short\"November 13, 2016 (2016-11-13)\nWith Otto recovering from surgery, Levi comes to Alaska to lead the annual Spring cattle drive with Eivin. Otto's unwillingness to step aside puts him in danger. Atz and Atz Lee are forced to test their survival skills in the Alaskan backcountry.\n897\"Kilchergiving\"November 20, 2016 (2016-11-20)\nIt's Thanksgiving on the homestead and the Kilchers gather for dinner at the old Family Barn. Recognizing that the homestead is a community, this year it's all about showing thanks to friends and family that have helped out this past year.\n908\"The Prodigal Daughter Returns\"November 27, 2016 (2016-11-27)\nOtto risks his recovery to help save a paralyzed cow. Jane and Atz Lee put their differences aside to prepare for winter. Atz gets ready for a visit from his daughter, singer-songwriter Jewel.\n919\"The Monster Catch\"December 4, 2016 (2016-12-04)\nThe Kilchers attack their biggest jobs ever. The men salvage lumber for Shane's cabin. Singer Jewel and son, Kase return to the homestead. Jane trolls for the biggest fish of her life.\n9210\"When Cows Attack\"December 4, 2016 (2016-12-04)\nThe guys reclaim lumber for Shane's cabin; Jewel saddles up again to help a neighbor; Eve makes a gruesome discovery; and Atz Lee and Jane find signs of an aggressive bear.\n9311\"Chopper Rescue\"December 11, 2016 (2016-12-11)\nIn a dangerous homestead first, Otto flies a massive greenhouse to a new location using a helicopter. Eve takes on the role of provider and learns a new skill to feed her family, while Atz Lee risks his recovery to continue his cabin build alone.\n9412\"Homesteading For The Holidays\"December 18, 2016 (2016-12-18)\nThe Kilchers celebrate their most unforgettable Christmas ever with a one of a kind gift exchange! They use their Kilcher ingenuity to make homemade gifts, all crafted from the heart with the spirit of Christmas.\n9513\"Bracing For Change\"January 1, 2017 (2017-01-01)\nFall brings big changes to the homestead. Tensions flare between Otto and August in their last mission before August leaves for college. Atz Lee, Sr., and Jane work on Atz Lee’s new cabin, but Jane still has doubts. Eivin builds a special surprise.\n9614\"The Danger Zone\"January 1, 2017 (2017-01-01)\nFor the Kilcher family, life in Alaska means facing danger at every turn. This special episode features behind-the-scenes interviews and the Kilchers reveal how they survive in the untamed Alaskan wild.\n9715\"Winter Is Coming\"January 8, 2017 (2017-01-08)\nThe Kilchers rush to complete jobs as frigid temperatures sweep into the region; Otto and Eivin salvage the shores of Kachemak Bay; Atz Lee attempts to put a roof on his cabin before snowfall; and Charlotte and Jane encounter a predator.\n9816\"Gold Rush\"January 15, 2017 (2017-01-15)\nOtto pays for his hernia surgery and ends up with gold fever. Jane and Eivin search a remote island for enough deer to last the winter, and Atz Lee faces down old fears and reaches new heights as he races the freeze in order to complete his cabin.\n9917\"Hunting Season\"January 22, 2017 (2017-01-22)\nThe Kilchers look to the future as winter looms. Atz Sr passes on vital survival knowledge, while Atz Lee embarks on a risky solo hunt to a remote and dangerous island. Eivin builds the ideal boat for his young family's adventures on the water.\n10018\"Decision Time\"January 29, 2017 (2017-01-29)\nWinter has arrived. Otto and Charlotte fight to round up their cattle. Atz Lee and Jane come to a decision about his cabin. Eivin and Eve take the new boat on a maiden fishing journey. Shane and Kelli brace for unexpected news about her health.\n10119\"Blood Is Thicker Than Water\"February 12, 2017 (2017-02-12)\n[CLIP SHOW] For the Kilchers, each day presents new conflicts from Mother Nature and one another. With unseen footage and fan questions, they show us how to survive the Alaskan wilderness and each other.\n10220\"Like Father, Like Son\"February 19, 2017 (2017-02-19)\n[CLIP SHOW] Every Kilcher man relies on the unique knowledge of his father. In this behind-the-scenes episode, the Kilcher men share the importance of communication between fathers and sons, especially in the face of danger.", "â„–\n\n#\n\nTitle\n\nOriginal air date", "820\"Epic Adventures\"October 9, 2016 (2016-10-09)", "[CLIP SHOW] For the Kilcher family, life in Alaska is a series of epic adventures. Whether it's a high altitude hunt, a perilous journey to work, or risking it all to help a neighbor in need, nothing they do is for the faint of heart.", "831\"The Great Kilcher Quake\"October 16, 2016 (2016-10-16)", "A massive earthquake hits Southern Alaska and the Kilcher family scrambles to recover. They fight to re-open vital access roads. Atz Lee races towards his dream of a new remote homestead to aid in recovery, creating waves with his wife, Jane.", "842\"Shattered Shelter\"October 16, 2016 (2016-10-16)", "Jane, Otto and Charlotte mend the damages to their hay barn; Atz Lee and Atz Sr. collect lumber for building their new homestead; Bonnie builds a new greenhouse.", "853\"Stranded\"October 23, 2016 (2016-10-23)", "Still reeling from the earthquake, the Kilchers rush to make headway on time sensitive projects. Otto, Charlotte, and Eivin travel to rescue a family relic. The first fishing trip of the year leaves Eve and Jane lost at sea.", "864\"Killer Repairs\"October 30, 2016 (2016-10-30)", "With Otto's surgery looming, the rush to complete projects becomes urgent. The herd's food supply is threatened. Atz Lee and Jane reunite after a month apart when he brings her to his new homestead for the very first time. She's less than impressed.", "875\"Under the Knife\"November 6, 2016 (2016-11-06)", "After years of procrastination, Otto goes under the knife. While Charlotte waits, Jane is left to take care of the farm and delivers her first calf alone. Eivin and Atz Lee scout the Head of the Bay, but their findings won’t ease Otto's concerns.", "886\"One Man Short\"November 13, 2016 (2016-11-13)", "With Otto recovering from surgery, Levi comes to Alaska to lead the annual Spring cattle drive with Eivin. Otto's unwillingness to step aside puts him in danger. Atz and Atz Lee are forced to test their survival skills in the Alaskan backcountry.", "897\"Kilchergiving\"November 20, 2016 (2016-11-20)", "It's Thanksgiving on the homestead and the Kilchers gather for dinner at the old Family Barn. Recognizing that the homestead is a community, this year it's all about showing thanks to friends and family that have helped out this past year.", "908\"The Prodigal Daughter Returns\"November 27, 2016 (2016-11-27)", "Otto risks his recovery to help save a paralyzed cow. Jane and Atz Lee put their differences aside to prepare for winter. Atz gets ready for a visit from his daughter, singer-songwriter Jewel.", "919\"The Monster Catch\"December 4, 2016 (2016-12-04)", "The Kilchers attack their biggest jobs ever. The men salvage lumber for Shane's cabin. Singer Jewel and son, Kase return to the homestead. Jane trolls for the biggest fish of her life.", "9210\"When Cows Attack\"December 4, 2016 (2016-12-04)", "The guys reclaim lumber for Shane's cabin; Jewel saddles up again to help a neighbor; Eve makes a gruesome discovery; and Atz Lee and Jane find signs of an aggressive bear.", "9311\"Chopper Rescue\"December 11, 2016 (2016-12-11)", "In a dangerous homestead first, Otto flies a massive greenhouse to a new location using a helicopter. Eve takes on the role of provider and learns a new skill to feed her family, while Atz Lee risks his recovery to continue his cabin build alone.", "9412\"Homesteading For The Holidays\"December 18, 2016 (2016-12-18)", "The Kilchers celebrate their most unforgettable Christmas ever with a one of a kind gift exchange! They use their Kilcher ingenuity to make homemade gifts, all crafted from the heart with the spirit of Christmas.", "9513\"Bracing For Change\"January 1, 2017 (2017-01-01)", "Fall brings big changes to the homestead. Tensions flare between Otto and August in their last mission before August leaves for college. Atz Lee, Sr., and Jane work on Atz Lee’s new cabin, but Jane still has doubts. Eivin builds a special surprise.", "9614\"The Danger Zone\"January 1, 2017 (2017-01-01)", "For the Kilcher family, life in Alaska means facing danger at every turn. This special episode features behind-the-scenes interviews and the Kilchers reveal how they survive in the untamed Alaskan wild.", "9715\"Winter Is Coming\"January 8, 2017 (2017-01-08)", "The Kilchers rush to complete jobs as frigid temperatures sweep into the region; Otto and Eivin salvage the shores of Kachemak Bay; Atz Lee attempts to put a roof on his cabin before snowfall; and Charlotte and Jane encounter a predator.", "9816\"Gold Rush\"January 15, 2017 (2017-01-15)", "Otto pays for his hernia surgery and ends up with gold fever. Jane and Eivin search a remote island for enough deer to last the winter, and Atz Lee faces down old fears and reaches new heights as he races the freeze in order to complete his cabin.", "9917\"Hunting Season\"January 22, 2017 (2017-01-22)", "The Kilchers look to the future as winter looms. Atz Sr passes on vital survival knowledge, while Atz Lee embarks on a risky solo hunt to a remote and dangerous island. Eivin builds the ideal boat for his young family's adventures on the water.", "10018\"Decision Time\"January 29, 2017 (2017-01-29)", "Winter has arrived. Otto and Charlotte fight to round up their cattle. Atz Lee and Jane come to a decision about his cabin. Eivin and Eve take the new boat on a maiden fishing journey. Shane and Kelli brace for unexpected news about her health.", "10119\"Blood Is Thicker Than Water\"February 12, 2017 (2017-02-12)", "[CLIP SHOW] For the Kilchers, each day presents new conflicts from Mother Nature and one another. With unseen footage and fan questions, they show us how to survive the Alaskan wilderness and each other.", "10220\"Like Father, Like Son\"February 19, 2017 (2017-02-19)", "[CLIP SHOW] Every Kilcher man relies on the unique knowledge of his father. In this behind-the-scenes episode, the Kilcher men share the importance of communication between fathers and sons, especially in the face of danger.", "Key", "In the â„– column the number refers to the order it aired during the entire series.\nIn the # column the number refers to the episode number within its season.", "In the â„– column the number refers to the order it aired during the entire series.", "In the # column the number refers to the episode number within its season.", "№\n\n#\n\nTitle\n\nOriginal air date\n1031\"To Live and Die in AK\"September 25, 2017 (2017-09-25)\nIn this special episode, the Kilchers answer the audience's most pressing questions about the ups and downs of life on the homestead over the last six years. They also share a sneak peek of what to expect in this exciting upcoming season.\n1042\"The Day the Homestead Almost Died\"October 2, 2017 (2017-10-02)\nThe Kilchers are back, & with the family legacy in jeopardy, they kick off a complete homestead overhaul. Blindsided by a massive snowstorm, the family uses every piece of heavy machinery in their arsenal to ensure the survival of future generations.\n1053\"The Day the Ice Road Shattered\"October 9, 2017 (2017-10-09)\nThe family bands together on a massive mission to rescue a tractor, but the pressure is on Otto to get it going before the ice road melts.\n1064\"The Day the Homestead Caught Fire\"October 16, 2017 (2017-10-16)\nOtto is forced to the edge after a chimney fire threatens to destroy his cabin. Eivin and Eve burn up dangerous brush piles threatening their family. Atz Lee and Jane embark on a dangerous ice fishing mission.\n1075\"The Day the Cattle Swarm\"October 23, 2017 (2017-10-23)\nOtto and Eivin race to get the barge ready for its most ambitious mission yet- moving wild buffalo. Jane and Charlotte are put to the test as they lead the Kilchers' first ever all female cattle drive.\n1086\"The Day the Buffalo Broke Free\"October 30, 2017 (2017-10-30)\nThe Kilchers join forces to conquer big projects. Tensions flare when Otto and Jane journey to Kodiak Island to rescue a herd of wild buffalo. Eivin and Eve tackle an urgent roof repair.\n1097\"Buffalo 2, Cowboy 0\"November 6, 2017 (2017-11-06)\nOtto and Jane's mission to relocate a herd of wild buffalo on Kodiak Island continues. Atz Sr. ventures into the untamed Alaskan backcountry to hunt spring black bear. Atz Lee and Nikos test their firearm skills using a custom made gun range.\n1108\"The Day the Glacier Fell\"November 13, 2017 (2017-11-13)\nAtz Lee and Charlotte rush to save the life of a stuck cow before it's too late. A father son shrimping trip turns deadly when Otto and his sons must outrun a colossal caving glacier. Eve and Jane fish for salmon for their family.\n1119\"The Day Thanksgiving Went Mobile\"November 20, 2017 (2017-11-20)\nThanksgiving dinner goes mobile! Kick off the holidays with the Kilchers, as the family shows off new upgrades to the homestead to give thanks to their home and family. Touring the new additions while sharing a feast and good times with family.\n11210\"The Day The Crane Collapsed\"November 27, 2017 (2017-11-27)\nOtto and August make a risky attempt to acquire a massive machine. Charlotte, Eivin, and Eve race against the tide to rescue a weak cow. And Atz Lee and Jane go kayak fishing, but reel in more than they bargained for.\n11311\"The Day Jewel Returned\"December 4, 2017 (2017-12-04)\nJewel returns to the homestead for son Kase's first cattle drive. Shane faces an uncertain future with his home. And Otto and Eivin fight to save the Kilchers' prized Octagon cabin from destruction.\n11412\"Friends 'Til the End\"December 4, 2017 (2017-12-04)\nThe Kilchers pay tribute to their most unique and skilled homesteader friends. From kilt-wearing mountain man Turkey Joe to gold mining surgeon Doc Sayer, these are the fascinating characters who have stood by the Kilchers through thick and thin.\n11513\"The Day of Triumph & Tragedy\"December 11, 2017 (2017-12-11)\nThe Kilchers take on some of the biggest jobs in homestead history as one team tries to pick up the historic Octagon building & move it to safety while another strives to finish Shane's multi-year cabin build before winter once again stops them cold.\n11614\"Big Machines, Bigger Risks\"December 18, 2017 (2017-12-18)\nFor 80 years, the Kilchers have relied on an arsenal of equipment, machines, and weapons, vital to their family's survival in Alaska. Today, these incredible and dangerous tools of the homestead are the only things keeping it from falling apart.\n11715\"The Day Santa Came to the Homestead\"December 18, 2017 (2017-12-18)\nChristmas has the Kilchers playing Secret Santa! Atz Lee makes art with fire, Eivin tries to avoid blowing himself up, Atz Sr. jams out with a shovel and Jane wraps coal for someone special. After his injury, Shane spends Christmas in the hospital.\n11816\"Hunting on Land and Sea\"January 8, 2018 (2018-01-08)\nAtz Lee & Atz Sr. trek in search of black bear. Eivin builds a survival motorcycle. For the first time ever, the Kilchers film themselves. Eivin & Eve take their kids on an adventure to go crabbing. Atz Senior helps a fellow veteran with a big build.\n11917\"Hunting Season Begins\"January 15, 2018 (2018-01-15)\nEve butchers chickens with her children to teach them about the circle of life. Eivin builds a shelter for his trusty horse to protect it from the freeze. Atz Lee and Jane warm up their remote cabin. Atz Sr. goes on a solo hunt in the Alaskan wild.\n12018\"Hunting Season Begins\"January 15, 2018 (2018-01-15)\nCarving a subsistence lifestyle out of the Alaskan wilderness is a full time dirty job. In this episode, the Kilchers take a look at the stinkiest, filthiest, muddiest, and bloodiest jobs on the homestead.\n12119\"5000 Mile Hunt\"January 22, 2018 (2018-01-22)\nJane and Atz senior go Elk hunting. Eivin and Jane go on a trip to hunt for deer In the meantime Otto and Mark bring the bulls back from the head of the bay.\n12220\"Homesteading: The Next Generation\"January 29, 2018 (2018-01-29)\nFor generations, Yule Kilcher's legacy has survived on perseverance and commitment of his family and a community of fellow homesteaders. Now, in order for that dream to continue, a new generation of young homesteaders must raise up & carry the torch.\n12321\"Frontier Beasts\"February 12, 2018 (2018-02-12)\nWith homesteaders & survivalists, take a first-hand look at the most intense, jaw-dropping, and gut-wrenching animal moments ever caught on camera. In never before seen footage, go behind-the -scenes, with the daring camera crews who capture it all.", "â„–\n\n#\n\nTitle\n\nOriginal air date", "1031\"To Live and Die in AK\"September 25, 2017 (2017-09-25)", "In this special episode, the Kilchers answer the audience's most pressing questions about the ups and downs of life on the homestead over the last six years. They also share a sneak peek of what to expect in this exciting upcoming season.", "1042\"The Day the Homestead Almost Died\"October 2, 2017 (2017-10-02)", "The Kilchers are back, & with the family legacy in jeopardy, they kick off a complete homestead overhaul. Blindsided by a massive snowstorm, the family uses every piece of heavy machinery in their arsenal to ensure the survival of future generations.", "1053\"The Day the Ice Road Shattered\"October 9, 2017 (2017-10-09)", "The family bands together on a massive mission to rescue a tractor, but the pressure is on Otto to get it going before the ice road melts.", "1064\"The Day the Homestead Caught Fire\"October 16, 2017 (2017-10-16)", "Otto is forced to the edge after a chimney fire threatens to destroy his cabin. Eivin and Eve burn up dangerous brush piles threatening their family. Atz Lee and Jane embark on a dangerous ice fishing mission.", "1075\"The Day the Cattle Swarm\"October 23, 2017 (2017-10-23)", "Otto and Eivin race to get the barge ready for its most ambitious mission yet- moving wild buffalo. Jane and Charlotte are put to the test as they lead the Kilchers' first ever all female cattle drive.", "1086\"The Day the Buffalo Broke Free\"October 30, 2017 (2017-10-30)", "The Kilchers join forces to conquer big projects. Tensions flare when Otto and Jane journey to Kodiak Island to rescue a herd of wild buffalo. Eivin and Eve tackle an urgent roof repair.", "1097\"Buffalo 2, Cowboy 0\"November 6, 2017 (2017-11-06)", "Otto and Jane's mission to relocate a herd of wild buffalo on Kodiak Island continues. Atz Sr. ventures into the untamed Alaskan backcountry to hunt spring black bear. Atz Lee and Nikos test their firearm skills using a custom made gun range.", "1108\"The Day the Glacier Fell\"November 13, 2017 (2017-11-13)", "Atz Lee and Charlotte rush to save the life of a stuck cow before it's too late. A father son shrimping trip turns deadly when Otto and his sons must outrun a colossal caving glacier. Eve and Jane fish for salmon for their family.", "1119\"The Day Thanksgiving Went Mobile\"November 20, 2017 (2017-11-20)", "Thanksgiving dinner goes mobile! Kick off the holidays with the Kilchers, as the family shows off new upgrades to the homestead to give thanks to their home and family. Touring the new additions while sharing a feast and good times with family.", "11210\"The Day The Crane Collapsed\"November 27, 2017 (2017-11-27)", "Otto and August make a risky attempt to acquire a massive machine. Charlotte, Eivin, and Eve race against the tide to rescue a weak cow. And Atz Lee and Jane go kayak fishing, but reel in more than they bargained for.", "11311\"The Day Jewel Returned\"December 4, 2017 (2017-12-04)", "Jewel returns to the homestead for son Kase's first cattle drive. Shane faces an uncertain future with his home. And Otto and Eivin fight to save the Kilchers' prized Octagon cabin from destruction.", "11412\"Friends 'Til the End\"December 4, 2017 (2017-12-04)", "The Kilchers pay tribute to their most unique and skilled homesteader friends. From kilt-wearing mountain man Turkey Joe to gold mining surgeon Doc Sayer, these are the fascinating characters who have stood by the Kilchers through thick and thin.", "11513\"The Day of Triumph & Tragedy\"December 11, 2017 (2017-12-11)", "The Kilchers take on some of the biggest jobs in homestead history as one team tries to pick up the historic Octagon building & move it to safety while another strives to finish Shane's multi-year cabin build before winter once again stops them cold.", "11614\"Big Machines, Bigger Risks\"December 18, 2017 (2017-12-18)", "For 80 years, the Kilchers have relied on an arsenal of equipment, machines, and weapons, vital to their family's survival in Alaska. Today, these incredible and dangerous tools of the homestead are the only things keeping it from falling apart.", "11715\"The Day Santa Came to the Homestead\"December 18, 2017 (2017-12-18)", "Christmas has the Kilchers playing Secret Santa! Atz Lee makes art with fire, Eivin tries to avoid blowing himself up, Atz Sr. jams out with a shovel and Jane wraps coal for someone special. After his injury, Shane spends Christmas in the hospital.", "11816\"Hunting on Land and Sea\"January 8, 2018 (2018-01-08)", "Atz Lee & Atz Sr. trek in search of black bear. Eivin builds a survival motorcycle. For the first time ever, the Kilchers film themselves. Eivin & Eve take their kids on an adventure to go crabbing. Atz Senior helps a fellow veteran with a big build.", "11917\"Hunting Season Begins\"January 15, 2018 (2018-01-15)", "Eve butchers chickens with her children to teach them about the circle of life. Eivin builds a shelter for his trusty horse to protect it from the freeze. Atz Lee and Jane warm up their remote cabin. Atz Sr. goes on a solo hunt in the Alaskan wild.", "12018\"Hunting Season Begins\"January 15, 2018 (2018-01-15)", "Carving a subsistence lifestyle out of the Alaskan wilderness is a full time dirty job. In this episode, the Kilchers take a look at the stinkiest, filthiest, muddiest, and bloodiest jobs on the homestead.", "12119\"5000 Mile Hunt\"January 22, 2018 (2018-01-22)", "Jane and Atz senior go Elk hunting. Eivin and Jane go on a trip to hunt for deer In the meantime Otto and Mark bring the bulls back from the head of the bay.", "12220\"Homesteading: The Next Generation\"January 29, 2018 (2018-01-29)", "For generations, Yule Kilcher's legacy has survived on perseverance and commitment of his family and a community of fellow homesteaders. Now, in order for that dream to continue, a new generation of young homesteaders must raise up & carry the torch.", "12321\"Frontier Beasts\"February 12, 2018 (2018-02-12)", "With homesteaders & survivalists, take a first-hand look at the most intense, jaw-dropping, and gut-wrenching animal moments ever caught on camera. In never before seen footage, go behind-the -scenes, with the daring camera crews who capture it all.", "2013 CableFAX's Program & Top Ops Awards - Best Show or Series – Professions – NOMINATION[6]\n2013 Communicator Awards – Award of Distinction - WINNER[7]\n2013 Telly Award - Bronze - Main Title – WINNER[8]\n2014 Emmy Awards - Outstanding Cinematography For Reality Programming - NOMINATION[9]\n2014 Emmy Awards - Outstanding Unstructured Reality Program - NOMINATION[10]", "2013 CableFAX's Program & Top Ops Awards - Best Show or Series – Professions – NOMINATION[6]", "2013 Communicator Awards – Award of Distinction - WINNER[7]", "2013 Telly Award - Bronze - Main Title – WINNER[8]", "2014 Emmy Awards - Outstanding Cinematography For Reality Programming - NOMINATION[9]", "2014 Emmy Awards - Outstanding Unstructured Reality Program - NOMINATION[10]", "In 2015, Atz Lee, his wife Jane, and a company involved in the production of the show were charged with using a helicopter as part of bear hunt while filming an episode in 2014. Using any aircraft to spot prey, or using a helicopter in any way as part of a hunt is illegal in Alaska.[11][12] All three pleaded not guilty. The matter was on hold due to Atz Lee being seriously injured in a hiking accident.[13] but eventually the charges against the Kilchers themselves were dismissed, while production company Wilma TV was fined $17,500.[14]" ]
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[ 23 ]
what was a result of the muslim conquests
Early Muslim conquests
[ "Early Muslim conquests\n\n\n\nExpansion from 622–750, with modern borders overlaid\n\n\n\n\n\nDate\n622–750\n\n\nLocation\nLevant, Mesopotamia, Persia, North Africa, Iberia, Gaul, Transoxania, Sindh, Kabulistan, Zamindawar, Zabulistan, Khorasan, Tukharistan, Sistan and Caucasus\n\n\nTerritorial\nchanges\n\nIslamic expansion:\n  under Muhammad, 622–632\n  under Rashidun caliphs, 632–661\n  under Umayyad caliphs, 661–750\n\n\n\n\n\n\nBelligerents\n\n\n\n\nSee list[show]\n\n Sasanian Empire\n Lakhmids\n Byzantine Empire\n Ghassanids\nBulgarian Empire\nKingdom of Makuria\nDabuyid dynasty\nKhazar Khaganate\nTurgesh Khaganate\nGöktürk Khaganate\nSogdian rebel\nKurdish tribes\nBerbers\nVisigoths\nArab Christians\nKingdom of the Franks\nKingdom of the Lombards\nDuchy of Aquitaine\nTang dynasty\nPratihara Empire\nChalukya dynasty\nBrahmin dynasty of Sindh\n Kabul Shahi[1]\nZunbils[1]\nHepthalite principalities[2]\n\n\n\n\n\nSee list[show]\n\n Rashidun Caliphate\n Umayyad Caliphate (after Rashidun period)\n Abbasid Caliphate (after Umayyad period)\n\n\n\n\n\nCommanders and leaders\n\n\n\n\nSee list[show]\n\n Yazdegerd III\n Rostam Farrokhzād †\n Mahbuzan\n Huzail ibn Imran\n Hormuz\n Anoshagan\n Andarzaghar\n Bāhman †\n Pirouzan\n Jaban\n Mihran\n Hormuzan (POW)\n Mardan Shah\n Bahram\n Isandi\n Karinz ibn Karianz\n Wahman Mardanshah\n Jalinus †\n Mihran-i Bahram-i Razi\n Beerzan †\n Farrukhzad\n Heraclius\nJabalah Ibn Al-Aiham\n Theodore Trithyrius\n Vahan\n Vardan\n Thomas\n Buccinator\n Gregory\nArdo †\nOdo of Aquitaine\nCharles Martel\nChildebrand\nLiutprand\nPépin le Bref\n Theodorus\n Aretion\n Cyrus of Alexandria\n Gregory the Patrician †\n Dihya\n Kusaila\n John the Patrician\nBarjik  †\nFarrukhan the Great\n Staurakios\n Michael Lachanodrakon\n Tatzates\n Anthony the Domestic\nSuluk Khagan\nKül Chor\nGurek  \nal-Harith ibn Surayj\nKapagan Khan[3]\nBilge Qaghan\nKul Tigin\nGao Xianzhi\nBappa Rawal\nNagabhata I\nVikramaditya II\nRaja Dahir\nNezak Tarkhan[2]\n\n\n\n\n\nSee list[show]\n\n Muhammed\n Abu Bakr\n Umar I\n Khalid ibn Walid\n Muthana ibn Haris\n Abu Ubaid\n Saad ibn Abi Waqqas\n Tariq ibn Ziyad\n Muhammad bin Qasim\n Zuhra ibn Al-Hawiyya\n Hashim ibn Uthba\n Qa'qa ibn Amr\n Abu Musa Ashaari\n Ammar ibn Yasir\n Nouman ibn Muqarrin\n Hudheifa ibn Al Yaman\n Mugheera ibn Shuba\n Usman ibn Abi al-Aas\n Asim ibn Amr\n Ahnaf ibn Qais\n Abdullah ibn Aamir\n Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah\n Amr ibn al-A'as\n Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan\n Shurahbil ibn Hassana\n Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani †\n Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi †\n Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri\n Amr ibn al-Aas\n Zubair ibn al-Awam\n Miqdad bin Al-Aswad\n Ubaida bin As-Samit\n Kharija bin Huzafa\n Abdallah ibn Sa'ad\n Musa bin Nusayr\n Hasan ibn al-Nu'man\n Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah\n Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik\n al-Jarrah ibn Abdallah al-Hakami  †\n Marwan ibn Muhammad\n Harun al-Rashid\n Al-Rabi' ibn Yunus\n Qutayba ibn Muslim\n Muslim ibn Sa'id  †\n Al-Kharashi\n Junayd ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Murri\n Sawra ibn al-Hurr al-Abani\n Sa'id ibn Amr al-Harashi\n Asad ibn Abd Allah al-Qasri\n Nasr ibn Sayyar", "Early Muslim conquests", "Expansion from 622–750, with modern borders overlaid", "Date\n622–750\n\n\nLocation\nLevant, Mesopotamia, Persia, North Africa, Iberia, Gaul, Transoxania, Sindh, Kabulistan, Zamindawar, Zabulistan, Khorasan, Tukharistan, Sistan and Caucasus\n\n\nTerritorial\nchanges\n\nIslamic expansion:\n  under Muhammad, 622–632\n  under Rashidun caliphs, 632–661\n  under Umayyad caliphs, 661–750", "Date\n622–750\n\n\nLocation\nLevant, Mesopotamia, Persia, North Africa, Iberia, Gaul, Transoxania, Sindh, Kabulistan, Zamindawar, Zabulistan, Khorasan, Tukharistan, Sistan and Caucasus\n\n\nTerritorial\nchanges\n\nIslamic expansion:\n  under Muhammad, 622–632\n  under Rashidun caliphs, 632–661\n  under Umayyad caliphs, 661–750", "Date\n622–750", "Location\nLevant, Mesopotamia, Persia, North Africa, Iberia, Gaul, Transoxania, Sindh, Kabulistan, Zamindawar, Zabulistan, Khorasan, Tukharistan, Sistan and Caucasus", "Territorial\nchanges\n\nIslamic expansion:\n  under Muhammad, 622–632\n  under Rashidun caliphs, 632–661\n  under Umayyad caliphs, 661–750", "Islamic expansion:", "Belligerents", "See list[show]\n\n Sasanian Empire\n Lakhmids\n Byzantine Empire\n Ghassanids\nBulgarian Empire\nKingdom of Makuria\nDabuyid dynasty\nKhazar Khaganate\nTurgesh Khaganate\nGöktürk Khaganate\nSogdian rebel\nKurdish tribes\nBerbers\nVisigoths\nArab Christians\nKingdom of the Franks\nKingdom of the Lombards\nDuchy of Aquitaine\nTang dynasty\nPratihara Empire\nChalukya dynasty\nBrahmin dynasty of Sindh\n Kabul Shahi[1]\nZunbils[1]\nHepthalite principalities[2]\n\n\n\n\n\nSee list[show]\n\n Rashidun Caliphate\n Umayyad Caliphate (after Rashidun period)\n Abbasid Caliphate (after Umayyad period)", "Sasanian Empire\n Lakhmids\n Byzantine Empire\n Ghassanids\nBulgarian Empire\nKingdom of Makuria\nDabuyid dynasty\nKhazar Khaganate\nTurgesh Khaganate\nGöktürk Khaganate\nSogdian rebel\nKurdish tribes\nBerbers\nVisigoths\nArab Christians\nKingdom of the Franks\nKingdom of the Lombards\nDuchy of Aquitaine\nTang dynasty\nPratihara Empire\nChalukya dynasty\nBrahmin dynasty of Sindh\n Kabul Shahi[1]\nZunbils[1]\nHepthalite principalities[2]", "Kingdom of Makuria", "Kingdom of the Franks", "Kingdom of the Lombards", "Duchy of Aquitaine", "Brahmin dynasty of Sindh", "Rashidun Caliphate\n Umayyad Caliphate (after Rashidun period)\n Abbasid Caliphate (after Umayyad period)", "Umayyad Caliphate (after Rashidun period)", "Abbasid Caliphate (after Umayyad period)", "Commanders and leaders", "See list[show]\n\n Yazdegerd III\n Rostam Farrokhzād †\n Mahbuzan\n Huzail ibn Imran\n Hormuz\n Anoshagan\n Andarzaghar\n Bāhman †\n Pirouzan\n Jaban\n Mihran\n Hormuzan (POW)\n Mardan Shah\n Bahram\n Isandi\n Karinz ibn Karianz\n Wahman Mardanshah\n Jalinus †\n Mihran-i Bahram-i Razi\n Beerzan †\n Farrukhzad\n Heraclius\nJabalah Ibn Al-Aiham\n Theodore Trithyrius\n Vahan\n Vardan\n Thomas\n Buccinator\n Gregory\nArdo †\nOdo of Aquitaine\nCharles Martel\nChildebrand\nLiutprand\nPépin le Bref\n Theodorus\n Aretion\n Cyrus of Alexandria\n Gregory the Patrician †\n Dihya\n Kusaila\n John the Patrician\nBarjik  †\nFarrukhan the Great\n Staurakios\n Michael Lachanodrakon\n Tatzates\n Anthony the Domestic\nSuluk Khagan\nKül Chor\nGurek  \nal-Harith ibn Surayj\nKapagan Khan[3]\nBilge Qaghan\nKul Tigin\nGao Xianzhi\nBappa Rawal\nNagabhata I\nVikramaditya II\nRaja Dahir\nNezak Tarkhan[2]\n\n\n\n\n\nSee list[show]\n\n Muhammed\n Abu Bakr\n Umar I\n Khalid ibn Walid\n Muthana ibn Haris\n Abu Ubaid\n Saad ibn Abi Waqqas\n Tariq ibn Ziyad\n Muhammad bin Qasim\n Zuhra ibn Al-Hawiyya\n Hashim ibn Uthba\n Qa'qa ibn Amr\n Abu Musa Ashaari\n Ammar ibn Yasir\n Nouman ibn Muqarrin\n Hudheifa ibn Al Yaman\n Mugheera ibn Shuba\n Usman ibn Abi al-Aas\n Asim ibn Amr\n Ahnaf ibn Qais\n Abdullah ibn Aamir\n Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah\n Amr ibn al-A'as\n Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan\n Shurahbil ibn Hassana\n Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani †\n Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi †\n Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri\n Amr ibn al-Aas\n Zubair ibn al-Awam\n Miqdad bin Al-Aswad\n Ubaida bin As-Samit\n Kharija bin Huzafa\n Abdallah ibn Sa'ad\n Musa bin Nusayr\n Hasan ibn al-Nu'man\n Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah\n Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik\n al-Jarrah ibn Abdallah al-Hakami  †\n Marwan ibn Muhammad\n Harun al-Rashid\n Al-Rabi' ibn Yunus\n Qutayba ibn Muslim\n Muslim ibn Sa'id  †\n Al-Kharashi\n Junayd ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Murri\n Sawra ibn al-Hurr al-Abani\n Sa'id ibn Amr al-Harashi\n Asad ibn Abd Allah al-Qasri\n Nasr ibn Sayyar", "Yazdegerd III\n Rostam Farrokhzād †\n Mahbuzan\n Huzail ibn Imran\n Hormuz\n Anoshagan\n Andarzaghar\n Bāhman †\n Pirouzan\n Jaban\n Mihran\n Hormuzan (POW)\n Mardan Shah\n Bahram\n Isandi\n Karinz ibn Karianz\n Wahman Mardanshah\n Jalinus †\n Mihran-i Bahram-i Razi\n Beerzan †\n Farrukhzad\n Heraclius\nJabalah Ibn Al-Aiham\n Theodore Trithyrius\n Vahan\n Vardan\n Thomas\n Buccinator\n Gregory\nArdo †\nOdo of Aquitaine\nCharles Martel\nChildebrand\nLiutprand\nPépin le Bref\n Theodorus\n Aretion\n Cyrus of Alexandria\n Gregory the Patrician †\n Dihya\n Kusaila\n John the Patrician\nBarjik  †\nFarrukhan the Great\n Staurakios\n Michael Lachanodrakon\n Tatzates\n Anthony the Domestic\nSuluk Khagan\nKül Chor\nGurek  \nal-Harith ibn Surayj\nKapagan Khan[3]\nBilge Qaghan\nKul Tigin\nGao Xianzhi\nBappa Rawal\nNagabhata I\nVikramaditya II\nRaja Dahir\nNezak Tarkhan[2]", "Rostam Farrokhzād †", "Huzail ibn Imran", "Hormuzan (POW)", "Karinz ibn Karianz", "Mihran-i Bahram-i Razi", "Jabalah Ibn Al-Aiham", "Odo of Aquitaine", "Pépin le Bref", "Cyrus of Alexandria", "Gregory the Patrician †", "John the Patrician", "Farrukhan the Great", "Anthony the Domestic", "al-Harith ibn Surayj", "Muhammed\n Abu Bakr\n Umar I\n Khalid ibn Walid\n Muthana ibn Haris\n Abu Ubaid\n Saad ibn Abi Waqqas\n Tariq ibn Ziyad\n Muhammad bin Qasim\n Zuhra ibn Al-Hawiyya\n Hashim ibn Uthba\n Qa'qa ibn Amr\n Abu Musa Ashaari\n Ammar ibn Yasir\n Nouman ibn Muqarrin\n Hudheifa ibn Al Yaman\n Mugheera ibn Shuba\n Usman ibn Abi al-Aas\n Asim ibn Amr\n Ahnaf ibn Qais\n Abdullah ibn Aamir\n Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah\n Amr ibn al-A'as\n Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan\n Shurahbil ibn Hassana\n Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani †\n Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi †\n Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri\n Amr ibn al-Aas\n Zubair ibn al-Awam\n Miqdad bin Al-Aswad\n Ubaida bin As-Samit\n Kharija bin Huzafa\n Abdallah ibn Sa'ad\n Musa bin Nusayr\n Hasan ibn al-Nu'man\n Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah\n Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik\n al-Jarrah ibn Abdallah al-Hakami  †\n Marwan ibn Muhammad\n Harun al-Rashid\n Al-Rabi' ibn Yunus\n Qutayba ibn Muslim\n Muslim ibn Sa'id  †\n Al-Kharashi\n Junayd ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Murri\n Sawra ibn al-Hurr al-Abani\n Sa'id ibn Amr al-Harashi\n Asad ibn Abd Allah al-Qasri\n Nasr ibn Sayyar", "Khalid ibn Walid", "Muthana ibn Haris", "Saad ibn Abi Waqqas", "Tariq ibn Ziyad", "Muhammad bin Qasim", "Zuhra ibn Al-Hawiyya", "Hashim ibn Uthba", "Qa'qa ibn Amr", "Abu Musa Ashaari", "Ammar ibn Yasir", "Nouman ibn Muqarrin", "Hudheifa ibn Al Yaman", "Mugheera ibn Shuba", "Usman ibn Abi al-Aas", "Asim ibn Amr", "Ahnaf ibn Qais", "Abdullah ibn Aamir", "Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah", "Amr ibn al-A'as", "Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan", "Shurahbil ibn Hassana", "Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani †", "Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi †", "Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri", "Amr ibn al-Aas", "Zubair ibn al-Awam", "Miqdad bin Al-Aswad", "Ubaida bin As-Samit", "Kharija bin Huzafa", "Abdallah ibn Sa'ad", "Musa bin Nusayr", "Hasan ibn al-Nu'man", "Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah", "Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik", "al-Jarrah ibn Abdallah al-Hakami  †", "Marwan ibn Muhammad", "Harun al-Rashid", "Al-Rabi' ibn Yunus", "Qutayba ibn Muslim", "Muslim ibn Sa'id  †", "Al-Kharashi", "Junayd ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Murri", "Sawra ibn al-Hurr al-Abani", "Sa'id ibn Amr al-Harashi", "Asad ibn Abd Allah al-Qasri", "Nasr ibn Sayyar", "[show]\n\n\nv\nt\ne\n\n\nEarly Muslim expansion\n\n\n\n\nByzantine (East Roman) Empire\n\nSyria\nArmenia\nEgypt\nNorth Africa\nCyprus\nConstantinople\nGeorgia\nCrete\nSicily\nSouthern Italy\n\nSassanid Persian Empire\n\nArmenia\nCaucasian Albania\nGeorgia\nAfghanistan\n\nIndus Valley\n\nRasil\n\nCaucasus\n\nGeorgia\nKhazar Khaganate\n\nTransoxiana\nVisigothic Kingdom (Hispania)\nFrankish Empire (Gaul)", "[show]\n\n\nv\nt\ne\n\n\nEarly Muslim expansion", "v\nt\ne", "Byzantine (East Roman) Empire\n\nSyria\nArmenia\nEgypt\nNorth Africa\nCyprus\nConstantinople\nGeorgia\nCrete\nSicily\nSouthern Italy\n\nSassanid Persian Empire\n\nArmenia\nCaucasian Albania\nGeorgia\nAfghanistan\n\nIndus Valley\n\nRasil\n\nCaucasus\n\nGeorgia\nKhazar Khaganate\n\nTransoxiana\nVisigothic Kingdom (Hispania)\nFrankish Empire (Gaul)", "Syria\nArmenia\nEgypt\nNorth Africa\nCyprus\nConstantinople\nGeorgia\nCrete\nSicily\nSouthern Italy", "Sassanid Persian Empire", "Armenia\nCaucasian Albania\nGeorgia\nAfghanistan", "Rasil", "Georgia\nKhazar Khaganate", "Visigothic Kingdom (Hispania)", "The early Muslim conquests (Arabic: الفتوحات الإسلامية‎, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests[4] and early Islamic conquests[5] began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century. He established a new unified polity in the Arabian Peninsula which under the subsequent Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates saw a century of rapid expansion.", "The resulting empire stretched from the borders of China and the Indian subcontinent, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, and parts of Europe (Sicily and the Iberian Peninsula to the Pyrenees). Edward Gibbon writes in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire:", "Under the last of the Umayyads, the Arabian empire extended two hundred days journey from east to west, from the confines of Tartary and India to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean ... We should vainly seek the indissoluble union and easy obedience that pervaded the government of Augustus and the Antonines; but the progress of Islam diffused over this ample space a general resemblance of manners and opinions. The language and laws of the Quran were studied with equal devotion at Samarcand and Seville: the Moor and the Indian embraced as countrymen and brothers in the pilgrimage of Mecca; and the Arabian language was adopted as the popular idiom in all the provinces to the westward of the Tigris.", "The Muslim conquests brought about the collapse of the Sassanid Empire and a great territorial loss for the Byzantine Empire. The reasons for the Muslim success are hard to reconstruct in hindsight, primarily because only fragmentary sources from the period have survived. Most historians agree that the Sassanid Persian and Byzantine Roman empires were militarily and economically exhausted from decades of fighting one another.[6]", "Some Jews and Christians in the Sassanid Empire and Jews and Monophysites in Syria were dissatisfied and welcomed the Muslim forces, largely because of religious conflict in both empires,[7] while at other times, such as in the Battle of Firaz, Arab Christians allied themselves with the Persians and Byzantines against the invaders.[8][9] In the case of Byzantine Egypt, Palestine and Syria, these lands had only a few years before being reclaimed from the Persians.", "Fred McGraw Donner, however, suggests that formation of a state in the Arabian peninsula and ideological (i.e. religious) coherence and mobilization was a primary reason why the Muslim armies in the space of a hundred years were able to establish the largest pre-modern empire until that time. The estimates for the size of the Islamic Caliphate suggest it was more than thirteen million square kilometers (five million square miles).[10]", "The prolonged and escalating Byzantine–Sassanid wars of the 6th and 7th centuries and the recurring outbreaks of bubonic plague (Plague of Justinian) left both empires exhausted and weakened in the face of the sudden emergence and expansion of the Arabs. The last of these wars ended with victory for the Byzantines: Emperor Heraclius regained all lost territories, and restored the True Cross to Jerusalem in 629.[11]", "Nevertheless, neither empire was given any chance to recover, as within a few years they were overrun by the advances of the Arabs (newly united by Islam), which, according to Howard-Johnston, \"can only be likened to a human tsunami\".[12][13] According to George Liska, the \"unnecessarily prolonged Byzantine–Persian conflict opened the way for Islam\".[14]", "In late 620s Muhammad had already managed to conquer and unify much of Arabia under Muslim rule, and it was under his leadership that the first Muslim-Byzantine skirmishes took place in response to the Byzantine forces incursions. Just a few months after Heraclius and the Persian general Shahrbaraz agreed on terms for the withdrawal of Persian troops from occupied Byzantine eastern provinces in 629, Arab and Byzantine troops confronted each other at the Battle of Mu'tah as a result of Byzantine vassals murdering a Muslim emissary.[15] Muhammad died in 632 and was succeeded by Abu Bakr, the first Caliph with undisputed control of the entire Arab peninsula after the successful Ridda Wars, which resulted in the consolidation of a powerful Muslim state throughout the peninsula.[16]", "The province of Syria was the first to be wrested from Byzantine control. Arab-Muslim raids that followed the Ridda wars prompted the Byzantines to send a major expedition into southern Palestine, which was defeated by the Arab forces under command of Khalid ibn al-Walid at the Battle of Ajnadayn (634).[17] On the heels of their victory, the Arab armies took Damascus in 636, with Baalbek, Homs, and Hama to follow soon afterwards.[17] However, other fortified towns continued to resist despite the rout of the imperial army and had to be conquered individually.[17] Jerusalem fell in 638, Caesarea in 640, while others held out until 641.[17]", "The Byzantine province of Egypt held strategic importance for its grain production, naval yards, and as a base for further conquests in Africa.[17] The Muslim general 'Amr ibn al-'As began the conquest of the province on his own initiative in 639.[18] The Arab forces won a major victory at the Battle of Heliopolis (640), but they found it difficult to advance further because major cities in the Nile Delta were protected by water and because they lacked the machinery to break down city fortifications.[19] Nevertheless, the province was scarcely urbanized and the defenders lost hope of receiving reinforcements from Constantinople when the emperor Heraclius died in 641.[20] The last major center to fall into Arab hands was Alexandria, which capitulated in 642.[21] According to Hugh Kennedy, \"Of all the early Muslim conquests, that of Egypt was the swiftest and most complete. [...] Seldom in history can so massive a political change have happened so swiftly and been so long lasting.\"[22]", "After an Arab incursion into Sasanian territories, the energetic king Yazdgerd III, who had just ascended the Persian throne, raised an army to resist the conquerors.[23] However, the Persians suffered a devastating defeat at the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah in 636.[23] As a result, the Arab-Muslims gained control over the whole of Iraq, including Ctesiphon, the capital city of the Sassanids.[23] The Persian forces withdrew over the Zagros mountains and the Arab army pursued them across the Iranian plateau, where the fate of the Sasanian empire was sealed at the Battle of Nahavand (642).[23] As the conquerors slowly covered the vast distances of Iran punctuated by hostile towns and fortresses, Yazdgerd III retreated, finally taking refuge in Khorasan, where he was assassinated by a local satrap in 651.[23] In the aftermath of their victory over the imperial army, the Muslims still had to contend with a collection of militarily weak but geographically inaccessible principalities of Persia.[17] It took decades to bring them all under control of the caliphate.[17]", "The rapidity of the early conquests has received various explanations.[24] Contemporary Christian writers conceived them as God's punishment visited on their fellow Christians for their sins.[25] Early Muslim historians viewed them as a reflection of religious zeal of the conquerors and evidence of divine favor.[26] The theory that the conquests are explainable as an Arab migration triggered by economic pressures enjoyed popularity early in the 20th century, but has largely fallen out of favor among historians, especially those who distinguish the migration from the conquests that preceded and enabled it.[27]", "There are indications that the conquests started as initially disorganized pillaging raids launched partly by non-Muslim Arab tribes in the aftermath of the Ridda wars, and were soon extended into a war of conquest by the Rashidun caliphs,[28] although other scholars argue that the conquests were a planned military venture already underway during Muhammad's lifetime.[29] Fred Donner writes that the advent of Islam \"revolutionized both the ideological bases and the political structures of the Arabian society, giving rise for the first time to a state capable of an expansionist movement.\"[30] According to Chase F. Robinson, it is likely that Muslim forces were often outnumbered, but, unlike their opponents, they were fast, well coordinated and highly motivated.[31]", "Another key reason was the weakness of the Byzantine and Sasanian empires, caused by the wars they had waged against each other in the preceding decades with alternating success.[32] It was aggravated by a plague that had struck densely populated areas and impeded conscription of new imperial troops, while the Arab armies could draw recruits from nomadic populations.[25] The Sasanian empire, which had lost the latest round of hostilites with the Byzantines was also affected by a crisis of confidence, and its elites suspected that the ruling dynasty had forfeited favor of the gods.[25] The Arab military advantage was increased when Christianized Arab tribes who had served imperial armies as regular or auxiliary troops switched sides and joined the west-Arabian coalition.[25] Arab commanders also made liberal use of agreements to spare lives and property of inhabitants in case of surrender and extended exemptions from paying tribute to groups who provided military services to the conquerors.[33] Additionally, the Byzantine persecution of Christians opposed to the Chalcedonian creed in Syria and Egypt alienated elements of those communities and made them more open to accommodation with the Arabs once it became clear that the latter would let them practice their faith undisturbed as long as they paid tribute.[34]", "The conquests were further secured by the large-scale migration of Arabian peoples into the conquered lands which followed the conquests.[35] Robert Hoyland argues that the failure of the Sasanian empire to recover was due in large part to the geographically and politically disconnected nature of Persia, which made coordinated action difficult once the established Sasanian rule collapsed.[36] Similarly, the difficult terrain of Anatolia made it difficult for the Byzantines to mount a large-scale attack to recover the lost lands, and their offensive action was largely limited to organizing guerrilla operations against the Arabs in the Levant.[36]", "Although there were sporadic incursions by Arab generals in the direction of India in the 660s and a small Arab garrison was established in the arid region of Makran in the 670s,[37] the first large-scale Arab campaign in the Indus valley occurred when the general Muhammad bin Qasim invaded Sindh in 711 after a coastal march through Makran.[38] Three years later the Arabs controlled all of the lower Indus valley.[38] Most of the towns seem to have submitted to Arab rule under peace treaties, although there was fierce resistance in other areas, including by the forces of Raja Dahir at the capital city Debal.[38][39] Arab incursions southward from Sindh were repulsed by armies of Gurjara and Chalukya kingdoms, and further Islamic expansion was checked by the Rashtrakuta empire, which gained control of the region shortly after.[39]", "Arab forces began launching sporadic raiding expeditions into Cyrenaica (modern northeast Libya) and beyond soon after their conquest of Egypt.[40] Byzantine rule in northwest Africa at the time was largely confined to the coastal plains, while autonomous Berber polities controlled the rest.[41] In 670 Arabs founded the settlement of Qayrawan, which gave them a forward base for further expansion.[41] Muslim historians credit the general Uqba ibn Nafi with subsequent conquest of lands extending to the Atlantic coast, although it appears to have been a temporary incursion.[41][42] The Berber chief Kusayla and an enigmatic leader referred to as Kahina (prophetess or priestess) seem to have mounted effective, if short-lived resistance to Muslim rule at the end of the 7th century, but the sources do not give a clear picture of these events.[43] Arab forces were able to capture Carthage in 698 and Tangiers by 708.[43] After the fall of Tangiers, many Berbers joined the Muslim army.[42] In 740 Umayyad rule in the region was shaken by a major Berber revolt, which also involved Berber Kharijite Muslims.[44] After a series of defeats, the caliphate was finally able to crush the rebellion in 742, although local Berber dynasties continued to drift away from imperial control from that time on.[44]", "The Muslim conquest of Iberia is notable for the brevity and unreliability of the available sources.[45][46] After the Visigothic king of Spain Wittiza died in 710, the kingdom experienced a period of political division.[46] Taking advantage of the situation, the Muslim Berber commander Tariq ibn Ziyad, who was stationed in Tangiers at the time, crossed the straits with an army of Arabs and Berbers.[46] After defeating the forces of king Roderic, Muslim forces advanced capturing cities of the Gothic kingdom one after another.[45] Some of them surrendered with agreements to pay tribute and local aristocracy retained a measure of former influence.[46] By 713 Iberia was almost entirely under Muslim control.[45] The events of the subsequent ten years, whose details are obscure, included capture of Barcelona and Narbonne, and a raid against Toulouse, followed by an expedition into Burgundy in 725.[45] The last large-scale raid to the north ended with a Muslim defeat at the Battle of Tours at the hands of the Franks in 732.[45]", "Transoxiana is the region northeast of Iran beyond the Amu Darya or Oxus River roughly corresponding with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and parts of Kazakhstan. Initial incursions across the Oxus river were aimed at Bukhara (673) and Samarqand (675) and their results were limited to promises of tribute payments.[47] Further advances were hindered for a quarter century by political upheavals of the Umayyad caliphate.[47] This was followed by a decade of rapid military progress under the leadership of the new governor of Khurasan, Qutayba ibn Muslim, which included conquest of Bukhara and Samarqand in 706–712.[48] The expansion lost its momentum when Qutayba was killed during an army mutiny and the Arabs were placed on the defensive by an alliance of Sogdian and Türgesh forces with support from Tang China.[48] However, reinforcements from Syria helped turn the tide and most of the lost lands were reconquered by 741.[48] Muslim rule over Transoxania was consolidated a decade later when a Chinese-led army was defeated at the Battle of Talas (751).[49]", "Medieveal Islamic scholars divided modern-day Afghanistan into two regions - the provinces of Khorasan and Sistan. Khorasan was the eastern satrapy of Sasanian Empire, containing Balkh and Herat. Sistan included a number of Afghan cities and regions including Ghazna, Zarang, Bost, Qandahar (also called al-Rukhkhaj or Zamindawar), Kabul, Kabulistan and Zabulistan.[50]", "Before Muslim rule, the regions of Balkh (Bactria or Tokharistan), Herat and Sistan were under Sasanian rule. Further south in Balkh region, in Bamiyan, indication of Sasanian authority diminishes, with a local dynasty seeming ruling from the late antiquity, probably Hepthalites subject to the Yabgu of Western Turks. While Herat was controlled by Sasanians, its hinterlands were controlled by northern Hepthalites who continued to rule the Ghurid mountains and river valleys well into the Islamic era. Sistan was under Sasanians but Qandahar remained out of Arab rule. Kabul and Zabulistan, housed Indic religions with the Zunbils and Kabul Shahis offering stiff resistance to Muslim rule for two centuries until Saffarid and Ghaznavid conquests.[51]", "In 646 a Byzantine naval expedition was able to briefly recapture Alexandria.[52] The same year Mu'awiya, the governor of Syria and future founder of the Umayyad dynasty, ordered construction of a fleet.[52] Three years later it was put to use in a pillaging raid of Cyprus, soon followed by a second raid in 650 that concluded with a treaty under which Cypriots surrendered many of their riches and slaves.[52] In 688 the island was made into a joint dominion of the caliphate and the Byzantine empire under a pact which was to last for almost 300 years.[53]", "In 639–640 Arab forces began to make advances into Armenia, which had been partitioned into a Byzantine province and a Sasanian province.[54] There is considerable disagreement among ancient and modern historians about events of the following years, and nominal control of the region may have passed several times between Arabs and Byzantines.[54] Although Muslim dominion was finally established by the time the Umayyads acceded to power in 661, it was not able to implant itself solidly in the country, and Armenia experienced a national and literary efflorescence over the next century.[54] As with Armenia, Arab advances into other lands of the Caucasus region, including Georgia, had as their end assurances of tribute payment and these principalities retained a large degree of autonomy.[55] This period also saw a series of clashes with the Khazar kingdom whose center of power was in the lower Volga steppes, and which vied with the caliphate over control of the Caucasus.[55]", "Other Muslim military ventures were met with outright failure. Despite a naval victory over the Byzantines in 654 at the Battle of the Masts, the subsequent attempt to besiege Constantinople was frustrated by a storm which damaged the Arab fleet.[56] Later sieges of Constantinople in 668–669 (674–78 according to other estimates) and 717–718 were thwarted with the help of the recently invented Greek fire.[57] In the east, although Arabs were able to establish control over most Sasanian-controlled areas of modern Afghanistan after the fall of Persia, the Kabul region resisted repeated attempts of invasion and would continue to do so until it was conquered by the Saffarids three centuries later.[58]", "By the time of the Abbasid revolution in the middle of the 8th century, Muslim armies had come against a combination of natural barriers and powerful states that impeded any further military progress.[59] The wars produced diminishing returns in personal gains and fighters increasingly left the army for civilian occupations.[59] The priorities of the rulers have also shifted from conquest of new lands to administration of the acquired empire.[59] Although the Abbasid era witnessed some new territorial gains, such as the conquests of Sicily and Crete, the period of rapid centralized expansion would now give way to an era when further spread of Islam would be slow and accomplished through the efforts of local dynasties, missionaries, and traders.[59]", "The military victories of armies from the Arabian Peninsula heralded the expansion of the Arabs' culture and religion. The conquests were followed by a large-scale migration of families and whole tribes from Arabia into the lands of the Middle East.[35] The conquering Arabs had already possessed a complex and sophisticated society.[35] Emigrants from Yemen brought with them agricultural, urban, and monarchical traditions; members of the Ghassanid and Lakhmid tribal confederations had experience of collaboration with the empires.[35] The rank and file of the armies was drawn from both nomadic and sedentary tribes, while the leadership came mainly from the merchant class of the Hejaz.[35]", "Two fundamental policies were implemented during the reign of the second caliph Umar (634–44): the bedouins would not be allowed to damage agricultural production of the conquered lands and the leadership would cooperate with the local elites.[60] To that end, the Arab-Muslim armies were settled in segregated quarters or new garrison towns such as Basra, Kufa and Fustat.[60] The latter two became the new administrative centers of Iraq and Egypt, respectively.[60] Soldiers were paid a stipend and prohibited from seizing lands.[60] Arab governors supervised collection and distribution of taxes, but otherwise left the old religious and social order intact.[60] At first, many provinces retained a large degree of autonomy under the terms of agreements made with Arab commanders.[60] As the time passed, the conquerors sought to increase their control over local affairs and make existing administrative machinery work for the new regime.[61] This involved several types of reorganization. In the Mediterranean region, city-states which traditionally governed themselves and their surrounding areas were replaced by a territorial bureaucracy separating town and rural administration.[62] In Egypt, fiscally independent estates and municipalities were abolished in favor of a simplified administrative system.[63] In the early eighth century, Syrian Arabs began to replace Coptic functionaries and communal levies gave way to individual taxation.[64] In Iran, the administrative reorganization and construction of protective walls prompted agglomeration of quarters and villages into large cities such as Isfahan, Qazvin, and Qum.[65] Local notables of Iran, who at first had almost complete autonomy, were incorporated into the central bureaucracy by the ʿAbbasid period.[65] The similarity of Egyptian and Khurasanian official paperwork at the time of the caliph al-Mansur (754–75) suggests a highly centralized empire-wide administration.[65]", "The society of new Arab settlements gradually became stratified into classes based on wealth and power.[66] It was also reorganized into new communal units that preserved clan and tribal names but were in fact only loosely based around old kinship bonds.[66] Arab settlers turned to civilian occupations and in eastern regions established themselves as a landed aristocracy.[66] At the same time, distinctions between the conquerors and local populations began to blur.[66] In Iran, the Arabs largely assimilated into local culture, adopting the Persian language, customs and marrying Persian women.[66] In Iraq, non-Arab settlers flocked to garrison towns.[66] Soldiers and administrators of the old regime came to seek their fortunes with the new masters, while slaves, laborers and peasants fled there seeking to escape the harsh conditions of life in the countryside.[66] Non-Arab converts to Islam were absorbed into the Arab-Muslim society through an adaptation of the tribal Arabian institution of clientage, in which protection of the powerful was exchanged for loyalty of the subordinates.[66] The clients (mawali) and their heirs were regarded as virtual members of the clan.[66] The clans became increasingly economically and socially stratified.[66] For example, while the noble clans of the Tamim tribe acquired Persian cavalry units as their mawali, other clans of the same tribe had slave laborers as theirs.[66] Slaves often became mawali of their former masters when they were freed.[66]", "Contrary to belief of earlier historians, there is no evidence of mass conversions to Islam in the immediate aftermath of the conquests.[67] The first groups to convert were Christian Arab tribes, although some of them retained their religion into the Abbasid era even while serving as troops of the caliphate.[67] They were followed by former elites of the Sasanian empire, whose conversion ratified their old privileges.[67] With time, the weakening of non-Muslim elites facilitated the breakdown of old communal ties and reinforced the incentives of conversion which promised economic advantages and social mobility.[67] By the beginning of the eighth century, conversions became a policy issue for the caliphate.[68] They were favored by religious activists, and many Arabs accepted equality of Arabs and non-Arabs.[68] However, conversion was associated with economic and political advantages, and Muslim elites were reluctant to see their privileges being diluted.[68] Public policy towards converts varied depending on the region and was changed by successive Umayyad caliphs.[68] These circumstances provoked opposition from non-Arab converts, whose ranks included many active soldiers, and helped set the stage for the civil war which ended with the fall of the Umayyad dynasty.[69]", "The Arab-Muslim conquests followed a general pattern of nomadic conquests of settled regions, whereby conquering peoples became the new military elite and reached a compromise with the old elites by allowing them to retain local political, religious, and financial authority.[61] Peasants, workers, and merchants paid taxes, while members of the old and new elites collected them.[61] Payment of taxes, which for peasants often reached half of the value of their produce, was not only an economic burden, but also a mark of social inferiority.[61] Scholars differ in their assessment of relative tax burdens before and after the conquests. John Esposito states that in effect this meant lower taxes.[70] According to Bernard Lewis, available evidence suggests that the change from Byzantine to Arab rule was \"welcomed by many among the subject peoples, who found the new yoke far lighter than the old, both in taxation and in other matters\".[71] In contrast, Norman Stillman writes that although the tax burden of the Jews under early Islamic rule was comparable to that under previous rulers, Christians of the Byzantine Empire (though not Christians of the Persian empire, whose status was similar to that of the Jews) and Zoroastrians of Iran shouldered a considerably heavier burden in the immediate aftermath of the conquests.[72]", "In the wake of the early conquests taxes could be levied on individuals, on the land, or as collective tribute.[73] During the first century of Islamic expansion, the words jizya and kharaj were used in all three senses, with context distinguishing between individual and land taxes.[74] Regional variations in taxation at first reflected the diversity of previous systems.[75] The Sasanian Empire had a general tax on land and a poll tax having several rates based on wealth, with an exemption for aristocracy.[75] This poll tax was adapted by Arab rulers, so that the aristocracy exemption was assumed by the new Arab-Muslim elite and shared by local aristocracy who converted to Islam.[76] The nature of Byzantine taxation remains partly unclear, but it appears to have been levied as a collective tribute on population centers and this practice was generally followed under the Arab rule in former Byzantine provinces.[75] Collection of taxes was delegated to autonomous local communities on the condition that the burden be divided among its members in the most equitable manner.[75] In most of Iran and Central Asia local rulers paid a fixed tribute and maintained their autonomy in tax collection.[75]", "Difficulties in tax collection soon appeared.[75] Egyptian Copts, who had been skilled in tax evasion since Roman times, were able to avoid paying the taxes by entering monasteries, which were initially exempt from taxation, or simply by leaving the district where they were registered.[75] This prompted imposition of taxes on monks and introduction of movement controls.[75] In Iraq, many peasants who had fallen behind with their tax payments, converted to Islam and abandoned their land for Arab garrison towns in hope of escaping taxation.[77] Faced with a decline in agriculture and a treasury shortfall, the governor of Iraq al-Hajjaj forced peasant converts to return to their lands and subjected them to the taxes again, effectively forbidding them to convert to Islam.[78] In Khorasan, a similar phenomenon forced the native aristocracy to compensate for the shortfall in tax collection out of their own pockets, and they responded by persecuting peasant converts and imposing heavier taxes on poor Muslims.[78]", "The situation where conversion to Islam was penalized in an Islamic state could not last, and the devout Umayyad caliph Umar II (717–720) has been credited with changing the taxation system.[78] Modern historians doubt this account, although details of the transition to the system of taxation elaborated by Abbasid-era jurists are still unclear.[78] Umar II ordered governors to cease collection of taxes from Muslim converts, but his successors obstructed this policy and some governors sought to stem the tide of conversions by introducing additional requirements such as circumcision and the ability to recite passages from the Quran.[79] Taxation-related grievances of non-Arab Muslims contributed to the opposition movements which resulted in the Abbasid revolution.[80] Under the new system that was eventually established, kharaj came to be regarded as a tax levied on the land, regardless of the taxpayer's religion.[78] The poll-tax was no longer levied on Muslims, but the treasury did not necessarily suffer and converts did not gain as a result, since they had to pay zakat, which was probably instituted as a compulsory tax on Muslims around 730.[81] The terminology became specialized during the Abbasid era, so that kharaj no longer meant anything more than land tax, while the term jizya was restricted to the poll-tax on dhimmis.[78]", "The influence of jizya on conversion has been a subject of scholarly debate.[82] Julius Wellhausen held that the poll tax amounted to so little that exemption from it did not constitute sufficient economic motive for conversion.[83] Similarly, Thomas Arnold states that jizya was \"too moderate\" to constitute a burden, \"seeing that it released them from the compulsory military service that was incumbent on their Muslim fellow subjects.\" He further adds that converts escaping taxation would have to pay the legal alms, zakat, that is annually levied on most kinds of movable and immovable property.[84] Other early 20th century scholars suggested that non-Muslims converted to Islam en masse in order to escape the poll tax, but this theory has been challenged by more recent research.[82] Daniel Dennett has shown that other factors, such as desire to retain social status, had greater influence on this choice in the early Islamic period.[82]", "The Arab conquerors did not repeat the mistake made by the Byzantine and Sasanian empires, who had tried and failed to impose an official religion on subject populations, which had caused resentments that made the Muslim conquests more acceptable to them.[85] Instead, the rulers of the new empire generally respected the traditional middle-Eastern pattern of religious pluralism, which was not one of equality but rather of dominance by one group over the others.[85] After the end of military operations, which involved sacking of some monasteries and confiscation of Zoroastrian fire temples in Syria and Iraq, the early caliphate was characterized by religious tolerance and peoples of all ethnicities and religions blended in public life.[86] Before Muslims were ready to build mosques in Syria, they accepted Christian churches as holy places and shared them with local Christians.[67] In Iraq and Egypt, Muslim authorities cooperated with Christian religious leaders.[67] Numerous churches were repaired and new ones built during the Umayyad era.[87]", "The first Umayyad caliph Muawiyah sought to reassure the conquered peoples that he was not hostile to their religions and made an effort to enlist support from Christian Arab elites.[88] There is no evidence for public display of Islam by the state before the reign of Abd al-Malik (685–705), when Quranic verses and references to Muhammad suddenly became prominent on coins and official documents.[89] This change was motivated by a desire to unify the Muslim community after the second civil war and rally them against their chief common enemy, the Byzantine empire.[89]", "A further change of policy occurred during the reign of Umar II (717–720).[90] The disastrous failure of the siege of Constantinople in 718 which was accompanied by massive Arab casualties led to a spike of popular animosity among Muslims toward Byzantium and Christians in general.[90] At the same time, many Arab soldiers left the army for civilian occupations and they wished to emphasize their high social status among the conquered peoples.[90] These events prompted introduction of restrictions on non-Muslims, which, according to Hoyland, were modeled both on Byzantine curbs on Jews, starting with the Theodosian Code and later codes, which contained prohibitions against building new synagogues and giving testimony against Christians, and on Sassanid regulations that prescribed distinctive attire for different social classes.[90]", "In the following decades Islamic jurists elaborated a legal framework in which other religions would have a protected but subordinate status.[89] Islamic law followed the Byzantine precedent of classifying subjects of the state according to their religion, in contrast to the Sasanian model which put more weight on social than on religious distinctions.[90] In theory, like the Byzantine empire, the caliphate placed severe restrictions on paganism, but in practice most non-Abrahamic communities of the former Sasanian territories were classified as possessors of a scripture (ahl al-kitab) and granted protected (dhimmi) status.[90]", "Mark R. Cohen writes that the jizya paid by Jews under Islamic rule provided a \"surer guarantee of protection from non-Jewish hostility\" than that possessed by Jews in the Latin West, where Jews \"paid numerous and often unreasonably high and arbitrary taxes\" in return for official protection, and where treatment of Jews was governed by charters which new rulers could alter at will upon accession or refuse to renew altogether.[91] The Pact of Umar, which stipulated that Muslims must \"do battle to guard\" the dhimmis and \"put no burden on them greater than they can bear\", was not always upheld, but it remained \"a steadfast cornerstone of Islamic policy\" into early modern times.[91]" ]
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[]
a day to remember all i want cameos
All I Want (A Day to Remember song)
[ "\"All I Want\"\n\n\n\nIllustration by Mike C. Hardcore\n\n\n\nSingle by A Day to Remember\n\n\nfrom the album What Separates Me from You\n\n\nB-side\n\"All I Want\" (acoustic)\n\n\nReleased\nOctober 12, 2010 (radio single)\nApril 16, 2011 (vinyl)\n\n\nFormat\nDigital download, promotional CD, 7\" vinyl\n\n\nRecorded\nMay–July 2010,\nThe Wade Studio, Ocala, Florida\n\n\nLength\n3:22\n\n\nLabel\nVictory\n\n\nSongwriter(s)\nJeremy McKinnon, Alex Shelnutt, Kevin Skaff, Neil Westfall, Joshua Woodard\n\n\nProducer(s)\nChad Gilbert, Andrew Wade, Jeremy McKinnon\n\n\nA Day to Remember singles chronology\n\n\n\n\n\n\"Have Faith in Me\"\n(2010)\n\"All I Want\"\n(2010)\n\"All Signs Point to Lauderdale\"\n(2011)\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\"Have Faith in Me\"\n(2010)\n\"All I Want\"\n(2010)\n\"All Signs Point to Lauderdale\"\n(2011)\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nWhat Separates Me from You track listing\n\n\n\nshow\n10 tracks\n\n\n\"Sticks & Bricks\"\n\"All I Want\"\n\"It's Complicated\"\n\"This Is the House That Doubt Built\"\n\"2nd Sucks\"\n\"Better Off This Way\"\n\"All Signs Point to Lauderdale\"\n\"You Be Tails, I'll Be Sonic\"\n\"Out of Time\"\n\"If I Leave\"", "\"All I Want\"", "Illustration by Mike C. Hardcore", "Single by A Day to Remember", "from the album What Separates Me from You", "B-side\n\"All I Want\" (acoustic)", "Released\nOctober 12, 2010 (radio single)\nApril 16, 2011 (vinyl)", "Format\nDigital download, promotional CD, 7\" vinyl", "Recorded\nMay–July 2010,\nThe Wade Studio, Ocala, Florida", "Length\n3:22", "Label\nVictory", "Songwriter(s)\nJeremy McKinnon, Alex Shelnutt, Kevin Skaff, Neil Westfall, Joshua Woodard", "Producer(s)\nChad Gilbert, Andrew Wade, Jeremy McKinnon", "A Day to Remember singles chronology", "\"Have Faith in Me\"\n(2010)\n\"All I Want\"\n(2010)\n\"All Signs Point to Lauderdale\"\n(2011)", "\"Have Faith in Me\"\n(2010)\n\"All I Want\"\n(2010)\n\"All Signs Point to Lauderdale\"\n(2011)", "\"Have Faith in Me\"\n(2010)\n\"All I Want\"\n(2010)\n\"All Signs Point to Lauderdale\"\n(2011)", "\"Have Faith in Me\"\n(2010)\n\"All I Want\"\n(2010)\n\"All Signs Point to Lauderdale\"\n(2011)", "\"Have Faith in Me\"\n(2010)\n\"All I Want\"\n(2010)\n\"All Signs Point to Lauderdale\"\n(2011)", "\"Have Faith in Me\"\n(2010)\n\"All I Want\"\n(2010)\n\"All Signs Point to Lauderdale\"\n(2011)", "What Separates Me from You track listing", "show\n10 tracks\n\n\n\"Sticks & Bricks\"\n\"All I Want\"\n\"It's Complicated\"\n\"This Is the House That Doubt Built\"\n\"2nd Sucks\"\n\"Better Off This Way\"\n\"All Signs Point to Lauderdale\"\n\"You Be Tails, I'll Be Sonic\"\n\"Out of Time\"\n\"If I Leave\"", "\"Sticks & Bricks\"\n\"All I Want\"\n\"It's Complicated\"\n\"This Is the House That Doubt Built\"\n\"2nd Sucks\"\n\"Better Off This Way\"\n\"All Signs Point to Lauderdale\"\n\"You Be Tails, I'll Be Sonic\"\n\"Out of Time\"\n\"If I Leave\"", "\"Sticks & Bricks\"", "\"All I Want\"", "\"It's Complicated\"", "\"This Is the House That Doubt Built\"", "\"2nd Sucks\"", "\"Better Off This Way\"", "\"All Signs Point to Lauderdale\"", "\"You Be Tails, I'll Be Sonic\"", "\"Out of Time\"", "\"If I Leave\"", "\"All I Want\" is the first single by A Day to Remember from their fourth studio album What Separates Me from You. It was released officially to radio stations in October 2010, and as a commercial single, albeit a limited edition 7\" vinyl, in April 2011. In August 2016, the song was certified gold in the U.S. by the RIAA.", "Unlike the band's more-known metalcore sound which incorporates growling vocals and breakdowns, the song uses almost none of these attributes, and instead shows a direction towards fast-paced pop punk with clean vocals. Lead vocalist Jeremy McKinnon wrote the lyrics, while the music was written by himself, guitarist Kevin Skaff and A Day to Remember.[1] McKinnon stated that the song is about \"taking chances, and doing what you think is right regardless of what people might think. To be honest, whats more important? Live life, and be happy with yourself\".[2] McKinnon said in a 2011 interview with USAToday that the song is also \"about being in a band.\"[3] The song, along with 3 others from the album, was mixed by David Bendeth.[1] As the choice of a single, guitarist Neil Westfall said \"All I Want\" \"was a great transition song from 'Homesick'\".[4]", "The music video for the song, which was filmed in October 2010,[4] was released on January 6, 2011.[5] It features cameos of numerous popular bands and musicians. The cameos are: Tom Denney (A Day to Remember's former guitarist), Pete Wentz, Winston McCall of Parkway Drive, The Devil Wears Prada, Bring Me the Horizon, Sam Carter of Architects, Tim Lambesis of As I Lay Dying, Silverstein, Andrew WK, August Burns Red, Seventh Star, Matt Heafy of Trivium, Vic Fuentes of Pierce the Veil, Mike Herrera of MxPx, and Set Your Goals.[5] Rock Sound called the video \"quite excellent\".[5]", "The song was released as a radio single on October 12, 2010,[6] although it premiered a week earlier on October 7 on KROQ-FM radio's website,[7] which gave the site its most amount of web traffic ever.[8] \"All I Want\" charted on both Billboard's Hot Modern Rock Tracks and Rock Songs charts, at number 12 and number 25, respectively.[9] A few days after the release of the music video for song, the band went on Jimmy Kimmel Live!, on January 11, 2011, and it became their national television debut[10] on which they performed \"All I Want\" and \"Better Off This Way\".[11] On April 16, the band released an exclusive 7\" vinyl single of the song, especially for Record Store Day.[12][13] The vinyl pressing was limited to 2,000 copies for the U.S.[nb 1][15] and 1,000 copies for the international release[nb 2][17] and featured an acoustic version of \"All I Want\" as the B-side.[18] The acoustic version was recorded at The Wade Studios, and was mixed by Andrew Wade.[18] \"All I Want\" is available to play on the Rock Band games as well as Rocksmith 2014.[19]", "Digital download", "\"All I Want\" – 3:22", "\"All I Want\" – 3:22", "Promotional CD", "\"All I Want\" (album version) – 3:23\n\"All I Want\" (screamless) – 3:21", "\"All I Want\" (album version) – 3:23", "\"All I Want\" (screamless) – 3:21", "7\" vinyl", "7\" vinyl", "\"All I Want\" – 3:22\n\"All I Want\" (acoustic) – 3:14", "\"All I Want\" – 3:22", "\"All I Want\" (acoustic) – 3:14", "Personnel per \"All I Want\" 7\" sleeve.[18]", "A Day to Remember\n\n\nJosh Woodard – bass, backing vocals\nNeil Westfall – rhythm guitar, backing vocals\nJeremy McKinnon – vocals\nAlex Shelnutt – drums\nKevin Skaff – lead guitar, second vocals in acoustic version\n\n\n\n\nProduction\n\n\nChad Gilbert – producer\nAndrew Wade and Jeremy McKinnon – co-producers\nDavid Bendeth – mixing\nMike C. Hardcore – illustrations\nJeremy Saffer – band photo\nDoublej – layout\nJeremy McKinnon – art direction", "A Day to Remember\n\n\nJosh Woodard – bass, backing vocals\nNeil Westfall – rhythm guitar, backing vocals\nJeremy McKinnon – vocals\nAlex Shelnutt – drums\nKevin Skaff – lead guitar, second vocals in acoustic version\n\n\n\n\nProduction\n\n\nChad Gilbert – producer\nAndrew Wade and Jeremy McKinnon – co-producers\nDavid Bendeth – mixing\nMike C. Hardcore – illustrations\nJeremy Saffer – band photo\nDoublej – layout\nJeremy McKinnon – art direction", "A Day to Remember", "A Day to Remember", "Josh Woodard – bass, backing vocals\nNeil Westfall – rhythm guitar, backing vocals\nJeremy McKinnon – vocals\nAlex Shelnutt – drums\nKevin Skaff – lead guitar, second vocals in acoustic version", "Josh Woodard – bass, backing vocals", "Neil Westfall – rhythm guitar, backing vocals", "Jeremy McKinnon – vocals", "Alex Shelnutt – drums", "Kevin Skaff – lead guitar, second vocals in acoustic version", "Production", "Chad Gilbert – producer\nAndrew Wade and Jeremy McKinnon – co-producers\nDavid Bendeth – mixing\nMike C. Hardcore – illustrations\nJeremy Saffer – band photo\nDoublej – layout\nJeremy McKinnon – art direction", "Chad Gilbert – producer", "Andrew Wade and Jeremy McKinnon – co-producers", "David Bendeth – mixing", "Mike C. Hardcore – illustrations", "Jeremy Saffer – band photo", "Doublej – layout", "Jeremy McKinnon – art direction", "Peak positions[edit]\n\n\nChart (2010)\nPeak\nposition\n\n\nU.S. Billboard Alternative Songs[9]\n12\n\n\nU.S. Billboard Hot Rock Songs[20]\n25\n\n\nU.S. Billboard Mainstream Rock Songs[21]\n21\n\n\nU.S. Billboard Rock Digital Songs[22]\n23\n\n\n\n\nYear-end charts[edit]\n\n\nChart (2009)\nPosition\n\n\nU.S. Billboard Alternative Songs Year-end[23]\n41", "Peak positions[edit]\n\n\nChart (2010)\nPeak\nposition\n\n\nU.S. Billboard Alternative Songs[9]\n12\n\n\nU.S. Billboard Hot Rock Songs[20]\n25\n\n\nU.S. Billboard Mainstream Rock Songs[21]\n21\n\n\nU.S. Billboard Rock Digital Songs[22]\n23\n\n\n\n\nYear-end charts[edit]\n\n\nChart (2009)\nPosition\n\n\nU.S. Billboard Alternative Songs Year-end[23]\n41", "Chart (2010)\nPeak\nposition\n\n\nU.S. Billboard Alternative Songs[9]\n12\n\n\nU.S. Billboard Hot Rock Songs[20]\n25\n\n\nU.S. Billboard Mainstream Rock Songs[21]\n21\n\n\nU.S. Billboard Rock Digital Songs[22]\n23", "Chart (2010)\nPeak\nposition", "U.S. Billboard Alternative Songs[9]\n12", "U.S. Billboard Hot Rock Songs[20]\n25", "U.S. Billboard Mainstream Rock Songs[21]\n21", "U.S. Billboard Rock Digital Songs[22]\n23", "Chart (2009)\nPosition\n\n\nU.S. Billboard Alternative Songs Year-end[23]\n41", "Chart (2009)\nPosition", "U.S. Billboard Alternative Songs Year-end[23]\n41", "Region\nCertification\nCertified units/Sales\n\n\nUnited States (RIAA)[24]\nGold\n500,000\n\n\n\n*sales figures based on certification alone\n^shipments figures based on certification alone\nsales+streaming figures based on certification alone", "Region\nCertification\nCertified units/Sales", "United States (RIAA)[24]\nGold\n500,000", "*sales figures based on certification alone\n^shipments figures based on certification alone\nsales+streaming figures based on certification alone", "*sales figures based on certification alone\n^shipments figures based on certification alone\nsales+streaming figures based on certification alone" ]
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[ 35 ]
what type of food do they eat in finland
Finnish cuisine
[ "This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "Part of a series on theCulture of Finland\nHistory\nPeople\nLanguages\nMythology and folklore[show]\nMythology\nfolklore\n\nCuisine\nFestivals\nReligion\nArt[show]\nDesign\n\nLiterature\nMusic and performing arts[show]\nMusic\n\nMedia[show]\nTelevision\nCinema\n\nSport\nMonuments[show]\nWorld Heritage Sites\n\nSymbols[show]\nFlag\nCoat of arms\n\n\n Finland portalvte", "Part of a series on the", "Culture of Finland", "History", "People", "Languages", "Mythology and folklore[show]\nMythology\nfolklore", "Mythology\nfolklore", "Cuisine", "Festivals", "Religion", "Art[show]\nDesign", "Design", "Literature", "Music and performing arts[show]\nMusic", "Music", "Media[show]\nTelevision\nCinema", "Television\nCinema", "Sport", "Monuments[show]\nWorld Heritage Sites", "World Heritage Sites", "World Heritage Sites", "Symbols[show]\nFlag\nCoat of arms", "Flag\nCoat of arms", "Coat of arms", "Finland portal", "Finland portal", "vte", "vte", "Finnish cuisine is notable for generally combining traditional country fare and haute cuisine with contemporary continental style cooking. Fish and meat (usually pork, beef or reindeer) play a prominent role in traditional Finnish dishes in some parts of the country, while the dishes elsewhere have traditionally included various vegetables and mushrooms. Evacuees from Karelia contributed to foods in other parts of Finland.[1]", "Finnish foods often use wholemeal products (rye, barley, oats) and berries (such as bilberries, lingonberries, cloudberries, and sea buckthorn). Milk and its derivatives like buttermilk are commonly used as food, drink or in various recipes. Various turnips were common in traditional cooking, but were replaced with the potato after its introduction in the 18th century.", "The way of life and culture of Finns was mainly based on agriculture already at prehistoric times. However, in the harsh and cold environment, agriculture was not very effective nor secure way of life, so getting food from nature has often been important secondary livelihood. When crops failed, it might have been the only way to survive. Also, while farms mainly produced plants like crops or turnips, and often families had only some farm animals to get milk products and meat, hunting and especially fishing were important ways to get more protein. Large scale meat production and therefore meat as a daily food started to emerge only at the beginning of 20th century, after periods of malnutrition in the 19th century caused by failed crops.", "In former times, the country's harsh climate meant that fresh fruit and vegetables were largely unavailable for at least nine months of the year, leading to a heavy reliance on staple tubers (initially turnip, later potato), dark rye bread and fermented dairy products, occasionally enlivened with preserved fish and meat. Traditionally, very few spices other than salt were available, and fresh herbs like dill and chives were limited to the summer months. Many Finnish traditional dishes are prepared by stewing them for a long time in an oven, which produces hearty but bland fare. Forests and lakes were historically a major source of food, and produce from forests currently accounts for the distinctive traits in Finnish cuisine. The simplicity of traditional Finnish food has been turned into an advantage by shifting the emphasis to freshness. Modern Finnish restaurateurs now blend high-quality Finnish products with continental cooking techniques. This approach helped Helsinki's Chez Dominique to receive two Michelin stars in 2003 (the restaurant closed in 2013).", "Internationalization brought imported goods. As pasta, pizza, kebab, and hamburgers were integrated into Finnish menus, they displaced some traditional everyday dishes like Kaalilaatikko (cabbage casserole), or herring fillets, which some consider inferior. As of the 20th century, when the majority of Finnish women entered the workforce, many traditional dishes that require long preparation time are reserved for holidays.", "Even with modern agriculture and transportation, food remains expensive in Finland relative to other European countries. This is notwithstanding the effect of accession to the European Union in 1995. The consequent elimination of trade barriers led prices of products like grains, meat, and milk to drop as much as 50%.[2] Before that, heavy taxes and outright bans on imports that competed with local produce severely limited the availability of foreign or unseasonal food. Nowadays Finnish supermarkets and restaurants provide a variety of food from all over the world.", "Finnish cuisine is very similar to Swedish cuisine. In fact, Swedish dishes like Janssons frestelse (janssoninkiusaus), pyttipannu, and gravlax are common in Finland. The overarching difference is the Finns' preference for unsweetened foods. For example, while traditional Swedish rye bread includes plenty of syrup and spices, Finnish rye bread is unsweetened, even bitter. Finnish cuisine also bears some resemblance to German and Russian cuisines.[3] Sausages and buttered bread (like Butterbrot), and kiisseli (kissel) and lihapiirakka (cf. pirozhki) are similar to their respective German and Russian counterparts. Finnish recipes, however, tend to favour fresh ingredients over canned or pickled foods as fresh vegetables, fish, and meat are available throughout the year.[4]", "The most popular meats in Finland are pork (33.5 kg/year/person in 2005), beef (18.6 kg), chicken and duck (13.3 kg).[5] Approximately one third of this is eaten as sausage (makkara), which is mostly made from pork but often mixes in other meats as well.[6] Horse meat, lamb and reindeer make up a small portion of the total meat consumption, but they are widely available.[7]", "In addition to domesticated animals, there are long traditions of hunting and fishing in Finland. The hunters focus on deer, moose and bear, but small game such as hare, duck and grouse are popular. Approximately 70,000-80,000 moose are culled yearly producing significant amounts of meat. Due to very strict food hygiene regulations, moose meat is mainly consumed within households and is rarely obtainable in restaurants.", "Arctic wild berries are distinctively featured in Finnish cuisine with their strong flavor and high nutrient content. Traditionally, they were eaten fresh in summer and dried at other times of year. It is still quite common to go picking berries straight from the forests. Wild raspberries, bilberries and lingonberries (cowberries) are found in almost every part of Finland, while cloudberries, cranberries, arctic brambles and sea buckthorns grow in more limited areas. The intensely flavored wild strawberry (metsämansikka) is a seasonal delicacy decorating cakes, served alone, with cream, or with ice cream. Farmed strawberry is also very common.", "Today, berries are no longer dried for winter consumption but usually frozen. They may be used as ingredients, or eaten on their own, for example, with porridge and sugar. Kisel (a sweet soup of berry juice and berries thickened with potato starch) is a common dessert. Homemade berry juices and jams are common, especially among older people. While berries are most often used for desserts, they are also served with meat, especially the sour lingonberry relish.", "Bilberry kiisseli and pie, made from wild bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), are traditional Finnish desserts. Bilberries are frequently used in Finnish cuisine, both as an ingredient, such as bilberry pie, and also served with cream or ice cream. They are often used on top of viili and other yogurt-type dishes.", "Lakes and rivers in Finland and the Baltic Sea provide many opportunities for fishing and fish has always been an important protein source. Numerous methods of preparing fish are used, including frying, boiling, drying, salting, fermenting, cold smoking or simply slicing sea fish and eating it raw. Salmon is a popular choice, both as kylmäsavustettu lohi: cold smoked salmon, lox, or served raw with lemon juice as graavilohi (gravlax in Swedish). It is common to smoke any types of fish, like salmon, zander, pike, perch and Baltic herring. A popular dish among the Swedish-speaking population is smoked herring (Finnish: savusilakka, Swedish: böckling). There are many styles of pickled herring which is a common appetizer and also served around Midsummer accompanied by small potatoes called uusiperuna (nypotatis in Swedish) which literally means 'new potato', usually the first harvests of potato. Whitefish and vendace roe are Finnish delicacies served on top of a toast or with blinis. Crayfish can be found in many lakes and streams in Finland and, in August especially, the Swedish-speaking population often arranges parties centered around eating crayfish and drinking.", "Various species of mushrooms grow in abundance in Finnish forests and false morels start the season in spring and are used in creamy dishes. Chanterelles and ceps pop up after Midsummer and are popular in the whole country, while in eastern Finland almost all edible fungi are consumed, including milkcaps and russulas. Most of the mushroom recipes originate from Russia, since Finns used mushrooms in coloring fabrics rather than as food. Mushrooms are used in soups, sauces, stews, pie fillings, or simply fried in a pan with onions as a side dish. They are preserved for the winter by pickling or drying. Chanterelles are frequently featured in Finnish haute cuisine with their relatives winter chanterelles which often end the season. Just like berry picking, mushroom hunting is also a popular outdoor activity among Finns.", "Dark and fiber-rich ruisleipä, rye bread is a staple of the Finnish diet. Breads are made from grains like barley, oat, rye and wheat, or by mixing different grits and flours. For example, sihtileipä is made of a combination of rye and wheat. There is also a variety of flat breads called rieska, like maitorieska (milk flatbread), ryynirieska with barley grits from Savonia, läskirieska (lard flatbread) a somewhat flat barley bread with pieces of lard from Western coast, and perunarieska (potato flatbread). In Kainuu, North Finland, the flatbreads are very flat and baked on naked flame. Näkkileipä, crisp rye bread, is also common. Famines caused by crop failures in the 19th century caused Finns to improvise pettuleipä or bark bread,[8] bread made from rye flour and the soft phloem layer of pine bark, which was nutritious, but rock-hard and anything but tasty. It was eaten also during the Second World War, and the tradition of making this bread has had a minor come-back with claims of health benefits.", "The Finnish breakfast traditionally includes a substantial portion of porridge. Rolled oats, rye or multi-grain porridge are most common. However, there are other options such as the milk-based mannapuuro (semolina-milk porridge) and helmipuuro (starch grain-milk porridge). Porridges are often eaten with milk, sugar, butter or berry kiisseli. The Christmas season introduces milk-based rice porridge (riisipuuro), sprinkled with cinnamon and sugar and often topped with prune kiisseli (luumukiisseli).", "Water and coffee are the most common drinks in Finland, but during meals milk and sour milk (piimä, a fermented milk) are popular too, even among adults. Coffee is often drunk several times a day and served everywhere, and tea is available in most homes. There are several types of home-brewed alcoholic beverages, sima (mead), sahti (traditional beer) and kilju (sugar wine, a notorious drink traditionally fermented without flavoring). An illegally distilled 'moonshine' spirit is named pontikka. Spirits brands include Koskenkorva (vodka-like clear spirit) and a salmiakki flavored shot Salmiakkikossu, Jaloviina (cut brandy), Finlandia Vodka, and Marskin ryyppy (Marshal Mannerheim's shot). Around Christmas time a type of mulled wine called glögi is served, also often as a non-alcoholic version. Many berries are used to season liqueurs, e.g. cloudberry liqueur and there are wines produced from red and black currants. A national specialty would be multiple brands of flavored hard ciders (as in Sweden) and long drink mixes with the pet name lonkero, which was originally a gin and grapefruit soda long drink.", "The Finnish beer scene is dominated by pale lagers. The most popular local brands are Koff, Lapin Kulta, Karjala, Olvi and Karhu and their taste is rather similar to the Danish counterparts like Carlsberg and Tuborg; soft and a bit sweet. Non-alcoholic beer has also become a popular alternative during recent years. Kotikalja (similar to Russian kvass) is the traditional small beer. Kotikalja is a malty, sugar-containing sweet beer fermented only for carbonation, thus its alcohol content is low enough (<1.2%) to be served as a soft drink. Hops are often absent. Fresh kotikalja is unfiltered, cloudy and cannot be stored. A Finnish beer specialty is sahti, a traditional ale flavoured with juniper berries.", "Pulla, sweet, cardamom-flavored bread eaten with coffee or as dessert\nCinnamon rolls (korvapuustit) - pulla made into a roll with cinnamon and sugar\nGolden cloudberry dessert\nKiisseli – water, sugar, berry juice and berries (nowadays often canned or frozen) thickened with potato starch flour, served with milk/cream and sugar. These may be less liquid than drink-like mustikkakeitto (Swedish blåbärssoppa), depending on preparation, but not gelatinous.\nVispipuuro (whipped porridge) a sweet pink dessert porridge with lingonberries or other berries, served with milk and sugar.\nRuneberg torte named after a national poet J.L. Runeberg and served on his memorial day on the 5th of February.\nRönttönen pastry with lingonberry filling", "Pulla, sweet, cardamom-flavored bread eaten with coffee or as dessert\nCinnamon rolls (korvapuustit) - pulla made into a roll with cinnamon and sugar", "Cinnamon rolls (korvapuustit) - pulla made into a roll with cinnamon and sugar", "Cinnamon rolls (korvapuustit) - pulla made into a roll with cinnamon and sugar", "Golden cloudberry dessert", "Kiisseli – water, sugar, berry juice and berries (nowadays often canned or frozen) thickened with potato starch flour, served with milk/cream and sugar. These may be less liquid than drink-like mustikkakeitto (Swedish blåbärssoppa), depending on preparation, but not gelatinous.", "Vispipuuro (whipped porridge) a sweet pink dessert porridge with lingonberries or other berries, served with milk and sugar.", "Runeberg torte named after a national poet J.L. Runeberg and served on his memorial day on the 5th of February.", "Rönttönen pastry with lingonberry filling", "Salmiakki – salty black liquorice candy\nFazer Blue milk chocolate\nWood tar (terva) flavoured candy, such as Terva Leijona", "Salmiakki – salty black liquorice candy", "Fazer Blue milk chocolate", "Wood tar (terva) flavoured candy, such as Terva Leijona", "Note that the term perinneruoka (\"traditional dish\") is often applied to specialties that are rarely eaten on a daily basis. These are often regional, associated with the older generations or confined to a specific holiday (for example, mämmi in Easter or most Christmas dishes), and most people eat them rarely or not at all. To contrast with perinneruoka, the term kotiruoka (\"home-made food\", even if in a restaurant) is applied to daily staple dishes. Meatballs, pea soup and rye bread are examples of such staples.", "The following list is a sample of typical dishes traditionally consumed in Finland.", "Kaalikääryleet – cabbage rolls\nGame food. – Moose, deer, grouse, duck, hare, etc... dishes. Rarely attainable in restaurants. Common amongst those whose hobby is hunting.\nHernekeitto – pea soup, usually served on Thursday along with a dessert pancake\nLeipäjuusto, alternate names hiilikko and juustoleipä – a fresh cow's milk cheese\nViili – a yoghurt-like fermented milk product\nPerunamuusi – Mashed potato, a common side dish\nLihapullat – Finnish meatballs, often with gravy sauce\nPalvikinkku and palviliha – Smoked ham or beef", "Kaalikääryleet – cabbage rolls", "Game food. – Moose, deer, grouse, duck, hare, etc... dishes. Rarely attainable in restaurants. Common amongst those whose hobby is hunting.", "Hernekeitto – pea soup, usually served on Thursday along with a dessert pancake", "Leipäjuusto, alternate names hiilikko and juustoleipä – a fresh cow's milk cheese", "Viili – a yoghurt-like fermented milk product", "Perunamuusi – Mashed potato, a common side dish", "Lihapullat – Finnish meatballs, often with gravy sauce", "Palvikinkku and palviliha – Smoked ham or beef", "Hernekeitto - Pea soup made with ham and traditionally served with mustard.\nLaskiaispulla – (Shrovetide pulla) filled with whipped cream and almond paste or jam", "Hernekeitto - Pea soup made with ham and traditionally served with mustard.", "Laskiaispulla – (Shrovetide pulla) filled with whipped cream and almond paste or jam", "Mämmi Easter Dessert Pudding: sweetened oven-baked rye malt porridge, served with sugar and milk or cream, available frozen around the year. In the Catholic era it was Lent food and also served on Good Friday.\nPasha a dessert made of quark, butter, eggs and spices, originates from Russia", "Mämmi Easter Dessert Pudding: sweetened oven-baked rye malt porridge, served with sugar and milk or cream, available frozen around the year. In the Catholic era it was Lent food and also served on Good Friday.", "Pasha a dessert made of quark, butter, eggs and spices, originates from Russia", "Sima (mead) home-made or purchased\nMunkki (deep-fried pulla dough coated in sugar similar to doughnuts)\nTippaleipä (May Day fritters) analogous to funnel cake", "Sima (mead) home-made or purchased", "Munkki (deep-fried pulla dough coated in sugar similar to doughnuts)", "Tippaleipä (May Day fritters) analogous to funnel cake", "Joulupöytä \"Christmas table\" consists of many dishes almost entirely reserved for Christmas and some side dishes and is also the name of the dish Eve is preparing for Wednesday.\nGlögi (mulled wine) is served around holiday season", "Joulupöytä \"Christmas table\" consists of many dishes almost entirely reserved for Christmas and some side dishes and is also the name of the dish Eve is preparing for Wednesday.", "Glögi (mulled wine) is served around holiday season", "Sautéed reindeer (poronkäristys)\nLohikeitto salmon soup with cream", "Sautéed reindeer (poronkäristys)", "Lohikeitto salmon soup with cream", "Rönttönen, pastry with lingonberry filling (PGI protection under EU law)\nSmoked meat soup\nKainuun Juustoleipä, Bread Cheese\nVendace fish soup\nPettuleipä (Pettu-bread), a bread made from rye flour and pine bark", "Rönttönen, pastry with lingonberry filling (PGI protection under EU law)", "Smoked meat soup", "Kainuun Juustoleipä, Bread Cheese", "Vendace fish soup", "Pettuleipä (Pettu-bread), a bread made from rye flour and pine bark", "Karelian pasties popular throughout the whole of Finland\nKarelian Stew/Hot Pot often part of Christmas menu everywhere in Finland\nSultsina sold at the market square in Joensuu and other places in the area", "Karelian pasties popular throughout the whole of Finland", "Karelian Stew/Hot Pot often part of Christmas menu everywhere in Finland", "Sultsina sold at the market square in Joensuu and other places in the area", "Kalakukko fish pasty loaf\nMykyrokka blood dumpling soup\nLörtsy pastry filled with sour or sweet fillings (meat, vegetable or jam)", "Kalakukko fish pasty loaf", "Mykyrokka blood dumpling soup", "Lörtsy pastry filled with sour or sweet fillings (meat, vegetable or jam)", "Due the location on the West coast, the cuisine has some local specialities.", "Klimppisoppa flour dumpling soup\nÅland's pancake typically made of leftover porridge and served with plum soup\nSwedish svartbröd \"black bread\" is eaten in Swedish-speaking Åland; similar dark bread, known as skärgårdslimpa (\"islander's bread\", referring to Åland), is made on southern coast, and in Malax on the Ostrobothnian coast (malaxlimpa). This bread, coloured dark brown, is made from rye and contains a substantial quantity of dark syrup.", "Klimppisoppa flour dumpling soup", "Ã…land's pancake typically made of leftover porridge and served with plum soup", "Swedish svartbröd \"black bread\" is eaten in Swedish-speaking Åland; similar dark bread, known as skärgårdslimpa (\"islander's bread\", referring to Åland), is made on southern coast, and in Malax on the Ostrobothnian coast (malaxlimpa). This bread, coloured dark brown, is made from rye and contains a substantial quantity of dark syrup.", "Mustamakkara – Blood sausage from Tampere\nRössypottu from Oulu (mixed blood pudding and pork stew)\nHapanvelli (rye and pea porridge) from Virolahti\nKakko, a type of white bread baked mostly in the Satakunta region[9]", "Mustamakkara – Blood sausage from Tampere", "Rössypottu from Oulu (mixed blood pudding and pork stew)", "Hapanvelli (rye and pea porridge) from Virolahti", "Kakko, a type of white bread baked mostly in the Satakunta region[9]", "There are three meals per day: breakfast, lunch and dinner. In all primary and secondary schools, including high school, a hot free lunch is served as part of Finland's welfare state system. Lunch, eaten around noon, is usually a warm meal, although some people may select a lighter meal such as a sandwich or a salad. Taking a lunchbox is not as common as elsewhere in Europe.[10] Lunch typically consists of a single course with optional side salad, bread and dessert. Many workplaces have a lunch restaurant, and if not, employers often give lunch vouchers. Restaurants often have a separate lunch menu for this purpose. In the evening, the dinner is usually a hot meal, again with sides. Meals are usually single-course, commonly consisting of meat of some sort (pork, lamb, chicken, beef) and potatoes, rice or pasta with the meat. Soups, such as pea soup or fish soup, are not considered appetizers only, but may be served as lunch or dinner, and they are correspondingly heavier and come in larger portions.", "Breakfast is seen as a substantial meal and usually consists of open sandwiches. The sandwich is often buttered, with savoury toppings such as hard cheese or cold cuts. Sour milk products such as yoghurt or viili are also common breakfast foods, usually served in a bowl with cereals such as corn flakes, muesli, and sometimes with sugar, fruit or jam. A third food that is commonly eaten at breakfast is porridge (puuro), often made of rolled oats, and eaten with a pat of butter (voisilmä, lit. \"butter eye\") or with milk, or fruit or jam, especially the sort made of raspberries or strawberries (sometimes lingonberries). Drinks are milk, juice, tea, or coffee.", "Finland has the highest coffee consumption per capita in the world, averaging 12 kilograms (26 lb) of coffee per person annually.[11] It is typical for a Finn to drink coffee continuously throughout the day, often accompanied by a sweet bun or a sandwich. Most workplaces allocate time for coffee breaks and serving coffee is an inevitable part of any visit to a private home.", "In 2005, Finnish cuisine came under heavy fire from two leaders of countries renowned for their cuisine. The Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi claimed that \"I've been to Finland and I had to endure the Finnish diet so I am in a position to make a comparison.\" Berlusconi started his anti-Finnish food campaign in 2001. He went on: \"The Finns don't even know what Parma ham is.\" This followed the initial decision by the European Commission to establish the European Food Safety Authority in Helsinki. On the 4th of July 2005 French President Jacques Chirac claimed that \"After Finland, [Britain is] the country with the worst food.\" [12][13]", "After Jacques Chirac's and Silvio Berlusconi's critiques, some international food reporters answered:", "\"Chirac and Berlusconi are wrong! Finnish cuisine is much more international than I expected. I have eaten very good food in wonderful restaurants, visited market places and enjoyed in good cafeterias. Cheese is very good in Finland. I also love Finnish cloudberry and smoked fish.\" (Ute Junker, Australian Financial Review Magazine, Sydney, Australia)", "\"Food in Finnish restaurants is extremely good. Especially I love Finnish salmon, mushroom soup and desserts. I have also got very good Finnish wines. The worldwide reputation of Finnish cuisine isn't very good – but it should be!\" (Liliane Delwasse, Le Figaro, Paris, France)", "\"I have eaten only good food in Finland. Food in Finland is very fresh. Bread, berries, mushrooms and desserts are very delicious. Finnish berries (especially cloudberry), salmon, cheeses and reindeer should be available in London, too.\" (April Hutchinson, Abta Magazine, London, England).", "Finnish pizza chain Kotipizza won the 2008 America’s Plate International pizza contest in New York, while Italian-American pizza came in second. They named their award-winning smoked reindeer pizza Berlusconi as symbolic payback for the critique Finnish cuisine had received from the Italian prime minister earlier.[14]" ]
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how to be a right back in soccer
Defender (association football)
[ "In the sport of association football, a defender is an outfield player whose primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring goals.", "There are four types of defenders: centre-back, sweeper, full-back, and wing-back. The centre-back and full-back positions are essential in most modern formations. The sweeper and wing-back roles are more specialised for certain formations.", "A centre-back (also known as a central defender or centre-half) defends in the area directly in front of the goal, and tries to prevent opposing players, particularly centre-forwards, from scoring. Centre-backs accomplish this by blocking shots, tackling, intercepting passes, contesting headers and marking forwards to discourage the opposing team from passing to them.", "With the ball, centre-backs are generally expected to make long and pinpoint passes to their teammates, or to kick unaimed long balls down the field. For example, a clearance is a long unaimed kick intended to move the ball as far as possible from the defender's goal. Due to the many skills centre-backs are required to possess in the modern game, many successful contemporary central-defensive partnerships have involved pairing a more physical defender with a defender who is quicker, more comfortable in possession and capable of playing the ball out from the back; examples of such pairings are John Terry and Ricardo Carvalho with Chelsea, Nemanja Vidić and Rio Ferdinand with Manchester United, or Giorgio Chiellini, Leonardo Bonucci and Andrea Barzagli with Juventus.[1][2]", "During normal play, centre-backs are unlikely to score goals. However, when their team takes a corner kick or other set pieces, centre-backs may move forward to the opponents' penalty area; if the ball is passed in the air towards a crowd of players near the goal, then the heading ability of a centre-back is useful when trying to score. In this case, other defenders or midfielders will temporarily move into the centre-back positions.", "In the modern game, most teams employ two or three centre-backs in front of the goalkeeper. The 4–2–3–1, 4–3–3, and 4–4–2 formations all use two centre-backs.", "There are two main defensive strategies used by centre-backs: the zonal defence, where each centre-back covers a specific area of the pitch; and man-to-man marking, where each centre-back has the job of covering a particular opposition player.", "The sweeper (or libero) is a more versatile centre-back who \"sweeps up\" the ball if an opponent manages to breach the defensive line.[3][4] This position is rather more fluid than that of other defenders who man-mark their designated opponents. Because of this, it is sometimes referred to as libero ([ˈlibero]), which originated from the Italian name for this position libero da impegni di marcatura (i.e., \"free from man-marking tasks\").[5][6]", "Though sweepers may be expected to build counter-attacking moves, and as such require better ball control and passing ability than typical centre-backs, their talents are often confined to the defensive realm. For example, the catenaccio system of play, used in Italian football in the 1960s, employed a purely defensive sweeper who only \"roamed\" around the back line; Armando Picchi was a leading exponent of the more traditional variant of this role in Helenio Herrera's Grande Inter side.[7][8]", "The more modern libero possesses the defensive qualities of the typical libero while being able to expose the opposition during counterattacks. The Fundell-libero has become more popular in recent time with the sweeper transitioning to the most advanced forward in an attack. This variation on the position requires great pace and fitness. While rarely seen in professional football, the position has been extensively used in lower leagues. Modern libero sit behind centre-backs as a sweeper before charging through the team to join in the attack.[9][10]", "Some sweepers move forward and distribute the ball up-field, while others intercept passes and get the ball off the opposition without needing to hurl themselves into tackles. If the sweeper does move up the field to distribute the ball, they will need to make a speedy recovery and run back into their position. In modern football, its usage has been fairly restricted, with few clubs in the biggest leagues using the position.", "The position is most commonly associated to have been pioneered by Franz Beckenbauer, Gaetano Scirea and Elias Figueroa although they were not the first players to play this position, with earlier proponents such as Alexandru Apolzan, Ivano Blason, Velibor Vasović and Ján Popluhár.[9][11][12][13][14][15][16] Other defenders who have been described as sweepers include Bobby Moore, Franco Baresi, Ronald Koeman, Fernando Hierro, Matthias Sammer, and Aldair, due to their ball skills, vision, and long passing ability.[9][11][12][17] Though it is rarely used in modern football, it remains a highly respected and demanding position.", "A recent and successful use of the sweeper was made by Otto Rehhagel, Greece's manager, during UEFA Euro 2004. Rehhagel utilized Traianos Dellas as Greece's sweeper to great success, as Greece surprisingly became European champions.", "Although this position has become largely obsolete in modern football formations, due to the use of zonal marking and the offside trap, certain defenders such as Leonardo Bonucci, David Luiz and Daniele De Rossi have played a similar role as a ball-playing central defender in a 3–5–2 or 3–4–3 formation:[18] in addition to their defensive skills, their technique and ball-playing ability allowed them to advance into midfield after winning back possession, and function as a secondary playmaker for their teams.[18][19]", "Some goalkeepers, who are comfortable leaving their goalmouth to intercept and clear through balls, and who generally participate more in play, such as René Higuita, Manuel Neuer, and Hugo Lloris, among others, have been referred to as sweeper-keepers.[20][21][22]", "The full-backs (the left-back and the right-back) take up the holding wide positions and traditionally stayed in defence at all times, until a set-piece. There is one full-back on each side of the field except in defences with fewer than four players, where there may be no full-backs and instead only centre-backs.[23]", "In the modern game, full-backs have taken on a more attacking role than is the case traditionally, often overlapping with wingers down the flank.[24] Wingerless formations, such as the diamond 4–4–2 formation, demand the full-back to cover considerable ground up and down the flank. Some of the responsibilities of modern full-backs include:", "Provide a physical obstruction to opposition attacking players by shepherding them towards an area where they exert less influence. They may manoeuvre in a fashion that causes the opponent to cut in towards the centre-back or defensive midfielder with their weaker foot, where they are likely to be dispossessed. Otherwise, jockeying and smart positioning may simply pin back a winger in an area where they are less likely to exert influence.\nMaking off-the-ball runs into spaces down the channels and supplying crosses into the opposing penalty box.\nThrow-ins are often assigned to full-backs.\nMarking wingers and other attacking players. Full-backs generally do not commit into challenges in their opponents' half. However, they aim to quickly dispossess attacking players who have already breached the defensive line with a sliding tackle from the side. Markers must however avoid keeping too tight on opponents or risk disrupting the defensive organisation.[25]\nMaintaining tactical discipline by ensuring other teammates do not overrun the defensive line and inadvertently play an opponent onside.\nProviding a passing option down the flank; for instance, by creating opportunities for sequences like one-two passing moves.\nIn wingerless formations, full-backs need to cover the roles of both wingers and full-backs, although defensive work may be shared with one of the central midfielders.\nAdditionally, attacking full-backs help to pin both opposition full-backs and wingers deeper in their own half with aggressive attacking intent. Their presence in attack also forces the opposition to withdraw players from central midfield, which the team can seize to its advantage.[26]", "Provide a physical obstruction to opposition attacking players by shepherding them towards an area where they exert less influence. They may manoeuvre in a fashion that causes the opponent to cut in towards the centre-back or defensive midfielder with their weaker foot, where they are likely to be dispossessed. Otherwise, jockeying and smart positioning may simply pin back a winger in an area where they are less likely to exert influence.", "Making off-the-ball runs into spaces down the channels and supplying crosses into the opposing penalty box.", "Throw-ins are often assigned to full-backs.", "Marking wingers and other attacking players. Full-backs generally do not commit into challenges in their opponents' half. However, they aim to quickly dispossess attacking players who have already breached the defensive line with a sliding tackle from the side. Markers must however avoid keeping too tight on opponents or risk disrupting the defensive organisation.[25]", "Maintaining tactical discipline by ensuring other teammates do not overrun the defensive line and inadvertently play an opponent onside.", "Providing a passing option down the flank; for instance, by creating opportunities for sequences like one-two passing moves.", "In wingerless formations, full-backs need to cover the roles of both wingers and full-backs, although defensive work may be shared with one of the central midfielders.", "Additionally, attacking full-backs help to pin both opposition full-backs and wingers deeper in their own half with aggressive attacking intent. Their presence in attack also forces the opposition to withdraw players from central midfield, which the team can seize to its advantage.[26]", "Due to the physical and technical demands of their playing position, successful full-backs need a wide range of attributes, which make them suited for adaptation to other roles on the pitch. Many of the game's utility players, who can play in multiple positions on the pitch, are natural full-backs. A rather prominent example is the Real Madrid full-back Sergio Ramos, who has played on the flanks as a full-back and in central defence throughout his career. In the modern game, full-backs often chip in a fair share of assists with their runs down the flank when the team is on a counter-attack. The more common attributes of full-backs, however, include:", "Pace and stamina to handle the demands of covering large distances up and down the flank.\nA healthy work rate and team responsibility.\nMarking and tackling abilities and a sense of anticipation.\nGood off-the-ball ability to create attacking opportunities for his team by running into empty channels.\nDribbling ability. Many of the game's eminent attacking full-backs are excellent dribblers in their own right and occasionally deputise as attacking wingers.\nPlayer intelligence. As is common for defenders, full-backs need to decide during the flow of play whether to stick close to a winger or maintain a suitable distance. Full-backs that stay too close to attacking players are vulnerable to being pulled out of position and leaving a gap in the defence. A quick passing movement like a pair of one-two passes will leave the channel behind the defending full-back open. This vulnerability is a reason why wingers considered to be dangerous are double-marked by both the full-back and the winger. This allows the full-back to focus on holding his defensive line.[27]", "Pace and stamina to handle the demands of covering large distances up and down the flank.", "A healthy work rate and team responsibility.", "Marking and tackling abilities and a sense of anticipation.", "Good off-the-ball ability to create attacking opportunities for his team by running into empty channels.", "Dribbling ability. Many of the game's eminent attacking full-backs are excellent dribblers in their own right and occasionally deputise as attacking wingers.", "Player intelligence. As is common for defenders, full-backs need to decide during the flow of play whether to stick close to a winger or maintain a suitable distance. Full-backs that stay too close to attacking players are vulnerable to being pulled out of position and leaving a gap in the defence. A quick passing movement like a pair of one-two passes will leave the channel behind the defending full-back open. This vulnerability is a reason why wingers considered to be dangerous are double-marked by both the full-back and the winger. This allows the full-back to focus on holding his defensive line.[27]", "The wing-back is a modern variation on the full-back with heavier emphasis on attack. This type of defender focuses more heavily on attack than defence, yet they must have the ability, when needed, to fall back and mark opposing players to lessen the threat of conceding a goal-scoring opportunity. Some formations have wing back players that mainly focus on defending, and some that focus more on attack.", "In the evolution of the modern game, wing-backs are the combination of wingers and full-backs. As such, it is one of the most physically demanding positions in modern football. Wing-backs are often more adventurous than full-backs and are expected to provide width, especially in teams without wingers. A wing-back needs to be of exceptional stamina, be able to provide crosses upfield and defend effectively against opponents' attacks down the flanks. A defensive midfielder is usually fielded to cover the advances of wing-backs.[28] It can also be occupied by wingers and side midfielders in a three centre-back formation. Good examples are Dani Carvajal, Juan Cuadrado, Marcelo, Cafu, Alex Sandro, Dani Alves, Maicon, and Bruno Peres with the Brazil national football team, Victor Moses, Marcos Alonso in Chelsea FC, recently Kyle Walker and Benjamin Mendy in Manchester City, and Danny Rose of Tottenham Hotspur under Mauricio Pochettino." ]
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[ 27 ]
who has represented india in most number of t20 internationals
List of India Twenty20 International cricketers
[ "A Twenty20 International (T20I) is a form of cricket match between two representative teams, each having T20I status as determined by the International Cricket Council (ICC), and is played under the rules of Twenty20 cricket.[1] The first such match was played between Australia and New Zealand on 17 February 2005.[2] The Indian cricket team played its first T20I match—under the captaincy of Virender Sehwag—during the 2006–07 series in South Africa;[3][4][5] India defeated the hosts by six wickets in the one-off match and claimed the series.[5]", "As of 6 March 2018, 73 players have represented India in T20Is. Virat Kohli is the captain and the leading run scorer for the team with 1,983 runs at an average of 50.84.[6] Sharma's 118 against Sri Lanka in December 2017 is the highest individual score in T20Is by an Indian batsman.[6] Ravichandran Ashwin is India's leading wicket-taker in the format with 52 wickets.[7] Yuzvendra Chahal has the best bowling figures for India in the format; his six wickets for 25 runs, against England in February 2017, are the third-best for any bowler in T20Is.[8] India's highest total of 260 came against Sri Lanka in December 2017,[a] while its lowest total came against Australia in 2008 when it was bowled out for 74 runs.[10][11]", "India won the world championship at the inaugural edition of the ICC World Twenty20, defeating Pakistan by five runs.[12] In 2016, it won the 13th Asia Cup—the first to be played in the Twenty20 format—in Bangladesh by defeating the hosts by eight wickets.", "General\n\n – Captain\n – Wicket-keeper\n – Player now retired from international cricket\nFirst – Year of debut\nLast – Year of latest game\nMat – Number of matches played\n\nFielding\n\nCa – Catches taken\nSt – Stumpings taken\n\n\n\nBatting\n\nInn – Number of innings batted\nNO – Number of innings not out\nRuns – Runs scored in career\nHS – Highest score\nAvg – Average runs scored per dismissal\nS/R – Average runs scored per 100 balls faced\n50s – Number of half centuries\n* – Batsman remained not out\n\n\n\nBowling\n\nWkt – Wickets taken in career\nBBI – Best bowling in an innings\nAve – Average runs conceded per wicket\nEcon – Average runs conceded per over\n\n\n\nCaptains\n\nWon – Number of games won\nLost – Number of games lost\nTied – Number of games tied[b]\nNR – Number of games with no result\nWin% – Ratio of games won to those captained[c]", "General\n\n – Captain\n – Wicket-keeper\n – Player now retired from international cricket\nFirst – Year of debut\nLast – Year of latest game\nMat – Number of matches played\n\nFielding\n\nCa – Catches taken\nSt – Stumpings taken\n\n\n\nBatting\n\nInn – Number of innings batted\nNO – Number of innings not out\nRuns – Runs scored in career\nHS – Highest score\nAvg – Average runs scored per dismissal\nS/R – Average runs scored per 100 balls faced\n50s – Number of half centuries\n* – Batsman remained not out\n\n\n\nBowling\n\nWkt – Wickets taken in career\nBBI – Best bowling in an innings\nAve – Average runs conceded per wicket\nEcon – Average runs conceded per over\n\n\n\nCaptains\n\nWon – Number of games won\nLost – Number of games lost\nTied – Number of games tied[b]\nNR – Number of games with no result\nWin% – Ratio of games won to those captained[c]", "– Captain\n – Wicket-keeper\n – Player now retired from international cricket\nFirst – Year of debut\nLast – Year of latest game\nMat – Number of matches played", "– Wicket-keeper", "– Player now retired from international cricket", "First – Year of debut", "Last – Year of latest game", "Mat – Number of matches played", "Ca – Catches taken\nSt – Stumpings taken", "Ca – Catches taken", "St – Stumpings taken", "Inn – Number of innings batted\nNO – Number of innings not out\nRuns – Runs scored in career\nHS – Highest score\nAvg – Average runs scored per dismissal\nS/R – Average runs scored per 100 balls faced\n50s – Number of half centuries\n* – Batsman remained not out", "Inn – Number of innings batted", "NO – Number of innings not out", "Runs – Runs scored in career", "HS – Highest score", "Avg – Average runs scored per dismissal", "S/R – Average runs scored per 100 balls faced", "50s – Number of half centuries", "* – Batsman remained not out", "Wkt – Wickets taken in career\nBBI – Best bowling in an innings\nAve – Average runs conceded per wicket\nEcon – Average runs conceded per over", "Wkt – Wickets taken in career", "BBI – Best bowling in an innings", "Ave – Average runs conceded per wicket", "Econ – Average runs conceded per over", "Won – Number of games won\nLost – Number of games lost\nTied – Number of games tied[b]\nNR – Number of games with no result\nWin% – Ratio of games won to those captained[c]", "Won – Number of games won", "Lost – Number of games lost", "Tied – Number of games tied[b]", "NR – Number of games with no result", "Win% – Ratio of games won to those captained[c]", "The list is arranged in the order in which each player won his first cap. To sort this table by any statistic, click on the icon on the column title.\nStatistics are last updated on 7 November 2017.[13][14][15]", "The list is arranged in the order in which each player won his first cap. To sort this table by any statistic, click on the icon on the column title.", "Statistics are last updated on 7 November 2017.[13][14][15]", "India T20I cricketers\n\nCap\nName\nFirst\nLast\nMat\nBatting\nBowling\nFielding\nRef.\n\nInn\nNO\nRuns\nHS\nAvg\nS/R\n50s\n100s\nWkt\nBBI\nAve\nEcon\nCa\nSt\n\n\n1\nAgarkar, AjitAjit Agarkar \n20061\n2007\n4\n7000200000000000000♠2\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001150000000000000♠15\n0140 !14\n7000750000000000000♠7.50\n7002136360000000000♠136.36\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000300000000000000♠3\n0290 !2/10\n7001283300000000000♠28.33\n7000809000000000000♠8.09\n0\n0\n[16]\n\n\n2\nDhoni, Mahendra SinghMahendra Singh Dhoni \n20062\n2017\n83\n7001720000000000000♠72\n7001360000000000000♠36\n7003128100000000000♠1,281\n0560 !56\n7001355800000000000♠35.58\n7002123410000000000♠123.41\n7000200000000000000♠2\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n45\n25\n[17]\n\n\n3\nSingh, HarbhajanHarbhajan Singh\n20063\n2016\n28\n7001130000000000000♠13\n7000500000000000000♠5\n7002108000000000000♠108\n0210 !21\n7001135000000000000♠13.50\n7002124130000000000♠124.13\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001250000000000000♠25\n0488 !4/12\n7001253200000000000♠25.32\n7000620000000000000♠6.20\n7\n0\n[18]\n\n\n4\nKarthik, DineshDinesh Karthik [notes 1]\n20064\n2017\n10\n7000900000000000000♠9\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7002148000000000000♠148\n0480 !48\n7001211400000000000♠21.14\n7002126490000000000♠126.49\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n5\n2\n[19]\n\n\n5\nKhan, ZaheerZaheer Khan \n20065\n2012\n17\n7000400000000000000♠4\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7001130000000000000♠13\n0090 !9\n7000650000000000000♠6.50\n7002130000000000000♠130.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001170000000000000♠17\n0481 !4/19\n7001263500000000000♠26.35\n7000763000000000000♠7.63\n2\n0\n[20]\n\n\n6\nMongia, DineshDinesh Mongia \n20066\n2006\n1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001380000000000000♠38\n0380 !38\n7001380000000000000♠38.00\n7001844400000000000♠84.44\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n1\n0\n[21]\n\n\n7\nPathan, IrfanIrfan Pathan\n20067\n2009\n24\n7001140000000000000♠14\n7000700000000000000♠7\n7002172000000000000♠172\n0330 !33*\n7001245700000000000♠24.57\n7002119440000000000♠119.44\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001280000000000000♠28\n0384 !3/16\n7001220700000000000♠22.07\n7000802000000000000♠8.02\n2\n0\n[22]\n\n\n8\nRaina, SureshSuresh Raina \n20068\n2017\n65\n7001550000000000000♠55\n7001110000000000000♠11\n7003130900000000000♠1,309\n1010 !101\n7001297000000000000♠29.70\n7002132960000000000♠132.96\n7000400000000000000♠4\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7001120000000000000♠12\n0294 !2/6\n7001329109999999999♠32.91\n7000757000000000000♠7.57\n32\n0\n[23]\n\n\n9\nSehwag, VirenderVirender Sehwag \n20069\n2013\n19\n7001180000000000000♠18\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7002394000000000000♠394\n0680 !68\n7001218800000000000♠21.88\n7002145380000000000♠145.38\n7000200000000000000♠2\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7001200000000000000♠20.00\n2\n0\n[24]\n\n\n10\nSreesanth, S.S. Sreesanth \n20069.1\n2008\n10\n7000300000000000000♠3\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7001200000000000000♠20\n0192 !19*\n7001200000000000000♠20.00\n7002142850000000000♠142.85\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000700000000000000♠7\n0288 !2/12\n7001411400000000000♠41.14\n7000847000000000000♠8.47\n2\n0\n[25]\n\n\n11\nTendulkar, SachinSachin Tendulkar \n20069.2\n2006\n1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001100000000000000♠10\n0101 !10\n7001100000000000000♠10.00\n7001833300000000000♠83.33\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0188 !1/12\n7001120000000000000♠12.00\n7000480000000000000♠4.80\n1\n0\n[26]\n\n\n12\nGambhir, GautamGautam Gambhir\n20071\n2012\n37\n7001360000000000000♠36\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7002932000000000000♠932\n0750 !75\n7001274100000000000♠27.41\n7002119020000000000♠119.02\n7000700000000000000♠7\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n11\n0\n[27]\n\n\n13\nSingh, R. P.R. P. Singh\n20072\n2009\n10\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7000300000000000000♠3\n0021 !2*\n&\n—\n\n7002100000000000000♠100.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001150000000000000♠15\n0487 !4/13\n7001150000000000000♠15.00\n7000681000000000000♠6.81\n2\n0\n[28]\n\n\n14\nUthappa, RobinRobin Uthappa \n20073\n2015\n13\n7001120000000000000♠12\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7002249000000000000♠249\n0500 !50\n7001249000000000000♠24.90\n7002118000000000000♠118.00\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n2\n0\n[29]\n\n\n15\nSingh, YuvrajYuvraj Singh\n20074\n2017\n58\n7001510000000000000♠51\n7000900000000000000♠9\n7003117700000000000♠1,177\n0770 !77*\n7001280200000000000♠28.02\n7002136380000000000♠136.38\n7000800000000000000♠8\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001280000000000000♠28\n0383 !3/17\n7001178200000000000♠17.82\n7000706000000000000♠7.06\n12\n0\n[30]\n\n\n16\nSharma, JoginderJoginder Sharma\n20075\n2007\n4\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000400000000000000♠4\n0280 !2/20\n7001345000000000000♠34.50\n7000951000000000000♠9.51\n2\n0\n[31]\n\n\n17\nSharma, RohitRohit Sharma\n20076\n2017\n68\n7001610000000000000♠61\n7001120000000000000♠12\n7003148500000000000♠1,485\n1060 !106\n7001303000000000000♠30.30\n7002129919999999999♠129.92\n7001120000000000000♠12\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0177 !1/22\n7002113000000000000♠113.00\n7000997000000000000♠9.97\n25\n0\n[32]\n\n\n18\nPathan, YusufYusuf Pathan\n20077\n2011\n22\n7001180000000000000♠18\n7000500000000000000♠5\n7002236000000000000♠236\n0370 !37*\n7001181509999900000♠18.15\n7002146580000000000♠146.58\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001130000000000000♠13\n0278 !2/22\n7001336900000000000♠33.69\n7000861000000000000♠8.61\n9\n0\n[33]\n\n\n19\nKartik, MuraliMurali Kartik \n20078\n2007\n1\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000675000000000000♠6.75\n0\n0\n[34]\n\n\n20\nKumar, PraveenPraveen Kumar\n20081\n2012\n10\n7000300000000000000♠3\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000700000000000000♠7\n0060 !6\n7000233000000000000♠2.33\n7001437500000000000♠43.75\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000800000000000000♠8\n0286 !2/14\n7001241200000000000♠24.12\n7000742000000000000♠7.42\n1\n0\n[35]\n\n\n21\nSharma, IshantIshant Sharma\n20082\n2013\n14\n7000300000000000000♠3\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7000800000000000000♠8\n0050 !5*\n7000800000000000000♠8.00\n7001888800000000000♠88.88\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000800000000000000♠8\n0266 !2/34\n7001500000000000000♠50.00\n7000863000000000000♠8.63\n4\n0\n[36]\n\n\n22\nJadeja, RavindraRavindra Jadeja\n20091\n2017\n40\n7001180000000000000♠18\n7000600000000000000♠6\n7002116000000000000♠116\n0250 !25\n7000966000000000000♠9.66\n7001935400000000000♠93.54\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001310000000000000♠31\n0352 !3/48\n7001317000000000000♠31.70\n7000727000000000000♠7.27\n18\n0\n[37]\n\n\n23\nOjha, PragyanPragyan Ojha\n20092\n2010\n6\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7001100000000000000♠10\n0102 !10*\n&\n—\n\n7002166660000000000♠166.66\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001100000000000000♠10\n0479 !4/21\n7001132000000000000♠13.20\n7000628000000000000♠6.28\n1\n0\n[38]\n\n\n24\nDinda, AshokAshok Dinda\n20093\n2010\n9\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7001220000000000000♠22\n0191 !19*\n7001220000000000000♠22.00\n7001916600000000000♠91.66\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001170000000000000♠17\n0482 !4/19\n7001144100000000000♠14.41\n7000816000000000000♠8.16\n1\n0\n[39]\n\n\n25\nNehra, AshishAshish Nehra \n20094\n2017\n27\n7000500000000000000♠5\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001280000000000000♠28\n0220 !22\n7000560000000099999♠5.60\n7001717900000000000♠71.79\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001340000000000000♠34\n0380 !3/19\n7001222900000000000♠22.29\n7000773000000000000♠7.73\n4\n0\n[40]\n\n\n26\nTyagi, SudeepSudeep Tyagi\n20095\n2009\n1\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7001105000000000000♠10.50\n1\n0\n[41]\n\n\n27\nVijay, MuraliMurali Vijay\n20101\n2015\n9\n7000900000000000000♠9\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7002169000000000000♠169\n0480 !48\n7001187700000000000♠18.77\n7002109740000000000♠109.74\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000450000000000000♠4.50\n3\n0\n[42]\n\n\n28\nChawla, PiyushPiyush Chawla\n20102\n2012\n7\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n0001 !0\n5000000000000000000♠0.00\n5000000000000000000♠0.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000400000000000000♠4\n0287 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!31\n7001310000000000000♠31.00\n7002147610000000000♠147.61\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n0\n0\n[53]\n\n\n39\nRahane, AjinkyaAjinkya Rahane \n20116\n2016\n20\n7001200000000000000♠20\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7002375000000000000♠375\n0610 !61\n7001208309999999999♠20.83\n7002113290000000000♠113.29\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n16\n0\n[54]\n\n\n40\nTiwary, ManojManoj Tiwary\n20117\n2015\n3\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001150000000000000♠15\n0150 !15\n7001150000000000000♠15.00\n7001882300000000000♠88.23\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n2\n0\n[55]\n\n\n41\nSharma, RahulRahul Sharma\n20121\n2012\n2\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000300000000000000♠3\n0271 !2/29\n7001186600000000000♠18.66\n7000763000000000000♠7.63\n0\n0\n[56]\n\n\n42\nYadav, UmeshUmesh 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Shami\n20141\n2017\n7\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000800000000000000♠8\n0362 !3/38\n7001312500000000000♠31.25\n7001105600000000000♠10.56\n0\n0\n[61]\n\n\n47\nSharma, MohitMohit Sharma\n20142\n2015\n8\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7000300000000000000♠3\n0030 !3*\n&\n—\n\n7001428500000000000♠42.85\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000600000000000000♠6\n0272 !2/28\n7001308300000000000♠30.83\n7000803999999999999♠8.04\n1\n0\n[62]\n\n\n48\nRayudu, AmbatiAmbati Rayudu\n20143\n2016\n6\n7000500000000000000♠5\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7001420000000000000♠42\n0200 !20*\n7001105000000000000♠10.50\n7001840000000000000♠84.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n4\n0\n[63]\n\n\n49\nSharma, KarnKarn Sharma\n20144\n2014\n1\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0172 !1/28\n7001280000000000000♠28.00\n7000700000000000000♠7.00\n0\n0\n[64]\n\n\n50\nBinny, StuartStuart Binny\n20151\n2016\n3\n7000200000000000000♠2\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001350000000000000♠35\n0240 !24\n7001175000000000000♠17.50\n7002120680000000000♠120.68\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0186 !1/14\n7001540000000000000♠54.00\n7001108000000000000♠10.80\n0\n0\n[65]\n\n\n51\nJadhav, KedarKedar Jadhav\n20152\n2017\n9\n7000600000000000000♠6\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7002122000000000000♠122\n0580 !58\n7001203309999999999♠20.33\n7002123230000000000♠123.23\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n1\n0\n[66]\n\n\n52\nPandey, ManishManish Pandey\n20153\n2017\n12\n7000900000000000000♠9\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7002174000000000000♠174\n0511 !51*\n7001217500000000000♠21.75\n7002121670000000000♠121.67\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n1\n0\n[67]\n\n\n53\nPatel, AxarAxar Patel\n20154\n2017\n10\n7000600000000000000♠6\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7001670000000000000♠67\n0201 !20*\n7001167500000000000♠16.75\n7002126410000000000♠126.41\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000900000000000000♠9\n0382 !3/17\n7001276600000000000♠27.66\n7000655000000000000♠6.55\n4\n0\n[68]\n\n\n54\nSharma, SandeepSandeep Sharma\n20155\n2015\n2\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0012 !1*\n&\n—\n\n7002100000000000000♠100.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0161 !1/39\n7001730000000000000♠73.00\n7001104200000000000♠10.42\n0\n0\n[69]\n\n\n55\nSamson, SanjuSanju Samson\n20156\n2015\n1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001190000000000000♠19\n0190 !19\n7001190000000000000♠19.00\n7001791600000000000♠79.16\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n1\n0\n[70]\n\n\n56\nAravind, SreenathSreenath Aravind\n20157\n2015\n1\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0156 !1/44\n7001440000000000000♠44.00\n7001120000000000000♠12.00\n0\n0\n[71]\n\n\n57\nBumrah, JaspritJasprit Bumrah\n20160\n2017\n30\n7000600000000000000♠6\n7000400000000000000♠4\n7000800000000000000♠8\n0070 !7\n7000400000000000000♠4.00\n7001615300000000000♠61.53\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001400000000000000♠40\n0389 !3/11\n7001184009999900000♠18.40\n7000674000000000000♠6.74\n4\n0\n[72]\n\n\n58\nPandya, HardikHardik Pandya\n20161\n2017\n24\n7001140000000000000♠14\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7002140000000000000♠140\n0310 !31\n7001107600000000000♠10.76\n7002125000000000000♠125.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001170000000000000♠17\n0392 !3/8\n7001277000000000000♠27.70\n7000819009999900000♠8.19\n13\n0\n[73]\n\n\n59\nNegi, PawanPawan Negi\n20162\n2016\n1\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0184 !1/16\n7001160000000000000♠16.00\n7000533000000000000♠5.33\n2\n0\n[74]\n\n\n60\nChahal, YuzvendraYuzvendra Chahal\n20163\n2017\n12\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000300000000000000♠3\n0030 !3*\n&\n—\n\n7002150000000000000♠150.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001180000000000000♠18\n0675 !6/25\n7001188309999999999♠18.83\n7000745000000000000♠7.45\n2\n0\n[75]\n\n\n61\nDhawan, RishiRishi Dhawan\n20164\n2016\n1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0010 !1*\n&\n—\n\n7001500000000000000♠50.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0158 !1/42\n7001420000000000000♠42.00\n7001105000000000000♠10.50\n2\n0\n[76]\n\n\n62\nSingh, MandeepMandeep Singh\n20165\n2016\n3\n7000300000000000000♠3\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7001870000000000000♠87\n0520 !52*\n7001435000000000000♠43.50\n7002119170000000000♠119.17\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n1\n0\n[77]\n\n\n63\nRahul, K. L.K. L. Rahul\n20166\n2017\n9\n7000800000000000000♠8\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7002304000000000000♠304\n1100 !110*\n7001506700000000000♠50.67\n7002149020000000000♠149.02\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n1\n0\n[78]\n\n\n64\nUnadkat, JaydevJaydev Unadkat\n20167\n2017\n4\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000400000000000000♠4\n0285 !2/15\n7001217500000000000♠21.75\n7000669000000000000♠6.69\n0\n0\n[79]\n\n\n65\nKulkarni, DhawalDhawal Kulkarni\n20168\n2016\n2\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0011 !1*\n&\n—\n\n7002100000000000000♠100.00\n0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000300000000000000♠3\n0277 !2/23\n7001183309999999999♠18.33\n7000687000000000000♠6.87\n0\n0\n[80]\n\n\n66\nSran, BarinderBarinder Sran\n20169\n2016\n2\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000600000000000000♠6\n0490 !4/10\n7000683000000000000♠6.83\n7000512000000000000♠5.12\n0\n0\n[81]\n\n\n67\nRasool, ParvezParvez Rasool\n20171\n2017\n1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000500000000000000♠5\n0049 !5\n7000500000000000000♠5.00\n7001833300000000000♠83.33\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0165 !1/32\n7001320000000000000♠32.00\n7000800000000000000♠8.00\n0\n0\n[82]\n\n\n68\nPant, RishabhRishabh Pant\n20172\n2017\n2\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7001430000000000000♠43\n0380 !38\n7001430000000000000♠43.00\n7002113150000000000♠113.15\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n1\n0\n[83]\n\n\n69\nYadav, KuldeepKuldeep Yadav\n20172\n2017\n5\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001160000000000000♠16\n0160 !16\n7001160000000000000♠16.00\n7001842109999999999♠84.21\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000600000000000000♠6\n0348 !3/52\n7001210000000000000♠21.00\n7000741000000000000♠7.41\n0\n0\n[84]\n\n\n70\nIyer, ShreyasShreyas Iyer\n20172\n2017\n6\n7000500000000000000♠5\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001830000000000000♠83\n0300 !30\n7001166000000000000♠16.60\n7002103750000000000♠103.75\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n1\n0\n[85]\n\n\n71\nSiraj, MohammedMohammed Siraj\n20172\n2017\n2\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000200000000000000♠2\n0155 !1/45\n7001490000000000000♠49.00\n7001122500000000000♠12.25\n1\n0\n[86]\n\n\n72\nSundar, WashingtonWashington Sundar\n20172\n2017\n1\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0178 !1/22\n7001220000000000000♠22.00\n7000550000000000000♠5.50\n1\n0\n[87]\n\n\n73\nThakur, ShardulShardul Thakur\n20182\n2018\n8\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n\n!\n\n\n0\n0\n\n\n\n74\nShankar, VijayVijay Shankar\n20182\n2018\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n\n!\n\n\n0\n0\n[88]", "Cap\nName\nFirst\nLast\nMat\nBatting\nBowling\nFielding\nRef.", "Inn\nNO\nRuns\nHS\nAvg\nS/R\n50s\n100s\nWkt\nBBI\nAve\nEcon\nCa\nSt", "1\nAgarkar, AjitAjit Agarkar \n20061\n2007\n4\n7000200000000000000♠2\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001150000000000000♠15\n0140 !14\n7000750000000000000♠7.50\n7002136360000000000♠136.36\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000300000000000000♠3\n0290 !2/10\n7001283300000000000♠28.33\n7000809000000000000♠8.09\n0\n0\n[16]", "2\nDhoni, Mahendra SinghMahendra Singh Dhoni \n20062\n2017\n83\n7001720000000000000♠72\n7001360000000000000♠36\n7003128100000000000♠1,281\n0560 !56\n7001355800000000000♠35.58\n7002123410000000000♠123.41\n7000200000000000000♠2\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n45\n25\n[17]", "3\nSingh, HarbhajanHarbhajan Singh\n20063\n2016\n28\n7001130000000000000♠13\n7000500000000000000♠5\n7002108000000000000♠108\n0210 !21\n7001135000000000000♠13.50\n7002124130000000000♠124.13\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001250000000000000♠25\n0488 !4/12\n7001253200000000000♠25.32\n7000620000000000000♠6.20\n7\n0\n[18]", "4\nKarthik, DineshDinesh Karthik [notes 1]\n20064\n2017\n10\n7000900000000000000♠9\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7002148000000000000♠148\n0480 !48\n7001211400000000000♠21.14\n7002126490000000000♠126.49\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n5\n2\n[19]", "5\nKhan, ZaheerZaheer Khan \n20065\n2012\n17\n7000400000000000000♠4\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7001130000000000000♠13\n0090 !9\n7000650000000000000♠6.50\n7002130000000000000♠130.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001170000000000000♠17\n0481 !4/19\n7001263500000000000♠26.35\n7000763000000000000♠7.63\n2\n0\n[20]", "6\nMongia, DineshDinesh Mongia \n20066\n2006\n1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001380000000000000♠38\n0380 !38\n7001380000000000000♠38.00\n7001844400000000000♠84.44\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n1\n0\n[21]", "7\nPathan, IrfanIrfan Pathan\n20067\n2009\n24\n7001140000000000000♠14\n7000700000000000000♠7\n7002172000000000000♠172\n0330 !33*\n7001245700000000000♠24.57\n7002119440000000000♠119.44\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001280000000000000♠28\n0384 !3/16\n7001220700000000000♠22.07\n7000802000000000000♠8.02\n2\n0\n[22]", "8\nRaina, SureshSuresh Raina \n20068\n2017\n65\n7001550000000000000♠55\n7001110000000000000♠11\n7003130900000000000♠1,309\n1010 !101\n7001297000000000000♠29.70\n7002132960000000000♠132.96\n7000400000000000000♠4\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7001120000000000000♠12\n0294 !2/6\n7001329109999999999♠32.91\n7000757000000000000♠7.57\n32\n0\n[23]", "9\nSehwag, VirenderVirender Sehwag \n20069\n2013\n19\n7001180000000000000♠18\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7002394000000000000♠394\n0680 !68\n7001218800000000000♠21.88\n7002145380000000000♠145.38\n7000200000000000000♠2\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7001200000000000000♠20.00\n2\n0\n[24]", "10\nSreesanth, S.S. Sreesanth \n20069.1\n2008\n10\n7000300000000000000♠3\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7001200000000000000♠20\n0192 !19*\n7001200000000000000♠20.00\n7002142850000000000♠142.85\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000700000000000000♠7\n0288 !2/12\n7001411400000000000♠41.14\n7000847000000000000♠8.47\n2\n0\n[25]", "11\nTendulkar, SachinSachin Tendulkar \n20069.2\n2006\n1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001100000000000000♠10\n0101 !10\n7001100000000000000♠10.00\n7001833300000000000♠83.33\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0188 !1/12\n7001120000000000000♠12.00\n7000480000000000000♠4.80\n1\n0\n[26]", "12\nGambhir, GautamGautam Gambhir\n20071\n2012\n37\n7001360000000000000♠36\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7002932000000000000♠932\n0750 !75\n7001274100000000000♠27.41\n7002119020000000000♠119.02\n7000700000000000000♠7\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n11\n0\n[27]", "13\nSingh, R. P.R. P. Singh\n20072\n2009\n10\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7000300000000000000♠3\n0021 !2*\n&\n—\n\n7002100000000000000♠100.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001150000000000000♠15\n0487 !4/13\n7001150000000000000♠15.00\n7000681000000000000♠6.81\n2\n0\n[28]", "14\nUthappa, RobinRobin Uthappa \n20073\n2015\n13\n7001120000000000000♠12\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7002249000000000000♠249\n0500 !50\n7001249000000000000♠24.90\n7002118000000000000♠118.00\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n2\n0\n[29]", "15\nSingh, YuvrajYuvraj Singh\n20074\n2017\n58\n7001510000000000000♠51\n7000900000000000000♠9\n7003117700000000000♠1,177\n0770 !77*\n7001280200000000000♠28.02\n7002136380000000000♠136.38\n7000800000000000000♠8\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001280000000000000♠28\n0383 !3/17\n7001178200000000000♠17.82\n7000706000000000000♠7.06\n12\n0\n[30]", "16\nSharma, JoginderJoginder Sharma\n20075\n2007\n4\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000400000000000000♠4\n0280 !2/20\n7001345000000000000♠34.50\n7000951000000000000♠9.51\n2\n0\n[31]", "17\nSharma, RohitRohit Sharma\n20076\n2017\n68\n7001610000000000000♠61\n7001120000000000000♠12\n7003148500000000000♠1,485\n1060 !106\n7001303000000000000♠30.30\n7002129919999999999♠129.92\n7001120000000000000♠12\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0177 !1/22\n7002113000000000000♠113.00\n7000997000000000000♠9.97\n25\n0\n[32]", "18\nPathan, YusufYusuf Pathan\n20077\n2011\n22\n7001180000000000000♠18\n7000500000000000000♠5\n7002236000000000000♠236\n0370 !37*\n7001181509999900000♠18.15\n7002146580000000000♠146.58\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001130000000000000♠13\n0278 !2/22\n7001336900000000000♠33.69\n7000861000000000000♠8.61\n9\n0\n[33]", "19\nKartik, MuraliMurali Kartik \n20078\n2007\n1\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000675000000000000♠6.75\n0\n0\n[34]", "20\nKumar, PraveenPraveen Kumar\n20081\n2012\n10\n7000300000000000000♠3\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000700000000000000♠7\n0060 !6\n7000233000000000000♠2.33\n7001437500000000000♠43.75\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000800000000000000♠8\n0286 !2/14\n7001241200000000000♠24.12\n7000742000000000000♠7.42\n1\n0\n[35]", "21\nSharma, IshantIshant Sharma\n20082\n2013\n14\n7000300000000000000♠3\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7000800000000000000♠8\n0050 !5*\n7000800000000000000♠8.00\n7001888800000000000♠88.88\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000800000000000000♠8\n0266 !2/34\n7001500000000000000♠50.00\n7000863000000000000♠8.63\n4\n0\n[36]", "22\nJadeja, RavindraRavindra Jadeja\n20091\n2017\n40\n7001180000000000000♠18\n7000600000000000000♠6\n7002116000000000000♠116\n0250 !25\n7000966000000000000♠9.66\n7001935400000000000♠93.54\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001310000000000000♠31\n0352 !3/48\n7001317000000000000♠31.70\n7000727000000000000♠7.27\n18\n0\n[37]", "23\nOjha, PragyanPragyan Ojha\n20092\n2010\n6\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7001100000000000000♠10\n0102 !10*\n&\n—\n\n7002166660000000000♠166.66\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001100000000000000♠10\n0479 !4/21\n7001132000000000000♠13.20\n7000628000000000000♠6.28\n1\n0\n[38]", "24\nDinda, AshokAshok Dinda\n20093\n2010\n9\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7001220000000000000♠22\n0191 !19*\n7001220000000000000♠22.00\n7001916600000000000♠91.66\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001170000000000000♠17\n0482 !4/19\n7001144100000000000♠14.41\n7000816000000000000♠8.16\n1\n0\n[39]", "25\nNehra, AshishAshish Nehra \n20094\n2017\n27\n7000500000000000000♠5\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001280000000000000♠28\n0220 !22\n7000560000000099999♠5.60\n7001717900000000000♠71.79\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001340000000000000♠34\n0380 !3/19\n7001222900000000000♠22.29\n7000773000000000000♠7.73\n4\n0\n[40]", "26\nTyagi, SudeepSudeep Tyagi\n20095\n2009\n1\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7001105000000000000♠10.50\n1\n0\n[41]", "27\nVijay, MuraliMurali Vijay\n20101\n2015\n9\n7000900000000000000♠9\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7002169000000000000♠169\n0480 !48\n7001187700000000000♠18.77\n7002109740000000000♠109.74\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000450000000000000♠4.50\n3\n0\n[42]", "28\nChawla, PiyushPiyush Chawla\n20102\n2012\n7\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n0001 !0\n5000000000000000000♠0.00\n5000000000000000000♠0.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000400000000000000♠4\n0287 !2/13\n7001377500000000000♠37.75\n7000656000000000000♠6.56\n2\n0\n[43]", "29\nKumar, VinayVinay Kumar\n20103\n2012\n9\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000200000000000000♠2\n0020 !2*\n&\n—\n\n7001500000000000000♠50.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001100000000000000♠10\n0375 !3/24\n7001247000000000000♠24.70\n7000784000000000000♠7.84\n1\n0\n[44]", "30\nAshwin, RavichandranRavichandran Ashwin\n20104\n2017\n46\n7001110000000000000♠11\n7000700000000000000♠7\n7002123000000000000♠123\n0312 !31*\n7001307500000000000♠30.75\n7002106950000000000♠106.95\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001520000000000000♠52\n0492 !4/8\n7001229400000000000♠22.94\n7000697000000000000♠6.97\n8\n0\n[45]", "31\nKohli, ViratVirat Kohli \n20105\n2017\n55\n7001510000000000000♠51\n7001140000000000000♠14\n7003195600000000000♠1,956\n0900 !90*\n7001528600000000000♠52.86\n7002137840000000000♠137.84\n7001180000000000000♠18\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000400000000000000♠4\n0187 !1/13\n7001495000000000000♠49.50\n7000813000000000000♠8.13\n27\n0\n[46]", "32\nOjha, NamanNaman Ojha \n20106\n2010\n2\n7000200000000000000♠2\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001120000000000000♠12\n0100 !10\n7000600000000000000♠6.00\n7001444400000000000♠44.44\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n0\n0\n[47]", "33\nMishra, AmitAmit Mishra\n20107\n2017\n10\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7001160000000000000♠16\n0376 !3/24\n7001150000000000000♠15.00\n7000630990000000000♠6.31\n1\n0\n[48]", "34\nPatel, MunafMunaf Patel\n20111\n2011\n3\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n0000 !0\n5000000000000000000♠0.00\n5000000000000000000♠0.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000400000000000000♠4\n0275 !2/25\n7001215000000000000♠21.50\n7000860000000000000♠8.60\n0\n0\n[49]", "35\nBadrinath, SubramaniamSubramaniam Badrinath\n20112\n2011\n1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001430000000000000♠43\n0430 !43\n7001430000000000000♠43.00\n7002116210000000000♠116.21\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n0\n0\n[50]", "36\nDhawan, ShikharShikhar Dhawan\n20113\n2017\n28\n7001280000000000000♠28\n7000300000000000000♠3\n7002543000000000000♠543\n0600 !60\n7001217200000000000♠21.72\n7002118300000000000♠118.30\n7000300000000000000♠3\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7\n0\n[51]", "37\nPatel, ParthivParthiv Patel \n20114\n2011\n2\n7000200000000000000♠2\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001360000000000000♠36\n0260 !26\n7001180000000000000♠18.00\n7002112500000000000♠112.50\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n1\n0\n[52]", "38\nDravid, RahulRahul Dravid \n20115\n2011\n1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001310000000000000♠31\n0311 !31\n7001310000000000000♠31.00\n7002147610000000000♠147.61\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n0\n0\n[53]", "39\nRahane, AjinkyaAjinkya Rahane \n20116\n2016\n20\n7001200000000000000♠20\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7002375000000000000♠375\n0610 !61\n7001208309999999999♠20.83\n7002113290000000000♠113.29\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n16\n0\n[54]", "40\nTiwary, ManojManoj Tiwary\n20117\n2015\n3\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001150000000000000♠15\n0150 !15\n7001150000000000000♠15.00\n7001882300000000000♠88.23\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n2\n0\n[55]", "41\nSharma, RahulRahul Sharma\n20121\n2012\n2\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000300000000000000♠3\n0271 !2/29\n7001186600000000000♠18.66\n7000763000000000000♠7.63\n0\n0\n[56]", "42\nYadav, UmeshUmesh Yadav\n20122\n2012\n1\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0176 !1/24\n7001240000000000000♠24.00\n7000800000000000000♠8.00\n0\n0\n[57]", "43\nBalaji, LakshmipathyLakshmipathy Balaji \n20123\n2012\n5\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7001100000000000000♠10\n0381 !3/19\n7001121000000000000♠12.10\n7000756000000000000♠7.56\n0\n0\n[58]", "44\nAwana, ParvinderParvinder Awana\n20124\n2012\n2\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7001118300000000000♠11.83\n0\n0\n[59]", "45\nKumar, BhuvneshwarBhuvneshwar Kumar\n20125\n2018\n24\n7000600000000000000♠6\n7000300000000000000♠3\n7001180000000000000♠18\n0090 !9\n7000600000000000000♠6.00\n7001750000000000000♠75.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001260000000000000♠26\n0576 !5/24\n7001221100000000000♠22.11\n7000679000000000000♠6.79\n3\n0\n[60]", "46\nShami, MohammedMohammed Shami\n20141\n2017\n7\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000800000000000000♠8\n0362 !3/38\n7001312500000000000♠31.25\n7001105600000000000♠10.56\n0\n0\n[61]", "47\nSharma, MohitMohit Sharma\n20142\n2015\n8\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7000300000000000000♠3\n0030 !3*\n&\n—\n\n7001428500000000000♠42.85\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000600000000000000♠6\n0272 !2/28\n7001308300000000000♠30.83\n7000803999999999999♠8.04\n1\n0\n[62]", "48\nRayudu, AmbatiAmbati Rayudu\n20143\n2016\n6\n7000500000000000000♠5\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7001420000000000000♠42\n0200 !20*\n7001105000000000000♠10.50\n7001840000000000000♠84.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n4\n0\n[63]", "49\nSharma, KarnKarn Sharma\n20144\n2014\n1\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0172 !1/28\n7001280000000000000♠28.00\n7000700000000000000♠7.00\n0\n0\n[64]", "50\nBinny, StuartStuart Binny\n20151\n2016\n3\n7000200000000000000♠2\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001350000000000000♠35\n0240 !24\n7001175000000000000♠17.50\n7002120680000000000♠120.68\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0186 !1/14\n7001540000000000000♠54.00\n7001108000000000000♠10.80\n0\n0\n[65]", "51\nJadhav, KedarKedar Jadhav\n20152\n2017\n9\n7000600000000000000♠6\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7002122000000000000♠122\n0580 !58\n7001203309999999999♠20.33\n7002123230000000000♠123.23\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n1\n0\n[66]", "52\nPandey, ManishManish Pandey\n20153\n2017\n12\n7000900000000000000♠9\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7002174000000000000♠174\n0511 !51*\n7001217500000000000♠21.75\n7002121670000000000♠121.67\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n1\n0\n[67]", "53\nPatel, AxarAxar Patel\n20154\n2017\n10\n7000600000000000000♠6\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7001670000000000000♠67\n0201 !20*\n7001167500000000000♠16.75\n7002126410000000000♠126.41\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000900000000000000♠9\n0382 !3/17\n7001276600000000000♠27.66\n7000655000000000000♠6.55\n4\n0\n[68]", "54\nSharma, SandeepSandeep Sharma\n20155\n2015\n2\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0012 !1*\n&\n—\n\n7002100000000000000♠100.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0161 !1/39\n7001730000000000000♠73.00\n7001104200000000000♠10.42\n0\n0\n[69]", "55\nSamson, SanjuSanju Samson\n20156\n2015\n1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001190000000000000♠19\n0190 !19\n7001190000000000000♠19.00\n7001791600000000000♠79.16\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n1\n0\n[70]", "56\nAravind, SreenathSreenath Aravind\n20157\n2015\n1\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0156 !1/44\n7001440000000000000♠44.00\n7001120000000000000♠12.00\n0\n0\n[71]", "57\nBumrah, JaspritJasprit Bumrah\n20160\n2017\n30\n7000600000000000000♠6\n7000400000000000000♠4\n7000800000000000000♠8\n0070 !7\n7000400000000000000♠4.00\n7001615300000000000♠61.53\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001400000000000000♠40\n0389 !3/11\n7001184009999900000♠18.40\n7000674000000000000♠6.74\n4\n0\n[72]", "58\nPandya, HardikHardik Pandya\n20161\n2017\n24\n7001140000000000000♠14\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7002140000000000000♠140\n0310 !31\n7001107600000000000♠10.76\n7002125000000000000♠125.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001170000000000000♠17\n0392 !3/8\n7001277000000000000♠27.70\n7000819009999900000♠8.19\n13\n0\n[73]", "59\nNegi, PawanPawan Negi\n20162\n2016\n1\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0184 !1/16\n7001160000000000000♠16.00\n7000533000000000000♠5.33\n2\n0\n[74]", "60\nChahal, YuzvendraYuzvendra Chahal\n20163\n2017\n12\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000300000000000000♠3\n0030 !3*\n&\n—\n\n7002150000000000000♠150.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001180000000000000♠18\n0675 !6/25\n7001188309999999999♠18.83\n7000745000000000000♠7.45\n2\n0\n[75]", "61\nDhawan, RishiRishi Dhawan\n20164\n2016\n1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0010 !1*\n&\n—\n\n7001500000000000000♠50.00\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0158 !1/42\n7001420000000000000♠42.00\n7001105000000000000♠10.50\n2\n0\n[76]", "62\nSingh, MandeepMandeep Singh\n20165\n2016\n3\n7000300000000000000♠3\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7001870000000000000♠87\n0520 !52*\n7001435000000000000♠43.50\n7002119170000000000♠119.17\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n1\n0\n[77]", "63\nRahul, K. L.K. L. Rahul\n20166\n2017\n9\n7000800000000000000♠8\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7002304000000000000♠304\n1100 !110*\n7001506700000000000♠50.67\n7002149020000000000♠149.02\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n1\n0\n[78]", "64\nUnadkat, JaydevJaydev Unadkat\n20167\n2017\n4\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000400000000000000♠4\n0285 !2/15\n7001217500000000000♠21.75\n7000669000000000000♠6.69\n0\n0\n[79]", "65\nKulkarni, DhawalDhawal Kulkarni\n20168\n2016\n2\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0011 !1*\n&\n—\n\n7002100000000000000♠100.00\n0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000300000000000000♠3\n0277 !2/23\n7001183309999999999♠18.33\n7000687000000000000♠6.87\n0\n0\n[80]", "66\nSran, BarinderBarinder Sran\n20169\n2016\n2\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000600000000000000♠6\n0490 !4/10\n7000683000000000000♠6.83\n7000512000000000000♠5.12\n0\n0\n[81]", "67\nRasool, ParvezParvez Rasool\n20171\n2017\n1\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000500000000000000♠5\n0049 !5\n7000500000000000000♠5.00\n7001833300000000000♠83.33\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0165 !1/32\n7001320000000000000♠32.00\n7000800000000000000♠8.00\n0\n0\n[82]", "68\nPant, RishabhRishabh Pant\n20172\n2017\n2\n7000200000000000000♠2\n7000100000000000000♠1\n7001430000000000000♠43\n0380 !38\n7001430000000000000♠43.00\n7002113150000000000♠113.15\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n1\n0\n[83]", "69\nYadav, KuldeepKuldeep Yadav\n20172\n2017\n5\n7000100000000000000♠1\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001160000000000000♠16\n0160 !16\n7001160000000000000♠16.00\n7001842109999999999♠84.21\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7000600000000000000♠6\n0348 !3/52\n7001210000000000000♠21.00\n7000741000000000000♠7.41\n0\n0\n[84]", "70\nIyer, ShreyasShreyas Iyer\n20172\n2017\n6\n7000500000000000000♠5\n5000000000000000000♠0\n7001830000000000000♠83\n0300 !30\n7001166000000000000♠16.60\n7002103750000000000♠103.75\n5000000000000000000♠0\n5000000000000000000♠0\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n1\n0\n[85]", "71\nSiraj, MohammedMohammed Siraj\n20172\n2017\n2\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000200000000000000♠2\n0155 !1/45\n7001490000000000000♠49.00\n7001122500000000000♠12.25\n1\n0\n[86]", "72\nSundar, WashingtonWashington Sundar\n20172\n2017\n1\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n7000100000000000000♠1\n0178 !1/22\n7001220000000000000♠22.00\n7000550000000000000♠5.50\n1\n0\n[87]", "73\nThakur, ShardulShardul Thakur\n20182\n2018\n8\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n\n!\n\n\n0\n0", "74\nShankar, VijayVijay Shankar\n20182\n2018\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n&\n—\n\n\n!\n\n\n0\n0\n[88]", "India T20I captains[3]\n\nNo.\nName\nFirst\nLast\nMat\nWon\nLost\nTied[b]\nNR\nWin%[d][89]\n\n\n01\nSehwag, VirenderVirender Sehwag\n2006\n2006\n1\n1\n0\n0\n0\n100.00%\n\n\n02\nDhoni, Mahendra SinghMahendra Singh Dhoni\n2007\n2016\n072\n41\n28\n1\n2\n59.28%\n\n\n03\nRaina, SureshSuresh Raina\n2010\n2011\n03\n3\n0\n0\n0\n100.00%\n\n\n04\nRahane, AjinkyaAjinkya Rahane\n2015\n2015\n02\n1\n1\n0\n0\n50.00%\n\n\n05\nKohli, ViratVirat Kohli\n2017\n2018\n012\n7\n5\n0\n0\n68.33%\n\n\n06\nSharma, RohitRohit Sharma\n2017\n2018\n07\n6\n1\n0\n0\n85.71%\n\n\n      Total\n95\n57\n34\n1\n2\n62.50%", "No.\nName\nFirst\nLast\nMat\nWon\nLost\nTied[b]\nNR\nWin%[d][89]", "01\nSehwag, VirenderVirender Sehwag\n2006\n2006\n1\n1\n0\n0\n0\n100.00%", "02\nDhoni, Mahendra SinghMahendra Singh Dhoni\n2007\n2016\n072\n41\n28\n1\n2\n59.28%", "03\nRaina, SureshSuresh Raina\n2010\n2011\n03\n3\n0\n0\n0\n100.00%", "04\nRahane, AjinkyaAjinkya Rahane\n2015\n2015\n02\n1\n1\n0\n0\n50.00%", "05\nKohli, ViratVirat Kohli\n2017\n2018\n012\n7\n5\n0\n0\n68.33%", "06\nSharma, RohitRohit Sharma\n2017\n2018\n07\n6\n1\n0\n0\n85.71%", "Total\n95\n57\n34\n1\n2\n62.50%" ]
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what does the red stripes mean on the american flag
Flag of the United States
[ "United States of America\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nNames\nThe American flag, The Stars and Stripes; Red, White and Blue; Old Glory; The Star-Spangled Banner\n\n\nUse\nNational flag and ensign\n\n\nProportion\n10:19\n\n\nAdopted\nJune 14, 1777 (original 13-star version)\nJuly 4, 1960 (current 50-star version)\n\n\nDesign\nThirteen horizontal stripes alternating red and white; in the canton, 50 white stars of alternating numbers of six and five per horizontal row on a blue field", "Names\nThe American flag, The Stars and Stripes; Red, White and Blue; Old Glory; The Star-Spangled Banner", "Use\nNational flag and ensign", "Proportion\n10:19", "Adopted\nJune 14, 1777 (original 13-star version)\nJuly 4, 1960 (current 50-star version)", "Design\nThirteen horizontal stripes alternating red and white; in the canton, 50 white stars of alternating numbers of six and five per horizontal row on a blue field", "The flag of the United States of America, often referred to as the American flag, is the national flag of the United States. It consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white, with a blue rectangle in the canton (referred to specifically as the \"union\") bearing fifty small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows, where rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternate with rows of five stars. The 50 stars on the flag represent the 50 states of the United States of America, and the 13 stripes represent the thirteen British colonies that declared independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain, and became the first states in the U.S.[1] Nicknames for the flag include The Stars and Stripes,[2] Old Glory,[3] and The Star-Spangled Banner.", "The current design of the U.S. flag is its 27th; the design of the flag has been modified officially 26 times since 1777. The 48-star flag was in effect for 47 years until the 49-star version became official on July 4, 1959. The 50-star flag was ordered by the then president Eisenhower on August 21, 1959, and was adopted in July 1960. It is the longest-used version of the U.S. flag and has been in use for over 57 years.[4]", "The Continental Colors\n(aka the \"Grand Union Flag\")\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nFlag of the British East India Company, 1707–1801", "The Continental Colors\n(aka the \"Grand Union Flag\")", "The Continental Colors\n(aka the \"Grand Union Flag\")", "Flag of the British East India Company, 1707–1801", "Flag of the British East India Company, 1707–1801", "At the time of the Declaration of Independence in July 1776, the Continental Congress would not legally adopt flags with \"stars, white in a blue field\" for another year. The flag contemporaneously known as \"the Continental Colors\" has historically been referred to as the first national flag.[5]", "The Continental Navy raised the Colors as the ensign of the fledgling nation in the American War for Independence—likely with the expedient of transforming their previous British red ensigns by adding white stripes—and would use this flag until 1777, when it would form the basis for the subsequent de jure designs.[5][6]", "The name \"Grand Union\" was first applied to the Continental Colors by George Preble in his 1872 history of the American flag.[6]", "The flag closely resembles the British East India Company flag of the era, and Sir Charles Fawcett argued in 1937 that the company flag inspired the design.[7] Both flags could have been easily constructed by adding white stripes to a British Red Ensign, one of the three maritime flags used throughout the British Empire at the time. However, an East India Company flag could have from nine to 13 stripes, and was not allowed to be flown outside the Indian Ocean.[8]", "In any case, both the stripes (barry) and the stars (mullets) have precedents in classical heraldry. Mullets were comparatively rare in early modern heraldry, but an example of mullets representing territorial divisions predating the U.S. flag are those in the coat of arms of Valais of 1618, where seven mullets stood for seven districts.", "On June 14, 1777, the Second Continental Congress passed the Flag Resolution which stated: \"Resolved, That the flag of the thirteen United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new constellation.\"[9] Flag Day is now observed on June 14 of each year. While scholars still argue about this, tradition holds that the new flag was first hoisted in June 1777 by the Continental Army at the Middlebrook encampment.[10]", "The first official U.S. flag flown during battle was on August 3, 1777, at Fort Schuyler (Fort Stanwix) during the Siege of Fort Stanwix. Massachusetts reinforcements brought news of the adoption by Congress of the official flag to Fort Schuyler. Soldiers cut up their shirts to make the white stripes; scarlet material to form the red was secured from red flannel petticoats of officers' wives, while material for the blue union was secured from Capt. Abraham Swartwout's blue cloth coat. A voucher is extant that Capt. Swartwout of Dutchess County was paid by Congress for his coat for the flag.[11]", "The 1777 resolution was most probably meant to define a naval ensign. In the late 18th century, the notion of a national flag did not yet exist, or was only nascent. The flag resolution appears between other resolutions from the Marine Committee. On May 10, 1779, Secretary of the Board of War Richard Peters expressed concern \"it is not yet settled what is the Standard of the United States.\"[12] However, the term, \"Standard,\" referred to a national standard for the Army of the United States. Each regiment was to carry the national standard in addition to its regimental standard. The national standard was not a reference to the national or naval flag.[13]", "The Flag Resolution did not specify any particular arrangement, number of points, nor orientation for the stars and the arrangement or whether the flag had to have seven red stripes and six white ones or vice versa.[14] The appearance was up to the maker of the flag. Some flag makers arranged the stars into one big star, in a circle or in rows and some replaced a state's star with its initial.[15] One arrangement features 13 five-pointed stars arranged in a circle, with the stars arranged pointing outwards from the circle (as opposed to up), the so-called Betsy Ross flag. This flag, however, is more likely a flag used for celebrations of anniversaries of the nation's birthday. Experts have dated the earliest known example of this flag to be 1792 in a painting by John Trumbull.[16]", "Despite the 1777 resolution, the early years of American independence featured many different flags. Most were individually crafted rather than mass-produced. While there are many examples of 13-star arrangements, some of those flags included blue stripes as well as red and white. Benjamin Franklin and John Adams, in a letter dated October 3, 1778, to Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, described the American flag as consisting of \"13 stripes, alternately red, white, and blue, a small square in the upper angle, next the flag staff, is a blue field, with 13 white stars, denoting a new Constellation.\"[17] John Paul Jones used a variety of 13-star flags on his U.S. Navy ships including the well-documented 1779 flags of the Serapis and the Alliance. The Serapis flag had three rows of eight-pointed stars with stripes that were red, white, and blue. The flag for the Alliance, however, had five rows of eight-pointed stars with 13 red and white stripes, and the white stripes were on the outer edges.[18] Both flags were documented by the Dutch government in October 1779, making them two of the earliest known flags of 13 stars.[19]", "Francis Hopkinson of New Jersey, a naval flag designer, and a signer of the Declaration of Independence, designed the 1777 flag[20] while he was the Chairman of the Continental Navy Board's Middle Department, sometime between his appointment to that position in November 1776 and the time that the flag resolution was adopted in June 1777. The Navy Board was under the Continental Marine Committee.[21] Not only did Hopkinson claim that he designed the U.S. flag, but he also claimed that he designed a flag for the U.S. Navy. Hopkinson was the only person to have made such a claim during his own lifetime, when he sent a letter and several bills to Congress for his work. These claims are documented in the Journals of the Continental Congress and George Hasting's biography of Hopkinson. Hopkinson initially wrote a letter to Congress, via the Continental Board of Admiralty, on May 25, 1780.[22] In this letter, he asked for a \"Quarter Cask of the Public Wine\" as payment for designing the U.S. flag, the seal for the Admiralty Board, the seal for the Treasury Board, Continental currency, the Great Seal of the United States, and other devices. However, in three subsequent bills to Congress, Hopkinson asked to be paid in cash, but he did not list his U.S. flag design. Instead, he asked to be paid for designing the \"great Naval Flag of the United States\" in the first bill; the \"Naval Flag of the United States\" in the second bill; and \"the Naval Flag of the States\" in the third, along with the other items. The flag references were generic terms for the naval ensign that Hopkinson had designed, that is, a flag of seven red stripes and six white ones. The predominance of red stripes made the naval flag more visible against the sky on a ship at sea. By contrast, Hopkinson's flag for the United States had seven white stripes, and six red ones – in reality, six red stripes laid on a white background.[23] Hopkinson's sketches have not been found, but we can make these conclusions because Hopkinson incorporated different stripe arrangements in the Admiralty (naval) Seal that he designed in the Spring of 1780 and the Great Seal of the United States that he proposed at the same time. His Admiralty Seal had seven red stripes;[24] whereas, his second U.S. Seal proposal had seven white ones.[25] Hopkinson's flag for the Navy is the one that the Nation preferred as the national flag. Remnants of Hopkinson's U.S. flag of seven white stripes can be found in the Great Seal of the United States and the President's seal.[23] When Hopkinson was chairman of the Navy Board, his position was like that of today's Secretary of the Navy.[26] The payment was not made, however, because it was determined he had already received a salary as a member of Congress.[27][28] This contradicts the legend of the Betsy Ross flag, which suggests that she sewed the first Stars and Stripes flag by request of the government in the Spring of 1776.[29][30] Furthermore, a letter from the War Board to George Washington on May 10, 1779, documents that there was still no design established for a national flag for the Army's use in battle.[31]", "The origin of the stars and stripes design has been muddled by a story disseminated by the descendants of Betsy Ross. The apocryphal story credits Betsy Ross for sewing the first flag from a pencil sketch handed to her by George Washington. No evidence for this exists either in the diaries of George Washington nor in the records of the Continental Congress. Indeed, nearly a century passed before Ross' grandson, William Canby, first publicly suggested the story in 1870.[32] By her family's own admission, Ross ran an upholstery business, and she had never made a flag as of the supposed visit in June 1776.[33] Furthermore, her grandson admitted that his own search through the Journals of Congress and other official records failed to find corroboration of his grandmother's story.[34]", "The family of Rebecca Young claimed that she sewed the first flag.[35] Young's daughter was Mary Pickersgill, who made the Star Spangled Banner Flag.[36][37] According to rumor, the Washington family coat of arms, shown in a 15th-century window of Selby Abbey, was the origin of the stars and stripes.[38]", "In 1795, the number of stars and stripes was increased from 13 to 15 (to reflect the entry of Vermont and Kentucky as states of the Union). For a time the flag was not changed when subsequent states were admitted, probably because it was thought that this would cause too much clutter. It was the 15-star, 15-stripe flag that inspired Francis Scott Key to write \"Defence of Fort M'Henry\", later known as \"The Star Spangled Banner\", which is now the American national anthem. The flag is currently on display in the exhibition, \"The Star-Spangled Banner: The Flag That Inspired the National Anthem\" at the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History in a two-story display chamber that protects the flag while it is on view.[39]", "On April 4, 1818, a plan was passed by Congress at the suggestion of U.S. Naval Captain Samuel C. Reid[40] in which the flag was changed to have 20 stars, with a new star to be added when each new state was admitted, but the number of stripes would be reduced to 13 so as to honor the original colonies. The act specified that new flag designs should become official on the first July 4 (Independence Day) following admission of one or more new states. The most recent change, from 49 stars to 50, occurred in 1960 when the present design was chosen, after Hawaii gained statehood in August 1959. Before that, the admission of Alaska in January 1959 prompted the debut of a short-lived 49-star flag.[41]", "Prior to the adoption of the 48-star flag in 1912, there was no official arrangement of the stars in the canton, although the U.S. Army and U.S. Navy used standardized designs. Throughout the 19th century there was an abundance of different star patterns, rectangular and circular.", "On July 4, 2007, the 50-star flag became the version of the flag in longest use, surpassing the 48-star flag that was used from 1912 to 1959.", "The U.S. flag was brought to the city of Canton (Guǎngzhōu) in China in 1784 by the merchant ship Empress of China, which carried a cargo of ginseng.[42] There it gained the designation \"Flower Flag\" (Chinese: 花旗; pinyin: huāqí; Cantonese Yale: fākeì).[43] According to a pseudonymous account first published in the Boston Courier and later retold by author and U.S. naval officer George H. Preble:", "When the thirteen stripes and stars first appeared at Canton, much curiosity was excited among the people. News was circulated that a strange ship had arrived from the further end of the world, bearing a flag \"as beautiful as a flower.\" Every body went to see the kwa kee chuen [花旗船; Fākeìsyùhn], or \"flower flagship.\" This name at once established itself in the language, and America is now called the kwa kee kwoh [花旗國; Fākeìgwok], the \"flower flag country\"—and an American, kwa kee kwoh yin [花旗國人; Fākeìgwokyàhn]—\"flower flag countryman\"—a more complimentary designation than that of \"red headed barbarian\"—the name first bestowed upon the Dutch.[44][45]", "In the above quote, the Chinese words are written phonetically based on spoken Cantonese. The names given were common usage in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.[46] Other Asian nations have equivalent terms for America, for example Vietnamese: Hoa Kỳ (\"Flower Flag\"). Chinese now refer to the United States as simplified Chinese: 美国; traditional Chinese: 美國; pinyin: Měiguó. Měi is short for Měilìjiān (simplified Chinese: 美利坚; traditional Chinese: 美利堅, phono-semantic matching of \"American\") and \"guó\" means \"country\", so this name is unrelated to the flag. However, the \"flower flag\" terminology persists in some places today: for example, American Ginseng is called simplified Chinese: 花旗参; traditional Chinese: 花旗參; literally: \"flower flag ginseng\" in Chinese, and Citibank, which opened a branch in China in 1902, is known as 花旗银行; \"Flower Flag Bank\".[46]", "The U.S. flag took its first trip around the world in 1787–90 on board the Columbia.[43] William Driver, who coined the phrase \"Old Glory\", took the U.S. flag around the world in 1831–32.[43] The flag attracted the notice of Japanese when an oversized version was carried to Yokohama by the steamer Great Republic as part of a round-the-world journey in 1871.[47]", "In the following table depicting the 28 various designs of the United States flag, the star patterns for the flags are merely the usual patterns, often associated with the United States Navy. Canton designs, prior to the proclamation of the 48-star flag, had no official arrangement of the stars. Furthermore, the exact colors of the flag were not standardized until 1934.[48]", "Number of\nstars\nNumber of\nstripes\nDesign(s)\nStates represented\nby new stars\nDates in use\nDuration\n\n\n0\n13\n\nUnion Jack instead of stars, red and white stripes represent Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia\n000000001775-12-03-0000December 3, 1775[49] – June 14, 1777\n018 ! 1 1⁄2 years\n\n\n13\n13\n\n\n\n\nConnecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia\n000000001777-06-14-0000June 14, 1777 – May 1, 1795\n215 !18 years\n\n\n15\n15\n\n\nVermont, Kentucky\n000000001795-05-01-0000May 1, 1795 – July 3, 1818\n278 !23 years\n\n\n20\n13\n\n\nIndiana, Louisiana, Mississippi, Ohio, Tennessee\n000000001818-07-04-0000July 4, 1818 – July 3, 1819\n012 !1 year\n\n\n21\n13\n\nIllinois\n000000001819-07-04-0000July 4, 1819 – July 3, 1820\n012 !1 year\n\n\n23\n13\n\nAlabama, Maine\n000000001820-07-04-0000July 4, 1820 – July 3, 1822\n024 !2 years\n\n\n24\n13\n\nMissouri\n000000001822-07-04-0000July 4, 1822 – July 3, 1836\n1831 term \"Old Glory\" coined\n168 !14 years\n\n\n25\n13\n\nArkansas\n000000001836-07-04-0000July 4, 1836 – July 3, 1837\n012 !1 year\n\n\n26\n13\n\n\nMichigan\n000000001837-07-04-0000July 4, 1837 – July 3, 1845\n096 !8 years\n\n\n27\n13\n\nFlorida\n000000001845-07-04-0000July 4, 1845 – July 3, 1846\n012 !1 year\n\n\n28\n13\n\nTexas\n000000001846-07-04-0000July 4, 1846 – July 3, 1847\n012 !1 year\n\n\n29\n13\n\n\nIowa\n000000001847-07-04-0000July 4, 1847 – July 3, 1848\n012 !1 year\n\n\n30\n13\n\nWisconsin\n000000001848-07-04-0000July 4, 1848 – July 3, 1851\n036 !3 years\n\n\n31\n13\n\nCalifornia\n000000001851-07-04-0000July 4, 1851 – July 3, 1858\n084 !7 years\n\n\n32\n13\n\nMinnesota\n000000001858-07-04-0000July 4, 1858 – July 3, 1859\n012 !1 year\n\n\n33\n13\n\n\n\n\nOregon\n000000001859-07-04-0000July 4, 1859 – July 3, 1861\n024 !2 years\n\n\n34\n13\n\n\nKansas\n000000001861-07-04-0000July 4, 1861 – July 3, 1863\n024 !2 years\n\n\n35\n13\n\n\nWest Virginia\n000000001863-07-04-0000July 4, 1863 – July 3, 1865\n024 !2 years\n\n\n36\n13\n\n\nNevada\n000000001865-07-04-0000July 4, 1865 – July 3, 1867\n024 !2 years\n\n\n37\n13\n\n\nNebraska\n000000001867-07-04-0000July 4, 1867 – July 3, 1877\n120 !10 years\n\n\n38\n13\n\n\nColorado\n000000001877-07-04-0000July 4, 1877 – July 3, 1890\n156 !13 years\n\n\n43\n13\n\nIdaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington\n000000001890-07-04-0000July 4, 1890 – July 3, 1891\n012 !1 year\n\n\n44\n13\n\nWyoming\n000000001891-07-04-0000July 4, 1891 – July 3, 1896\n060 !5 years\n\n\n45\n13\n\nUtah\n000000001896-07-04-0000July 4, 1896 – July 3, 1908\n144 !12 years\n\n\n46\n13\n\nOklahoma\n000000001908-07-04-0000July 4, 1908 – July 3, 1912\n048 !4 years\n\n\n48\n13\n\nArizona, New Mexico\n000000001912-07-04-0000July 4, 1912 – July 3, 1959\n564 !47 years\n\n\n49\n13\n\nAlaska\n000000001959-07-04-0000July 4, 1959 – July 3, 1960\n012 !1 year\n\n\n50\n13\n\nHawaii\n000000001960-07-04-0000July 4, 1960 – present\n590 !57 years", "Number of\nstars\nNumber of\nstripes\nDesign(s)\nStates represented\nby new stars\nDates in use\nDuration", "0\n13\n\nUnion Jack instead of stars, red and white stripes represent Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia\n000000001775-12-03-0000December 3, 1775[49] – June 14, 1777\n018 ! 1 1⁄2 years", "13\n13\n\n\n\n\nConnecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia\n000000001777-06-14-0000June 14, 1777 – May 1, 1795\n215 !18 years", "15\n15\n\n\nVermont, Kentucky\n000000001795-05-01-0000May 1, 1795 – July 3, 1818\n278 !23 years", "20\n13\n\n\nIndiana, Louisiana, Mississippi, Ohio, Tennessee\n000000001818-07-04-0000July 4, 1818 – July 3, 1819\n012 !1 year", "21\n13\n\nIllinois\n000000001819-07-04-0000July 4, 1819 – July 3, 1820\n012 !1 year", "23\n13\n\nAlabama, Maine\n000000001820-07-04-0000July 4, 1820 – July 3, 1822\n024 !2 years", "24\n13\n\nMissouri\n000000001822-07-04-0000July 4, 1822 – July 3, 1836\n1831 term \"Old Glory\" coined\n168 !14 years", "25\n13\n\nArkansas\n000000001836-07-04-0000July 4, 1836 – July 3, 1837\n012 !1 year", "26\n13\n\n\nMichigan\n000000001837-07-04-0000July 4, 1837 – July 3, 1845\n096 !8 years", "27\n13\n\nFlorida\n000000001845-07-04-0000July 4, 1845 – July 3, 1846\n012 !1 year", "28\n13\n\nTexas\n000000001846-07-04-0000July 4, 1846 – July 3, 1847\n012 !1 year", "29\n13\n\n\nIowa\n000000001847-07-04-0000July 4, 1847 – July 3, 1848\n012 !1 year", "30\n13\n\nWisconsin\n000000001848-07-04-0000July 4, 1848 – July 3, 1851\n036 !3 years", "31\n13\n\nCalifornia\n000000001851-07-04-0000July 4, 1851 – July 3, 1858\n084 !7 years", "32\n13\n\nMinnesota\n000000001858-07-04-0000July 4, 1858 – July 3, 1859\n012 !1 year", "33\n13\n\n\n\n\nOregon\n000000001859-07-04-0000July 4, 1859 – July 3, 1861\n024 !2 years", "34\n13\n\n\nKansas\n000000001861-07-04-0000July 4, 1861 – July 3, 1863\n024 !2 years", "35\n13\n\n\nWest Virginia\n000000001863-07-04-0000July 4, 1863 – July 3, 1865\n024 !2 years", "36\n13\n\n\nNevada\n000000001865-07-04-0000July 4, 1865 – July 3, 1867\n024 !2 years", "37\n13\n\n\nNebraska\n000000001867-07-04-0000July 4, 1867 – July 3, 1877\n120 !10 years", "38\n13\n\n\nColorado\n000000001877-07-04-0000July 4, 1877 – July 3, 1890\n156 !13 years", "43\n13\n\nIdaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington\n000000001890-07-04-0000July 4, 1890 – July 3, 1891\n012 !1 year", "44\n13\n\nWyoming\n000000001891-07-04-0000July 4, 1891 – July 3, 1896\n060 !5 years", "45\n13\n\nUtah\n000000001896-07-04-0000July 4, 1896 – July 3, 1908\n144 !12 years", "46\n13\n\nOklahoma\n000000001908-07-04-0000July 4, 1908 – July 3, 1912\n048 !4 years", "48\n13\n\nArizona, New Mexico\n000000001912-07-04-0000July 4, 1912 – July 3, 1959\n564 !47 years", "49\n13\n\nAlaska\n000000001959-07-04-0000July 4, 1959 – July 3, 1960\n012 !1 year", "50\n13\n\nHawaii\n000000001960-07-04-0000July 4, 1960 – present\n590 !57 years", "In the November 2012 U.S. election, Puerto Rico voted to become a U.S. state. However, the legitimacy of the result of this election was disputed.[50] On June 11, 2017, another referendum was held, this time with the result that 97% of voters in Puerto Rico voted for statehood, but it had a turnout of only 23%.[51][52] Similarly in November 2016, a statehood referendum was held in the District of Columbia where 86% of voters approved the proposal. If a new U.S. state were to be admitted, it would require a new design on the flag to accommodate the additional star.[53]", "The modern meaning of the flag was forged in December 1860, when Major Robert Anderson moved the U.S. garrison from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Author Adam Goodheart argues this was the opening move of the American Civil War, and the flag was used throughout northern states to symbolize American nationalism and rejection of secessionism.", "Before that day, the flag had served mostly as a military ensign or a convenient marking of American territory, flown from forts, embassies, and ships, and displayed on special occasions like American Independence day. But in the weeks after Major Anderson's surprising stand, it became something different. Suddenly the Stars and Stripes flew—as it does today, and especially as it did after the September 11 attacks in 2001—from houses, from storefronts, from churches; above the village greens and college quads. For the first time American flags were mass-produced rather than individually stitched and even so, manufacturers could not keep up with demand. As the long winter of 1861 turned into spring, that old flag meant something new. The abstraction of the Union cause was transfigured into a physical thing: strips of cloth that millions of people would fight for, and many thousands die for.\n– Adam Goodheart.[54]", "The flag of the United States is one of the nation's most widely recognized symbols. Within the United States, flags are frequently displayed not only on public buildings but on private residences. The flag is a common motif on decals for car windows, and clothing ornaments such as badges and lapel pins. Throughout the world the flag has been used in public discourse to refer to the United States.[citation needed]", "The flag has become a powerful symbol of Americanism, and is flown on many occasions, with giant outdoor flags used by retail outlets to draw customers. Desecration of the flag is considered a public outrage, but remains protected as freedom of speech. Scholars have noted the irony that \"[t]he flag is so revered because it represents the land of the free, and that freedom includes the ability to use or abuse that flag in protest\".[55] In worldwide comparison, Testi noted in 2010 that the United States was not unique in adoring its banner, for the flags of Scandinavian countries are also \"beloved, domesticated, commercialized and sacralized objects\".[56]", "The man credited with designing the current 50 star American flag was Robert G. Heft. He was 17 years old at the time and created the flag design in 1958 as a high school class project while living with his grandparents in Ohio.[57] He received a B− on the project.[58] According to Heft, his history teacher honored their agreement to change his grade to an A after his design was selected.[59][60]", "The basic design of the current flag is specified by 4 U.S.C. § 1; 4 U.S.C. § 2 outlines the addition of new stars to represent new states. The specification gives the following values:", "Hoist (height) of the flag: A = 1.0\nFly (width) of the flag: B = 1.9[61]\nHoist (height) of the canton (\"union\"): C = 0.5385 (A × 7/13, spanning seven stripes)\nFly (width) of the canton: D = 0.76 (B × 2/5, two-fifths of the flag width)\nE = F = 0.0538 (C/10, One-tenth of the height of the canton)\nG = H = 0.0633 (D/12, One twelfth of the width of the canton)\nDiameter of star: K = 0.0616 (L × 4/5, four-fifths of the stripe width, the calculation only gives 0.0616 if L is first rounded to 0.077)\nWidth of stripe: L = 0.0769 (A/13, One thirteenth of the flag height)", "Hoist (height) of the flag: A = 1.0", "Fly (width) of the flag: B = 1.9[61]", "Hoist (height) of the canton (\"union\"): C = 0.5385 (A × 7/13, spanning seven stripes)", "Fly (width) of the canton: D = 0.76 (B × 2/5, two-fifths of the flag width)", "E = F = 0.0538 (C/10, One-tenth of the height of the canton)", "G = H = 0.0633 (D/12, One twelfth of the width of the canton)", "Diameter of star: K = 0.0616 (L × 4/5, four-fifths of the stripe width, the calculation only gives 0.0616 if L is first rounded to 0.077)", "Width of stripe: L = 0.0769 (A/13, One thirteenth of the flag height)", "These specifications are contained in an executive order which, strictly speaking, governs only flags made for or by the U.S. federal government.[62] In practice, most U.S. national flags available for sale to the public have a different width-to-height ratio; common sizes are 2 × 3 ft. or 4 × 6 ft. (flag ratio 1.5), 2.5 × 4 ft. or 5 × 8 ft. (1.6), or 3 × 5 ft. or 6 × 10 ft. (1.667). Even flags flown over the U.S. Capitol for sale to the public through Representatives or Senators are provided in these sizes.[63] Flags that are made to the prescribed 1.9 ratio are often referred to as \"G-spec\" (for \"government specification\") flags.", "The exact red, white, and blue colors to be used in the flag are specified with reference to the CAUS Standard Color Reference of America, 10th edition. Specifically, the colors are \"White\", \"Old Glory Red\", and \"Old Glory Blue\".[64] The CIE coordinates for the colors of the 9th edition of the Standard Color Card were formally specified in JOSA in 1946.[65] These colors form the standard for cloth, and there is no perfect way to convert them to RGB for display on screen or CMYK for printing. The \"relative\" coordinates in the following table were found by scaling the luminous reflectance relative to the flag's \"white\".", "Official colors[66]\n\nName\nAbsolute\nRelative\n\n\n\nCIELAB D65\nMunsell\n\nCIELAB D50\nsRGB\nGRACoL 2006\n\n\nL*\na*\nb*\nH\nV/C\nL*\na*\nb*\nR\nG\nB\n8-bit hex\nC\nM\nY\nK\n\n\nWhite\n\n88.7\n−0.2\n5.4\n2.5Y\n8.8/0.7\n\n100.0\n0.0\n0.0\n1.000\n1.000\n1.000\n#FFFFFF\n.000\n.000\n.000\n.000\n\n\nOld Glory Red\n\n33.9\n51.2\n24.7\n5.5R\n3.3/11.1\n\n39.9\n57.3\n28.7\n.698\n.132\n.203\n#B22234\n.196\n1.000\n.757\n.118\n\n\nOld Glory Blue\n\n23.2\n13.1\n−26.4\n8.2PB\n2.3/6.1\n\n26.9\n11.5\n−30.3\n.234\n.233\n.430\n#3C3B6E\n.886\n.851\n.243\n.122", "Name\nAbsolute\nRelative", "CIELAB D65\nMunsell\n\nCIELAB D50\nsRGB\nGRACoL 2006", "L*\na*\nb*\nH\nV/C\nL*\na*\nb*\nR\nG\nB\n8-bit hex\nC\nM\nY\nK", "White\n\n88.7\n−0.2\n5.4\n2.5Y\n8.8/0.7\n\n100.0\n0.0\n0.0\n1.000\n1.000\n1.000\n#FFFFFF\n.000\n.000\n.000\n.000", "Old Glory Red\n\n33.9\n51.2\n24.7\n5.5R\n3.3/11.1\n\n39.9\n57.3\n28.7\n.698\n.132\n.203\n#B22234\n.196\n1.000\n.757\n.118", "Old Glory Blue\n\n23.2\n13.1\n−26.4\n8.2PB\n2.3/6.1\n\n26.9\n11.5\n−30.3\n.234\n.233\n.430\n#3C3B6E\n.886\n.851\n.243\n.122", "As with the design, the official colors are only officially required for flags produced for the U.S. federal government, and other colors are often used for mass-market flags, printed reproductions, and other products intended to evoke flag colors. The practice of using more saturated colors than the official cloth is not new. As Taylor, Knoche, and Granville wrote in 1950: \"The color of the official wool bunting [of the blue field] is a very dark blue, but printed reproductions of the flag, as well as merchandise supposed to match the flag, present the color as a deep blue much brighter than the official wool.\"[67]", "Sometimes, Pantone Matching System (PMS) approximations to the flag colors are used. One set was given on the website of the U.S. embassy in London as early as 1998; the website of the U.S. embassy in Stockholm claimed in 2001 that those had been suggested by Pantone, and that the U.S. Government Printing Office preferred a different set. A third red was suggested by a California Military Department document in 2002.[68] In 2001, the Texas legislature specified that the colors of the Texas flag should be \"(1) the same colors used in the United States flag; and (2) defined as numbers 193 (red) and 281 (dark blue) of the Pantone Matching System.\"[69]", "Pantone approximations[70]\n\nSource\nPMS\n\nCIELAB D50\nsRGB\nGRACoL 2006\n\n\nL*\na*\nb*\nR\nG\nB\n8-bit hex\nC\nM\nY\nK\n\n\n\nSafe\n\n100.0\n0.0\n0.0\n1.000\n1.000\n1.000\n#FFFFFF\n.000\n.000\n.000\n.000\n\n\nU.S. Emb.,\nLondon\n193 C\n\n42.1\n64.4\n26.7\n.756\n.076\n.238\n#C1133D\n.165\n1.000\n.678\n.063\n\n\n281 C\n\n15.4\n7.0\n−41.8\n.000\n.149\n.388\n#002663\n1.000\n.906\n.388\n.231\n\n\nU.S. Emb.,\nStockholm\n186 C\n\n44.1\n67.8\n37.9\n.800\n.048\n.185\n#CC0C2F\n.122\n1.000\n.796\n.035\n\n\n288 C\n\n18.0\n7.6\n−50.3\n.000\n.172\n.466\n#002C77\n1.000\n.863\n.357\n.141\n\n\nCA Mil. Dept.\n200 C\n\n41.1\n64.2\n30.8\n.745\n.051\n.203\n#BE0D34\n.169\n1.000\n.749\n.074", "Source\nPMS\n\nCIELAB D50\nsRGB\nGRACoL 2006", "L*\na*\nb*\nR\nG\nB\n8-bit hex\nC\nM\nY\nK", "Safe\n\n100.0\n0.0\n0.0\n1.000\n1.000\n1.000\n#FFFFFF\n.000\n.000\n.000\n.000", "U.S. Emb.,\nLondon\n193 C\n\n42.1\n64.4\n26.7\n.756\n.076\n.238\n#C1133D\n.165\n1.000\n.678\n.063", "281 C\n\n15.4\n7.0\n−41.8\n.000\n.149\n.388\n#002663\n1.000\n.906\n.388\n.231", "U.S. Emb.,\nStockholm\n186 C\n\n44.1\n67.8\n37.9\n.800\n.048\n.185\n#CC0C2F\n.122\n1.000\n.796\n.035", "288 C\n\n18.0\n7.6\n−50.3\n.000\n.172\n.466\n#002C77\n1.000\n.863\n.357\n.141", "CA Mil. Dept.\n200 C\n\n41.1\n64.2\n30.8\n.745\n.051\n.203\n#BE0D34\n.169\n1.000\n.749\n.074", "When Alaska and Hawaii were being considered for statehood in the 1950s, more than 1,500 designs were submitted to President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Although some of them were 49-star versions, the vast majority were 50-star proposals. At least three of these designs were identical to the present design of the 50-star flag.[71] At the time, credit was given by the executive department to the United States Army Institute of Heraldry for the design.", "Of these proposals, one created by 17-year-old Robert G. Heft in 1958 as a school project received the most publicity. His mother was a seamstress, but refused to do any of the work for him. He originally received a B– for the project. After discussing the grade with his teacher, it was agreed (somewhat jokingly) that if the flag was accepted by Congress, the grade would be reconsidered. Heft's flag design was chosen and adopted by presidential proclamation after Alaska and before Hawaii was admitted into the Union in 1959.[72] According to Heft, his teacher did keep to their agreement and changed his grade to an A for the project.[60] The 49- and 50-star flags were each flown for the first time at Fort McHenry on Independence Day, in 1959 and 1960 respectively.[60]", "Traditionally, the flag may be decorated with golden fringe surrounding the perimeter of the flag as long as it does not deface the flag proper. Ceremonial displays of the flag, such as those in parades or on indoor posts, often use fringe to enhance the appearance of the flag.", "The first recorded use of fringe on a flag dates from 1835, and the Army used it officially in 1895. No specific law governs the legality of fringe, but a 1925 opinion of the attorney general addresses the use of fringe (and the number of stars) \"... is at the discretion of the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy ...\" as quoted from footnote in previous volumes of Title 4 of the United States Code law books and is a source for claims that such a flag is a military ensign not civilian. However, according to the Army Institute of Heraldry, which has official custody of the flag designs and makes any change ordered, there are no implications of symbolism in the use of fringe.[73] Several federal courts have upheld this conclusion,[74][75] most recently and forcefully in Colorado v. Drew, a Colorado Court of Appeals judgment that was released in May 2010.[76] Traditionally, the Army and Air Force use a fringed National Color for parade, color guard and indoor display, while the Sea Services (Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard) use a fringeless National Color for all occasions.", "The flag is customarily flown year-round at most public buildings, and it is not unusual to find private houses flying full-size (3 by 5 feet (0.91 by 1.52 m)) flags. Some private use is year-round, but becomes widespread on civic holidays like Memorial Day, Veterans Day, Presidents' Day, Flag Day, and on Independence Day. On Memorial Day it is common to place small flags by war memorials and next to the graves of U.S. war veterans. Also on Memorial Day it is common to fly the flag at half staff, until noon, in remembrance of those who lost their lives fighting in U.S. wars.", "The United States Flag Code outlines certain guidelines for the use, display, and disposal of the flag. For example, the flag should never be dipped to any person or thing, unless it is the ensign responding to a salute from a ship of a foreign nation. This tradition may come from the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, where countries were asked to dip their flag to King Edward VII: the American flag bearer did not. Team captain Martin Sheridan is famously quoted as saying \"this flag dips to no earthly king\", though the true provenance of this quotation is unclear.[77][78]", "The flag should never be allowed to touch the ground and, if flown at night, must be illuminated. If the edges become tattered through wear, the flag should be repaired or replaced. When a flag is so tattered that it can no longer serve as a symbol of the United States, it should be destroyed in a dignified manner, preferably by burning. The American Legion and other organizations regularly conduct flag retirement ceremonies, often on Flag Day, June 14. (The Boy Scouts of America recommends that modern nylon or polyester flags be recycled instead of burned, due to hazardous gases being produced when such materials are burned.)[79]", "The Flag Code prohibits using the flag \"for any advertising purpose\" and also states that the flag \"should not be embroidered, printed, or otherwise impressed on such articles as cushions, handkerchiefs, napkins, boxes, or anything intended to be discarded after temporary use\".[80] Both of these codes are generally ignored, almost always without comment.", "Section 8, entitled Respect For Flag states in part: \"The flag should never be used as wearing apparel, bedding, or drapery\", and \"No part of the flag should ever be used as a costume or athletic uniform\". Section 3 of the Flag Code[81] defines \"the flag\" as anything \"by which the average person seeing the same without deliberation may believe the same to represent the flag of the United States of America\".", "An additional part of Section 8 Respect For Flag, that is frequently violated at sporting events is part (c) \"The flag should never be carried flat or horizontally, but always aloft and free.\"", "Although the Flag Code is U.S. federal law, there is no penalty for a private citizen or group failing to comply with the Flag Code and it is not widely enforced—indeed, punitive enforcement would conflict with the First Amendment right to freedom of speech.[82] Passage of the proposed Flag Desecration Amendment would overrule legal precedent that has been established.", "When the flag is affixed to the right side of a vehicle of any kind (e.g.: cars, boats, planes, any physical object that moves), it should be oriented so that the canton is towards the front of the vehicle, as if the flag were streaming backwards from its hoist as the vehicle moves forward. Therefore, U.S. flag decals on the right sides of vehicles may appear to be reversed, with the union to the observer's right instead of left as more commonly seen.", "The flag has been displayed on every U.S. spacecraft designed for manned flight, including Mercury, Gemini, Apollo Command/Service Module, Apollo Lunar Module, and the Space Shuttle. The flag also appeared on the S-IC first stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle used for Apollo. But since Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo were launched and landed vertically and were not capable of horizontal atmospheric flight as the Space Shuttle did on its landing approach, the \"streaming\" convention was not followed and these flags were oriented with the stripes running horizontally, perpendicular to the direction of flight.", "On some U.S. military uniforms, flag patches are worn on the right shoulder, following the vehicle convention with the union toward the front. This rule dates back to the Army's early history, when both mounted cavalry and infantry units would designate a standard bearer, who carried the Colors into battle. As he charged, his forward motion caused the flag to stream back. Since the Stars and Stripes are mounted with the canton closest to the pole, that section stayed to the right, while the stripes flew to the left.[83] Several US military uniforms, such as flight suits worn by members of the United States Air Force and Navy, have the flag patch on the left shoulder.[84][85]", "Other organizations that wear flag patches on their uniforms can have the flag facing in either direction. The congressional charter of the Boy Scouts of America stipulates that the uniforms should not imitate U.S. military uniforms; consequently, the flags are displayed on the right shoulder with the stripes facing front, the reverse of the military style.[86] Law enforcement officers often wear a small flag patch, either on a shoulder, or above a shirt pocket.", "Every U.S. astronaut since the crew of Gemini 4 has worn the flag on the left shoulder of his or her space suit, with the exception of the crew of Apollo 1, whose flags were worn on the right shoulder. In this case, the canton was on the left.", "The flag did not appear on U.S. postal stamp issues until the Battle of White Plains Issue was released in 1926, depicting the flag with a circle of 13 stars. The 48-star flag first appeared on the General Casimir Pulaski issue of 1931, though in a small monochrome depiction. The first U.S. postage stamp to feature the flag as the sole subject was issued July 4, 1957, Scott catalog number 1094.[87] Since that time the flag has frequently appeared on U.S. stamps.", "In 1907 Eben Appleton, New York stockbroker and grandson of Lieutenant Colonel George Armistead (the commander of Fort McHenry during the 1814 bombardment) loaned the Star Spangled Banner Flag to the Smithsonian Institution, and in 1912 he converted the loan to a gift. Appleton donated the flag with the wish that it would always be on view to the public. In 1994, the National Museum of American History determined that the Star Spangled Banner Flag required further conservation treatment to remain on public display. In 1998 teams of museum conservators, curators, and other specialists helped move the flag from its home in the Museum's Flag Hall into a new conservation laboratory. Following the reopening of the National Museum of American History on November 21, 2008, the flag is now on display in a special exhibition, \"The Star-Spangled Banner: The Flag That Inspired the National Anthem,\" where it rests at a 10 degree angle in dim light for conservation purposes.[39]", "By presidential proclamation, acts of Congress, and custom, U.S. flags are displayed continuously at certain locations.", "Replicas of the Star Spangled Banner Flag (15 stars, 15 stripes) are flown at two sites in Baltimore, Maryland: Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine[88] and Flag House Square.[89]\nMarine Corps War Memorial (Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima), Arlington, Virginia.[90]\nThe Battle Green in Lexington, Massachusetts, site of the first shots fired in the Revolution[91]\nThe White House, Washington, D.C.[92]\nFifty U.S. flags are displayed continuously at the Washington Monument, Washington, D.C.[93]", "Replicas of the Star Spangled Banner Flag (15 stars, 15 stripes) are flown at two sites in Baltimore, Maryland: Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine[88] and Flag House Square.[89]", "Marine Corps War Memorial (Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima), Arlington, Virginia.[90]", "The Battle Green in Lexington, Massachusetts, site of the first shots fired in the Revolution[91]", "The White House, Washington, D.C.[92]", "Fifty U.S. flags are displayed continuously at the Washington Monument, Washington, D.C.[93]", "At U.S. Customs and Border Protection Ports of Entry that are continuously open.[94]\nA Civil War era flag (for the year 1863) flies above Pennsylvania Hall (Old Dorm) at Gettysburg College.[95] This building, occupied by both sides at various points of the Battle of Gettysburg, served as a lookout and battlefield hospital.\nGrounds of the National Memorial Arch in Valley Forge NHP, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania[96]\nBy custom, at the Maryland home, birthplace, and grave of Francis Scott Key; at the Worcester, Massachusetts war memorial; at the plaza in Taos, New Mexico (since 1861); at the United States Capitol (since 1918); and at Mount Moriah Cemetery in Deadwood, South Dakota.\nNewark Liberty International Airport's Terminal A, Gate 17 and Boston Logan Airport's Terminal B, Gate 32 and Terminal C, Gate 19 in memoriam of the events of September 11, 2001.[97]\nSlover Mountain (Colton Liberty Flag), in Colton, California. July 4, 1917, to circa 1952 & 1997 to 2012.[98][99][100][101]\nAt the ceremonial South Pole as one of the 12 flags representing the signatory countries of the original Antarctic Treaty.\nOn the Moon: six manned missions successfully landed at various locations and each had a flag raised at the site. Exhaust gases when the Ascent Stage launched to return the astronauts to their Command Module Columbia for return to Earth blew over the flag the Apollo 11 mission had placed.[102]", "At U.S. Customs and Border Protection Ports of Entry that are continuously open.[94]", "A Civil War era flag (for the year 1863) flies above Pennsylvania Hall (Old Dorm) at Gettysburg College.[95] This building, occupied by both sides at various points of the Battle of Gettysburg, served as a lookout and battlefield hospital.", "Grounds of the National Memorial Arch in Valley Forge NHP, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania[96]", "By custom, at the Maryland home, birthplace, and grave of Francis Scott Key; at the Worcester, Massachusetts war memorial; at the plaza in Taos, New Mexico (since 1861); at the United States Capitol (since 1918); and at Mount Moriah Cemetery in Deadwood, South Dakota.", "Newark Liberty International Airport's Terminal A, Gate 17 and Boston Logan Airport's Terminal B, Gate 32 and Terminal C, Gate 19 in memoriam of the events of September 11, 2001.[97]", "Slover Mountain (Colton Liberty Flag), in Colton, California. July 4, 1917, to circa 1952 & 1997 to 2012.[98][99][100][101]", "At the ceremonial South Pole as one of the 12 flags representing the signatory countries of the original Antarctic Treaty.", "On the Moon: six manned missions successfully landed at various locations and each had a flag raised at the site. Exhaust gases when the Ascent Stage launched to return the astronauts to their Command Module Columbia for return to Earth blew over the flag the Apollo 11 mission had placed.[102]", "The flag should especially be displayed at full staff on the following days:[103]", "January: 1 (New Year's Day), third Monday of the month (Martin Luther King Jr. Day), and 20 (Inauguration Day, once every four years, which, by tradition, is postponed to the 21st if the 20th falls on a Sunday)\nFebruary: 12 (Lincoln's birthday) and the third Monday (legally known as Washington's Birthday but more often called Presidents' Day)\nMarch–April: Easter Sunday (date varies)\nMay: Second Sunday (Mothers Day), third Saturday (Armed Forces Day), and last Monday (Memorial Day; half-staff until noon)\nJune: 14 (Flag Day), third Sunday (Fathers Day)\nJuly: 4 (Independence Day) and 27 (National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day)[104]\nSeptember: First Monday (Labor Day), 17 (Constitution Day), and last Sunday (Gold Star Mother's Day)[105]\nOctober: Second Monday (Columbus Day) and 27 (Navy Day)\nNovember: 11 (Veterans Day) and fourth Thursday (Thanksgiving Day)\nDecember: 25 (Christmas Day)\nand such other days as may be proclaimed by the President of the United States; the birthdays of states (date of admission); and on state holidays.[106]", "January: 1 (New Year's Day), third Monday of the month (Martin Luther King Jr. Day), and 20 (Inauguration Day, once every four years, which, by tradition, is postponed to the 21st if the 20th falls on a Sunday)", "February: 12 (Lincoln's birthday) and the third Monday (legally known as Washington's Birthday but more often called Presidents' Day)", "March–April: Easter Sunday (date varies)", "May: Second Sunday (Mothers Day), third Saturday (Armed Forces Day), and last Monday (Memorial Day; half-staff until noon)", "June: 14 (Flag Day), third Sunday (Fathers Day)", "July: 4 (Independence Day) and 27 (National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day)[104]", "September: First Monday (Labor Day), 17 (Constitution Day), and last Sunday (Gold Star Mother's Day)[105]", "October: Second Monday (Columbus Day) and 27 (Navy Day)", "November: 11 (Veterans Day) and fourth Thursday (Thanksgiving Day)", "December: 25 (Christmas Day)", "and such other days as may be proclaimed by the President of the United States; the birthdays of states (date of admission); and on state holidays.[106]", "The flag is displayed at half-staff (half-mast in naval usage) as a sign of respect or mourning. Nationwide, this action is proclaimed by the president; statewide or territory-wide, the proclamation is made by the governor. In addition, there is no prohibition against municipal governments, private businesses or citizens flying the flag at half-staff as a local sign of respect and mourning. However, many flag enthusiasts feel this type of practice has somewhat diminished the meaning of the original intent of lowering the flag to honor those who held high positions in federal or state offices. President Dwight D. Eisenhower issued the first proclamation on March 1, 1954, standardizing the dates and time periods for flying the flag at half-staff from all federal buildings, grounds, and naval vessels; other congressional resolutions and presidential proclamations ensued. However, they are only guidelines to all other entities: typically followed at state and local government facilities, and encouraged of private businesses and citizens.", "To properly fly the flag at half-staff, one should first briefly hoist it top of the staff, then lower it to the half-staff position, halfway between the top and bottom of the staff. Similarly, when the flag is to be lowered from half-staff, it should be first briefly hoisted to the top of the staff.[107]", "Federal statutes provide that the flag should be flown at half-staff on the following dates:", "May 15: Peace Officers Memorial Day (unless it is the third Saturday in May, Armed Forces Day, then full-staff)[108]\nLast Monday in May: Memorial Day (until noon)\nSeptember 11: Patriot Day[109]\nFirst Sunday in October: Start of Fire Prevention Week, in honor of the National Fallen Firefighters Memorial Service.[110][111]\nDecember 7: National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day[112]\nFor 30 days: Death of a president or former president\nFor 10 days: Death of a vice president, Supreme Court chief justice/retired chief justice, or speaker of the House of Representatives.\nFrom death until the day of interment: Supreme Court associate justice, member of the Cabinet, former vice president, president pro tempore of the Senate, or the majority and minority leaders of the Senate and House of Representatives. Also for federal facilities within a state or territory, for the governor.\nOn the day after the death: Senators, members of Congress, territorial delegates or the resident commissioner of the commonwealth of Puerto Rico", "May 15: Peace Officers Memorial Day (unless it is the third Saturday in May, Armed Forces Day, then full-staff)[108]", "Last Monday in May: Memorial Day (until noon)", "September 11: Patriot Day[109]", "First Sunday in October: Start of Fire Prevention Week, in honor of the National Fallen Firefighters Memorial Service.[110][111]", "December 7: National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day[112]", "For 30 days: Death of a president or former president", "For 10 days: Death of a vice president, Supreme Court chief justice/retired chief justice, or speaker of the House of Representatives.", "From death until the day of interment: Supreme Court associate justice, member of the Cabinet, former vice president, president pro tempore of the Senate, or the majority and minority leaders of the Senate and House of Representatives. Also for federal facilities within a state or territory, for the governor.", "On the day after the death: Senators, members of Congress, territorial delegates or the resident commissioner of the commonwealth of Puerto Rico", "National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, on July 27, was formerly a day of half-staff observance until the law expired in 2003. In 2009, it became a day of full-staff observance.[104][113][114]", "Though not part of the official Flag Code, according to military custom, flags should be folded into a triangular shape when not in use. To properly fold the flag:", "Begin by holding it waist-high with another person so that its surface is parallel to the ground.\nFold the lower half of the stripe section lengthwise over the field of stars, holding the bottom and top edges securely.\nFold the flag again lengthwise with the blue field on the outside.\nMake a rectangular fold then a triangular fold by bringing the striped corner of the folded edge to meet the open top edge of the flag, starting the fold from the left side over to the right.\nTurn the outer end point inward, parallel to the open edge, to form a second triangle.\nThe triangular folding is continued until the entire length of the flag is folded in this manner (usually thirteen triangular folds, as shown at right). On the final fold, any remnant that does not neatly fold into a triangle (or in the case of exactly even folds, the last triangle) is tucked into the previous fold.\nWhen the flag is completely folded, only a triangular blue field of stars should be visible.", "Begin by holding it waist-high with another person so that its surface is parallel to the ground.", "Fold the lower half of the stripe section lengthwise over the field of stars, holding the bottom and top edges securely.", "Fold the flag again lengthwise with the blue field on the outside.", "Make a rectangular fold then a triangular fold by bringing the striped corner of the folded edge to meet the open top edge of the flag, starting the fold from the left side over to the right.", "Turn the outer end point inward, parallel to the open edge, to form a second triangle.", "The triangular folding is continued until the entire length of the flag is folded in this manner (usually thirteen triangular folds, as shown at right). On the final fold, any remnant that does not neatly fold into a triangle (or in the case of exactly even folds, the last triangle) is tucked into the previous fold.", "When the flag is completely folded, only a triangular blue field of stars should be visible.", "There is also no specific meaning for each fold of the flag. However, there are scripts read by non-government organizations and also by the Air Force that are used during the flag folding ceremony. These scripts range from historical timelines of the flag to religious themes.[115][116]", "Traditionally, the flag of the United States plays a role in military funerals,[117] and occasionally in funerals of other civil servants (such as law enforcement officers, fire fighters, and U.S. presidents). A burial flag is draped over the deceased's casket as a pall during services. Just prior to the casket being lowered into the ground, the flag is ceremonially folded and presented to the deceased's next of kin as a token of respect.[118]", "The flag of Bikini Atoll is symbolic of the islanders' belief that a great debt is still owed to the people of Bikini because in 1954 the United States government detonated a thermonuclear bomb on the island as part of the Castle Bravo test.[119]\nThe flag of Liberia bears a close resemblance, showing the ex-American-slave origin of the country.[120] The Liberian flag has 11 similar red and white stripes, which stand for the 11 signers of the Liberian Declaration of Independence, as well as a blue square with only a single large white star for the canton. The flag of Liberia is the only flag in the world that was modeled after and resembles the American flag because Liberia was the only nation in the world that was founded, colonized, established, and controlled by freed African American and ex-caribbean slaves as settlers who came from the United States and the Caribbean islands as a homeland to live, with the help and support from the American Colonization Society on January 7, 1822.\nDespite Malaysia having no historical connections with the U.S., the flag of Malaysia greatly resembles the U.S. flag. It is possible that the flag of the British East India Company influenced both the Malaysian and U.S. flag.[7]\nThe flag of El Salvador from 1865 to 1912. A different flag was in use, based on the flag of the United States, with a field of alternating blue and white stripes and a red canton containing white stars.[citation needed]\nThe flag of Brittany was inspired in part by the American flag.[citation needed]", "The flag of Bikini Atoll is symbolic of the islanders' belief that a great debt is still owed to the people of Bikini because in 1954 the United States government detonated a thermonuclear bomb on the island as part of the Castle Bravo test.[119]", "The flag of Liberia bears a close resemblance, showing the ex-American-slave origin of the country.[120] The Liberian flag has 11 similar red and white stripes, which stand for the 11 signers of the Liberian Declaration of Independence, as well as a blue square with only a single large white star for the canton. The flag of Liberia is the only flag in the world that was modeled after and resembles the American flag because Liberia was the only nation in the world that was founded, colonized, established, and controlled by freed African American and ex-caribbean slaves as settlers who came from the United States and the Caribbean islands as a homeland to live, with the help and support from the American Colonization Society on January 7, 1822.", "Despite Malaysia having no historical connections with the U.S., the flag of Malaysia greatly resembles the U.S. flag. It is possible that the flag of the British East India Company influenced both the Malaysian and U.S. flag.[7]", "The flag of El Salvador from 1865 to 1912. A different flag was in use, based on the flag of the United States, with a field of alternating blue and white stripes and a red canton containing white stars.[citation needed]", "The flag of Brittany was inspired in part by the American flag.[citation needed]", "Flag of Bikini Atoll\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nFlag of Liberia\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nFlag of Malaysia\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nFlag of El Salvador 1875–1912\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nFlag of Brittany", "Flag of Bikini Atoll", "Flag of Bikini Atoll", "Flag of Liberia", "Flag of Liberia", "Flag of Malaysia", "Flag of Malaysia", "Flag of El Salvador 1875–1912", "Flag of El Salvador 1875–1912", "Flag of Brittany", "Flag of Brittany" ]
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[ 6 ]
where did they film diary of a wimpy kid
Diary of a Wimpy Kid (film)
[ "Diary of a Wimpy Kid\nTheatrical release posterDirected by\nThor FreudenthalProduced by\n\nNina Jacobson\nBrad Simpson\nScreenplay by\n\nJackie FilgoJeff Filgo\nJeff Judah\nGabe Sachs\nBased on\nDiary of a Wimpy Kidby Jeff KinneyStarring\n\nZachary Gordon\nRobert Capron\nRachael Harris\nSteve Zahn\nNarrated by\nZachary GordonMusic by\nTheodore ShapiroCinematography\nJack N. GreenEdited by\nWendy Greene BricmontProductioncompany \nFox 2000 Pictures[1]Distributed by\n20th Century Fox[1]Release date\nMarch 19, 2010 (2010-03-19)\n\n\n\n\nRunning time\n92 minutes[1]Country\nUnited StatesLanguage\nEnglishBudget\n$15 million[2]Box office\n$75.7 million[3]", "Diary of a Wimpy Kid", "Theatrical release poster", "Directed by\nThor Freudenthal", "Produced by\n\nNina Jacobson\nBrad Simpson", "Nina Jacobson\nBrad Simpson", "Screenplay by\n\nJackie FilgoJeff Filgo\nJeff Judah\nGabe Sachs", "Jackie FilgoJeff Filgo\nJeff Judah\nGabe Sachs", "Jackie FilgoJeff Filgo", "Based on\nDiary of a Wimpy Kidby Jeff Kinney", "Starring\n\nZachary Gordon\nRobert Capron\nRachael Harris\nSteve Zahn", "Zachary Gordon\nRobert Capron\nRachael Harris\nSteve Zahn", "Narrated by\nZachary Gordon", "Music by\nTheodore Shapiro", "Cinematography\nJack N. Green", "Edited by\nWendy Greene Bricmont", "Productioncompany \nFox 2000 Pictures[1]", "Distributed by\n20th Century Fox[1]", "Release date\nMarch 19, 2010 (2010-03-19)", "March 19, 2010 (2010-03-19)", "March 19, 2010 (2010-03-19)", "Running time\n92 minutes[1]", "Country\nUnited States", "Language\nEnglish", "Budget\n$15 million[2]", "Box office\n$75.7 million[3]", "Diary of a Wimpy Kid is a 2010 American live-action/animated comedy film directed by Thor Freudenthal and based on Jeff Kinney's book of the same name.[4][5][6] The film stars Zachary Gordon and Devon Bostick. Robert Capron, Rachael Harris, Steve Zahn, and Chloë Grace Moretz also have prominent roles. It is the first film in the Diary of a Wimpy Kid film series, and was followed by three sequels, Diary of a Wimpy Kid: Rodrick Rules (2011), Diary of a Wimpy Kid: Dog Days (2012) and Diary of a Wimpy Kid: The Long Haul (2017).[7] The film earned $75.7 million on a $15 million budget. It is the only film in the series to be directed by Freudenthal, who was replaced by David Bowers for the rest of the installments. The film was theatrically released on March 19, 2010 in the United States by 20th Century Fox.", "The film starts with Rodrick waking up his brother Greg, saying it is time for school. However, Rodrick tricks Greg, as it is night. After the title sequence, Greg attends his first day at middle school and discovers the ups and downs, such as the missing stall doors in the boys' bathroom and the difficulties of obtaining a seat during lunch break. During P.E. lessons, he and his best friend Rowley escape from a game of Gladiator and learn about the Cheese Touch - a rotten piece of cheese on the basketball court that makes anyone who touches it an outcast. Greg also meets Angie, a girl who isolates herself from the other girls to survive. Greg states his intention of becoming the most popular student in school.", "At the end of the day, Rowley unintentionally embarrasses both boys by asking Greg if he wants to come over and \"play\". Greg looks through Rodrick's yearbook at home and Rodrick catches them, threatening to kill Greg. The next day, Greg signs up for wrestling to become popular but suffers humiliating losses against both Fregley, a weird outcast, and Patty Farrell, Greg's arch-enemy from elementary school. On Halloween, the two boys encounter teenagers while trick or treating, and they are drenched with water. When Greg threatens to call the cops, the teenagers chase them to his Grandma's house. Some time later on, Greg makes it an effort to make Rowley popular by changing his style of clothing and looks, and how he wears a backpack.", "The boys join Safety Patrol in an effort to become popular, and they try out for a contest that offers a student a chance to become the new cartoonist for the school paper. After Greg breaks Rowley's arm during a game the boys played, Rowley becomes extremely popular, and wins the contest. Greg becomes jealous of him. At Safety Patrol, Greg panicks when he encounters a truck identical to the teenagers' from Halloween, and hides the kids in a construction zone. He is spotted by a neighbour who mistakes him for Rowley. To his own bewilderment, Rowley is suspended from the Patrol, but Greg eventually confesses to Rowley that he was the who was responsible. Upset and feeling betrayed because Greg didn't confess to Mr. Winskey the head of Safety Patrol of his actions, Rowley berates Greg for not being a good friend, and that all he cares about is himself. Rowley then ends their friendship, and makes friends with Collin who replaces Greg as Rowley's new best friend.", "Greg decides to pursue popularity without Rowley by joining the school play. At tryouts, Greg's soprano voice earns him the role of Dorothy; however, Patty threatens the teacher into casting her instead. Greg signs up as a tree, hoping to throw apples on Patty during the play, but during rehearsal, the trees are told they won't throw apples but sing a song instead. At the performance, Greg refuses to sing as Rodrick is videotaping the performance, and begins throwing apples, ending the play in chaos.", "Later, Rodrick found an invitation to the mother-son sweetheart dance, which Greg was trying his hardest to hide. As a result, Greg got revenge by letting Manny read Rodrick's pornographic magazines. Rodrick is grounded for leaving his magazines out in the open where their baby brother Manny is able to find them, but Greg fails to reconcile with Rowley.", "One day at school, Rowley and Greg confront each other. Patty and the other kids force Greg and Rowley to fight; however, neither of them are good at fighting. The Halloween teenagers arrive at the scene and force the school to flee, but catch Rowley and Greg. They force Rowley to eat the cheese before the P.E. teacher forces them to flee. When the other kids notice that the Cheese has been moved from its original location and has been bitten, Greg covers up for Rowley by saying he ate it. This mends their friendship but makes Greg an outcast, as he is thought to have the Cheese Touch.", "When the yearbooks are published, he and Rowley make the Class Favorites page as \"Cutest Best Friends.\" Surprisingly though, people were brave enough to be close to Greg.", "Zachary Gordon as Greg Heffley.\nRobert Capron as Rowley Jefferson, Greg's childish best friend.\nDevon Bostick as Rodrick Heffley, Greg's older brother.\nSteve Zahn as Frank Heffley, Greg's father.\nRachael Harris as Susan Heffley, Greg's mother.\nChloë Grace Moretz as Angie Steadman, a seventh grader at Greg's school who is a reporter for the school paper.\nKaran Brar as Chirag Gupta, a friend of Greg's.\nGrayson Russell as Fregley, a weird classmate of Greg's.\nLaine MacNeil as Patty Farrell, Greg's arch-enemy.\nAlex Ferris as Collin Lee, Rowley's substitute best friend during his fight with Greg.\nAndrew McNee as Coach Malone, Greg's gym teacher.\nConnor and Owen Fielding as Manny Heffley, Greg's little brother.\nBelita Moreno as Mrs. Norton, Greg's acting teacher.", "Zachary Gordon as Greg Heffley.", "Robert Capron as Rowley Jefferson, Greg's childish best friend.", "Devon Bostick as Rodrick Heffley, Greg's older brother.", "Steve Zahn as Frank Heffley, Greg's father.", "Rachael Harris as Susan Heffley, Greg's mother.", "Chloë Grace Moretz as Angie Steadman, a seventh grader at Greg's school who is a reporter for the school paper.", "Karan Brar as Chirag Gupta, a friend of Greg's.", "Grayson Russell as Fregley, a weird classmate of Greg's.", "Laine MacNeil as Patty Farrell, Greg's arch-enemy.", "Alex Ferris as Collin Lee, Rowley's substitute best friend during his fight with Greg.", "Andrew McNee as Coach Malone, Greg's gym teacher.", "Connor and Owen Fielding as Manny Heffley, Greg's little brother.", "Belita Moreno as Mrs. Norton, Greg's acting teacher.", "Filming of Diary of a Wimpy Kid was in Vancouver and wrapped up on October 16, 2009.", "The official trailer for Wimpy Kid was released virally on January 21, 2010 and was shown in theaters with Tooth Fairy.[8] A poster for the film was released shortly after. Another trailer was shown with Percy Jackson & the Olympians: The Lightning Thief.[9]", "The official Facebook account for Wimpy Kid had uploaded three clips from the film, as of March 1, 2010.[10]\nIn the United Kingdom and Ireland the film was released in cinemas on August 25, 2010.", "The soundtrack was released on CD by La La Land Records with the score composed by Theodore Shapiro, containing 34 tracks.", "A tie-in book, written by Kinney, called The Wimpy Kid Movie Diary was published on March 16, 2010, by Amulet Books (an imprint of Abrams Books). It includes film stills, storyboards, preliminary concept drawings, and also behind the scenes information to humorously chronicle the making of the film. It also includes some new illustrations.[11][12]", "The film was released on DVD and Blu-ray on August 3, 2010. The Blu-ray Version features six pages from Rowley's diary, Diary of an Awesome, Friendly Kid.", "Review aggregator site Rotten Tomatoes gives the film an approval rating of 53%, based on 106 reviews with an average rating of 5.5/10. The website's critical consensus reads, \"Unlike its bestselling source material, Diary of a Wimpy Kid fails to place a likable protagonist at the center of its middle-school humor – and its underlying message is drowned out as a result.\"[13] It also holds a rating of 56/100 at Metacritic, based on 26 reviews, indicating \"mixed or average reviews\".[14] Roger Ebert gave the film three-and-a-half stars out of four, writing \"It's nimble, bright and funny. It doesn't dumb down. It doesn't patronize. It knows something about human nature.\"[15] Glenn Whipp of the Associated Press was less positive, saying, \"In transferring the clean, precise humor of Kinney's illustrations and prose to the big-screen, the material loses just a bit of its charm.\"[16] At the Movies host David Stratton gave the film one star while co-host Margaret Pomeranz gave it half a star. Stratton called the film \"tiresome\" and said there was \"nothing remotely interesting in Thor Freudenthal's direction or the screenplay.\" Pomeranz disliked the character of Greg Heffley, saying \"I really thought he was unpleasant. I did not want to spend time with him. I could not wait for the end of this film.\"[17]", "The film opened in second place at the weekend box office grossing $22.1 million, behind Alice in Wonderland.[18]", "Despite a lack of distinctive marketing, Diary of a Wimpy Kid drew a decent crowd, opening to $22.1 million on approximately 3,400 screens at 3,077 sites, notably beating out the heavily hyped The Bounty Hunter. It was the biggest start ever for a non-animated, non-fantasy children's book adaptation. Diary of a Wimpy Kid grossed more in its first three days than other film adaptions to children's novels like How to Eat Fried Worms and Hoot grossed in their entire runs.[18] The film grossed $64,003,625 in North America and $11,696,873 in other territories for a worldwide total of $75,700,498.[19]", "Year\nAward\nCategory\nRecipient(s)\nResult\nRef.\n\n\n2011\n\nNickelodeon Kids' Choice Award\n\nFavorite Movie\n\nDiary of a Wimpy Kid\n\nNominated\n\n\n\n\n2011\n\nYoung Artist Award\n\nBest Performance in a Feature Film - Leading Young Actor\n\nZachary Gordon\n\nNominated\n\n[20]\n\n\nBest Performance in a Feature Film - Supporting Young Actor\n\nRobert Capron\n\nNominated\n\n\nBest Performance in a Feature Film - Supporting Young Actor\n\nAlex Ferris\n\nNominated\n\n\nBest Performance in a Feature Film - Supporting Young Actress\n\nLaine MacNeil\n\nNominated\n\n\nBest Performance in a Feature Film - Young Ensemble Cast\n\nZachary Gordon, Robert Capron, Devon Bostick, Chloë Grace Moretz, Laine MacNeil, Grayson Russell, Karan Brar, and Alex Ferris\n\nNominated", "Year\nAward\nCategory\nRecipient(s)\nResult\nRef.", "2011\n\nNickelodeon Kids' Choice Award\n\nFavorite Movie\n\nDiary of a Wimpy Kid\n\nNominated", "2011\n\nYoung Artist Award\n\nBest Performance in a Feature Film - Leading Young Actor\n\nZachary Gordon\n\nNominated\n\n[20]", "Best Performance in a Feature Film - Supporting Young Actor\n\nRobert Capron\n\nNominated", "Best Performance in a Feature Film - Supporting Young Actor\n\nAlex Ferris\n\nNominated", "Best Performance in a Feature Film - Supporting Young Actress\n\nLaine MacNeil\n\nNominated", "Best Performance in a Feature Film - Young Ensemble Cast\n\nZachary Gordon, Robert Capron, Devon Bostick, Chloë Grace Moretz, Laine MacNeil, Grayson Russell, Karan Brar, and Alex Ferris\n\nNominated", "Three sequels were released in 2011, 2012 and 2017 respectively. Diary of a Wimpy Kid: Rodrick Rules was released on March 25, 2011. It was based on the second book in the series, Rodrick Rules. Zachary Gordon reprised his role in the film. Diary of a Wimpy Kid: Dog Days was released on August 3, 2012 and is based on The Last Straw and Dog Days, including scenes from both books. An animated short film, Diary of a Wimpy Kid: Class Clown, was released along with the DVD of Diary of a Wimpy Kid: Dog Days. A film based on The Long Haul was released in May 2017 featuring a new cast starring Jason Drucker, Alicia Silverstone, and Tom Everett Scott." ]
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[ 48 ]
where was beasts of the southern wild filmed
Beasts of the Southern Wild
[ "Beasts of the Southern Wild\n\n\n\nTheatrical release poster\n\n\n\nDirected by\nBenh Zeitlin\n\n\nProduced by\nDan Janvey\nJosh Penn\nMichael Gottwald\n\n\nScreenplay by\nLucy Alibar\nBenh Zeitlin\n\n\nBased on\nJuicy and Delicious\nby Lucy Alibar\n\n\nStarring\nQuvenzhané Wallis\nDwight Henry\n\n\nNarrated by\nQuvenzhané Wallis\n\n\nMusic by\nDan Romer\nBenh Zeitlin\n\n\nCinematography\nBen Richardson\n\n\nEdited by\nCrockett Doob\nAffonso Gonçalves\n\n\n\nProduction\ncompany\n\n\nCinereach\nCourt 13\nJourneyman Pictures\n\n\n\nDistributed by\nFox Searchlight Pictures\n\n\n\nRelease date\n\n\n\n\nJanuary 20, 2012 (2012-01-20) (Sundance)\nJune 27, 2012 (2012-06-27)\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nRunning time\n\n93 minutes[1]\n\n\nCountry\nUnited States\n\n\nLanguage\nEnglish\n\n\nBudget\n$1.8 million\n\n\nBox office\n$21.9 million[2]", "Beasts of the Southern Wild", "Theatrical release poster", "Directed by\nBenh Zeitlin", "Produced by\nDan Janvey\nJosh Penn\nMichael Gottwald", "Screenplay by\nLucy Alibar\nBenh Zeitlin", "Based on\nJuicy and Delicious\nby Lucy Alibar", "Starring\nQuvenzhané Wallis\nDwight Henry", "Narrated by\nQuvenzhané Wallis", "Music by\nDan Romer\nBenh Zeitlin", "Cinematography\nBen Richardson", "Edited by\nCrockett Doob\nAffonso Gonçalves", "Production\ncompany\n\n\nCinereach\nCourt 13\nJourneyman Pictures", "Distributed by\nFox Searchlight Pictures", "Release date\n\n\n\n\nJanuary 20, 2012 (2012-01-20) (Sundance)\nJune 27, 2012 (2012-06-27)", "January 20, 2012 (2012-01-20) (Sundance)\nJune 27, 2012 (2012-06-27)", "January 20, 2012 (2012-01-20) (Sundance)", "June 27, 2012 (2012-06-27)", "Running time\n\n93 minutes[1]", "Country\nUnited States", "Language\nEnglish", "Budget\n$1.8 million", "Box office\n$21.9 million[2]", "Beasts of the Southern Wild is a 2012 American drama film co-written, co-scored and directed by Benh Zeitlin. It was adapted by Zeitlin and Lucy Alibar from Alibar's one-act play Juicy and Delicious. After playing at film festivals, it was released on June 27, 2012, in New York and Los Angeles, and later distribution was expanded.", "The film was nominated for four Academy Awards at the 85th Academy Awards, in the categories Best Picture, Best Director (Benh Zeitlin), Best Adapted Screenplay (Lucy Alibar, Benh Zeitlin), and Best Actress (Quvenzhané Wallis). At age 9, Wallis became the youngest Best Actress nominee in history.[3][4]", "As a storm approaches a southern Louisiana bayou community called the \"Bathtub\" (a community cut off from the rest of the world by a levee), six-year-old Hushpuppy and her ailing, hot-tempered father Wink are optimistic about their life and their future. The children in school are being taught by Miss Bathsheba about nature and the release of prehistoric aurochs from the melting ice caps. At home, Hushpuppy fends for herself while her father is missing. When he returns, he is wearing a hospital gown and bracelet. They argue, and when Hushpuppy returns to her house, she deliberately sets it on fire. A chase ensues between the two, and she ends up getting slapped by Wink. When she retaliates by punching him in the chest, Wink collapses. Hushpuppy, realizing the damage she has caused, runs for help only to find her father missing when she returns.", "Meanwhile, in the Arctic, the frozen aurochs in an ice shelf start drifting into the ocean.", "Many of the Bathtub residents flee an approaching storm. Wink reappears, staggering along the side of the road; he finds Hushpuppy and takes her home to start barricading before the storm hits. In an effort to make his daughter feel better, Wink attempts to scare off the storm by firing a rifle at the clouds. The next day, the two tour the devastation and connect with surviving residents.", "The Bathtub residents celebrate the end of the storm and make plans to rebuild their community, but the environment is damaged because the salt water surge from the storm has contaminated the fresh water supply. Wink hatches a plan to drain the water away by destroying the levee. He and a small group of friends plant dynamite and blow a hole in the wall using an alligator gar, and the water recedes. Authorities arrive and enforce a mandatory evacuation order, removing the residents of the Bathtub to an emergency shelter. Wink receives surgery, but it is too late to restore his health. At the first opportunity, the evacuees escape back to their homes.", "Aware of her father’s condition, Hushpuppy searches for her absent mother. She and her friends swim to a boat, which takes them to a floating bar known as the Elysian Fields. Hushpuppy meets a cook who may be her mother, though the woman doesn't recognize her. The cook says that the girl can stay with her if she wants, but Hushpuppy says she needs to go home. Hushpuppy and her friends return home where she confronts the aurochs. As the aurochs leave, Hushpuppy returns home. She says her last goodbyes to the dying Wink, listening to his last heartbeat. She sets his funeral pyre ablaze, standing together with the remaining residents of the Bathtub.", "Quvenzhané Wallis as Hushpuppy\nDwight Henry as Wink\nLevy Easterly as Jean Battiste\nPhilip Lawrence as Dr. Maloney\nGina Montana as Miss Bathsheba\nLowell Landes as Walrus\nJonshel Alexander as Joy Strong\nMarilyn Barbarin as Cabaret singer\nKaliana Brower as T-Lou\nNicholas Clark as Sticks\nHenry D. Coleman as Peter T", "Quvenzhané Wallis as Hushpuppy", "Dwight Henry as Wink", "Levy Easterly as Jean Battiste", "Philip Lawrence as Dr. Maloney", "Gina Montana as Miss Bathsheba", "Lowell Landes as Walrus", "Jonshel Alexander as Joy Strong", "Marilyn Barbarin as Cabaret singer", "Kaliana Brower as T-Lou", "Nicholas Clark as Sticks", "Henry D. Coleman as Peter T", "The film's fictional setting, \"Isle de Charles Doucet\", known to its residents as the Bathtub, was inspired by several isolated and independent fishing communities threatened by erosion, hurricanes and rising sea levels in Louisiana's Terrebonne Parish, most notably the rapidly eroding Isle de Jean Charles. It was filmed in Terrebonne Parish town Montegut.[5]", "The film was shot on 16mm film, and director Benh Zeitlin created the production with a small professional crew and dozens of local residents in and around Montegut, Louisiana. The filmmakers call themselves \"Court 13\" and are the first credited at the end of the film.[6] At her audition, Quvenzhané Wallis (who was five years old,[7][8] though the casting call had been for girls between six and nine) impressed the filmmakers with her reading ability, tremendous scream and ability to burp on command, all of which are used in the film.[9] Dwight Henry, who plays Wink, was not looking for an acting job and had no acting experience. As he explained in an interview with the San Diego Reader:", "Before I was cast in the part I owned a bakery called Henry's Bakery and Deli right across the street from the casting agency where Court 13 had their studio. They used to come over and have lunch or breakfast in the morning. After a few months we kinda developed a relationship. They used to put these fliers in the bakery with a phone number to call if you were interested in appearing in one of their movies.[10]", "During a slow hour, he read for the part, and was chosen. But at the time, Henry was in the middle of moving to a larger building (which would become the Buttermilk Drop Bakery and Café, in the Tremé neighborhood of New Orleans[11][12]), and the filmmakers had trouble finding him. He explained that he could not leave a new business, but they were determined to have him. Henry concluded, \"I was in Hurricane Katrina in neck-high water. I have an inside understanding for what this movie is about. I brought a passion to the part that an outside actor who had never seen a storm or been in a flood or faced losing everything couldn't have. … I was two-years-old when Hurricane Betsy hit New Orleans and my parents had to put me on the roof of the house. An outsider couldn't have brought the passion to the role that I did.\"[10]", "The film has received largely positive critical reviews. According to Metacritic, which assigns aggregate scores from the amount of positive or negative critical reviews of films, Beasts of the Southern Wild has an 86/100 based on 44 critic reviews, indicating \"universal acclaim\".[13] Similarly, Rotten Tomatoes reports that the film has received a \"Certified Fresh\" rating of 86% from 186 reviews (160 positive, 26 negative) with an average score of 8.2/10, with the consensus: \"Beasts of the Southern Wild is a fantastical, emotionally powerful journey and a strong case of filmmaking that values imagination over money.\"[14] The film was designated a 2012 \"Critics' Pick\" by the reviewers of The New York Times. Author and critic A. O. Scott, writing for The New York Times, calls Beasts a", "\"blast of sheer, improbable joy, a boisterous, thrilling action movie with a protagonist who can hold her own... Hushpuppy, the 6-year-old heroine of 'Beasts of the Southern Wild,' has a smile to charm fish out of the water and a scowl so fierce it can stop monsters in their tracks. The movie, a passionate and unruly explosion of Americana, directed by Benh Zeitlin, winks at skepticism, laughs at sober analysis and stares down criticism.\"[15]", "Scott subsequently named Beasts of the Southern Wild the third-best film of 2012.[16] Roger Ebert called the film a \"remarkable creation... Sometimes miraculous films come into being, made by people you've never heard of, starring unknown faces, blindsiding you with creative genius. \"Beasts of the Southern Wild\" is one of the year's best films.\"[17]", "Michael Phillips of the Chicago Tribune said that Beasts was \"the most divisive film of 2012,\" opining that \"The filmmaker comes from a perspective of great empathy and considerable skill. But he's a pile driver as a dramatist. The film's screw-tightening methods are so overbearing, the story, the characters, the little girl's plight have to struggle to breathe or develop anything like an inner life.\"[18] Author and activist bell hooks wrote a negative review of the film, saying \"the vibrancy in this film is generated by a crude pornography of violence\" and calling Hushpuppy \"a miniature version of the ‘strong black female matriarch,’ racist and sexist representations have depicted from slavery on into the present day.\"[19]", "The performance of newcomer Quvenzhané Wallis has been met with critical acclaim. Amy Biancolli of the San Francisco Chronicle says,", "\"Regarding Wallis' performance as Hushpuppy: it isn't one. It's a fact. Onscreen she simply is, a being as elemental, incontestable and strong as the advancing aurochs. She was 6 when the film was shot, yet the ferociousness of her presence – the anger and wisdom inside her – suggest someone older or ageless.\"[20]", "Lou Lumenick of the New York Post says that, upon second viewing,", "\"the best reason to wade into this (let’s be honest) challenging but hugely rewarding film is Quvenzhané Wallis — a 6-year-old with no acting experience at the time of filming — who’s unforgettable as the film’s fierce young protagonist... It’s the effortlessly charismatic Wallis who deserves a Best Actress Oscar nomination.\"[21]", "Peter Travers of Rolling Stone describes Wallis as \"flat-out amazement.\" He adds that \"there's no way you won't be captivated by Wallis, chosen ahead of 3,500 candidates to play the tiny folk hero who narrates the story. Her performance in this deceptively small film is a towering achievement.\" [22]", "A.O. Scott of The New York Times describes the character of Hushpuppy, \"Played by Quvenzhané Wallis, an untrained sprite who holds the camera’s attention with a charismatic poise that might make grown-up movie stars weep in envy, Hushpuppy is an American original, a rambunctious blend of individualism and fellow feeling.\" [23] Roger Ebert wrote in his positive review for the Chicago Sun-Times, that Hushpuppy is \"played by a force of nature named Quvenzhané Wallis... She is so uniquely and particularly herself that I wonder if the movie would have been possible without her.\" [24] On January 10, 2013, Wallis was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress. At 9 years old, she is the youngest ever nominee in that category.[25]", "In an interview with People magazine, President Barack Obama described the film as \"spectacular.\"[26] The film's acclaim resulted in its Centerpiece screening at the 2012 Traverse City Film Festival.[27] Sight & Sound film magazine listed the film at #5 on its list of best films of 2012.[28]", "The film won the Caméra d'Or award at the 2012 Cannes Film Festival[29] after competing in the Un Certain Regard section.[30][31] It also won the Grand Jury Prize: Dramatic at the 2012 Sundance Film Festival, where it premiered,[32] and the Grand Jury Prize at the 2012 Deauville American Film Festival. The film went on to earn the Los Angeles Film Festival's Audience Award for Best Narrative Feature and the Seattle International Film Festival's Golden Space Needle Award for Best Director.[33] In October, it was announced that the film had won the Sutherland Trophy for Most Innovative Debut.[34] On January 10, 2013, the film was nominated for four Oscars, in the categories of Best Picture, Best Director (Benh Zeitlin), Best Actress (Quvenzhané Wallis), and Adapted Screenplay (Lucy Alibar & Benh Zeitlin).[35][36] The script won the 2012 Ray Bradbury Award for Outstanding Dramatic Presentation from the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America.[37]" ]
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[ 42 ]
who has the biggest ballpark in the mlb
List of current Major League Baseball stadiums
[ "The following is a list of Major League Baseball stadiums, their locations, their first year of usage and home teams.", "The newest Major League Baseball (MLB) ballpark is SunTrust Park in Cumberland, Georgia, home of the Atlanta Braves, which opened for the 2017 season. Fenway Park in Boston, home of the Boston Red Sox, is the oldest, having opened in 1912.", "Ten MLB stadiums do not have corporate naming rights deals. They are: Angel Stadium, Dodger Stadium, Fenway Park, Kauffman Stadium, Marlins Park, Nationals Park, Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum, Oriole Park at Camden Yards, Wrigley Field, and Yankee Stadium. Wrigley Field is named for former Chicago Cubs owner William Wrigley Jr. and not the Wrigley Company; Kauffman Stadium is named for original Kansas City Royals owner Ewing Kauffman, who brought baseball back to Kansas City; and Fenway Park is named for the Fenway–Kenmore neighborhood of Boston it is located in.", "Denotes stadium with a retractable roof.\n\n\nDenotes stadium with a fixed roof.", "Denotes stadium with a retractable roof.", "Denotes stadium with a fixed roof.", "Image\nName\nSeating capacity\nLocation\nPlaying surface\nTeam\nOpened\nDistance to center field\nBallpark typology\nRoof type\n\n\n\nAngel Stadium of Anaheim\n45,477[1]\nAnaheim, California\nGrass\nLos Angeles Angels\n1966\n396 feet (121 m)\nModern\nRetro Modern\nOpen\n\n\n\nAT&T Park\n41,915[2]\nSan Francisco, California\nGrass\nSan Francisco Giants\n2000\n399 feet (122 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen\n\n\n\nBusch Stadium\n45,529[3]\nSt. Louis, Missouri\nGrass\nSt. Louis Cardinals\n2006\n400 feet (122 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen\n\n\n\nChase Field\n48,686[4]\nPhoenix, Arizona\nGrass\nArizona Diamondbacks\n1998\n407 feet (124 m)\nRetro Modern\nRetractable\n\n\n\nCiti Field\n41,922[5]\nQueens, New York\nGrass\nNew York Mets\n2009\n408 feet (124 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen\n\n\n\nCitizens Bank Park\n43,651\nPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania\nGrass\nPhiladelphia Phillies\n2004\n401 feet (122 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen\n\n\n\nComerica Park\n41,299[6]\nDetroit, Michigan\nGrass\nDetroit Tigers\n2000\n420 feet (128 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen\n\n\n\nCoors Field\n50,398[7]\nDenver, Colorado\nGrass\nColorado Rockies\n1995\n415 feet (126 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen\n\n\n\nDodger Stadium\n56,000[8]\nLos Angeles, California\nGrass\nLos Angeles Dodgers[nb 1]\n1962\n400 feet (122 m)\nModern\nOpen\n\n\n\nFenway Park\n37,731[9]\nBoston, Massachusetts\nGrass\nBoston Red Sox[nb 2]\n1912\n420 feet (128 m)\nJewel Box\nOpen\n\n\n\nGlobe Life Park in Arlington\n48,114[10]\nArlington, Texas\nGrass\nTexas Rangers\n1994\n400 feet (122 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen\n\n\n\nGreat American Ball Park\n42,319\nCincinnati, Ohio\nGrass\nCincinnati Reds\n2003\n404 feet (123 m)\nRetro Modern\nOpen\n\n\n\nGuaranteed Rate Field\n40,615\nChicago, Illinois\nGrass\nChicago White Sox\n1991\n400 feet (122 m)\nModern\nRetro Classic\nOpen\n\n\n\nKauffman Stadium\n37,903[11]\nKansas City, Missouri\nGrass\nKansas City Royals\n1973\n410 feet (125 m)\nModern\nRetro Modern\nOpen\n\n\n\nMarlins Park\n36,742\nMiami, Florida\nGrass\nMiami Marlins\n2012\n407 feet (124 m)\nContemporary[12]\nRetractable\n\n\n\nMiller Park\n41,900[13]\nMilwaukee, Wisconsin\nGrass\nMilwaukee Brewers\n2001\n400 feet (122 m)\nRetro Modern\nRetractable\n\n\n\nMinute Maid Park\n41,168[14]\nHouston, Texas\nGrass\nHouston Astros\n2000\n409 feet (125 m)[15]\nRetro Modern\nRetractable\n\n\n\nNationals Park\n41,339[16]\nWashington, D.C.\nGrass\nWashington Nationals\n2008\n402 feet (123 m)\nRetro Modern\nOpen\n\n\n\nOakland–Alameda County Coliseum[17]\n47,170[18]\nOakland, California\nGrass\nOakland Athletics\n1966[nb 3]\n400 feet (122 m)\nMultipurpose\nOpen\n\n\n\nOriole Park at Camden Yards\n45,971[19]\nBaltimore, Maryland\nGrass\nBaltimore Orioles\n1992\n410 feet (125 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen\n\n\n\nPetco Park\n40,209[20]\nSan Diego, California\nGrass\nSan Diego Padres\n2004\n396 feet (121 m)\nRetro Modern\nOpen\n\n\n\nPNC Park\n38,362\nPittsburgh, Pennsylvania\nGrass\nPittsburgh Pirates\n2001\n399 feet (122 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen\n\n\n\nProgressive Field\n35,051[21]\nCleveland, Ohio\nGrass\nCleveland Indians\n1994\n410 feet (125 m)\nRetro Modern\nOpen\n\n\n\nRogers Centre\n49,282\nToronto, Ontario\nAstroTurf GameDay Grass 3D\nToronto Blue Jays\n1989\n400 feet (122 m)\nMultipurpose\nRetractable\n\n\n\nSafeco Field\n47,943[22]\nSeattle, Washington\nGrass\nSeattle Mariners\n1999\n401 feet (122 m)\nRetro Modern\nRetractable\n\n\n\nSunTrust Park\n41,149[23]\nCumberland, Georgia\nGrass\nAtlanta Braves\n2017\n400 feet (122 m)\nRetro Modern\nOpen\n\n\n\nTarget Field\n38,885[24]\nMinneapolis, Minnesota\nGrass\nMinnesota Twins\n2010\n404 feet (123 m)\nRetro Modern\nOpen\n\n\n\nTropicana Field\n31,042[25]\nSt. Petersburg, Florida\nAstroTurf GameDay Grass\nTampa Bay Rays\n1990\n404 feet (123 m)\nMultipurpose\nFixed\n\n\n\nWrigley Field\n41,268[26]\nChicago, Illinois\nGrass\nChicago Cubs\n1914[nb 4]\n400 feet (122 m)\nJewel Box\nOpen\n\n\n\nYankee Stadium\n47,422[27]\nBronx, New York\nGrass\nNew York Yankees\n2009\n408 feet (124 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen", "Image\nName\nSeating capacity\nLocation\nPlaying surface\nTeam\nOpened\nDistance to center field\nBallpark typology\nRoof type", "Angel Stadium of Anaheim\n45,477[1]\nAnaheim, California\nGrass\nLos Angeles Angels\n1966\n396 feet (121 m)\nModern\nRetro Modern\nOpen", "AT&T Park\n41,915[2]\nSan Francisco, California\nGrass\nSan Francisco Giants\n2000\n399 feet (122 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen", "Busch Stadium\n45,529[3]\nSt. Louis, Missouri\nGrass\nSt. Louis Cardinals\n2006\n400 feet (122 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen", "Chase Field\n48,686[4]\nPhoenix, Arizona\nGrass\nArizona Diamondbacks\n1998\n407 feet (124 m)\nRetro Modern\nRetractable", "Citi Field\n41,922[5]\nQueens, New York\nGrass\nNew York Mets\n2009\n408 feet (124 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen", "Citizens Bank Park\n43,651\nPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania\nGrass\nPhiladelphia Phillies\n2004\n401 feet (122 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen", "Comerica Park\n41,299[6]\nDetroit, Michigan\nGrass\nDetroit Tigers\n2000\n420 feet (128 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen", "Coors Field\n50,398[7]\nDenver, Colorado\nGrass\nColorado Rockies\n1995\n415 feet (126 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen", "Dodger Stadium\n56,000[8]\nLos Angeles, California\nGrass\nLos Angeles Dodgers[nb 1]\n1962\n400 feet (122 m)\nModern\nOpen", "Fenway Park\n37,731[9]\nBoston, Massachusetts\nGrass\nBoston Red Sox[nb 2]\n1912\n420 feet (128 m)\nJewel Box\nOpen", "Globe Life Park in Arlington\n48,114[10]\nArlington, Texas\nGrass\nTexas Rangers\n1994\n400 feet (122 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen", "Great American Ball Park\n42,319\nCincinnati, Ohio\nGrass\nCincinnati Reds\n2003\n404 feet (123 m)\nRetro Modern\nOpen", "Guaranteed Rate Field\n40,615\nChicago, Illinois\nGrass\nChicago White Sox\n1991\n400 feet (122 m)\nModern\nRetro Classic\nOpen", "Kauffman Stadium\n37,903[11]\nKansas City, Missouri\nGrass\nKansas City Royals\n1973\n410 feet (125 m)\nModern\nRetro Modern\nOpen", "Marlins Park\n36,742\nMiami, Florida\nGrass\nMiami Marlins\n2012\n407 feet (124 m)\nContemporary[12]\nRetractable", "Miller Park\n41,900[13]\nMilwaukee, Wisconsin\nGrass\nMilwaukee Brewers\n2001\n400 feet (122 m)\nRetro Modern\nRetractable", "Minute Maid Park\n41,168[14]\nHouston, Texas\nGrass\nHouston Astros\n2000\n409 feet (125 m)[15]\nRetro Modern\nRetractable", "Nationals Park\n41,339[16]\nWashington, D.C.\nGrass\nWashington Nationals\n2008\n402 feet (123 m)\nRetro Modern\nOpen", "Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum[17]\n47,170[18]\nOakland, California\nGrass\nOakland Athletics\n1966[nb 3]\n400 feet (122 m)\nMultipurpose\nOpen", "Oriole Park at Camden Yards\n45,971[19]\nBaltimore, Maryland\nGrass\nBaltimore Orioles\n1992\n410 feet (125 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen", "Petco Park\n40,209[20]\nSan Diego, California\nGrass\nSan Diego Padres\n2004\n396 feet (121 m)\nRetro Modern\nOpen", "PNC Park\n38,362\nPittsburgh, Pennsylvania\nGrass\nPittsburgh Pirates\n2001\n399 feet (122 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen", "Progressive Field\n35,051[21]\nCleveland, Ohio\nGrass\nCleveland Indians\n1994\n410 feet (125 m)\nRetro Modern\nOpen", "Rogers Centre\n49,282\nToronto, Ontario\nAstroTurf GameDay Grass 3D\nToronto Blue Jays\n1989\n400 feet (122 m)\nMultipurpose\nRetractable", "Safeco Field\n47,943[22]\nSeattle, Washington\nGrass\nSeattle Mariners\n1999\n401 feet (122 m)\nRetro Modern\nRetractable", "SunTrust Park\n41,149[23]\nCumberland, Georgia\nGrass\nAtlanta Braves\n2017\n400 feet (122 m)\nRetro Modern\nOpen", "Target Field\n38,885[24]\nMinneapolis, Minnesota\nGrass\nMinnesota Twins\n2010\n404 feet (123 m)\nRetro Modern\nOpen", "Tropicana Field\n31,042[25]\nSt. Petersburg, Florida\nAstroTurf GameDay Grass\nTampa Bay Rays\n1990\n404 feet (123 m)\nMultipurpose\nFixed", "Wrigley Field\n41,268[26]\nChicago, Illinois\nGrass\nChicago Cubs\n1914[nb 4]\n400 feet (122 m)\nJewel Box\nOpen", "Yankee Stadium\n47,422[27]\nBronx, New York\nGrass\nNew York Yankees\n2009\n408 feet (124 m)\nRetro Classic\nOpen", "Rendering\nStadium\nEstimated capacity\nLocation\nPlaying surface\nTeam\nEstimated\nopening date\nDistance to\ncenter field\nBallpark typology\nRoof type\nStatus\n\n\n\nGlobe Life Field\n41,000\nArlington, Texas\nGrass\nTexas Rangers\n2020\n\n\nRetractable\nUnder Construction[28]\n\n\n\nOakland Ballpark\n35,000\nOakland, California\nGrass\nOakland Athletics\n2023\n\n\n\nProposed", "Rendering\nStadium\nEstimated capacity\nLocation\nPlaying surface\nTeam\nEstimated\nopening date\nDistance to\ncenter field\nBallpark typology\nRoof type\nStatus", "Globe Life Field\n41,000\nArlington, Texas\nGrass\nTexas Rangers\n2020\n\n\nRetractable\nUnder Construction[28]", "Oakland Ballpark\n35,000\nOakland, California\nGrass\nOakland Athletics\n2023\n\n\n\nProposed" ]
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[ 16 ]
when does blair and chuck get in a car accident
Riding in Town Cars with Boys
[ "hideThis article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nThis article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nThis article consists almost entirely of a plot summary. It should be expanded to provide more balanced coverage that includes real-world context. Please edit the article to focus on discussing the work rather than merely reiterating the plot. (July 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)\n\n\n\n\n\n(Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "hideThis article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nThis article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nThis article consists almost entirely of a plot summary. It should be expanded to provide more balanced coverage that includes real-world context. Please edit the article to focus on discussing the work rather than merely reiterating the plot. (July 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)\n\n\n\n\n\n(Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "This article consists almost entirely of a plot summary. It should be expanded to provide more balanced coverage that includes real-world context. Please edit the article to focus on discussing the work rather than merely reiterating the plot. (July 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "This article consists almost entirely of a plot summary. It should be expanded to provide more balanced coverage that includes real-world context. Please edit the article to focus on discussing the work rather than merely reiterating the plot. (July 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "\"Riding in Town Cars With Boys\"\n\n\nGossip Girl episode\n\n\nEpisode no.\nSeason 5\nEpisode 10\n\n\nDirected by\nVince Misiano\n\n\nWritten by\nAmanda Lasher\n\n\nOriginal air date\nDecember 5, 2011 (The CW)\n\n\nEpisode chronology\n\n\n\n\n\n← Previous\n\"Rhodes to Perdition\"\nNext →\n\"The End of the Affair?\"\n\n\n\n\n\nList of Gossip Girl episodes", "\"Riding in Town Cars With Boys\"", "Gossip Girl episode", "Episode no.\nSeason 5\nEpisode 10", "Directed by\nVince Misiano", "Written by\nAmanda Lasher", "Original air date\nDecember 5, 2011 (The CW)", "Episode chronology", "← Previous\n\"Rhodes to Perdition\"\nNext →\n\"The End of the Affair?\"", "← Previous\n\"Rhodes to Perdition\"\nNext →\n\"The End of the Affair?\"", "← Previous\n\"Rhodes to Perdition\"\nNext →\n\"The End of the Affair?\"", "List of Gossip Girl episodes", "\"Riding in Town Cars With Boys\" is the tenth episode of season 5 of the TV series Gossip Girl. The episode was directed by Vince Misiano and written by Amanda Lasher. It was aired on December 5, 2011, on the CW. It is the winter finale with the fifth season starting again on January 16, 2012.", "Similar to previous names in the series, the title of the episode references a work of literature. The title reference is from the 2001 film Riding in Cars with Boys starring Drew Barrymore.", "Serena van der Woodsen (Blake Lively): Serena is very nostalgic in this episode. She looks back and realizes she hasn't found anybody better than Dan or Nate. She and Dan make up and are now friends. After the accident, Serena commits herself to taking Gossip Girl down.", "Nate Archibald (Chace Crawford): Nate is busy with his newspaper as it gets more attention. He finds out that his grandfather arranged his job for him. Also, he is now leading his family in order to maintain their leadership status. He helps Chuck and Blair escape together and witnesses their car wreck first-hand. After the accident, Nate says he will help Serena take Gossip Girl down.", "Blair Waldorf (Leighton Meester): Blair does not hide her conflicted feelings as she comes to realize that there is a possible ending with Chuck in it and not Louis. She tries to stay away from going for Chuck, but she cannot help it. At the end of the episode, her and Chuck get in a car crash due to over-active paparazzi. She survives the crash.", "Chuck Bass (Ed Westwick): After struggling to curb his feelings for Blair and to remain a changed man, Chuck commits himself to Blair and her unborn child. He goes to reveal his love for Blair and she reciprocates her feelings. They run away together but get into a car accident that leaves him in trouble.", "Ivy Dickens (Kaylee DeFer): Charlie is still dealing with Max at her party. After the crash, she tells Rufus that she was the one that sent in the Gossip Girl blast so her party could be shut down and Max wouldn't do too much damage. After telling Rufus, she decides to come clean about her double life but ends up leaving when Lily interrupts her with news of Chuck and Blair.", "Daniel Humphrey (Penn Badgely) Dan finally makes up with Serena. He plays Blair conscience for a day when she shows up at his house asking for advice on who she should pick to raise her baby with. He helps her all day until she comes to the conclusion that she should marry Louis. But, despite her decision, Dan leads her to Chuck knowing that he is the right man for Blair.", "Serena and Lily prepare Charlie for her first debutante ball to welcome her into New York high society, but the vindictive Max is determined to reveal Charlie/Ivy's secret by any means necessary. Meanwhile, Blair must choose where she stands with both Louis and Chuck as she hides out at the Humphrey loft in Brooklyn from the press. Dan realizes that it is time to tell Blair the truth about his feelings for her. Louis returns to New York where he meets with Serena and confides in her about his fears about his future with Blair. Nate learns that his grandfather, William van der Bilt, owns the majority of stock shares at Spectator and he influenced Diana to hire him. William invites Nate to an upstate retreat, but Nate's cousin, Tripp, has been excluded. After Dan sacrifices his own love for Blair for her happiness, Chuck and Blair are hurried into a car from Charlie's debutante ball. Their car is tailed by vicious paparazzi (Charlie sent a blast to Gossip Girl and tipped them off in order to keep them away from her) who cause them to crash, leaving Chuck fighting for his life and the pregnant Blair fighting to keep her baby. After Max's pleas to both Serena and Nate about Charlie's real identity fall on deaf ears, he has a run-in with Tripp van der Bilt whom he apparently tells his story about Ivy. Charlie calls Carol Rhodes to tell her that she is leaving New York City after she tells Rufus that she is a fraud. Also, Diana is called by Jack Bass and informed about Chuck and Blair's car accident; she is somehow involved.", "The episode starts with a recap of the previous episode, \"Rhodes to Perdition\", and the title sequence.", "Charlie is shown cutting her old IDs that have the name \"Ivy Dickens\" on them.", "Serena, Lily, Charlie, Rufus, and Dan are seen at breakfast celebrating the upcoming announcement of Charlie to New York's Upper East Side society. She mentions how appreciative she is of Lily and that she works at The Spectator with Nate again.", "Dan announces that his book is catching more attention lately. Serena and he have a small tiff and Lily mentions they need to move on from Serena ruining Dan's book's chances of becoming a movie.", "Nate is on the phone with an employee and Chuck is looking at an article about how Blair's wedding may be off. Nate suggests that he should call Blair but Chuck doesn't because \"Louis is the father of her child, there's no way she'll give that up\".", "Blair is continuing to have trouble with Louis. Dorota suggests that Louis may not be back yet because Blair still has feelings for Chuck. She instantly shoots them down.", "Serena and Dan are having a good conversation and seem as if they may be making up. Serena says that the book showed each person in it how they don't want to end up. She says how she hasn't changed yet. Dan says maybe she needs to dethrone Gossip Girl.", "Rufus suggests to Dan that he is still in love with BLair and he needs to tell her how he feels even if Blair doesn't reciprocate those feelings and Dan seems like he may listen to his father's advice.", "Nate is at the office when Tripp drops by. Nate mentions how he's going to a retreat with his grandfather while Tripp wasn't invited. Tripp wasn't invited because he had discovered that his wife's fake infidelity was William's doing.", "Blair is feeling the pressure of the paparazzi and decides she needs to leave her penthouse. She receives a call from Dan and ends up at his loft in Brooklyn. Dan asks Blair if the reason Louis isn't around is because of Chuck. Blair admits that she has some feelings for Chuck because he has become the man she's always wanted him to be, but Louis has too. They start a list of pro's and con's but Blair comes to the conclusion that Louis is the father of her child and that she has to stay with him. She asks Dan how it would feel to be a father to another man's baby and he said that it would be worth it.", "Max asks Charlie for more money or he will reveal her lies. She says she can stand anything with her family.", "Serena is looking through old Gossip Girl blasts and comes upon the revelation that, besides Nate, Dan was the last good man she's dated.", "Blair calls Chuck. She asks him if he could love another man's child and expresses how scared she is to choose a man. He tells her that it wouldn't be a mistake to marry the father of her child.", "Nate confronts William van der Bilt about Tripp and his wife and the truth comes out that he had arranged Nate's job at The Spectator. He tells Nate that Nate is the one who knows which way their family needs to go in order to stay leaders. William leaves and Max enters. He pleads to Nate to listen to his story but Nate shuts him out.", "Serena tells Dan that he needs to stay away from Blair. Louis comes to see her and they hang up.", "Charlie comes to see Nate. Nate tells her about Max coming to sell Charlie's story. Nate expresses that he might not go to the weekend trip with his grandfather. Charlie reassures him that he earned his job.", "Lily go to Chuck and asks if he is okay with Blair. She tells him to come to talk to her whenever he feels something for Blair. Chuck says that he doesn't want her to have to bear that burden. Lily says that she's always loved Chuck as her own and she hopes he can feel that love for someone some day.", "Louis expresses his concern for Blair to Serena. Serena tells him he needs to stop scheming in order to be with Blair and gives him her location.", "Blair tells Dan that Chuck said she needs to marry Louis and she is unable to hide her unhappiness. Dan asks her what she really wants and she says she wants to be happy again but doesn't know how to. Dan says he thinks he may know a way.", "William goes to speak with Tripp and is angry with him that Tripp tried to undermine his relationship with Nate. Tripp begs William not to drop him because he needs him to have a career but William ignores him and leaves. Max walks up to Tripp and offers to help him if Tripp with help Max.", "Louis is shown banging on Dan's loft doors when Chuck enters. They get in to the loft but Blair and Dan are not there.", "Dan takes Blair to the party in a fire-lit room. He says that no one knows where they are.", "Max shows up to Charlie's party but Nate stops him. Max tells him that there are people that will want to hear his story. Nate tells him he will make sure that he won't get in and tells Charlie that Max is at the party. Dan takes Chuck to Blair, revealing to all of their friends where Blair is.", "Blair asks Chuck why he's here and he says that Dan arranged it. He says he should have fought for Blair and tells her he wants to raise her baby together. Gossip Girl sends a blast with Blair's location. She decides she needs to leave and Chuck tells her he's leaving with her. Nate helps them leave unnoticed. Lily calls a speech in front of all. She expresses her admiration for her niece and Charlie sees Chuck and Blair leaving. As Blair and Chuck pull away in a limo, a puddle of oil is shown that leaked from the car.", "Dan tells Serena that he didn't tell Blair his feelings because he realized he needed to help Blair towards Chuck. He says that her being with Chuck was what was going to make her happy, which is what he wanted in the first place. Serena says that he's one of the good ones.", "Max calls Charlie and tells her he's leaving and that she will be living a lie for the rest of her life.", "Chuck and Blair are well on their way to leaving but paparazzi are following dangerously. Blair confesses her love for Chuck and that she's going to tell Louis her decision. They speculate about where they're going and Blair finally notices that the paparazzi is following them. Nate realizes he's not going the right way when Blair and Chuck's limo crashes due to the paparazzi.", "Serena and Dan arrive at the hospital and Nate tells them that it is pretty bad. Lily gets off of the phone with Blair's family when Charlie arrives. Serena gets angry and blames the crash on Gossip Girl. Nate says that he will help Serena take down Gossip Girl by using The Spectator to do it.", "Charlie tells Rufus that she sent the Gossip Girl blast because she was scared that Max would do too much damage. Lily arrives back with the others. She says that Blair is awake and responsive but when Serena asks about Chuck, Lily is silent. As Charlie is leaving, a group of medical professionals rush away.", "Diana is seen in a limo. She receives a call from Jack Bass and she says she'll go back to New York." ]
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[]
who sang for tiana in the princess and the frog
The Princess and the Frog (soundtrack)
[ "The Princess and the Frog: Original Songs and Score\n\n\n\n\n\nSoundtrack album by Various Artists\n\n\nReleased\nNovember 23, 2009\n\n\nRecorded\n2009\n\n\nGenre\nJazz, soul, gospel, R&B, zydeco\n\n\nLabel\nWalt Disney\n\n\nProducer\nRandy Newman\n\n\nWalt Disney Animation Studios chronology\n\n\n\n\n\nBolt\n(2008)Bolt2008\nThe Princess and the Frog\n(2009)\nTangled\n(2010)Tangled2010\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nRandy Newman chronology\n\n\n\n\n\nLeatherheads\n(2008) Leatherheads2008\nThe Princess and the Frog\n(2009) The Princess and the Frog2009\nToy Story 3\n(2010) Toy Story 32010\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nSingles from The Princess and the Frog: Original Songs and Score\n\n\n\n\n\n\"Never Knew I Needed\"\nReleased: October 27, 2009", "The Princess and the Frog: Original Songs and Score", "Soundtrack album by Various Artists", "Released\nNovember 23, 2009", "Recorded\n2009", "Genre\nJazz, soul, gospel, R&B, zydeco", "Label\nWalt Disney", "Producer\nRandy Newman", "Walt Disney Animation Studios chronology", "Bolt\n(2008)Bolt2008\nThe Princess and the Frog\n(2009)\nTangled\n(2010)Tangled2010", "Bolt\n(2008)Bolt2008\nThe Princess and the Frog\n(2009)\nTangled\n(2010)Tangled2010", "Bolt\n(2008)Bolt2008\nThe Princess and the Frog\n(2009)\nTangled\n(2010)Tangled2010", "Randy Newman chronology", "Leatherheads\n(2008) Leatherheads2008\nThe Princess and the Frog\n(2009) The Princess and the Frog2009\nToy Story 3\n(2010) Toy Story 32010", "Leatherheads\n(2008) Leatherheads2008\nThe Princess and the Frog\n(2009) The Princess and the Frog2009\nToy Story 3\n(2010) Toy Story 32010", "Leatherheads\n(2008) Leatherheads2008\nThe Princess and the Frog\n(2009) The Princess and the Frog2009\nToy Story 3\n(2010) Toy Story 32010", "Singles from The Princess and the Frog: Original Songs and Score", "\"Never Knew I Needed\"\nReleased: October 27, 2009", "\"Never Knew I Needed\"\nReleased: October 27, 2009", "\"Never Knew I Needed\"\nReleased: October 27, 2009", "The Princess and the Frog: Original Songs and Score is the soundtrack of the 2009 Disney animated film The Princess and the Frog. It was released by Walt Disney Records on November 23, 2009, just a day before the limited release of the film in New York City and Los Angeles. It contains ten original songs and seven score pieces, all but one of which were composed, arranged and conducted by composer Randy Newman.[1] \"Never Knew I Needed\" was written and performed by Ne-Yo. The song had an accompanying music video which featured rotation on Disney Channel. The song was also sent to rhythmic radio on October 27, 2009.[2] The songs are performed by various artists most of which lend their voices to characters in the film. The score features African-American-influenced styles including jazz, zydeco, blues and gospel.[3]", "\"Almost There\" and \"Down in New Orleans\" were both nominated in the Best Original Song category at the 82nd Academy Awards; they lost to \"The Weary Kind\". \"Down in New Orleans\" was also nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media at the 2011 Grammy Awards.[4]", "All tracks written by Randy Newman except \"Never Knew I Needed\" which was written by Ne-Yo.", "No.\nTitle\nPerformer\nLength\n\n\n1.\n\"Never Knew I Needed\"\nNe-Yo\n3:38\n\n\n2.\n\"Down in New Orleans (Prologue)\"\nAnika Noni Rose\n0:28\n\n\n3.\n\"Down in New Orleans\"\nDr. John\n2:27\n\n\n4.\n\"Almost There\"\nAnika Noni Rose\n2:24\n\n\n5.\n\"Friends on the Other Side\"\nKeith David\n3:35\n\n\n6.\n\"When We're Human\"\nMichael-Leon Wooley, Bruno Campos and Anika Noni Rose featuring Terence Blanchard\n2:22\n\n\n7.\n\"Gonna Take You There\"\nJim Cummings featuring Terrance Simien on Accordion\n1:46\n\n\n8.\n\"Ma Belle Evangeline\"\nJim Cummings featuring Terence Blanchard\n1:56\n\n\n9.\n\"Dig a Little Deeper\"\nJenifer Lewis featuring the Pinnacle Gospel Choir and Anika Noni Rose\n2:48\n\n\n10.\n\"Down in New Orleans (Finale)\"\nAnika Noni Rose\n1:38\n\n\n11.\n\"Fairy Tale/Going Home\" (score)\nRandy Newman\n4:17\n\n\n12.\n\"I Know this Story\" (score)\nRandy Newman\n5:27\n\n\n13.\n\"The Frog Hunters/Gator Down\" (score)\nRandy Newman\n6:04\n\n\n14.\n\"Tiana's Bad Dream\" (score)\nRandy Newman\n6:22\n\n\n15.\n\"Ray Laid Low\" (score; with a reprise of \"Almost There\")\nRandy Newman; cameo appearance by Anika Noni Rose\n3:22\n\n\n16.\n\"Ray/Mama Odie\" (score)\nRandy Newman\n4:01\n\n\n17.\n\"This is Gonna Be Good\" (score)\nRandy Newman\n3:20", "No.\nTitle\nPerformer\nLength", "1.\n\"Never Knew I Needed\"\nNe-Yo\n3:38", "2.\n\"Down in New Orleans (Prologue)\"\nAnika Noni Rose\n0:28", "3.\n\"Down in New Orleans\"\nDr. John\n2:27", "4.\n\"Almost There\"\nAnika Noni Rose\n2:24", "5.\n\"Friends on the Other Side\"\nKeith David\n3:35", "6.\n\"When We're Human\"\nMichael-Leon Wooley, Bruno Campos and Anika Noni Rose featuring Terence Blanchard\n2:22", "7.\n\"Gonna Take You There\"\nJim Cummings featuring Terrance Simien on Accordion\n1:46", "8.\n\"Ma Belle Evangeline\"\nJim Cummings featuring Terence Blanchard\n1:56", "9.\n\"Dig a Little Deeper\"\nJenifer Lewis featuring the Pinnacle Gospel Choir and Anika Noni Rose\n2:48", "10.\n\"Down in New Orleans (Finale)\"\nAnika Noni Rose\n1:38", "11.\n\"Fairy Tale/Going Home\" (score)\nRandy Newman\n4:17", "12.\n\"I Know this Story\" (score)\nRandy Newman\n5:27", "13.\n\"The Frog Hunters/Gator Down\" (score)\nRandy Newman\n6:04", "14.\n\"Tiana's Bad Dream\" (score)\nRandy Newman\n6:22", "15.\n\"Ray Laid Low\" (score; with a reprise of \"Almost There\")\nRandy Newman; cameo appearance by Anika Noni Rose\n3:22", "16.\n\"Ray/Mama Odie\" (score)\nRandy Newman\n4:01", "17.\n\"This is Gonna Be Good\" (score)\nRandy Newman\n3:20", "Chart\nPeak\nposition\n\n\nU.S. Billboard 200[5]\n80", "Chart\nPeak\nposition", "U.S. Billboard 200[5]\n80", "Professional ratings\n\n\nReview scores\n\n\nSource\nRating\n\n\nAllmusic\n[6]\n\n\nFilmtracks\n[7]", "Professional ratings", "Review scores", "Source\nRating", "Allmusic\n[6]", "Filmtracks\n[7]", "In 2010, Rhapsody called it one of the all-time great Disney & Pixar soundtracks.[8]" ]
[ "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "list", "list", "text", "text", "text", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "table", "text" ]
[]
who starred in the tv show square pegs
Square Pegs
[ "Square Pegs\nGenre\nSitcomCreated by\nAnne BeattsStarring\nSarah Jessica ParkerAmy LinkerMerritt ButrickJohn FemiaTracy NelsonJami GertzClaudette WellsJon CaliriTheme music composer\nThe WaitressesComposer(s)\nTom Scott (pilot)Paul Shaffer (\"Special Musical Material\", pilot)Jonathan WolffCountry of origin\nUnited StatesOriginal language(s)\nEnglishNo. of seasons\n1No. of episodes\n20 (list of episodes)ProductionProducer(s)\nAnne BeattsLuciano MartinoCinematography\nBrianne MurphyRichard N. HannahEmil OsterEditor(s)\nJoy KamenJoy WilsonCamera setup\nSingle cameraRunning time\n22–24 minutesProduction company(s)\nEmbassy TelevisionDistributor\nColumbia Pictures TelevisionEmbassy Telecommunications(1986)Columbia TriStar TelevisionSony Pictures TelevisionReleaseOriginal network\nCBSAudio format\nMonauralOriginal release\nSeptember 27, 1982 (1982-09-27) – March 7, 1983 (1983-03-07)", "Square Pegs", "Genre\nSitcom", "Created by\nAnne Beatts", "Starring\nSarah Jessica ParkerAmy LinkerMerritt ButrickJohn FemiaTracy NelsonJami GertzClaudette WellsJon Caliri", "Theme music composer\nThe Waitresses", "Composer(s)\nTom Scott (pilot)Paul Shaffer (\"Special Musical Material\", pilot)Jonathan Wolff", "Country of origin\nUnited States", "Original language(s)\nEnglish", "No. of seasons\n1", "No. of episodes\n20 (list of episodes)", "Production", "Producer(s)\nAnne BeattsLuciano Martino", "Cinematography\nBrianne MurphyRichard N. HannahEmil Oster", "Editor(s)\nJoy KamenJoy Wilson", "Camera setup\nSingle camera", "Running time\n22–24 minutes", "Production company(s)\nEmbassy Television", "Distributor\nColumbia Pictures TelevisionEmbassy Telecommunications(1986)Columbia TriStar TelevisionSony Pictures Television", "Release", "Original network\nCBS", "Audio format\nMonaural", "Original release\nSeptember 27, 1982 (1982-09-27) – March 7, 1983 (1983-03-07)", "Square Pegs is an American sitcom that aired on CBS during the 1982–1983 season. The series follows Patty Greene (Sarah Jessica Parker) and Lauren Hutchinson (Amy Linker), two awkward teenage girls desperate to fit in at Weemawee High School.", "Created by former Saturday Night Live writer Anne Beatts, the pilot introduces an eclectic group of eight freshmen on their first day at Weemawee High School. The series was much acclaimed by critics at the time for its realistic look at teenage life, reflecting a sensibility somewhat similar to the John Hughes teen comedies of later years.[1]", "Patty Greene (Sarah Jessica Parker) is a budding young woman, not quite beautiful yet, but well cultured and intelligent. While clever and seemingly well-adjusted, she seems awkward and a social misfit (i.e. a square peg) when amongst the \"popular\" students. Patty hates her eyeglasses, but her father won't let her get contacts (because, he says, her eyes are \"still growing\").", "Patty's very close friend Lauren Hutchinson (Amy Linker) struggles with her weight (the actress needed to wear padding for the role), has braces, wears unusual clothing, and also does not fit in with the popular crowd. However, much more so than Patty, Lauren constantly desires to be in with the in crowd, and the series' episodes revolve more or less around her dragging Patty into various schemes in attempts to make them more popular.", "Lauren and Patty are surrounded by colorful supporting characters. Their friends Marshall Blechtman (John Femia) and Johnny \"Slash\" Ulasewicz (Merritt Butrick) are a pair of lovable geeks. Marshall is a motormouthed would-be comedian, while Johnny is a soft-spoken new wave fan (not punk... \"a totally different head... totally.\") Though seemingly off in his own reality most of the time, Johnny Slash states that he \"[does not] do drugs and isn't a hippie\" and on more than one occasion displays unexpected intuition and empathy, particularly regarding Marshall and the girls. The two help to maintain a school radio station. Several episodes indicate that Marshall is attracted to Lauren and Johnny to Patty.", "The popular kids whom Patty and Lauren are usually trying to impress are Jennifer DiNuccio (Tracy Nelson), the quintessential buxom Valley girl, her boyfriend Vinnie Pasetta (Jon Caliri), a handsome greaser hood, and LaDonna Fredericks (Claudette Wells), Jennifer's friend and the sole minority character in the cast. Vinnie is cool but dense, using the \"Why don't you make like a tree and get out of here?\" line three years before the character Biff in 1985's Back to the Future. LaDonna is known for sassy remarks such as \"Shoot, child, you think this place is crowded? You should have seen our living room when The Jeffersons went to Hawaii. Those were the three worst Sundays of my life.\"", "The typical official high school activity culture is personified by preppy Muffy B. Tepperman (Jami Gertz) who is the endlessly chipper chairperson of the Weemawee Pep Committee, head of the Morals Club, chairman of the Science Fair Committee and member of the Future Nurses of America. Muffy has a memorably pompous, oratorical speaking style and begins many sentences with \"It behooves me to tell you...\" or an elongated \"People...\". Though perhaps even more socially inept (\"I’m going to ignore that because, frankly, I don't get it\"), Muffy's unawareness and/or lack of concern with her failure to fit in with the popular kids is in stark contrast to the motivation of the show's protagonists, and does not stop her from relentless involvement in peppy activities.", "An ongoing gag throughout the series is Muffy's fundraising for Weemawee's adopted \"little Guatemalan child,\" Rosarita. As the series progresses, Muffy's charitable intentions become more and more frivolous, asking the school community to provide the girl with her own apartment away from her parents, cable TV, a second pair of culottes, swimwear, a split-level duplex, and finally, her own cleaning lady.", "This group of eight students, though clearly of varied academic standing, are always in the same classes.", "The recurring staff members at the school are:", "Ms. Alison Loomis (Catlin Adams), a feminist liberal arts teacher who often complains about her ex-husband\nMr. Rob \"Lovebeads\" Donovan (Steven Peterman), who continuously brings up his antics in the 1960s and always stops just short of completing references to smoking pot\nMr. John Michael Spacek (Craig Richard Nelson), the affected but married drama teacher\nDr. Winthrop Dingleman (Basil Hoffman), the grinning, square principal", "Ms. Alison Loomis (Catlin Adams), a feminist liberal arts teacher who often complains about her ex-husband", "Mr. Rob \"Lovebeads\" Donovan (Steven Peterman), who continuously brings up his antics in the 1960s and always stops just short of completing references to smoking pot", "Mr. John Michael Spacek (Craig Richard Nelson), the affected but married drama teacher", "Dr. Winthrop Dingleman (Basil Hoffman), the grinning, square principal", "Series creator Anne Beatts appeared in two episodes as Miss Rezucha.", "Home life of the students is rarely depicted, but Patty's father is prominently featured in the Christmas episode, played by Tony Dow, best known as the character Wally Cleaver in Leave It to Beaver.", "Before the opening credits and theme song begin, every episode starts with the following dialogue appearing in a montage of stills from the school:", "Lauren: Listen. I've got this whole high school thing psyched out. It all breaks down into cliques.Patty: Cliques?Lauren: Yeah, you know. Cliques. Little in-groups of different kids. All we have to do is click with the right clique, and we can finally have a social life that's worthy of us.Patty: No way! Not even with cleavage.Lauren: I tell you, this year we're going to be popular.Patty: Yeah?Lauren: Yeah. Even if it kills us.", "No.\n\nTitle\n\nDirected by\n\nWritten by\n\nOriginal air date\n\nProd.code\n1\"Pilot\"Kim FriedmanAnne BeattsSeptember 27, 1982 (1982-09-27)101\nFreshman Patty gets the chance to \"click with the right clique\" when she attracts the attention of a handsome senior.\n2\"A Cafeteria Line\"Kim FriedmanJanis HirschOctober 4, 1982 (1982-10-04)102\nThe romantic leads in the school musical lead to romance for Patty and Vinnie.\n3\"Pac Man Fever\"Terry HughesMarjorie GrossOctober 11, 1982 (1982-10-11)105\nMarshall loses his comic touch when he becomes possessed by a video game. His only hope for salvation: exorcism by the cleric of comedy, Father Guido Sarducci.\n4\"Square Pigskins\"Kim FriedmanAndy BorowitzOctober 18, 1982 (1982-10-18)104\nLauren talks Patty into joining the Weemawee girls football team — coached by a gung-ho army vet and a women's libber who bristles at the slightest slight.\n5\"Halloween XII\"Terry HughesMarjorie Gross and Susan SilverNovember 1, 1982 (1982-11-01)109\nThe Weemawee High School Halloween dance gets canceled when Muffy spends the entire budget on unnecessary decorations. She feels so guilty that she begs Ms. Loomis to have a slumber party for the girls; Patty and Lauren see this as an opportunity to join in with the popular girls. The girls become scared when they hear noises outside, only to discover that it's Vinnie, Johnny and Marshall. They all calm down until they think they see a dark, monster-like figure moving towards the door...\n6\"A Simple Attachment\"Terry HughesDavid FeltonNovember 8, 1982 (1982-11-08)107\nHopelessly in love with Lauren, Marshall takes an opportunity with the science fair to build a \"love detector.\" His project backfires on him. It also causes problems for happy couples by making other love matches for them.\n7\"Weemaweegate\"Kim FriedmanChris Miller and Michael SuttonNovember 15, 1982 (1982-11-15)108\nVinnie is attempting to become the school mascot but keeps running into problems. School newspaper reporters Patty and Lauren decide to investigate the strange happenings. The clues quickly point to Marshall, but is he being set up?\n8\"Open 24 Hours\"Kim FriedmanDeanne StillmanNovember 22, 1982 (1982-11-22)106\nMarshall becomes Johnny's manager and books his band, a band no one's ever seen, for the gala opening of a supermarket deli counter.\n9\"Muffy's Bat Mitzvah\"Kim FriedmanMargaret Oberman and Rosie ShusterNovember 29, 1982 (1982-11-29)113\nWhen she leaves them off her guest list, Lauren and Patty scheme to get invited to Muffy's bat mitzvah party.\n10\"Hardly Working\"Terry HughesAndy Borowitz and Janis HirschDecember 13, 1982 (1982-12-13)112\nJennifer does the uncoolest thing possible: she gets a job.\n11\"A Child's Christmas in Weemawee: Part 1\"Terry HughesMarjorie Gross and Janis HirschDecember 20, 1982 (1982-12-20)115\nPatty's in a quandary: should she spend Christmas in an isolated cabin with her divorced father, or the way she'd prefer — with her friends at school?\n12\"A Child's Christmas in Weemawee: Part 2\"Terry HughesMarjorie Gross and Janis HirschDecember 20, 1982 (1982-12-20)116\nPatty wants to patch things up with her dad in time to still attend the all-important Weemawee Christmas party.\n13\"It's All How You See Things\"Kim FriedmanJanis HirschDecember 27, 1982 (1982-12-27)110\nPatty thinks that wearing glasses is the cause of her problems, and therefore decides to stop wearing them.\n14\"Merry Pranksters\"Kim Friedman and James Nasella Jr.Deanne StillmanJanuary 10, 1983 (1983-01-10)111\nTo gain popularity Patty and Lauren become expert pranksters. The joke is on them, however, when someone else gets credit for their stunts.\n15\"It's Academical\"Terry HughesAndy BorowitzJanuary 24, 1983 (1983-01-24)114\nThe kids are excited when Dan Vermillion (Martin Mull), host of channel 124's quiz show It's Academical, announces that Weemawee High School has just been selected to compete. This will be a big competition since they will face their arch-rivals, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Tech. Patty is selected along with Muffy and Larry Simpson since they have the three highest grade point averages. Patty sees this as another chance to gain popularity, and maybe Larry as a boyfriend.\n16\"The Stepanowicz Papers\"Terry HughesSusan SilverJanuary 31, 1983 (1983-01-31)103\nWhen Mr. Stepanowicz starts his new job as the school janitor, Lauren dreams of becoming Mrs. Stepanowicz. Patty tries to talk some sense into her friend, but it looks like Lauren needs to learn the hard way.\n17\"To Serve Weemawee All My Days\"Kim FriedmanAndy Borowitz and Janis HirschFebruary 7, 1983 (1983-02-07)117\nMr. Donovan's job is in jeopardy because the school board has discovered he is living with a woman.\n18\"No Substitutions\"Kim FriedmanAndy BorowitzFebruary 14, 1983 (1983-02-14)119\nJack McNulty (Bill Murray) is a substitute teacher who fills in for Ms. Loomis while she is in Reno for a teacher conference. Mr. McNulty sets the kids up with mock marriages to teach them about life, and he quickly becomes their favorite teacher. The kids end up learning a life lesson, just not the one that was planned.\n19\"No Joy in Weemawee\"James Nasella Jr.Marjorie Gross and Deanne StillmanFebruary 21, 1983 (1983-02-21)118\nThe Weemawee Braves are holding baseball tryouts when star pitcher Vinnie harasses Johnny until he finally has had enough and takes a turn at bat. Johnny hits three consecutive pitches for home runs and immediately makes the team. Coach Donovan is beside himself since his school has not won a single baseball game since 1955. Special appearance by then-Los Angeles Dodgers' second baseman Steve Sax.\n20\"The Arrangement\"Craig Richard NelsonAnne Beatts and David SkinnerMarch 7, 1983 (1983-03-07)120\nVinnie needs Patty to help him study for a big math test. If he doesn't pass it, he can't have the party he wants to throw to celebrate his six-month anniversary with Jennifer. By helping Vinnie, Patty and Lauren think the popular kids at school will finally accept them.", "No.\n\nTitle\n\nDirected by\n\nWritten by\n\nOriginal air date\n\nProd.code", "1\"Pilot\"Kim FriedmanAnne BeattsSeptember 27, 1982 (1982-09-27)101", "Freshman Patty gets the chance to \"click with the right clique\" when she attracts the attention of a handsome senior.", "2\"A Cafeteria Line\"Kim FriedmanJanis HirschOctober 4, 1982 (1982-10-04)102", "The romantic leads in the school musical lead to romance for Patty and Vinnie.", "3\"Pac Man Fever\"Terry HughesMarjorie GrossOctober 11, 1982 (1982-10-11)105", "Marshall loses his comic touch when he becomes possessed by a video game. His only hope for salvation: exorcism by the cleric of comedy, Father Guido Sarducci.", "4\"Square Pigskins\"Kim FriedmanAndy BorowitzOctober 18, 1982 (1982-10-18)104", "Lauren talks Patty into joining the Weemawee girls football team — coached by a gung-ho army vet and a women's libber who bristles at the slightest slight.", "5\"Halloween XII\"Terry HughesMarjorie Gross and Susan SilverNovember 1, 1982 (1982-11-01)109", "The Weemawee High School Halloween dance gets canceled when Muffy spends the entire budget on unnecessary decorations. She feels so guilty that she begs Ms. Loomis to have a slumber party for the girls; Patty and Lauren see this as an opportunity to join in with the popular girls. The girls become scared when they hear noises outside, only to discover that it's Vinnie, Johnny and Marshall. They all calm down until they think they see a dark, monster-like figure moving towards the door...", "6\"A Simple Attachment\"Terry HughesDavid FeltonNovember 8, 1982 (1982-11-08)107", "Hopelessly in love with Lauren, Marshall takes an opportunity with the science fair to build a \"love detector.\" His project backfires on him. It also causes problems for happy couples by making other love matches for them.", "7\"Weemaweegate\"Kim FriedmanChris Miller and Michael SuttonNovember 15, 1982 (1982-11-15)108", "Vinnie is attempting to become the school mascot but keeps running into problems. School newspaper reporters Patty and Lauren decide to investigate the strange happenings. The clues quickly point to Marshall, but is he being set up?", "8\"Open 24 Hours\"Kim FriedmanDeanne StillmanNovember 22, 1982 (1982-11-22)106", "Marshall becomes Johnny's manager and books his band, a band no one's ever seen, for the gala opening of a supermarket deli counter.", "9\"Muffy's Bat Mitzvah\"Kim FriedmanMargaret Oberman and Rosie ShusterNovember 29, 1982 (1982-11-29)113", "When she leaves them off her guest list, Lauren and Patty scheme to get invited to Muffy's bat mitzvah party.", "10\"Hardly Working\"Terry HughesAndy Borowitz and Janis HirschDecember 13, 1982 (1982-12-13)112", "Jennifer does the uncoolest thing possible: she gets a job.", "11\"A Child's Christmas in Weemawee: Part 1\"Terry HughesMarjorie Gross and Janis HirschDecember 20, 1982 (1982-12-20)115", "Patty's in a quandary: should she spend Christmas in an isolated cabin with her divorced father, or the way she'd prefer — with her friends at school?", "12\"A Child's Christmas in Weemawee: Part 2\"Terry HughesMarjorie Gross and Janis HirschDecember 20, 1982 (1982-12-20)116", "Patty wants to patch things up with her dad in time to still attend the all-important Weemawee Christmas party.", "13\"It's All How You See Things\"Kim FriedmanJanis HirschDecember 27, 1982 (1982-12-27)110", "Patty thinks that wearing glasses is the cause of her problems, and therefore decides to stop wearing them.", "14\"Merry Pranksters\"Kim Friedman and James Nasella Jr.Deanne StillmanJanuary 10, 1983 (1983-01-10)111", "To gain popularity Patty and Lauren become expert pranksters. The joke is on them, however, when someone else gets credit for their stunts.", "15\"It's Academical\"Terry HughesAndy BorowitzJanuary 24, 1983 (1983-01-24)114", "The kids are excited when Dan Vermillion (Martin Mull), host of channel 124's quiz show It's Academical, announces that Weemawee High School has just been selected to compete. This will be a big competition since they will face their arch-rivals, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Tech. Patty is selected along with Muffy and Larry Simpson since they have the three highest grade point averages. Patty sees this as another chance to gain popularity, and maybe Larry as a boyfriend.", "16\"The Stepanowicz Papers\"Terry HughesSusan SilverJanuary 31, 1983 (1983-01-31)103", "When Mr. Stepanowicz starts his new job as the school janitor, Lauren dreams of becoming Mrs. Stepanowicz. Patty tries to talk some sense into her friend, but it looks like Lauren needs to learn the hard way.", "17\"To Serve Weemawee All My Days\"Kim FriedmanAndy Borowitz and Janis HirschFebruary 7, 1983 (1983-02-07)117", "Mr. Donovan's job is in jeopardy because the school board has discovered he is living with a woman.", "18\"No Substitutions\"Kim FriedmanAndy BorowitzFebruary 14, 1983 (1983-02-14)119", "Jack McNulty (Bill Murray) is a substitute teacher who fills in for Ms. Loomis while she is in Reno for a teacher conference. Mr. McNulty sets the kids up with mock marriages to teach them about life, and he quickly becomes their favorite teacher. The kids end up learning a life lesson, just not the one that was planned.", "19\"No Joy in Weemawee\"James Nasella Jr.Marjorie Gross and Deanne StillmanFebruary 21, 1983 (1983-02-21)118", "The Weemawee Braves are holding baseball tryouts when star pitcher Vinnie harasses Johnny until he finally has had enough and takes a turn at bat. Johnny hits three consecutive pitches for home runs and immediately makes the team. Coach Donovan is beside himself since his school has not won a single baseball game since 1955. Special appearance by then-Los Angeles Dodgers' second baseman Steve Sax.", "20\"The Arrangement\"Craig Richard NelsonAnne Beatts and David SkinnerMarch 7, 1983 (1983-03-07)120", "Vinnie needs Patty to help him study for a big math test. If he doesn't pass it, he can't have the party he wants to throw to celebrate his six-month anniversary with Jennifer. By helping Vinnie, Patty and Lauren think the popular kids at school will finally accept them.", "To accurately reflect high schoolers' tastes of the moment, new wave music was an important facet of the show's style. The show's opening and closing theme songs, \"Square Pegs\", and an untitled instrumental reminiscent of \"Chopsticks\" composed by Tom Scott, are performed by The Waitresses. In some episodes, \"Chopsticks\" is the opening theme and \"Square Pegs\" the closing theme, and in others these are reversed.", "The Waitresses appear in the premiere episode as a band performing at the school dance. They sing \"I Know What Boys Like\" during a scene, and \"Square Pegs\" during the closing credits, with the characters dancing along. Their song \"Christmas Wrapping\" is playing in the popular hangout diner (\"The Grease\") during the Christmas episode. They are mentioned by Jennifer in the episode in which she works at the diner.\nJohn Densmore, original drummer for The Doors, plays himself as a member of Johnny Slash's new wave band, \"Open 24 Hours\" in the episode: \"Open 24 Hours\" (episode #8). He plays the drummer in Johnny's band \"Open 48 Hours\" in the episode \"Muffy's Bat Mitzvah\" (episode #9).\nAlso performing in \"Muffy's Bat Mitzvah\", the new wave band Devo appear as themselves.\nThe walls of the school radio station, run by Marshall, are covered with posters from then-current New Wave acts, including Berlin, The Clash, Missing Persons, Squeeze, Devo, The B-52's, and Laurie Anderson.\nBilly Idol's song \"Dancing with Myself\" is featured in episode #18 (\"No Substitutions\") which guest starred Bill Murray. The song is replaced with generic music in the DVD release, but the original audio is in the version available on iTunes.", "The Waitresses appear in the premiere episode as a band performing at the school dance. They sing \"I Know What Boys Like\" during a scene, and \"Square Pegs\" during the closing credits, with the characters dancing along. Their song \"Christmas Wrapping\" is playing in the popular hangout diner (\"The Grease\") during the Christmas episode. They are mentioned by Jennifer in the episode in which she works at the diner.", "John Densmore, original drummer for The Doors, plays himself as a member of Johnny Slash's new wave band, \"Open 24 Hours\" in the episode: \"Open 24 Hours\" (episode #8). He plays the drummer in Johnny's band \"Open 48 Hours\" in the episode \"Muffy's Bat Mitzvah\" (episode #9).", "Also performing in \"Muffy's Bat Mitzvah\", the new wave band Devo appear as themselves.", "The walls of the school radio station, run by Marshall, are covered with posters from then-current New Wave acts, including Berlin, The Clash, Missing Persons, Squeeze, Devo, The B-52's, and Laurie Anderson.", "Billy Idol's song \"Dancing with Myself\" is featured in episode #18 (\"No Substitutions\") which guest starred Bill Murray. The song is replaced with generic music in the DVD release, but the original audio is in the version available on iTunes.", "The music supervision for the show was handled by Stephen Elvis Smith, although he is credited as Program Coordinator, and later as Associate Producer. The 2008 DVD release of the episodes, which included interviews with the cast, was directed by Stephen Smith and produced by his company Abbey Entertainment.", "US TV Ratings", "Season\n\nEpisodes\n\nStart Date\n\nEnd Date\n\nNielsen Rank\n\nNielsen Rating\n\nTied With\n\n\n1982-83\n\n22\n\nSeptember 27, 1982\n\nMarch 7, 1983\n\n58[2]\n\nN/A\n\nN/A", "Season\n\nEpisodes\n\nStart Date\n\nEnd Date\n\nNielsen Rank\n\nNielsen Rating\n\nTied With", "1982-83\n\n22\n\nSeptember 27, 1982\n\nMarch 7, 1983\n\n58[2]\n\nN/A\n\nN/A", "Original broadcasts: Square Pegs debuted on CBS September 27, 1982 in the 8 P.M. Monday slot, and remained in that slot throughout its one-season run. The show struggled in the ratings against That's Incredible on ABC.\nSyndication: WGBO in Chicago showed reruns of the series in early 1986, and episodes were shown on USA Network in the mid-1990s, and later on Nickelodeon, TVLand, and MeTV.", "Original broadcasts: Square Pegs debuted on CBS September 27, 1982 in the 8 P.M. Monday slot, and remained in that slot throughout its one-season run. The show struggled in the ratings against That's Incredible on ABC.", "Syndication: WGBO in Chicago showed reruns of the series in early 1986, and episodes were shown on USA Network in the mid-1990s, and later on Nickelodeon, TVLand, and MeTV.", "Sony Pictures Home Entertainment released the entire series on DVD in a 3-disc set on May 20, 2008, to coincide with the theatrical release of Sarah Jessica Parker's film Sex and the City: The Movie. On the DVDs, the episodes have been digitally remastered and include eight featurettes called \"Weemawee Yearbook Memories.\" Each featurette focuses on a different cast member and has new interviews with the actors and creator Anne Beatts.", "Also on the DVD are two minisodes from 1980s sitcoms The Facts of Life and Silver Spoons.[3]", "Because the two parts of \"A Child's Christmas in Weemawee\" appear together as one episode, the DVD packaging states that it includes 19 episodes rather than 20.", "On August 27, 2013, it was announced that Mill Creek Entertainment had acquired the rights to various television series from the Sony Pictures library including Square Pegs.[4] They re-released the complete series on DVD on October 21, 2014.[5][6] Unlike Sony Pictures Home Entertainment release, the Mill Creek Entertainment release is two discs instead of three and the featurettes in the former release are not included in the latter release." ]
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what part of the country are you likely to find the majority of the mollisols
Mollisol
[ "Mollisol\n\n\n\nA Mollisol profile\n\n\n\nUsed in\nUSDA soil taxonomy\n\n\nParent material\nLoess, Limestone\n\n\nClimate\nHumid continental, semi-arid", "Mollisol", "A Mollisol profile", "Used in\nUSDA soil taxonomy", "Parent material\nLoess, Limestone", "Climate\nHumid continental, semi-arid", "Mollisols are a soil order in USDA soil taxonomy. Mollisols form in semi-arid to semi-humid areas, typically under a grassland cover. They are most commonly found in the mid-latitudes, namely in North America, mostly east of the Rocky Mountains, in South America in Argentina (Pampas) and Brazil, and in Asia in Mongolia and the Russian Steppes. Their parent material is typically base-rich and calcareous and include limestone, loess, or wind-blown sand. The main processes that lead to the formation of grassland Mollisols are melanisation, decomposition, humification and pedoturbation.", "Mollisols have deep, high organic matter, nutrient-enriched surface soil (A horizon), typically between 60–80 cm in depth. This fertile surface horizon, known as a mollic epipedon, is the defining diagnostic feature of Mollisols. Mollic epipedons result from the long-term addition of organic materials derived from plant roots, and typically have soft, granular, soil structure.", "Mollisols occur in savannahs and mountain valleys (such as Central Asia, or the North American Great Plains). These environments have historically been strongly influenced by fire and abundant pedoturbation from organisms such as ants and earthworms. It was estimated that in 2003, only 14 to 26 percent of grassland ecosystems still remained in a relatively natural state (that is, they were not used for agriculture due to the fertility of the A horizon). Globally, they represent ~7% of ice-free land area. As the world's most agriculturally productive soil order, the Mollisols represent one of the more economically important soil orders.", "Though most of the other soil orders known today existed by the time of the Carboniferous Ice Age 280 million years ago, Mollisols are not known from the paleopedological record any earlier than the Eocene. Their development is very closely associated with the cooling and drying of the global climate that occurred during the Oligocene, Miocene and Pliocene.", "Albolls — wet soils; aquic soil moisture regime with an eluvial horizon\nAquolls — wet soils; aquic soil moisture regime\nCryolls — cold climate; frigid or cryic soil temperature regime\nGelolls — very cold climate; mean annual soil temperature <0°C\nRendolls — lime parent material\nUdolls — humid climate; udic moisture regime\nUstolls — subhumid climate; ustic moisture regime\nXerolls — Mediterranean climate; xeric moisture regime", "Albolls — wet soils; aquic soil moisture regime with an eluvial horizon", "Aquolls — wet soils; aquic soil moisture regime", "Cryolls — cold climate; frigid or cryic soil temperature regime", "Gelolls — very cold climate; mean annual soil temperature <0°C", "Rendolls — lime parent material", "Udolls — humid climate; udic moisture regime", "Ustolls — subhumid climate; ustic moisture regime", "Xerolls — Mediterranean climate; xeric moisture regime", "Soils which are in most ways similar to Mollisols but contain either continuous or discontinuous permafrost and are consequently affected by cryoturbation are common in the high mountain plateaux of Tibet and the Andean altiplano. Such soils are known as Molliturbels or Mollorthels and provide the best grazing land in such cold climates because they are not acidic like many other soils of very cold climates.", "Other soils which have a mollic epipedon are classified as Vertisols because the presence of high shrink swell characteristics and relatively high clay contents takes precedence over the mollic epipedon. These are especially common in parts of South America in the Paraná River basin that have abundant but erratic rainfall and extensive deposition of clay-rich minerals from the Andes. Mollic epipedons also occur in some Andisols but the andic properties take precedence." ]
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[ 8 ]
what are the forms of abuse of power in nigeria
Abuse of power
[ "It has been suggested that this article be merged with Power harassment. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2017.", "It has been suggested that this article be merged with Power harassment. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2017.", "It has been suggested that Abuse of authority be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2017.", "It has been suggested that Abuse of authority be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2017.", "Abuse of power, in the form of \"malfeasance in office\" or \"official misconduct,\" is the commission of an unlawful act, done in an official capacity, which affects the performance of official duties. Malfeasance in office is often grounds for a for cause removal of an elected official by statute or recall election. Abuse of power can also mean a person using the power they have for their own personal gain.", "Institutional abuse is the maltreatment of a person (often children or older adults) by a system of power.[1] This can range from acts similar to home-based child abuse, such as neglect, physical and sexual abuse, to the effects of assistance programs working below acceptable service standards, or relying on harsh or unfair ways to modify behavior.[1]", "This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2018)", "This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2018)", "In February 2010, Judge John Leonardo found that Arpaio \"misused the power of his office to target members of the Board of Supervisors for criminal investigation\".[2]", "In 2008, a federal grand jury began an inquiry of Arpaio for abuse of power, in connection with an FBI investigation.[3][4] On August 31, 2012, the Arizona US Attorney's office announced that it was \"closing its investigation into allegations of criminal conduct\" by Arpaio, without filing charges.[5]", "Arpaio was investigated for politically motivated and \"bogus\" prosecutions, which a former US Attorney called \"utterly unacceptable\".[3][4] Phoenix Mayor Phil Gordon has called Arpaio's \"long list\" of questionable prosecutions \"a reign of terror\".[4]", "Fa Zheng, a Chinese man, was appointed as the Administrator (太守) of Shu commandery (蜀郡) and \"General Who Spreads Martial Might\" (揚武將軍) by Liu Bei. He oversaw administrative affairs in the vicinity of Yi Province's capital Chengdu and served as Liu Bei's chief adviser.[6]", "During this period of time, he abused his power by taking personal revenge against those who offended him before and killing them without reason. Some officials approached Zhuge Liang, another of Liu Bei's key advisers, and urged him to report Fa Zheng's lawless behaviour to their lord and take action against him. However, Zhuge Liang replied, \"When our lord was in Gong'an (公安), he was wary of Cao Cao's influence in the north and fearful of Sun Quan's presence in the east. Even in home territory he was afraid that Lady Sun might stir up trouble. He was in such a difficult situation at the time that he could neither advance nor retreat. Fa Xiaozhi supported and helped him so much, such that he is now able to fly high and no longer remain under others' influence. How can we stop Fa Zheng from behaving as he wishes?\" Zhuge Liang was aware that Liu Bei favoured and trusted Fa Zheng, which was why he refused to intervene in this matter.[7]", "In dictatorial, corrupt, or weak states, police officers may carry out many criminal acts for the ruling regime with impunity. Institutional racism has been found in modern police forces.[8][full citation needed]", "Individual officers, or sometimes whole units, can be corrupt or carry out various forms of police misconduct; this occasionally happens in many forces, but is particularly problematic where police pay is very low unless supplemented by bribes.[9] Police sometimes act with unwarranted brutality when they overreact to confrontational situations,[10] to extract a confession from a person they may or may not genuinely suspect of being guilty,[11][full citation needed] or in other circumstances. Instances of racism occur, even when the police force as a whole is not found to be racist.[12]" ]
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when was the last time oakland raiders won the superbowl
Oakland Raiders
[ "Oakland Raiders\n Current season\nEstablished January 30, 1960; 58 years ago (1960-01-30)[1]First season: 1960Play in Oakland–Alameda County ColiseumOakland, CaliforniaHeadquartered in Alameda, California[2]\n\n\nLogoWordmarkLeague/conference affiliations\n\nAmerican Football League (1960–1969)\n\nWestern Division (1960–1969)\nNational Football League (1970–present)\n\nAmerican Football Conference (1970–present)\nAFC West (1970–present)\n\nCurrent uniform\nTeam colors\nSilver, black[3][4]\n\n         Fight song\n\"The Autumn Wind\"PersonnelOwner(s)\nMark Davis(majority owner)[5][6]President\nMarc BadainGeneral manager\nReggie McKenzieHead coach\nJon Gruden[7][8]Team history\n\nOakland Raiders (1960–1981, 1995–present)\nLos Angeles Raiders (1982–1994)\nTeam nicknames\nSilver and Black\nMen in Black\nTeam of the Decades\nThe World's Team\nRaider Nation\nMalosos (Mexican fan base)[9]\nChampionships\nLeague championships (3†)\n\nAFL championships (pre-1970 AFL–NFL merger) (1)1967\nSuper Bowl championships (3)1976 (XI), 1980 (XV), 1983 (XVIII)\n\nConference championships (4)\n\nAFC: 1976, 1980, 1983, 2002\n\nDivision championships (15)\n\nAFL West: 1967, 1968, 1969\nAFC West: 1970, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1983, 1985, 1990, 2000, 2001, 2002\n† – Does not include the AFL or NFL championships won during the same seasons as the AFL–NFL Super Bowl championships prior to the 1970 AFL–NFL mergerPlayoff appearances (22)\nAFL: 1967, 1968, 1969\nNFL: 1970, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1980, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1990, 1991, 1993, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2016\nHome fields\nKezar Stadium (1960)\nCandlestick Park (1961)\nFrank Youell Field (1962–1965)\nOakland–Alameda County Coliseum (1966–1981, 1995–present)[10][11]\nLos Angeles Memorial Coliseum (1982–1994)\nLas Vegas Stadium (planned for 2020)", "Oakland Raiders", "Current season", "Established January 30, 1960; 58 years ago (1960-01-30)[1]First season: 1960Play in Oakland–Alameda County ColiseumOakland, CaliforniaHeadquartered in Alameda, California[2]", "LogoWordmark", "LogoWordmark", "", "LogoWordmark", "League/conference affiliations", "American Football League (1960–1969)\n\nWestern Division (1960–1969)\nNational Football League (1970–present)\n\nAmerican Football Conference (1970–present)\nAFC West (1970–present)", "American Football League (1960–1969)", "Western Division (1960–1969)", "Western Division (1960–1969)", "National Football League (1970–present)", "American Football Conference (1970–present)\nAFC West (1970–present)", "American Football Conference (1970–present)\nAFC West (1970–present)", "AFC West (1970–present)", "AFC West (1970–present)", "Current uniform", "Team colors\nSilver, black[3][4]", "Silver, black[3][4]", "Fight song\n\"The Autumn Wind\"", "Personnel", "Owner(s)\nMark Davis(majority owner)[5][6]", "President\nMarc Badain", "General manager\nReggie McKenzie", "Head coach\nJon Gruden[7][8]", "Team history", "Oakland Raiders (1960–1981, 1995–present)\nLos Angeles Raiders (1982–1994)", "Oakland Raiders (1960–1981, 1995–present)\nLos Angeles Raiders (1982–1994)", "Oakland Raiders (1960–1981, 1995–present)", "Los Angeles Raiders (1982–1994)", "Team nicknames", "Silver and Black\nMen in Black\nTeam of the Decades\nThe World's Team\nRaider Nation\nMalosos (Mexican fan base)[9]", "Silver and Black\nMen in Black\nTeam of the Decades\nThe World's Team\nRaider Nation\nMalosos (Mexican fan base)[9]", "Silver and Black", "Men in Black", "Team of the Decades", "The World's Team", "Malosos (Mexican fan base)[9]", "Championships", "League championships (3†)\n\nAFL championships (pre-1970 AFL–NFL merger) (1)1967\nSuper Bowl championships (3)1976 (XI), 1980 (XV), 1983 (XVIII)", "League championships (3†)", "AFL championships (pre-1970 AFL–NFL merger) (1)1967", "AFL championships (pre-1970 AFL–NFL merger) (1)1967", "Super Bowl championships (3)1976 (XI), 1980 (XV), 1983 (XVIII)", "Super Bowl championships (3)1976 (XI), 1980 (XV), 1983 (XVIII)", "Conference championships (4)\n\nAFC: 1976, 1980, 1983, 2002", "Conference championships (4)", "AFC: 1976, 1980, 1983, 2002", "AFC: 1976, 1980, 1983, 2002", "Division championships (15)\n\nAFL West: 1967, 1968, 1969\nAFC West: 1970, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1983, 1985, 1990, 2000, 2001, 2002\n† – Does not include the AFL or NFL championships won during the same seasons as the AFL–NFL Super Bowl championships prior to the 1970 AFL–NFL merger", "Division championships (15)", "AFL West: 1967, 1968, 1969\nAFC West: 1970, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1983, 1985, 1990, 2000, 2001, 2002", "AFL West: 1967, 1968, 1969", "AFC West: 1970, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1983, 1985, 1990, 2000, 2001, 2002", "Playoff appearances (22)", "AFL: 1967, 1968, 1969\nNFL: 1970, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1980, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1990, 1991, 1993, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2016", "AFL: 1967, 1968, 1969\nNFL: 1970, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1980, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1990, 1991, 1993, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2016", "AFL: 1967, 1968, 1969", "NFL: 1970, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1980, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1990, 1991, 1993, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2016", "Home fields", "Kezar Stadium (1960)\nCandlestick Park (1961)\nFrank Youell Field (1962–1965)\nOakland–Alameda County Coliseum (1966–1981, 1995–present)[10][11]\nLos Angeles Memorial Coliseum (1982–1994)\nLas Vegas Stadium (planned for 2020)", "Kezar Stadium (1960)\nCandlestick Park (1961)\nFrank Youell Field (1962–1965)\nOakland–Alameda County Coliseum (1966–1981, 1995–present)[10][11]\nLos Angeles Memorial Coliseum (1982–1994)\nLas Vegas Stadium (planned for 2020)", "Kezar Stadium (1960)", "Candlestick Park (1961)", "Frank Youell Field (1962–1965)", "Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum (1966–1981, 1995–present)[10][11]", "Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum (1982–1994)", "Las Vegas Stadium (planned for 2020)", "The Oakland Raiders are a professional American football franchise based in Oakland, California. The Raiders compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member club of the league's American Football Conference (AFC) West division. Founded on January 30, 1960, they played their first regular season game on September 11, 1960, as a charter member of the American Football League (AFL) which merged with the NFL in 1970.", "The Raiders' off-field fortunes have varied considerably over the years. The team's first three years of operation (1960–1962) were marred by poor on-field performance, financial difficulties, and spotty attendance. In 1963, however, the Raiders' fortunes improved dramatically with the introduction of head coach (and eventual owner) Al Davis. In 1967, after several years of improvement, the Raiders reached the postseason for the first time. The team would go on to win its first (and only) AFL Championship that year; in doing so, the Raiders advanced to Super Bowl II, where they were soundly defeated by the Green Bay Packers. Since 1963, the team has won 15 division titles (three AFL and 12 NFL), four AFC Championships (1976, 1980, 1983, and 2002), one AFL Championship (1967), and three Super Bowl Championships (XI, XV, and XVIII). At the end of the NFL's 2017 season, the Raiders boasted a lifetime regular season record of 462 wins, 411 losses, and 11 ties; their lifetime playoff record currently stands at 25 wins and 19 losses.[12]", "The team departed Oakland to play in Los Angeles, California from the 1982 season until the 1994 season before returning to Oakland at the start of the 1995 season. Al Davis owned the team from 1972 until his death in 2011. Control of the franchise was then given to Al's son Mark Davis.", "On March 27, 2017, NFL team owners voted nearly unanimously to approve the Raiders' application to relocate from Oakland to Las Vegas, Nevada, in a 31-to-1 vote at the annual league meetings in Phoenix, Arizona. The Raiders plan to remain in Oakland through 2018 – and possibly 2019 – and relocate to Las Vegas in either 2019 or 2020, depending on the completion of the team's planned new stadium.[13][14]", "The Raiders are known for their extensive fan base and distinctive team culture. The Raiders have 14 former members who have been enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame. The Raiders currently play their home games at the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum west of the Elmhurst district of East Oakland. They have previously played at Kezar Stadium in San Francisco, California, Candlestick Park in San Francisco, Frank Youell Field in Oakland, and the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles.", "The Oakland Raiders were originally going to be called the \"Oakland Señors\"[15] after a name-the-team contest had that name finish first, but after being the target of local jokes, the name was changed to the Raiders before the 1960 season began. Having enjoyed a successful collegiate coaching career at Navy during the 1950s, San Francisco native Eddie Erdelatz was hired as the Raiders first head coach. On February 9, 1960, after rejecting offers from the NFL's Washington Redskins and the AFL's Los Angeles Chargers, Erdelatz accepted the Oakland Raiders head coaching position. In January 1960, the Raiders were established in Oakland, and because of NFL interference with the original eighth franchise owner, were the last team of eight in the new American Football League to select players, thus relegated to the remaining talent available (see below).", "The 1960 Raiders 42-man roster included 28 rookies and only 14 veterans. Among the Raiders rookies were future Pro Football Hall of Fame inductee center Jim Otto, and a future Raiders head coach, quarterback Tom Flores. In their debut year under Erdelatz the Raiders finished with a 6–8 record.", "Ownership conflicts prevented the team from signing any top draft picks the next season.[citation needed] On September 18, 1961, Erdelatz was dismissed after the Raiders were outscored 77–46 in the first two games of the season. On September 24, 1961, after the dismissal of Erdelatz, management named Los Angeles native and offensive line coach Marty Feldman as the Raiders head coach. The team finished the 1961 season with a 2–12 record.", "Feldman began the 1962 season as Raiders head coach but was fired on October 16, 1962 after an 0–5 start. From October 16 through December, the Raiders were coached by Oklahoma native and former assistant coach Red Conkright. Under Conkright, the Raiders went 1–8, finishing the season with 1–13 record. Following the 1962 season the Raiders appointed Conkright to an interim mentor position as they looked for a new head coach.", "After the 1962 season, Raiders managing general partner F. Wayne Valley hired Al Davis as Raiders head coach and general manager. At 33, he was the youngest person in professional football history to hold the positions.[16] Davis immediately began to implement what he termed the \"vertical game\", an aggressive offensive strategy inspired by the offense developed by Chargers head coach Sid Gillman.[17] Under Davis the Raiders improved to 10–4 and he was named the AFL's Coach of the Year in 1963. Though the team slipped to 5–7–2 in 1964, they rebounded to an 8–5–1 record in 1965. The famous silver and black Raider uniform debuted at the regular season opening game on September 8, 1963. Prior to this, the team wore a combination of black and white with gold trim on the pants and oversized numerals.", "In April 1966, Davis left the Raiders after being named AFL Commissioner, promoting assistant coach John Rauch to head coach. Two months later, the league announced its merger with the NFL. The leagues would retain separate regular seasons until 1970. With the merger, the position of commissioner was no longer needed, and Davis entered into discussions with Valley about returning to the Raiders. On July 25, 1966, Davis returned as part-owner of the team. He purchased a 10% interest in the team for $18,000, and became the team's third general partner — the partner in charge of football operations.[18][19]", "Under Rauch, the Raiders matched their 1965 season's 8–5–1 record in 1966 but missed the playoffs, finishing second in the AFL West Division.", "On the field, the team Davis had assembled steadily improved. Led by quarterback Daryle Lamonica, acquired in a trade with the Buffalo Bills, the Raiders finished the 1967 season with a 13–1 record and won the 1967 AFL Championship, defeating the Houston Oilers 40–7. The win earned the team a trip to the Orange Bowl in Miami, Florida to participate in Super Bowl II. On January 14, 1968, the Raiders were defeated in the second-ever Super Bowl, losing 33–14 to Vince Lombardi's Green Bay Packers.", "The following year, the Raiders ended the 1968 season with a 12–2 record and again winning the AFL West Division title. However, this time, they lost 27–23 by the New York Jets in the AFL Championship Game.", "Citing management conflicts with day-to-day coaching decisions, Rauch resigned as Raiders head coach on January 16, 1969, accepting the head coaching job of the Buffalo Bills.", "During the early 1960s, John Madden was a defensive assistant coach at San Diego State University under SDSU head coach Don Coryell. Madden credited Coryell as being an influence on his coaching. In 1967, Madden was hired by Al Davis as the Raiders linebacker coach. On February 4, 1969, after the departure of John Rauch, Madden was named the Raiders sixth head coach. Under Madden, the 1969 Raiders won the AFL West Division title for the third consecutive year with a 12–1–1 record. On December 20, 1969, the Raiders defeated the Oilers 56–7 in the AFL Division playoff game. In the AFL Championship game on January 4, 1970, the Raiders were defeated by Hank Stram's Kansas City Chiefs 17–7.", "In 1970, the AFL–NFL merger officially took place and the Raiders joined the Western Division of the American Football Conference (actually the AFL West with the same teams as in 1969, except for the Cincinnati Bengals) in the newly merged NFL. The first post-merger season saw the Raiders win the AFC West with an 8–4–2 record and advance to the conference championship, where they lost to the Baltimore Colts. Despite another 8–4–2 season in 1971, the Raiders failed to win the division or playoff berth. When backup offensive lineman Ron Mix played, the 1971 Raiders had an eventual all-Pro Football Hall of Fame offensive line with tackle Art Shell, guard Gene Upshaw, center Jim Otto, and tackle Bob Brown.", "The teams of the 1970s were thoroughly dominant teams, with eight Hall of Fame inductees on the roster and a Hall of Fame coach in John Madden. The 1970s Raiders created the team's identity and persona as a team that was hard-hitting. Dominant on defense, with the crushing hits of safeties Jack Tatum and George Atkinson and cornerback Skip Thomas, the Raiders regularly held first place in the AFC West, entering the playoffs nearly every season. From 1973 through 1977, the Raiders reached the conference championship every year.", "This was also the era of a bitter rivalry between the Pittsburgh Steelers and Raiders. In the 1970s, the Steelers and Raiders were frequently the two best teams in the AFC and, arguably, the NFL. The teams would meet on five different occasions in the playoffs, and the winner of the Steelers-Raiders game went on to win the Super Bowl in three of those instances, from 1974 to 1976. The rivalry garnered attention in the sports media, with controversial plays, late hits, accusations and public statements.", "The rivalry began with and was fueled by a controversial last-second play in their first playoff game in 1972. That season the Raiders achieved a 10–3–1 record and an AFC West title. In the divisional round, the Raiders would lose to the Steelers 13–7 on the controversial play that become known as the \"Immaculate Reception\".", "The Raiders and Steelers would meet again the following season as the Raiders won the AFC West again with a 9–4–1 record. Lamonica was replaced as starting quarterback early in the season by Ken Stabler. The Raiders defeated Pittsburgh 33–14 in the divisional round of the playoffs to reach the AFC Championship, but lost 27–10 to the Miami Dolphins.", "In 1974, Oakland had a 12–2 regular season, which included a nine-game winning streak. They beat the Dolphins 28–26 in the divisional round of the playoffs in a see-saw battle remembered as the \"Sea of Hands\" game.[20] They then lost the AFC Championship to the Steelers, who went on to win the Super Bowl. The Raiders were held to only 29 yards rushing by the Pittsburgh defense, and late mistakes turned a 10–3 lead at the start of the fourth quarter into a disappointing 24–13 loss.", "In the 1975 season opener, the Raiders beat Miami and ended their 31-game home winning streak. With an 11–3 record, they defeated Cincinnati 31–28 in the divisional playoff round. Again, the Raiders faced the Steelers in the conference championship, eager for revenge. According to Madden and Davis, the Raiders relied on quick movement by their wide receivers on the outside sidelines – the deep threat, or 'long ball' – more so than the Steelers of that year, whose offense was far more run-oriented than it would become later in the 1970s. Forced to adapt to the frozen field of Three Rivers Stadium, with receivers slipping and unable to make quick moves to beat coverage, the Raiders lost, 16–10. The rivalry had now grown to hatred, and became the stereotype of the 'grudge match.' Again, the Raiders came up short, as the Steelers won the AFC Championship and then went on to another Super Bowl title.", "In 1976, the Raiders came from behind dramatically to beat Pittsburgh 31–28 in the season opener and continued to cement its reputation for dirty play by knocking WR Lynn Swann out for two weeks with a clothesline to the helmet. Al Davis later tried to sue Steelers coach Chuck Noll for libel after the latter called safety George Atkinson a criminal for the hit. The Raiders won 13 regular season games and a close controversial 21–17 victory over New England in the divisional playoffs. With the Patriots up by three points in final two minutes, referee Ben Dreith called roughing the passer on New England's Ray \"Sugar Bear\" Hamilton after he hit Oakland QB Ken Stabler. The Raiders went on to score a touchdown in the final minute to win. They then defeated the Steelers 24–7 in the AFC Championship to advance to their second Super Bowl. In Super Bowl XI, Oakland's opponent was the Minnesota Vikings, a team that had lost three previous Super Bowls. The Raiders jumped out to an early lead and led 16–0 at halftime. By the end, having forced Minnesota into multiple turnovers, the Raiders won 32–14 for their first post-merger championship.", "The following season saw the Raiders finish 11–3, but they lost the division title to the Denver Broncos. They settled for a wild card, beating the Colts in the second-longest overtime game in NFL history and which featured the Ghost to the Post. however, the Raiders then fell to the Broncos in the AFC Championship.", "During a 1978 preseason game, Patriots WR Darryl Stingley was injured by a hit from Raiders FS Jack Tatum and paralyzed for life. Although the 1978 Raiders achieved a winning record at 9–7, they missed the playoffs for the first time since 1971, losing critical games down the stretch to miss the playoffs.", "After 10 consecutive winning seasons and one Super Bowl championship, John Madden left coaching in 1979 to pursue a career as a television football commentator. His replacement was former Raiders quarterback Tom Flores, the first Hispanic head coach in NFL history.[21] Flores led the Raiders to another 9–7 season, but not the playoffs.", "In the midst of the turmoil of Al Davis' attempts to move the team to Los Angeles in 1980, Flores looked to lead the Raiders to their third Super bowl by finishing the season 11–5 and earning a wild card berth. Quarterback Jim Plunkett revitalized his career, taking over in game five when starter Dan Pastorini was lost for the season to a broken leg after owner Al Davis had picked up Pastorini when he swapped quarterbacks with the Houston Oilers, sending the beloved Ken Stabler to the Oilers. The Raiders defeated Stabler and the Oilers in the Wild Card game and advanced to the AFC Championship by defeating the Cleveland Browns 14–12. The Raiders slipped by the AFC West champion San Diego Chargers to advance to their third Super Bowl. In Super Bowl XV, the Raiders faced head coach Dick Vermeil's Philadelphia Eagles. The Raiders dominated the Eagles, taking an early 14–0 lead in the first quarter behind two touchdown passes by Plunkett, including a then-Super Bowl record 80-yard pass and catch to running bank Kenny King. A Cliff Branch third quarter touchdown reception put the Raiders up 21–3 in the third quarter. They would go on to win 27–10, winning their second Super Bowl and becoming the first team to ever win the Super Bowl after getting into the playoffs as the wild card team.", "In 1980, Al Davis attempted unsuccessfully to have improvements made to the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum, specifically the addition of luxury boxes. That year, he signed a memorandum of agreement to move the Raiders from Oakland to Los Angeles. The move, which required three-fourths approval by league owners, was defeated 22–0 (with five owners abstaining). When Davis tried to move the team anyway, he was blocked by an injunction. In response, the Raiders not only became an active partner in an antitrust lawsuit filed by the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum (who had recently lost the Los Angeles Rams), but filed an antitrust lawsuit of their own.[22] After the first case was declared a mistrial, in May 1982, a second jury found in favor of Davis and the Los Angeles Coliseum, clearing the way for the move.[23][24][25] With the ruling, the Raiders would relocate to Los Angeles for the 1982 season to play their home games at the Los Angeles Coliseum.", "The 1981 Raiders fell to 7–9 record, failing to make the playoffs following their Super Bowl win.", "The newly minted Los Angeles Raiders finished the strike-shortened 1982 season 8–1 to win the AFC West, but lost in the second round of the playoffs to the Jets. The following season, the Raiders finished 12–4 to win the AFC West. Convincing playoff wins over the Steelers and Seattle Seahawks in the AFC playoffs propelled the Raiders to their fourth Super Bowl. Against the Washington Redskins in Super Bowl XVIII, the Raiders built a lead after blocking a punt and recovering for a touchdown early in the game. A Branch touchdown reception from Plunkett put the Raiders up 14–0 with more than nine minutes remaining in the first quarter. With seven seconds remaining in the first half, linebacker Jack Squirek intercepted a Joe Theismann swing pass at the Washington five yard line and scored, sending the Raiders to a 21–3 halftime lead. Following a John Riggins one-yard touchdown run (extra point was blocked), Marcus Allen scored from five yards out to build the lead to 28–9. The Raiders sealed the game with Allen reversed his route on a Super Bowl record run that turned into a 74-yard touchdown. The Raiders went on to a 38–9 victory and their third NFL championship. Allen set a record for most rushing yards (191) and combined yards (209) in a Super Bowl as the Raiders won their third Super Bowl in eight years.", "The team had another successful regular season in 1984, finishing 11–5, but a three-game losing streak forced them to enter the playoffs as a wild-card, where they fell to the Seahawks in the Wild Card game.", "The 1985 Raiders campaign saw 12 wins and a division title as Marcus Allen was named MVP. However, a loss to the Patriots derailed any further postseason hopes.", "The Raiders' fortunes declined after that, and from 1986 to 1989, they finished no better than 8–8 and posted consecutive losing seasons for the first time since 1961–62. Also in 1986, Al Davis got into a widely publicized argument with Marcus Allen, whom he accused of faking injuries. The feud continued into 1987, and Davis retaliated by signing Bo Jackson to essentially replace Allen. However, Jackson was also a left fielder for Major League Baseball's Kansas City Royals, and could not play full-time until baseball season ended in October. Even worse, another strike cost the NFL one game and prompted them to use substitute players. The Raiders achieved a 1–2 record before the regular players returned after the strike. After a weak 5–10 finish, Tom Flores moved to the front office and was replaced by Denver Broncos offensive assistant coach Mike Shanahan.", "Shanahan led the team to a 7–9 season in 1988, and Allen and Jackson continued to trade places as the starting running back. Low game attendance and fan apathy were evident by this point, and in the summer of 1988, rumors of a Raiders return to Oakland intensified when a preseason game against the Houston Oilers was scheduled at Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum.[26]", "As early as 1986, Davis sought to abandon the Coliseum in favor of a more modern stadium. In addition to sharing the venue with the USC Trojans, the Raiders were less than ecstatic with the Coliseum as it was aging and still lacked the luxury suites and other amenities that Davis was promised when he moved the Raiders to Los Angeles.[27] Finally, the Coliseum had 95,000 seats and the Raiders were rarely able to fill all of them even in their best years, and so most Raiders home games were blacked out in Southern California. Numerous sites in California were considered, including one near now-defunct Hollywood Park in Inglewood, where a NFL stadium for the Rams and Chargers is under construction, and another in Carson. In August 1987, it was announced that the city of Irwindale paid Davis US$10 million as a good-faith deposit for a prospective stadium site.[28] When the bid failed, Davis kept the non-refundable deposit.[29][30] During this time Davis also almost moved the team to Sacramento in a deal that would have included Davis becoming the managing partner of the Sacramento Kings.[31]", "Negotiations between Davis and Oakland commenced in January 1989, and on March 11, 1991, Davis announced his intention to bring the Raiders back to Oakland.[32] By September 1991, however, numerous delays had prevented the completion of the deal between Davis and Oakland. On September 11, Davis announced a new deal to stay in Los Angeles, leading many fans in Oakland to burn Raiders paraphernalia in disgust.[33][34]", "After starting the 1989 season with a 1–3 record, Shanahan was fired by Davis, which began a long-standing feud between the two.[35][36] He was replaced by former Raider offensive lineman Art Shell, who had been voted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame earlier in the year. With the hiring, Shell became the first African American head coach in the modern NFL era, but the team still finished a middling 8–8.[37]", "In 1990, Shell led the Raiders to a 12–4 record. Behind Bo Jackson's spectacular play, they beat the Cincinnati Bengals in the divisional round of the playoffs. However, Jackson suffered a severe hip and leg injury after a tackle during the game. Without him, the Raiders were blown out 51–3 in the AFC Championship by the Buffalo Bills. Jackson was forced to quit football as a result of the injury, although surgery allowed him to continue playing baseball until he retired in 1994.", "The Raiders finished with a 9–7 record in 1991, but struggled looking for a reliable quarterback and lost to the Kansas City Chiefs in the Wild Card game. The struggle for a quarterback continued in 1992 as the Raiders started two different quarterbacks and stumbled to a 7–9 record, two other playoff appearances during the 1990s, and finished higher than third place only three times.", "The Raiders rebounded well in 1993 with Jeff Hostetler as the everyday quarterback, finishing in second place in the AFC West with a 10–6 record. A win over the Broncos in the wild card game mean a rematch against the Bills for the right to go to the AFC Championship game. The Raiders, led by two Napoleon McCallum rushing touchdowns took a halftime lead, but could only manage six points in the second half losing to the Bills again 29–23.", "However, following a 9–7 record in the 1994 season that resulted in no postseason, Art Shell was fired.", "On June 23, 1995, Davis signed a letter of intent to move the Raiders back to Oakland. The move was approved by the Alameda County Board of Supervisors the next month.[38] As the NFL had never recognized the Raiders' initial move to Los Angeles, they could not disapprove of the move or request a relocation fee, which had to be paid by the Los Angeles Rams for their move to St. Louis. In order to convince Davis to return, Oakland spent $220 million on stadium renovations. These included a new seating section – commonly known as \"Mount Davis\" – with 10,000 seats. It also built the team a training facility and paid all its moving costs. The Raiders pay $525,000 a year in rent – a fraction[clarification needed] of what the nearby San Francisco 49ers paid to play at the now-extinct Candlestick Park – and do not pay maintenance or game-day operating costs.", "The move was greeted with much fanfare,[39] and under new head coach Mike White the 1995 season began well for the Raiders. Oakland started 8–2, but injuries to starting quarterback Jeff Hostetler contributed to a six-game losing streak for an 8–8 finish and the Raiders failed to qualify for the playoffs for a second consecutive season.", "After two more losing seasons (7–9 in 1996 and 4–12 in 1997) under White and his successor, Joe Bugel, Davis selected a new head coach from outside the Raiders organization for only the second time when he hired Philadelphia Eagles offensive coordinator Jon Gruden. Gruden previously worked for the 49ers and Green Bay Packers under head coach Mike Holmgren. Under Gruden, the Raiders posted consecutive 8–8 seasons in 1998 and 1999.", "Oakland finished 12–4 in the 2000 season, the team's most successful in a decade. Led by veteran quarterback Rich Gannon (MVP), Oakland won their first division title since 1990, and advanced to the AFC Championship, where Gannon was hurt when sacked by Baltimore Ravens' lineman Tony Siragusa. The Raider offense struggled without Gannon, and the Raiders fell 16–3 to the eventual Super Bowl champion Ravens.", "The Raiders acquired all-time leading receiver Jerry Rice prior to the 2001 season. They started 10–3 but lost their last three games and finished with a 10–6 record and a wild card playoff spot. They defeated the New York Jets 38–24 in the wild card round to advance to face the New England Patriots. In a game in which the Raiders led for most of the game, the game was played in a heavy snowstorm. In what would be known as the \"Tuck Rule Game\", late in the fourth quarter with the Patriots trailing the Raiders by a field goal, Raiders star cornerback Charles Woodson blitzed Patriots quarterback Tom Brady, causing an apparent fumble which was recovered by Raiders linebacker Greg Biekert. The recovery would assuredly have led to a Raiders victory, as the Raiders would have a first down with 1:43 remaining and the Patriots had no more time outs); however, the play was reviewed and determined to be an incomplete pass (it was ruled that Brady had pump-faked and then had not yet \"tucked\" the ball into his body, which, by rule, cannot result in a fumble, was instead an incomplete pass—though this explanation was not given on the field, but after the NFL season had ended). The Patriots retained possession and drove for a game-tying field goal. The game went into overtime and the Patriots won 16–13.[40]", "Shortly after the season, the Raiders made a move that involved releasing Gruden from his contract and allowing the Tampa Bay Buccaneers to sign him. In return, the Raiders received cash and future draft picks from the Buccaneers. The sudden move came after months of speculation in the media that Davis and Gruden had fallen out with each other both personally and professionally.[citation needed] Bill Callahan, who served as the team's offensive coordinator and offensive line coach during Gruden's tenure, was named head coach.[41]", "Under Callahan, the Raiders finished the 2002 season 11–5, won their third-straight division title, and clinched the top seed in the playoffs. Rich Gannon was named MVP of the NFL after passing for a league-high 4,689 yards. After beating the Jets and Titans by large margins in the playoffs, the Raiders made their fifth Super Bowl appearance in Super Bowl XXXVII. Their opponent was the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, coached by Gruden. The Raiders, who had not made significant changes to Gruden's offensive schemes, were intercepted five times by the Buccaneers en route to a 48–21 blowout. Some Tampa Bay players claimed that Gruden had given them so much information on Oakland's offense, they knew exactly what plays were being called.[42][43]", "Callahan's second season as head coach was considerably less successful. Oakland finished 4–12, which was their worst showing since 1997. After a late-season loss to the Denver Broncos, a visibly frustrated Callahan exclaimed, \"We've got to be the dumbest team in America in terms of playing the game.\"[44] At the end of the 2003 regular season Callahan was fired and replaced by former Washington Redskins head coach Norv Turner.", "The team's fortunes did not improve in Turner's first year. Oakland finished the 2004 season 5–11, with only one divisional win (a one-point victory over the Broncos in Denver). During a Week 3 victory against the Buccaneers, Rich Gannon suffered a neck injury that ended his season and eventually his career. He never returned to the team and retired before the 2005 season.[45] Kerry Collins, who led the New York Giants to an appearance in Super Bowl XXXV and signed with Oakland after the 2003 season, became the team's starting quarterback.", "In an effort to bolster their offense, in early 2005 the Raiders acquired Pro Bowl wide receiver Randy Moss via trade with the Minnesota Vikings, and signed free agent running back Lamont Jordan of the New York Jets. After a 4–12 season and a second consecutive last place finish, Turner was fired as head coach.", "On February 11, 2006 the team announced the return of Art Shell as head coach. In announcing the move, Al Davis said that firing Shell in 1995 had been a mistake.[46]\nUnder Shell, the Raiders lost their first five games in 2006 en route to a 2–14 record, the team's worst since 1962. Despite having one of the best defenses, Oakland's offense struggled greatly, scoring just 168 points (fewest in franchise history) and allowing a league-high 72 sacks. Wide receiver Jerry Porter was benched by Shell for most of the season in what many viewed as a personal, rather than football-related, decision. Shell was fired again at the end of the season.[47] The Raiders also earned the right to the first overall pick in the 2007 NFL Draft for the first time since 1962, by virtue of having the league's worst record.[48]", "The team announced on January 22, 2007, the hiring of 31-year-old USC offensive coordinator Lane Kiffin, the youngest coach in franchise history and the youngest coach in the NFL.[49] In the 2007 NFL Draft, the Raiders selected LSU quarterback JaMarcus Russell with the #1 overall pick, despite a strong objection from Kiffin. Russell, arguably the biggest bust in NFL history, held out until September 12[50] and did not make his first career start until week 17.[51] Kiffin coached the Raiders to a 4–12 record in the 2007 season. After a 1–3 start to 2008 and months of speculation and rumors, Davis fired Kiffin on September 30.", "Tom Cable was named as Kiffin's interim replacement, and officially signed as the 17th head coach of the Oakland Raiders on Tuesday, February 3, 2009.", "The team's finish to the 2008 season would turn out to match their best since they lost the Super Bowl in the 2002 season. However, they still finished 5–11 and ended up third in the AFC West, the first time they did not finish last since 2002. They would produce an identical record in 2009; however, the season was somewhat ameliorated by the fact that four of the Raiders' five wins were against opponents with above .500 records.\nIn 2010, the Raiders became the first team in NFL history to go undefeated against their division yet miss the playoffs (6–0 in the AFC West, 8–8 overall, 3 games behind the Jets for the second Wild Card entry). On January 4, 2011, owner Al Davis informed head coach Tom Cable that his contract would not be renewed, ending his tenure with the organization. Many Raider players, such as punter Shane Lechler, were upset with the decision.", "On January 17, 2011, it was announced that offensive coordinator Hue Jackson was going to be the next Raiders head coach. A press conference was held on January 18, 2011, to formally introduce Jackson as the next Raiders head coach, the fifth in just seven years. Following Davis's death during the 2011 season, new owners Carol and Mark Davis decided to take the franchise in a drastically different direction by hiring a general manager. On New Year's Day of 2012, the Raiders played the San Diego Chargers, hoping to go to the playoffs for the first time since 2002, the game ended with a 38–26 loss. Their season ended with another disappointing 8–8 record.", "The Raiders named Green Bay Packers director of football operations Reggie McKenzie as the team's first General Manager since Al Davis on January 6, 2012. Given full autonomy over personnel decisions by the Davis family, McKenzie, in his first day on the job, fired head coach Hue Jackson after only one season on January 10, seeking to hire his own head coach instead. In the process, the Raiders lost their sixth head coach in the past ten seasons, none of whom lasted more than two seasons. Two weeks later, McKenzie hired Broncos defensive coordinator Dennis Allen as head coach. Most of the coaching staff has been replaced by new position and strength and conditioning coaches.[citation needed]", "The Raiders began 2012 by running a nose tackle when they run a 4-3 defense. They lost their home opener on Monday Night Football against San Diego 22–14, and finished the season 4–12.", "In the 2013 offseason, the Raiders began making major roster moves. These included the signing of linebackers Kevin Burnett, Nick Roach, and Kaluka Maiava, defensive tackles Pat Sims and Vance Walker, cornerbacks Tracy Porter and Mike Jenkins, defensive end Jason Hunter, and safety Usama Young and the release of wide receiver Darrius Heyward-Bey, safety Michael Huff, linebacker Rolando McClain and defensive tackle Tommy Kelly.\n[52] Starting quarterback Carson Palmer was traded to the Arizona Cardinals in exchange for a sixth-round draft pick and a conditional seventh-round draft pick. Shortly before, they had traded a fifth-round pick and an undisclosed conditional pick in exchange for Matt Flynn.[53] In addition to signing Matt Flynn, the Raiders also welcomed back Charles Woodson, signing him to a 1-year deal in mid-May.[54] The Oakland Raiders finished the 2013 season with a record of 4–12.", "In the 2014 NFL Draft, the Raiders selected linebacker Khalil Mack in the first round and quarterback Derek Carr in the second round hoping each would anchor their side of the ball. Carr was given control early as he was chosen as the starter for the opener of the 2014 season. After an 0–4 start to the 2014 season, and an 8–28 overall record as head coach, Allen was fired.[55] Offensive line coach Tony Sparano was named interim head coach on September 30. The Oakland Raiders finished the 2014 season with a record of 3–13. Carr started all 16 games for the Raiders, the first Raider since 2002 to do so. First round pick Mack finished third in Defensive Rookie of the Year voting.", "Jack Del Rio was hired to become the new head coach of the Oakland Raiders on January 14, 2015, replacing the fired Dennis Allen (who coincidentally had preceded him as the Broncos defensive coordinator) and interim head coach Tony Sparano.[56]", "The Raiders showed great improvement in Del Rio's first season, improving upon their three-win 2014 season, going 7–9 in the 2015 season. Rookie wide receiver Amari Cooper fulfilled almost all expectations and Derek Carr continued his improvement at quarterback. Cooper, Mack, Murray, and Carr were selected to participate in the Pro Bowl. DE Khalil Mack was the first player ever to be selected as an AP 2015 All-Pro Team at two positions in the same year.", "The day following the conclusion of the 2015 regular season, the Raiders, St. Louis Rams, and San Diego Chargers all filed to relocate to Los Angeles.[57] On January 12, 2016, the NFL owners voted 30–2 to allow the Rams to return to L.A. and approved a stadium project in Inglewood, California proposed by Rams owner Stan Kroenke over a competing project in Carson, California that the Chargers and Raiders had jointly proposed. The Chargers were given a one-year approval to relocate as well, conditioned on negotiating a lease agreement with the Rams or an agreement to partner with the Rams on the new stadium construction. The Raiders were given conditional permission to relocate if the Chargers were to decline their option first.[58]", "As part of the Rams' relocation decision, the NFL offered to provide both the Chargers and Raiders $100 million each if they could work out new stadiums in their home markets. The Chargers eventually announced on January 12, 2017 that they would exercise their option to relocate to Los Angeles following the failure of a November 2016 ballot initiative to fund a new stadium in San Diego.[59][60] In an official statement on the Rams decision, the Raiders offered they would \"now turn our attention to exploring all options to find a permanent stadium solution.\"[61] Las Vegas and San Antonio were heavily rumored as possible relocation destinations. By mid-February 2016, the team had worked out a one-year lease agreement with the City of Oakland to play at O.co Coliseum with the option for a second one-year lease.[62]", "In late January 2016, billionaire Sheldon Adelson, president and CEO of the Las Vegas Sands Corporation casino empire, proposed a new domed stadium in Las Vegas to potentially house the University of Nevada, Las Vegas football team and a possible NFL team. Adelson quickly reached out to the Raiders to discuss the team partnering on the new stadium.[63] In April 2016, without promising the team would move, Raiders owner Mark Davis met with the Southern Nevada Tourism Infrastructure Committee and pledged $500 million toward Adelson's stadium if public officials agreed to contribute to the stadium.[64]", "A group of investors led by former NFL stars Ronnie Lott and Rodney Peete proposed a new stadium to the city of Oakland in June 2016 as a way to keep the Raiders in the city.[65]", "Nevada's legislature approved a $750 million public subsidy for the proposed domed Las Vegas stadium in October 2016.[66][67] Davis informed his fellow NFL owners that he intended to file for relocation to Las Vegas following the end of the season.[68]", "On November 28, 2016, the Raiders secured their first winning season since 2002 with a comeback win against the Carolina Panthers, and on December 18, the team clinched their first postseason berth since 2002 with a victory over the San Diego Chargers. On December 20, 2016, the NFL announced that the Raiders would have seven Pro Bowl selections: Khalil Mack, Derek Carr, Amari Cooper, Donald Penn, Kelechi Osemele, Rodney Hudson and Reggie Nelson. This was the most selections for the team since 1991, and the most for any team in the 2016 NFL season.[69]", "As the fifth seed in the AFC in the 2016 NFL playoffs, the Raiders faced the Houston Texans in the opening Wild Card round. With significant injuries hampering the team, including the loss of starting quarterback Carr in the second to last regular season game, they lost to the Texans 27–14.", "The Raiders officially filed paperwork with the NFL on January 19, 2017, to relocate the club from Oakland to Las Vegas, Nevada by the 2020 season.[70] The vote for the team's relocation took place on March 27, 2017,[71] and the NFL officially approved the Raiders' relocation to Las Vegas by a 31–1 vote.[13] Only the Miami Dolphins dissented the proposed move. Subsequently, the team announced that it will continue to be known as the Oakland Raiders for the 2017 and 2018 NFL seasons and will play its games in Oakland for at least those two seasons.[14]", "Prior to the 2017 season, the Raiders signed quarterback Derek Carr to a then-NFL record contract extension of five years, $125 million.[72] Following their first trip to the playoffs in 14 years, the Raiders expected bigger things in 2017, with a return to the playoffs seeming likely.[73][74] However, the Raider defense struggled mightily on the year under Ken Norton Jr., but later improved with John Pagano as the defensive coordinator and the Raider offense could not return to its previous year's form under first-year offensive coordinator Todd Downing. After winning the first two games of the season, the Raiders lost four straight and six of their next eight leaving them two games below .500 with six games remaining. They would win their next two games, but lose their final four games, ending the season a disappointing 6–10. On December 31, 2017, following a loss to the Los Angeles Chargers in Week 17, head coach Del Rio was fired by Mark Davis after being granted a four-year contract extension prior to the season.[75][76]", "On January 6, 2018, the team announced the return of Jon Gruden as head coach.[77] Gruden returned to the Raiders and coaching after a nine-year stint with ESPN serving as analyst for Monday Night Football. Davis, who had reportedly been wanting to hire Gruden for six years, gave Gruden a 10-year contract worth an estimated $100 million.[78]", "The Raiders finished the 1967 season with a 13–1–0 record and won the 1967 AFL Championship. They subsequently lost to the Green Bay Packers in Super Bowl II.", "American Football League Championships\n\n\nSeason\n\nCoach\n\nLocation\n\nOpponent\n\nScore\n\nGame\n\n\n1967\nJohn Rauch\nOakland, California\nHouston Oilers\n40–7\nVIII", "American Football League Championships", "Season\n\nCoach\n\nLocation\n\nOpponent\n\nScore\n\nGame", "1967\nJohn Rauch\nOakland, California\nHouston Oilers\n40–7\nVIII", "The Raiders have won a total of 3 Super Bowls. They won their first Super Bowl under John Madden, and their next two with Tom Flores.", "Super Bowl Championships\n\n\nSeason\n\nCoach\n\nLocation\n\nOpponent\n\nScore\n\nSuper Bowl\n\n\n1976\nJohn Madden\nPasadena, California\nMinnesota Vikings\n32–14\nXI\n\n\n1980\nTom Flores\nNew Orleans, Louisiana\nPhiladelphia Eagles\n27–10\nXV\n\n\n1983\nTom Flores\nTampa, Florida\nWashington Redskins\n38–9\nXVIII", "Super Bowl Championships", "Season\n\nCoach\n\nLocation\n\nOpponent\n\nScore\n\nSuper Bowl", "1976\nJohn Madden\nPasadena, California\nMinnesota Vikings\n32–14\nXI", "1980\nTom Flores\nNew Orleans, Louisiana\nPhiladelphia Eagles\n27–10\nXV", "1983\nTom Flores\nTampa, Florida\nWashington Redskins\n38–9\nXVIII", "When the team was founded in 1960, the Oakland Tribune held a name-the-team contest. The winning name was the Oakland Señors.[79] After a few days of being the butt of local jokes (and accusations that the contest was fixed, as Chet Soda was fairly well known within the Oakland business community for calling his acquaintances \"señor\"), the fledgling team (and its owners) changed the team's name nine days later[80] to the Oakland Raiders, which had finished third in the naming contest.[81] Chet Soda hired a well known sportswriter, Gene Lawrence Perry as the first Director of Public Relations.[82] Perry (who was hired in 1959 as the first front office hire) commissioned an unknown Berkeley artist and asked that a logo be created which included a helmeted man with an eyepatch, with the firm chin of a Randolph Scott,[83] a well known Westerns actor. The new owner’s had their newly minted Raiders logo, a pirate wearing a football helmet with an eye patch on a gold football background with two white swords in black trim with gold handles criss-crossed behind the football.", "The original Raiders uniforms were black and gold with Gothic numerals, while the helmets were black with a white stripe and no logo. The team wore this design from 1960 to 1962. When Al Davis became head coach and general manager in 1963, he changed the team's color scheme to silver and black, and added a logo to the helmet. This logo is a shield that consists of the word \"RAIDERS\" at the top, two crossed cutlasses with handles up and cutting edge down, and superimposed head of a Raider wearing a football helmet and a black eye patch covering his right eye. Over the years, it has undergone minor color modifications (such as changing the background from silver to black in 1964), but it has essentially remained the same.", "The Raiders' current silver and black uniform design has essentially remained the same since it debuted in 1963.[84] It consists of silver helmets, silver pants, and either black or white jerseys. The black jerseys have silver lettering names and numbers, while the white jerseys have black lettering names and numbers with silver outlining the numbers only. Originally, the white jerseys had black letters for the names and silver numbers with a thick black outline, but they were changed to black with a silver outline for the 1964 season. In 1970, the team used silver numerals with black outline and black lettering names for the season. However, in 1971, the team again displayed black numerals and have stayed that way ever since (with the exception of the 1994 season as part of the NFL's 75th Anniversary where they donned the 1963 helmets with the 1970 silver away numbers and black lettering names).", "The Raiders wore their white jerseys at home for the first time in their history on September 28, 2008 against the San Diego Chargers. The decision was made by Lane Kiffin, who was coaching his final game for the Raiders, and was purportedly due to intense heat.[85] The high temperature in Oakland that day was 78°.[86]", "For the 2009 season, the Raiders took part in the AFL Legacy Program and wore 1960s throwback jerseys for games against other teams from the former AFL.[87]", "In the 2012 and 2013 seasons, the team wore black cleats as a tribute to Al Davis. However, the team reverted to white cleats in 2014.", "After splitting the first home season between Kezar Stadium and Candlestick, the Raiders moved exclusively to Candlestick Park in 1961, where total attendance for the season was about 50,000, and finished 2–12. Valley threatened to move the Raiders out of the area unless a stadium was built in Oakland, so in 1962 the Raiders moved into 18,000-seat Frank Youell Field (later expanded to 22,000 seats), their first home in Oakland.[88] It was a temporary home for the team while the 53,000 seat Oakland Alameda Coliseum was under construction; the Coliseum was completed in 1966. The Raiders have shared the Coliseum with the Oakland Athletics since the A's moved to Oakland from Kansas City in 1968, except for the years the Raiders called Los Angeles home (1982–94). The Raiders have defeated and lost to all 31 other NFL teams at the Coliseum at least once.", "The Raiders did play one regular season game at California Memorial Stadium in Berkeley, California. On September 23, 1973 they played the Miami Dolphins in Berkeley due to a scheduling conflict with the Athletics. The team defeated the Dolphins 12–7, ending Miami's winning streak.", "During the Los Angeles years, the Raiders played in the 93,000-seat Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum.", "From the assumption of the team by Mark Davis in 2011, the Raiders had been subject to rampant relocation speculation as the team attempted to find a new stadium in Oakland or elsewhere, due to the age of Oakland Alameda Coliseum, being secondary tenants to Major League Baseball's Athletics, and the expiration of the team's lease at the end of 2016. After looking into a variety of options in the Bay Area, Los Angeles and elsewhere the team will ultimately relocate to Las Vegas, Nevada by 2020.", "On March 27, 2017, NFL team owners voted 31–1 to approve moving the Raiders to Las Vegas, Nevada.[13][14] The team is scheduled to begin play as the Las Vegas Raiders for the 2020 NFL season, playing home games at the Las Vegas Stadium, although a move to Las Vegas could happen as soon as 2019 with Sam Boyd Stadium. The Raiders became the third NFL franchise to relocate in the 2010s, following the Rams' move from St. Louis, Missouri back to Los Angeles, California on January 12, 2016,[89] and the Chargers' move from San Diego, California to Los Angeles on January 12, 2017.[90] The Raiders' move to Las Vegas comes after years of failed efforts to renovate or replace the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum.", "Prior to settling on Las Vegas, the Raiders had been linked to a number of new stadium projects.", "There had been discussions for the Raiders to share Levi's Stadium with the San Francisco 49ers.[91] However, the 49ers went ahead without the Raiders and broke ground on the $1.2 billion stadium on April 19, 2012[92] and have since sold $670 million worth of seats including 70% of club and luxury suites, making it unlikely that the Raiders would continue to explore the idea of sharing the stadium as they would now be secondary tenants with little to no commercial rights over the highly lucrative luxury suites.[93]", "Raiders' owner Mark Davis further increased the unlikelihood of the Raiders and the 49ers to share Levi's stadium when he told NFL Network reporter Ian Rapoport that he has no plans to share the stadium but that he did recognize the Raiders' need for a new home and that he hoped the new home would be in Oakland.[94] When Levi's Stadium had its grand opening on July 17, 2014, NFL commissioner Roger Goodell mentioned to the live crowd that it would make a great home for the Raiders and that it is up for the team to decide whether or not it wants to play there or build a stadium on the site of the Oakland Coliseum.[95]", "Had the Raiders moved to Santa Clara, this would have marked the third time the Raiders and 49ers use the same venue. Before the Coliseum was built, the Raiders shared Kezar Stadium and Candlestick Park with the 49ers in San Francisco in 1960 and 1961.", "On February 19, 2015, the Raiders and the Chargers announced that they would build a privately financed $1.78 billion stadium in Carson, California if they were to move to the Los Angeles market.[96] Both teams stated that they would continue to attempt to get stadiums built in their respective cities.[97] The Carson City Council would bypass the public vote and approved the plan 3–0.[98] The council voted without having clarified several issues, including who would finance the stadium, how the required three-way land swap would be performed, and how it would raise enough revenue if only one team moved in as tenant.[99] On January 12, the NFL rejected the Raiders' relocation request. However, the NFL left open the possibility of the Raiders relocating to Los Angeles by 2019, playing in a new stadium under construction in Inglewood, California to house the Los Angeles Rams. The San Diego Chargers however had the first option to join the Rams at the new stadium, but the Raiders would have been authorized to negotiate an agreement if the Chargers did not exercise their option by January 2017.[100] The Chargers exercised their option on January 12, 2017, effectively ending any possible Raiders' relocation to Los Angeles.", "On March 7, 2012, then-mayor Jean Quan unveiled an ambitious project to the media that was designed to improve the sports facilities of all three major league sports teams in the city (the Raiders, Major League Baseball (MLB)'s Athletics and the National Basketball Association (NBA)'s Golden State Warriors), as well as attract new businesses to the city. The project, dubbed Coliseum City, had entailed the redevelopment of the existing Oakland Alameda Coliseum complex. The redevelopment would have seen the construction of two new stadiums on the present location, a baseball-only stadium and a football-only stadium, while Oracle Arena, home of the Warriors, will be either rebuilt or undergo extensive renovations. A sum of $3.5 million was committed to preliminary planning on the project. However, no officials from either of Oakland's major league teams were present at the media conference.", "According to the San Francisco Business Times, Oakland's assistant city administrator Fred Blackwell said the Bay Investment Group LLC, an entity being formed by Colony Capital LLC, Rashid Al Malik (chairman and CEO of HayaH Holdings), and the city, had numerous details to continue working out for the prospective $2 billion Coliseum City project, which covered 800 acres surrounding the Oakland Alameda Coliseum Complex. The development team also included JRDV Urban International, HKS Architects, and Forest City Real Estate Services. In an ideal situation, construction would have started by the end of 2014.[101] Meanwhile, as of 2014, the Warriors were going forward with plans to build a new arena at Mission Bay, not far from AT&T Park, and move back across the Bay Area from Oakland to San Francisco as soon as 2019.", "On May 23, 2016, it was reported by the San Francisco Chronicle and other media outlets that a group led by NFL Hall of Famer Ronnie Lott and retired quarterback Rodney Peete were looking into building a new stadium for the Raiders. The group had met with team executives and Oakland city officials to brief them on their proposal. They also met with mayor Libby Schaaf. The Alameda County Board of Supervisors voted to begin negotiations with Lott's group and with the city of Oakland regarding the \"price and terms of sale\" for the 120-acre land of the Oakland Coliseum and Oracle Arena. On November 22, 2016, a framework deal to keep the Raiders in Oakland was announced.", "The Ronnie Lott proposal was voted on by the Oakland city and Alameda County elected officials on December 13, 2016[102] and approved by Oakland in a 7–0 vote and by Alameda County in a 3–1 vote.[103][104]\nOn March 1, 2017, Fortress Investment Group submitted a tweaked version of the stadium plan to the NFL. On March 27, 2017, the Las Vegas plan was picked over the Lott plan by NFL owners with approval of the franchise's eventual relocation to Las Vegas.", "Al Davis coined slogans such as \"Pride and Poise\", \"Commitment to Excellence\", and \"Just Win, Baby\"—all of which are registered trademarks of the team.[105]\n\"Commitment to Excellence\" comes from a quote of Vince Lombardi, \"The quality of a person's life is in direct proportion to their commitment to excellence, regardless of their chosen field of endeavor.\"[106]", "The nickname Raider Nation refers to the die hard fans of the team spread throughout the United States and the world.[107] Members of the Raider Nation who attend home games are known for arriving to the stadium early, tailgating, and dressing up in face masks and black outfits. The Raider Nation is also known for the Black Hole, a specific area of the Coliseum (sections 104–107) frequented by the team's rowdiest and most fervent fans.[108][109]", "Al Davis created the phrase Raider Nation in 1968. In September 2009, Ice Cube recorded a song for the Raiders named \"Raider Nation\".[citation needed] In 2010, he took part in a documentary for ESPN's 30 for 30 series titled Straight Outta L.A..[110] It mainly focuses on N.W.A and the effect of the Raiders' image on their persona.[111] In 2012, Ice Cube wrote another song for the Raiders, as a part of Pepsi's NFL Anthems campaign, \"Come and Get It\". It was released on September 14, 2012.[112]", "The Oakland Raiderettes are the cheerleading squad for the Oakland Raiders. They were established in 1961 as the Oakland Raiderettes. During the team's time in Los Angeles they were the Los Angeles Raiderettes. They have been billed as \"Football's Fabulous Females\".", "Raider games are broadcast in English on 16 radio stations in California, including flagship station KCBS-AM 740 AM in San Francisco with some games on KGMZ-FM 95.7 (FM) \"The Game\". Additionally, games are broadcast on 20 radio stations in Nevada, Oregon, Colorado, Hawaii, and Arkansas. Former CBS Sports, ABC Sports and ESPN sportscaster Brent Musburger is the play-by-play announcer (as announced in July 2018)[113][114], along with former Raiders tackle Lincoln Kennedy doing commentary. George Atkinson and Jim Plunkett offer pre- and post-game commentary. Compass Media Networks is responsible for producing and distributing Raiders radio broadcasts.", "Bill King was the voice of the Raiders from 1966 to 1992, during which time he called approximately 600 games. The Raiders awarded him rings for all three of their Super Bowl victories. It is King's radio audio heard on most of the NFL Films highlight footage of the Raiders. King's call of the Holy Roller has been labeled (by Chris Berman, among others) as one of the five best in NFL history. King died in October 2005 from complications after surgery. Former San Francisco 49ers tight end Monty Stickles and Scotty Stirling, an Oakland Tribune sportswriter, served as color commentators with King. The Raider games were called on radio from 1960 to 1962 by Bud (Wilson Keene) Foster and Mel Venter, and from 1963 to 1965 by Bob Blum and Dan Galvin. Until their dismissal prior to the 2018 season, Greg Papa was the voice of the Raiders with former Raiders quarterback and coach Tom Flores doing commentary from 1997 to 2017.[115]", "In June 2017, it was announced that Beasley Media Group signed a two-year deal as the Las Vegas flagship radio partner of the Raiders. Beasley's stations KCYE-FM (102.7) \"The Coyote\" and KDWN-AM (720) began carrying all preseason and regular season games in the 2017 season.[116]", "The Raiders' games are broadcast in the Bay Area on CBS affiliate KPIX (CBS Channel 5) and in Las Vegas on CBS affiliate KLAS-TV (CBS 8) (when playing an AFC opponent) and on Fox Bay Area affiliate KTVU (Fox 2) and Las Vegas affiliate KVVU-TV (Fox 5) (when hosting an NFC opponent), unless the game is blacked out locally. Sunday night and a few Thursday night games are on NBC Bay Area affiliate KNTV (NBC Channel 11) and Las Vegas affiliate KSNV (NBC 3).", "The Raiders are a beneficiary of league scheduling policies. Both the Raiders and the San Francisco 49ers share the San Francisco Bay Area market, on the West Coast of the United States. This means that the Raiders cannot play any home games, road division games against the Denver Broncos or Los Angeles Chargers, or interconference road games against the NFC West (in seasons that the AFC West and NFC West meet in interconference play) in the early 10:00 a.m. Pacific time slot. In addition, they cannot play interconference home games at the same time or network as the 49ers. As a result, both teams generally have more limited scheduling options, and also benefit by receiving more prime time games than usual.", "In light of the pending relocation of the Raider franchise to Las Vegas, KVVU-TV, the local Fox affiliate in Las Vegas carries all Oakland Raiders preseason games and special content alongside Bay Area preseason game and special content broadcaster KTVU.[117] Likewise in the Los Angeles market, KTLA (CW 5) is the local affiliate.", "The Raiders have rivalries with the other three teams in the AFC West (Denver Broncos, Kansas City Chiefs, and Los Angeles Chargers) and a geographic rivalry with the San Francisco 49ers. They also have rivalries with other teams that arose from playoff battles in the past, most notably with the Pittsburgh Steelers and the New England Patriots. The Seattle Seahawks have an old rivalry with Oakland as well, but the rivalry became less relevant when the Seahawks moved to the NFC West as part of the NFL's 2002 realignment.", "Kansas City Chiefs", "Kansas City Chiefs", "The Chiefs are the Raiders biggest (and most hated) divisional foe, and the bitter rivalry between the two teams have had several memorable moments. Oakland lost the 1969 AFL Championship against Kansas City, who went on to beat the Minnesota Vikings and win the Super Bowl. From 1990 to 1999, the Raiders have lost 17 out of 20 regular season meetings between the Chiefs, including a 10–game losing streak at Kansas City; the Raiders also lost to the Chiefs on December 28, 1991 Wild Card Playoffs; final score was 10–6. On September 8, 1996, the Chiefs also began to lead the overall series against the Raiders for the first time since November 23, 1969. On January 1, 2000, the last game of the 1999 NFL regular season, the Raiders defeated the Chiefs for the first time in Kansas City since 1988 in overtime on a 33-yard field goal kick made by Joe Nedney. The Chiefs lead the overall series 62–53–2, and are the only team in the AFC West that the Raiders have a losing record against. Oakland currently has defeated Kansas City just twice since the 2012 NFL season. Until October 19, 2017 - when they defeated the Chiefs, 31-30 on a game-tying touchdown on the last play of the game, leading to a game winning PAT - the Raiders had lost 5 straight to the Chiefs, their previous win against them being in the 2014 season.", "Denver Broncos", "The Raiders' rivalry with the Broncos, while not as bitter as their rivalry with the Chiefs, is still very heated, as the two teams have faced each other twice a year since the AFL's inception. The Raiders had a 14-game winning streak against the Broncos from 1965 to 1971, which lasted until October 22, 1972 when the Broncos defeated the Raiders 30–23. While the Raiders still hold the advantage in the all-time series 60–49–2, the Broncos amassed 21 wins in 28 games, from the 1995 season and the arrival of Broncos head coach Mike Shanahan, through the 2008 season. Shanahan coached the Raiders before being fired just four games into the 1989 season, which has only served to intensify this rivalry. On Sunday, October 24, 2010, the Raiders beat the Broncos (59–14), giving the Raiders the most points scored in a game in the team's history. On December 13, 2015, The Raiders pulled a huge upset on the Broncos (15–12) by a spectacular performance from their defense allowing 4 field goals. Linebacker Khalil Mack who recorded 5 sacks In that game against Denver which is tied the most sacks in franchise along with Howie Long. The Broncos' first ever Super Bowl appearance (in the 1977 season) was made possible by defeating Oakland in the AFC Championship. Final Score was 20–17.", "Los Angeles Chargers", "Los Angeles Chargers", "The Los Angeles Chargers' rivalry with Oakland dates to the 1963 season, when the Raiders defeated the heavily favored Chargers twice, both come-from-behind fourth quarter victories. The Raiders held a streak without losing to the Chargers with a 16–0–2 record from 1968 to 1977. One of the most memorable games between these teams was the \"Holy Roller\" game in 1978, in which the Raiders fumbled for a touchdown in a very controversial play. In January 1981, the Chargers hosted their first AFC title against the Raiders. The Raiders were victorious over the Chargers of a score 34–27. The Raiders ended up moving on to play in Super Bowl 15 defeating the Eagles 27–10. On November 22, 1982, the Raiders hosted their first Monday Night football game in Los Angeles against the San Diego Chargers. The Chargers led the game in the 1st half 24–0 until the Raiders came into the 2nd half and made a huge comeback and defeated the San Diego Chargers 28–24. On October 10, 2010, The Raiders ended their 13-game losing streak to the San Diego Chargers with a score of 35–27. The Raiders hold the overall series advantage at 59–50–2.", "The San Francisco 49ers, located on the other side of San Francisco Bay, are the Raiders' geographic rivals. The first exhibition game, played in 1967, ended with the 49ers defeating the AFL Raiders 13–10. After the 1970 merger, the 49ers won in Oakland 38–7. As a result, games between the two are referred to as the \"Battle of the Bay.\"[citation needed] Since the two teams play in different conferences, regular season matchups happen only once every four years. Fans and players of the winning team can claim \"bragging rights\" as the better team in the area.", "On August 20, 2011, in the third week of the preseason, the preseason game between the rivals was marked by fights in restrooms and stands at Candlestick Park, including a shooting outside the stadium in which several were injured. The NFL has decided to cancel all future preseason games between the Raiders and 49ers.", "The Raiders currently lead the all-time regular season series with 7 wins to the 49ers' 6. Oakland won the latest matchup at home 24–13, on December 7 in Week 14 of the 2014 regular season. The next matchup will be on November 1, 2018, at Levi's Stadium.", "The rivalry between the Raiders and New England Patriots dates to their time in the AFL, but was intensified during a 1978 preseason game, when Patriots wide receiver Darryl Stingley was permanently paralyzed after a vicious hit delivered by Raiders free safety Jack Tatum. Before that, New England also lost a playoff game in 1976 to the Raiders; the game is unofficially known as \"The Ben Dreith Game\" due to a controversial penalty by head referee Dreith. While based in Los Angeles, the team hosted New England in the divisional round of the playoffs in 1986. The game was won by New England and marred by a chaotic rumble between the teams in the end zone as players were leaving the field after the game. The brawl was especially notable for Matt Millen attacking Patriots GM Patrick Sullivan with his helmet. The two teams met in a divisional-round playoff game in 2002, which became known as the \"Tuck Rule Game\". Late in the game, an incomplete pass, ruled a fumble, by Patriots quarterback Tom Brady was overturned, and New England went on to win in overtime and eventually won the Super Bowl against the heavily favored St. Louis Rams, the Raiders' former crosstown rivals in Los Angeles.[118] Since that game, the Patriots have won five of the last six regular season contests between the two teams. The first contest being the following year during the 2002 season in Oakland, with the Raiders winning 27–20; they met in the 2005 season opener in New England with the Patriots ruining Randy Moss' debut as a Raider 30–20; the Patriots defeated the Raiders 49–26 in December 2008 in Bill Belichick's 100th regular season win as Patriots coach; a Patriots 31–19 win during the 2011 season; a scrappy 16–9 Patriots win in the third week of the 2014 season, and the Patriots' 33–8 win in Mexico City in 2017.", "The New York Jets began a strong rivalry with the Raiders in the AFL during the 1960s that continued through much of the 1970s, fueled in part by Raider Ike Lassiter breaking star quarterback Joe Namath's jaw during a 1967 game (though Ben Davidson wrongly got blamed),[119] the famous Heidi Game during the 1968 season, and the Raiders' bitter loss to the Jets in the AFL Championship later that season. The rivalry waned in later years, but saw a minor resurgence in the 2000–02 period.[120][121] The Jets edged the Raiders in the final week of the 2001 season 24–22 on a last-second John Hall field goal; the Raiders hosted the Jets in the Wild Card round the following Saturday and won 38–24. In the 2002 season the Raiders defeated the Jets 26–20 in December, then defeated them again in the AFC Divisional Playoffs, 30–10. The Raiders lost the 37–27 on December 8, 2013, but won the most recent matchup 20–34 on November 1, 2015.[122]", "Rivalries that have waned in recent[when?] years have been with the Miami Dolphins and Houston Oilers/Tennessee Titans. The Raiders faced the Dolphins twice in the early 1970s; the Dolphins defeated the Raiders in the 1973 AFC Championship Game 27–10 on their way to Super Bowl VIII. The next year in the divisional playoffs the Raiders trailed Miami 26–21; in the final minute the Raiders drove to the Miami eight yard line; a desperation pass by Ken Stabler was caught in traffic by Clarence Davis in the play known as the \"Sea Of Hands.\"", "The Pittsburgh Steelers' rivalry with the Raiders has historically been very tight; as of the 2015 season the Raiders lead the regular season series 12 wins to 10, and their playoff rivalry is tied 3–3. The rivalry was extremely intense during the 1970s. The Steelers knocked the Raiders out of the playoffs in three of four consecutive seasons in the early 1970s (the first loss was the \"Immaculate Reception\" game) until the Raiders finally beat the Steelers in the 1976 AFC Championship (and went on to win Super Bowl XI). During the 1975 AFC Championship game, Raiders strong safety George Atkinson delivered a hit on Pittsburgh wide receiver Lynn Swann that gave him a concussion. When the two teams met in the 1976 season opener, Atkinson hit Swann again and gave him another concussion. After the second incident, Steelers head coach Chuck Noll referred to Atkinson as part of the \"criminal element\" in the NFL. Atkinson filed a $2 million defamation lawsuit against Noll and the Steelers, which he lost.[123] The two clubs' three most recent contests harkened back to the rivalry's history of bitterness and close competition. On December 6, 2009 the 3–8 Raiders helped spoil the defending champions' quest for the playoffs as the game lead changed five times in the fourth quarter and a Louis Murphy touchdown with 11 seconds to go won it 27–24 for the Raiders. Oakland was then beaten 35–3 by Pittsburgh on November 21, 2010; this game brought out the roughness of the rivalry's 1970s history when Steelers quarterback Ben Roethlisberger was punched by Raiders defensive end Richard Seymour following a touchdown. Most recently, on November 8, 2015, the Steelers outplayed the Raiders for a 38–35 victory. During the game, the Raiders defense allowed wide receiver Antonio Brown to catch 17 passes for 284 yards. Both are Steelers team records and the 284 yards is the 7th most yards receiving in a game in NFL history.", "The Raiders faced the Houston Oilers throughout the AFL era and twice in AFL playoffs in the late 1960s, winning 40–7 in 1967 on their way to Super Bowl II and 56–7 in the 1969 divisional playoffs. Oakland defeated the Oilers in the 1980 Wild Card playoffs 27–7 and defeated the Titans in the 2002 AFC Championship Game 41–24; the combined scores of these four games is 164–45.", "As mentioned earlier, the Oakland Raiders and Los Angeles Rams had a rivalry during the 13 years both teams shared the Los Angeles market. The teams met six times in the regular season in this period; Raiders won the 1st meeting 37–31 when both teams met in this period on December 18, 1982, with the Raiders winning four times during the battle of Los Angeles.", "Regular season record (all-time): 462–411–11 (.529) through the end of the 2017 NFL season.[124]\nPlayoff record (all-time): 25–19 (.568)\nThe Kansas City Chiefs were known as the Dallas Texans from 1960 through 1962.\nThe New York Jets were known as the New York Titans from 1960 through 1962.\nThe Tennessee Titans were known as the Houston Oilers from 1960 through 1996, they were known as the Tennessee Oilers for the 1997–98 season.", "Regular season record (all-time): 462–411–11 (.529) through the end of the 2017 NFL season.[124]", "Playoff record (all-time): 25–19 (.568)", "The Kansas City Chiefs were known as the Dallas Texans from 1960 through 1962.", "The New York Jets were known as the New York Titans from 1960 through 1962.", "The Tennessee Titans were known as the Houston Oilers from 1960 through 1996, they were known as the Tennessee Oilers for the 1997–98 season.", "Raiders vs. NFL\n\n\nOpponent\n\nFirst meeting\n\nRegular season\n\nPlayoffs\n\n\nWins\n\nLosses\n\nTies\n\nWin %\n\nWins\n\nLosses\n\nWin %\n\n\nArizona Cardinals\n1973\n5\n4\n0\n.556\n0\n0\n–\n\n\nAtlanta Falcons\n1971\n7\n7\n0\n.500\n0\n0\n–\n\n\nBaltimore Ravens\n1996\n3\n7\n0\n.300\n0\n1\n.000\n\n\nBuffalo Bills\n1960\n21\n18\n0\n.538\n0\n2\n.000\n\n\nCarolina Panthers\n1997\n3\n3\n0\n.500\n0\n0\n–\n\n\nChicago Bears\n1972\n7\n7\n0\n.500\n0\n0\n–\n\n\nCincinnati Bengals\n1968\n18\n10\n0\n.643\n2\n0\n1.000\n\n\nCleveland Browns\n1970\n12\n10\n0\n.545\n2\n0\n1.000\n\n\nDallas Cowboys\n1974\n6\n6\n0\n.500\n0\n0\n–\n\n\nDenver Broncos\n1960\n62\n51\n2\n.548\n1\n1\n.500\n\n\nDetroit Lions\n1970\n6\n6\n0\n.500\n0\n0\n–\n\n\nGreen Bay Packers\n1968\n5\n7\n0\n.417\n0\n1\n.000\n\n\nHouston Texans\n2004\n4\n6\n0\n.400\n0\n1\n.000\n\n\nIndianapolis Colts\n1971\n8\n6\n0\n.571\n1\n1\n.500\n\n\nJacksonville Jaguars\n1996\n4\n4\n0\n.500\n0\n0\n–\n\n\nKansas City Chiefs\n1960\n52\n61\n2\n.461\n1\n2\n.333\n\n\nLos Angeles Chargers\n1960\n62\n52\n2\n.543\n1\n0\n1.000\n\n\nLos Angeles Rams\n1972\n8\n5\n0\n.615\n0\n0\n–\n\n\nMiami Dolphins\n1966\n17\n16\n1\n.515\n3\n1\n.750\n\n\nMinnesota Vikings\n1973\n9\n5\n0\n.643\n1\n0\n1.000\n\n\nNew England Patriots\n1960\n14\n17\n1\n.453\n1\n2\n.333\n\n\nNew Orleans Saints\n1971\n6\n6\n1\n.500\n0\n0\n–\n\n\nNew York Giants\n1973\n8\n5\n0\n.615\n0\n0\n–\n\n\nNew York Jets\n1960\n23\n17\n2\n.571\n2\n2\n.500\n\n\nPhiladelphia Eagles\n1971\n5\n7\n0\n.417\n1\n0\n1.000\n\n\nPittsburgh Steelers\n1970\n12\n10\n0\n.545\n3\n3\n.500\n\n\nSan Francisco 49ers\n1970\n7\n6\n0\n.538\n0\n0\n–\n\n\nSeattle Seahawks\n1977\n28\n24\n0\n.538\n1\n1\n.500\n\n\nTampa Bay Buccaneers\n1976\n7\n2\n0\n.778\n0\n1\n.000\n\n\nTennessee Titans\n1960\n26\n20\n0\n.565\n4\n0\n1.000\n\n\nWashington Redskins\n1970\n7\n6\n0\n.538\n1\n0\n1.000", "Raiders vs. NFL", "Opponent\n\nFirst meeting\n\nRegular season\n\nPlayoffs", "Wins\n\nLosses\n\nTies\n\nWin %\n\nWins\n\nLosses\n\nWin %", "Arizona Cardinals\n1973\n5\n4\n0\n.556\n0\n0\n–", "Atlanta Falcons\n1971\n7\n7\n0\n.500\n0\n0\n–", "Baltimore Ravens\n1996\n3\n7\n0\n.300\n0\n1\n.000", "Buffalo Bills\n1960\n21\n18\n0\n.538\n0\n2\n.000", "Carolina Panthers\n1997\n3\n3\n0\n.500\n0\n0\n–", "Chicago Bears\n1972\n7\n7\n0\n.500\n0\n0\n–", "Cincinnati Bengals\n1968\n18\n10\n0\n.643\n2\n0\n1.000", "Cleveland Browns\n1970\n12\n10\n0\n.545\n2\n0\n1.000", "Dallas Cowboys\n1974\n6\n6\n0\n.500\n0\n0\n–", "Denver Broncos\n1960\n62\n51\n2\n.548\n1\n1\n.500", "Detroit Lions\n1970\n6\n6\n0\n.500\n0\n0\n–", "Green Bay Packers\n1968\n5\n7\n0\n.417\n0\n1\n.000", "Houston Texans\n2004\n4\n6\n0\n.400\n0\n1\n.000", "Indianapolis Colts\n1971\n8\n6\n0\n.571\n1\n1\n.500", "Jacksonville Jaguars\n1996\n4\n4\n0\n.500\n0\n0\n–", "Kansas City Chiefs\n1960\n52\n61\n2\n.461\n1\n2\n.333", "Los Angeles Chargers\n1960\n62\n52\n2\n.543\n1\n0\n1.000", "Los Angeles Rams\n1972\n8\n5\n0\n.615\n0\n0\n–", "Miami Dolphins\n1966\n17\n16\n1\n.515\n3\n1\n.750", "Minnesota Vikings\n1973\n9\n5\n0\n.643\n1\n0\n1.000", "New England Patriots\n1960\n14\n17\n1\n.453\n1\n2\n.333", "New Orleans Saints\n1971\n6\n6\n1\n.500\n0\n0\n–", "New York Giants\n1973\n8\n5\n0\n.615\n0\n0\n–", "New York Jets\n1960\n23\n17\n2\n.571\n2\n2\n.500", "Philadelphia Eagles\n1971\n5\n7\n0\n.417\n1\n0\n1.000", "Pittsburgh Steelers\n1970\n12\n10\n0\n.545\n3\n3\n.500", "San Francisco 49ers\n1970\n7\n6\n0\n.538\n0\n0\n–", "Seattle Seahawks\n1977\n28\n24\n0\n.538\n1\n1\n.500", "Tampa Bay Buccaneers\n1976\n7\n2\n0\n.778\n0\n1\n.000", "Tennessee Titans\n1960\n26\n20\n0\n.565\n4\n0\n1.000", "Washington Redskins\n1970\n7\n6\n0\n.538\n1\n0\n1.000", "Max Winter, a Minneapolis businessman was among the eight proposed franchise owners in the American Football League. In a move typical of the NFL owners who were frightened by the prospect of competition and continually obstructed the new league, they offered Winter an expansion franchise in the NFL. This was after the NFL had rejected Lamar Hunt's feelers, saying they were not interested in expansion. One of many obfuscations put forward by the NFL in its attempt to derail the AFL.", "After the AFL's first draft, in which players were selected for the then nameless Minneapolis franchise, Winter reneged from his agreement with the AFL owners and defected to the NFL with a franchise that started play in 1961 and was named the Minnesota Vikings. The Vikings were never an AFL team, nor did they have any association with the AFL. Many of the players (including Abner Haynes) that had been assigned to the UNNAMED and defunct Minneapolis AFL franchise were signed by some of the seven loyal remaining members of the AFL's 'Foolish Club'.", "The city of Oakland was awarded the eighth AFL franchise on January 30, 1960. Once the consortium of owners was found for the eighth franchise, the team was named the Raiders.[125][126] Because many of the defunct Minneapolis franchise's originally drafted players were signed by other AFL teams, the AFL held an 'allocation' draft, in which each team earmarked players that could be chosen by the Raiders.", "The Minneapolis group did not take with them any of the rights to players they drafted when they defected to the NFL, because their first draft in that league was in 1961. The Raiders were not originally in Minnesota as some claim. They were a new, charter franchise in the American Football League. One reason they were so weak in the first few years of the AFL was that the other AFL teams did not make quality players available in the allocation draft.", "At the time, Oakland seemed an unlikely venue for a professional football team. The city had not asked for a team, there was no ownership group and there was no stadium in Oakland suitable for pro football (the closest stadiums were in Berkeley and San Francisco) and there was already a successful NFL franchise in the Bay Area in the San Francisco 49ers. However, the AFL owners selected Oakland after Los Angeles Chargers owner Barron Hilton threatened to forfeit his franchise unless a second team was placed on the West Coast.[127]", "Upon receiving the franchise, Oakland civic leaders found a number of businesspeople willing to invest in the new team. A limited partnership was formed to own the team headed by managing general partner Y. Charles (Chet) Soda (1908–89), a local real estate developer, and included general partners Ed McGah (1899–1983), Robert Osborne (1898–1968), F. Wayne Valley (1914–86), restaurateur Harvey Binns (1914–82), Don Blessing (1904–2000), and contractor Charles Harney (1902–62)[128] as well as numerous limited partners.", "The Raiders finished their first campaign with a 6–8 record, and lost $500,000. Desperately in need of money to continue running the team, Valley received a $400,000 loan from Buffalo Bills founder Ralph C. Wilson Jr.[129]", "After the conclusion of the first season Soda dropped out of the partnership, and on January 17, 1961, Valley, McGah and Osborne bought out the remaining four general partners. Soon after, Valley and McGah purchased Osborne's interest, with Valley named as the managing general partner.", "In 1962, Valley hired Al Davis, a former assistant coach for the San Diego Chargers, as head coach and general manager. In April 1966, Davis left the Raiders after being named AFL Commissioner. Two months later, the league announced its merger with the NFL. With the merger, the position of commissioner was no longer needed, and Davis entered into discussions with Valley about returning to the Raiders. On July 25, 1966, Davis returned as part owner of the team. He purchased a 10% interest in the team for US $18,000, and became the team's third general partner — the partner in charge of football operations.[18][19]", "In 1972, with Wayne Valley out of the country for several weeks attending the Olympic Games in Munich, Davis's attorneys drafted a revised partnership agreement that gave him total control over all of the Raiders' operations. McGah, a supporter of Davis, signed the agreement. Under partnership law, by a 2–1 vote of the general partners, the new agreement was thus ratified. Valley was furious when he discovered this, and immediately filed suit to have the new agreement overturned, but the court sided with Davis and McGah.", "In 1976, Valley sold his interest in the team, and Davis — who now owned only 25% of the Raiders — was firmly in charge.[18][130]", "Legally, the club is a limited partnership with nine partners — Davis' heirs and the heirs of the original eight team partners. From 1972 onward, Davis had exercised near-complete control as president of the team's general partner, A.D. Football, Inc. Although exact ownership stakes are not known, it has been reported that Davis owned 47% of the team shares before his death in 2011.[131]", "Ed McGah, the last of the original eight general partners of the Raiders, died in September 1983. Upon his death, his interest was devised to a family trust, of which his son, E.J. McGah, was the trustee. The younger McGah was himself a part-owner of the team, as a limited partner, and died in 2002. Several members of the McGah family filed suit against Davis in October 2003, alleging mismanagement of the team by Davis. The lawsuit sought monetary damages and to remove Davis and A. D. Football, Inc. as the team's managing general partner. Among their specific complaints, the McGahs alleged that Davis failed to provide them with detailed financial information previously provided to Ed and E.J. McGah. The Raiders countered that—under the terms of the partnership agreement as amended in 1972—upon the death of the elder McGah in 1983, his general partner interest converted to that of a limited partner. The team continued to provide the financial information to the younger McGah as a courtesy, though it was under no obligation to do so.[132]", "The majority of the lawsuit was dismissed in April 2004, when an Alameda County Superior Court judge ruled that the case lacked merit since none of the other partners took part in the lawsuit.[citation needed] In October 2005, the lawsuit was settled out of court. The terms of the settlement are confidential, but it was reported that under its terms Davis purchased the McGah family's interest in the Raiders (approximately 31%), which gave him for the first time a majority interest, speculated to be approximately 67% of the team. As a result of the settlement, confidential details concerning Al Davis and the ownership of the Raiders were not released to the public.[citation needed] His ownership share went down to 47% when he sold 20% of the team to Wall Street investors[131]", "In 2006, it was reported that Davis had been attempting to sell the 31% ownership stake in the team obtained from the McGah family. He was unsuccessful in this effort, reportedly because the sale would not give the purchaser any control of the Raiders, even in the event of Davis's death.[133]", "Al Davis died on October 8, 2011, at 82. According to a 1999 partnership agreement, Davis' interest passed to his wife, Carol.[133] After Davis' death, Raiders chief executive Amy Trask said that the team \"will remain in the Davis family.\"[6] Al and Carol's son, Mark, inherited his father's old post as managing general partner and serves as the public face of the ownership.", "According to a 2017 report released by Forbes Magazine, the Raiders' overall team value is US 2.38 billion ranked 19th out of 32 NFL teams.[134] This valuation was made after the team's announcement of relocation to Las Vegas by 2020 and into a new stadium which moved the team's value up 19 percent.", "Although the team has regularly sold out since 2013, the team ranked in the bottom three in league attendance from 2003 to 2005, and failed to sell out a majority of their home games. One of the reasons cited for the poor attendance figures was the decision to issue costly personal seat licenses (PSLs) upon the Raiders' return to Oakland in 1995. The PSLs, which ranged in cost from $250 to $4,000, were meant to help repay the $200 million it cost the city of Oakland and Alameda County to expand the Oakland Coliseum. They were only valid for ten years, however, while other teams issue them permanently. As a result, fewer than 31,000 PSLs were sold for a stadium that holds twice that number. From 1995 until the lifting of the policy in 2014 television blackouts of Raiders home games were common.[135]", "In November 2005, the team announced that it was taking over ticket sales from the privately run Oakland Football Marketing Association (OFMA), and abolishing PSLs.[135] In February 2006, the team also announced that it would lower ticket prices for most areas of the Oakland Coliseum.[136] Just prior to the start of the 2006 NFL season, the Raiders revealed that they had sold 37,000 season tickets, up from 29,000 the previous year.[137] Despite the team's 2–14 record, they sold out six of their eight home games in 2006.[138][not in citation given]", "The Raiders and Al Davis have been involved in several lawsuits throughout their history, including ones against the NFL. When the NFL declined to approve the Raiders' move from Oakland to Los Angeles in 1980, the team joined the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Commission in a lawsuit against the league alleging a violation of antitrust laws.[139] The Coliseum Commission received a settlement from the NFL of $19.6 million in 1987.[140] In 1986, Davis testified on behalf of the United States Football League in their unsuccessful antitrust lawsuit against the NFL. He was the only NFL owner to do so.[141]", "After relocating back to Oakland, the team sued the NFL for interfering with their negotiations to build a new stadium at Hollywood Park prior to the move. The Raiders' lawsuit further contended that they had the rights to the Los Angeles market, and thus were entitled to compensation from the league for giving up those rights by moving to Oakland. A jury found in favor of the NFL in 2001, but the verdict was overturned a year later due to alleged juror misconduct. In February 2005, a California Court of Appeal unanimously upheld the original verdict.[142]", "When the Raiders moved back from Los Angeles in 1995, the city of Oakland and the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum Authority agreed to sell Personal Seat Licenses (PSLs) to help pay for the renovations to their stadium. But after games rarely sold out, the Raiders filed suit, claiming that they were misled by the city and the Coliseum Authority with the false promise that there would be sellouts. On November 2, 2005, a settlement was announced, part of which was the abolishment of PSLs as of the 2006 season.[143]", "In 1996, the team sued the NFL in Santa Clara County, California, in a lawsuit that ultimately included 22 separate causes of action. Included in the team's claims were claims that the Tampa Bay Buccaneers' pirate logo diluted the team's California trademark in its own pirate logo and for trade dress dilution on the ground that the League had improperly permitted other teams (including the Buccaneers and Carolina Panthers) to adopt colors for their uniforms similar to those of the Raiders. Among other things, the lawsuit sought an injunction to prevent the Buccaneers and Panthers from wearing their uniforms while playing in California. In 2003, these claims were dismissed on summary judgment because the relief sought would violate the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution.[144]", "In 2003, a number of current and former Oakland players such as Bill Romanowski, Tyrone Wheatley, Barrett Robbins, Chris Cooper and Dana Stubblefield were named as clients of the Bay Area Laboratory Co-Operative (BALCO). BALCO was an American company led by founder and owner Victor Conte. In 2003, journalists Lance Williams and Mark Fainaru-Wada investigated the company's role in a drug sports scandal later referred to as the BALCO Affair. BALCO marketed tetrahydrogestrinone (\"the Clear\"), a then-undetected, performance-enhancing steroid developed by chemist Patrick Arnold. Conte, BALCO vice president James Valente, weight trainer Greg Anderson and coach Remi Korchemny had supplied a number of high-profile sports stars from the United States and Europe with the Clear and human growth hormone for several years.", "Headquartered in Burlingame, California, BALCO was founded in 1984. Officially, BALCO was a service business for blood and urine analysis and food supplements. In 1988, Victor Conte offered free blood and urine tests to a group of athletes known as the BALCO Olympians. He then was allowed to attend the Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. From 1996 Conte worked with well-known American football star Bill Romanowski, who proved to be useful to establish new connections to athletes and coaches.[145]", "Oakland Raiders rosterviewtalkedit\n\n\nQuarterbacks\n 4 Derek Carr\n18 Connor Cook\n 3 EJ Manuel\nRunning backs\n\n40 James Butler\n24 Marshawn Lynch\n28 Doug Martin\n30 Jalen Richard\n41 Keith Smith FB\n34 Chris Warren III\n33 DeAndré Washington\n44 Ryan Yurachek FB\nWide receivers\n\n88 Marcell Ateman\n80 Saeed Blacknall\n12 Martavis Bryant\n89 Amari Cooper\n17 Dwayne Harris\n14 Keon Hatcher\n16 Johnny Holton\n82 Jordy Nelson\n10 Seth Roberts\n19 Isaac Whitney\nTight ends\n\n83 Marcus Baugh\n81 Pharaoh Brown\n84 Paul Butler\n85 Derek Carrier\n87 Jared Cook\n86 Lee Smith\n\n\n\nOffensive linemen\n60 Oday Aboushi G\n76 Jon Feliciano C\n61 Rodney Hudson C\n63 Cameron Hunt G\n66 Gabe Jackson G\n79 Denver Kirkland G\n77 Kolton Miller T\n70 Kelechi Osemele G\n75 Brandon Parker T\n72 Donald Penn T\n71 David Sharpe T\n67 Ian Silberman G\n65 Jordan Simmons G\n62 James Stone C\n69 Jylan Ware T\nDefensive linemen\n\n95 Fadol Brown DE\n91 Shilique Calhoun DE\n96 Tank Carradine DE\n97 Mario Edwards Jr. DT\n78 Justin Ellis NT\n93 Connor Flagel DE\n92 P. J. Hall DT\n90 Treyvon Hester DT\n73 Maurice Hurst Jr. DT\n51 Bruce Irvin DE\n99 Arden Key DE\n98 Frostee Rucker DE\n64 Shakir Soto DE\n74 Gabe Wright DT\n\n\n\nLinebackers\n46 Jason Cabinda LB\n47 James Cowser OLB\n56 Derrick Johnson MLB\n54 Emmanuel Lamur OLB\n55 Marquel Lee MLB\n50 Nicholas Morrow OLB\n57 Azeem Victor MLB\n59 Tahir Whitehead OLB\n58 Kyle Wilber OLB\nDefensive backs\n\n37 Jarell Carter CB\n21 Gareon Conley CB\n49 Antwaun Davis CB\n31 Marcus Gilchrist FS\n29 Leon Hall CB\n32 Antonio Hamilton CB\n25 Erik Harris SS\n42 Karl Joseph SS\n45 Dallin Leavitt S\n26 Shalom Luani SS\n39 Quincy Mauger FS\n23 Dexter McDonald CB\n22 Rashaan Melvin CB\n45 Nick Nelson CB\n27 Reggie Nelson FS\n43 Raysean Pringle CB\n36 Dominique Rodgers-Cromartie CB\n20 Daryl Worley CB\n35 Shareece Wright CB\nSpecial teams\n\n48 Andrew DePaola LS\n 6 Mike Nugent K\n 9 Eddy Pineiro K\n 5 Johnny Townsend P\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nReserve lists\n52 Khalil Mack DE (Did Not Report)\n-- Obi Melifonwu SS (IR) \n37 Tevin Mitchel CB (IR) \n93 Ahtyba Rubin DT (IR) \n94 Eddie Vanderdoes DT (Active/PUP) \n\n\nRookies in italics\nRoster updated August 28, 2018\nDepth chart • Transactions\n89 Active, 4 Inactive\n\n→ AFC rosters → NFC rosters\n\nAFC East\nBUF\nMIA\nNE\nNYJ\nNorth\nBAL\nCIN\nCLE\nPIT\nSouth\nHOU\nIND\nJAX\nTEN\nWest\nDEN\nKC\nLAC\nOAK\nNFC East\nDAL\nNYG\nPHI\nWAS\nNorth\nCHI\nDET\nGB\nMIN\nSouth\nATL\nCAR\nNO\nTB\nWest\nARI\nLAR\nSF\nSEA", "Oakland Raiders rosterviewtalkedit", "viewtalkedit", "Quarterbacks\n 4 Derek Carr\n18 Connor Cook\n 3 EJ Manuel\nRunning backs\n\n40 James Butler\n24 Marshawn Lynch\n28 Doug Martin\n30 Jalen Richard\n41 Keith Smith FB\n34 Chris Warren III\n33 DeAndré Washington\n44 Ryan Yurachek FB\nWide receivers\n\n88 Marcell Ateman\n80 Saeed Blacknall\n12 Martavis Bryant\n89 Amari Cooper\n17 Dwayne Harris\n14 Keon Hatcher\n16 Johnny Holton\n82 Jordy Nelson\n10 Seth Roberts\n19 Isaac Whitney\nTight ends\n\n83 Marcus Baugh\n81 Pharaoh Brown\n84 Paul Butler\n85 Derek Carrier\n87 Jared Cook\n86 Lee Smith\n\n\n\nOffensive linemen\n60 Oday Aboushi G\n76 Jon Feliciano C\n61 Rodney Hudson C\n63 Cameron Hunt G\n66 Gabe Jackson G\n79 Denver Kirkland G\n77 Kolton Miller T\n70 Kelechi Osemele G\n75 Brandon Parker T\n72 Donald Penn T\n71 David Sharpe T\n67 Ian Silberman G\n65 Jordan Simmons G\n62 James Stone C\n69 Jylan Ware T\nDefensive linemen\n\n95 Fadol Brown DE\n91 Shilique Calhoun DE\n96 Tank Carradine DE\n97 Mario Edwards Jr. DT\n78 Justin Ellis NT\n93 Connor Flagel DE\n92 P. J. Hall DT\n90 Treyvon Hester DT\n73 Maurice Hurst Jr. DT\n51 Bruce Irvin DE\n99 Arden Key DE\n98 Frostee Rucker DE\n64 Shakir Soto DE\n74 Gabe Wright DT\n\n\n\nLinebackers\n46 Jason Cabinda LB\n47 James Cowser OLB\n56 Derrick Johnson MLB\n54 Emmanuel Lamur OLB\n55 Marquel Lee MLB\n50 Nicholas Morrow OLB\n57 Azeem Victor MLB\n59 Tahir Whitehead OLB\n58 Kyle Wilber OLB\nDefensive backs\n\n37 Jarell Carter CB\n21 Gareon Conley CB\n49 Antwaun Davis CB\n31 Marcus Gilchrist FS\n29 Leon Hall CB\n32 Antonio Hamilton CB\n25 Erik Harris SS\n42 Karl Joseph SS\n45 Dallin Leavitt S\n26 Shalom Luani SS\n39 Quincy Mauger FS\n23 Dexter McDonald CB\n22 Rashaan Melvin CB\n45 Nick Nelson CB\n27 Reggie Nelson FS\n43 Raysean Pringle CB\n36 Dominique Rodgers-Cromartie CB\n20 Daryl Worley CB\n35 Shareece Wright CB\nSpecial teams\n\n48 Andrew DePaola LS\n 6 Mike Nugent K\n 9 Eddy Pineiro K\n 5 Johnny Townsend P\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nReserve lists\n52 Khalil Mack DE (Did Not Report)\n-- Obi Melifonwu SS (IR) \n37 Tevin Mitchel CB (IR) \n93 Ahtyba Rubin DT (IR) \n94 Eddie Vanderdoes DT (Active/PUP) \n\n\nRookies in italics\nRoster updated August 28, 2018\nDepth chart • Transactions\n89 Active, 4 Inactive\n\n→ AFC rosters → NFC rosters", "4 Derek Carr\n18 Connor Cook\n 3 EJ Manuel", " 4 Derek Carr", "18 Connor Cook", " 3 EJ Manuel", "40 James Butler\n24 Marshawn Lynch\n28 Doug Martin\n30 Jalen Richard\n41 Keith Smith FB\n34 Chris Warren III\n33 DeAndré Washington\n44 Ryan Yurachek FB", "40 James Butler", "24 Marshawn Lynch", "28 Doug Martin", "30 Jalen Richard", "41 Keith Smith FB", "34 Chris Warren III", "33 DeAndré Washington", "44 Ryan Yurachek FB", "88 Marcell Ateman\n80 Saeed Blacknall\n12 Martavis Bryant\n89 Amari Cooper\n17 Dwayne Harris\n14 Keon Hatcher\n16 Johnny Holton\n82 Jordy Nelson\n10 Seth Roberts\n19 Isaac Whitney", "88 Marcell Ateman", "80 Saeed Blacknall", "12 Martavis Bryant", "89 Amari Cooper", "17 Dwayne Harris", "14 Keon Hatcher", "16 Johnny Holton", "82 Jordy Nelson", "10 Seth Roberts", "19 Isaac Whitney", "83 Marcus Baugh\n81 Pharaoh Brown\n84 Paul Butler\n85 Derek Carrier\n87 Jared Cook\n86 Lee Smith", "83 Marcus Baugh", "81 Pharaoh Brown", "84 Paul Butler", "85 Derek Carrier", "87 Jared Cook", "86 Lee Smith", "60 Oday Aboushi G\n76 Jon Feliciano C\n61 Rodney Hudson C\n63 Cameron Hunt G\n66 Gabe Jackson G\n79 Denver Kirkland G\n77 Kolton Miller T\n70 Kelechi Osemele G\n75 Brandon Parker T\n72 Donald Penn T\n71 David Sharpe T\n67 Ian Silberman G\n65 Jordan Simmons G\n62 James Stone C\n69 Jylan Ware T", "60 Oday Aboushi G", "76 Jon Feliciano C", "61 Rodney Hudson C", "63 Cameron Hunt G", "66 Gabe Jackson G", "79 Denver Kirkland G", "77 Kolton Miller T", "70 Kelechi Osemele G", "75 Brandon Parker T", "72 Donald Penn T", "71 David Sharpe T", "67 Ian Silberman G", "65 Jordan Simmons G", "62 James Stone C", "69 Jylan Ware T", "95 Fadol Brown DE\n91 Shilique Calhoun DE\n96 Tank Carradine DE\n97 Mario Edwards Jr. DT\n78 Justin Ellis NT\n93 Connor Flagel DE\n92 P. J. Hall DT\n90 Treyvon Hester DT\n73 Maurice Hurst Jr. DT\n51 Bruce Irvin DE\n99 Arden Key DE\n98 Frostee Rucker DE\n64 Shakir Soto DE\n74 Gabe Wright DT", "95 Fadol Brown DE", "91 Shilique Calhoun DE", "96 Tank Carradine DE", "97 Mario Edwards Jr. DT", "78 Justin Ellis NT", "93 Connor Flagel DE", "92 P. J. Hall DT", "90 Treyvon Hester DT", "73 Maurice Hurst Jr. DT", "51 Bruce Irvin DE", "99 Arden Key DE", "98 Frostee Rucker DE", "64 Shakir Soto DE", "74 Gabe Wright DT", "46 Jason Cabinda LB\n47 James Cowser OLB\n56 Derrick Johnson MLB\n54 Emmanuel Lamur OLB\n55 Marquel Lee MLB\n50 Nicholas Morrow OLB\n57 Azeem Victor MLB\n59 Tahir Whitehead OLB\n58 Kyle Wilber OLB", "46 Jason Cabinda LB", "47 James Cowser OLB", "56 Derrick Johnson MLB", "54 Emmanuel Lamur OLB", "55 Marquel Lee MLB", "50 Nicholas Morrow OLB", "57 Azeem Victor MLB", "59 Tahir Whitehead OLB", "58 Kyle Wilber OLB", "37 Jarell Carter CB\n21 Gareon Conley CB\n49 Antwaun Davis CB\n31 Marcus Gilchrist FS\n29 Leon Hall CB\n32 Antonio Hamilton CB\n25 Erik Harris SS\n42 Karl Joseph SS\n45 Dallin Leavitt S\n26 Shalom Luani SS\n39 Quincy Mauger FS\n23 Dexter McDonald CB\n22 Rashaan Melvin CB\n45 Nick Nelson CB\n27 Reggie Nelson FS\n43 Raysean Pringle CB\n36 Dominique Rodgers-Cromartie CB\n20 Daryl Worley CB\n35 Shareece Wright CB", "37 Jarell Carter CB", "21 Gareon Conley CB", "49 Antwaun Davis CB", "31 Marcus Gilchrist FS", "29 Leon Hall CB", "32 Antonio Hamilton CB", "25 Erik Harris SS", "42 Karl Joseph SS", "45 Dallin Leavitt S", "26 Shalom Luani SS", "39 Quincy Mauger FS", "23 Dexter McDonald CB", "22 Rashaan Melvin CB", "45 Nick Nelson CB", "27 Reggie Nelson FS", "43 Raysean Pringle CB", "36 Dominique Rodgers-Cromartie CB", "20 Daryl Worley CB", "35 Shareece Wright CB", "48 Andrew DePaola LS\n 6 Mike Nugent K\n 9 Eddy Pineiro K\n 5 Johnny Townsend P", "48 Andrew DePaola LS", " 6 Mike Nugent K", " 9 Eddy Pineiro K", " 5 Johnny Townsend P", "52 Khalil Mack DE (Did Not Report)\n-- Obi Melifonwu SS (IR) \n37 Tevin Mitchel CB (IR) \n93 Ahtyba Rubin DT (IR) \n94 Eddie Vanderdoes DT (Active/PUP)", "52 Khalil Mack DE (Did Not Report)", "-- Obi Melifonwu SS (IR)", "37 Tevin Mitchel CB (IR)", "93 Ahtyba Rubin DT (IR)", "94 Eddie Vanderdoes DT (Active/PUP)", "Roster updated August 28, 2018\nDepth chart • Transactions\n89 Active, 4 Inactive", "AFC East\nBUF\nMIA\nNE\nNYJ\nNorth\nBAL\nCIN\nCLE\nPIT\nSouth\nHOU\nIND\nJAX\nTEN\nWest\nDEN\nKC\nLAC\nOAK\nNFC East\nDAL\nNYG\nPHI\nWAS\nNorth\nCHI\nDET\nGB\nMIN\nSouth\nATL\nCAR\nNO\nTB\nWest\nARI\nLAR\nSF\nSEA", "AFC East\nBUF\nMIA\nNE\nNYJ\nNorth\nBAL\nCIN\nCLE\nPIT\nSouth\nHOU\nIND\nJAX\nTEN\nWest\nDEN\nKC\nLAC\nOAK", "NFC East\nDAL\nNYG\nPHI\nWAS\nNorth\nCHI\nDET\nGB\nMIN\nSouth\nATL\nCAR\nNO\nTB\nWest\nARI\nLAR\nSF\nSEA", "The Pro Football Hall of Fame has inducted 14 players who made their primary contribution to professional football while with the Raiders, in addition to coach-owner-commissioner Al Davis, head coach John Madden and executive Ron Wolf. The Raiders' total is of 25 Hall of Famers.[146]", "Hall of Famers who made the major part of their primary contribution for the Raiders are listed in bold.\nHall of Famers who spent only a minor portion of their career with the Raiders are listed in normal font.", "Hall of Famers who made the major part of their primary contribution for the Raiders are listed in bold.", "Hall of Famers who spent only a minor portion of their career with the Raiders are listed in normal font.", "Raiders in the Pro Football Hall of Fame\n\n\nPlayers\n\n\nNo.\n\nName\n\nPosition(s)\n\nTenure\n\nInducted\n\n\n77\nRon Mix\nOT\n1971\n1979\n\n\n00\nJim Otto\nC\n1960–1974\n1980\n\n\n16\nGeorge Blanda\nQB–K\n1967–1975\n1981\n\n\n24\nWillie Brown\nCB\n1967–1978\n1984\n\n\n63\nGene Upshaw\nG\n1967–1981\n1987\n\n\n14, 25\nFred Biletnikoff\nWR\n1965–1978\n1988\n\n\n78\nArt Shell\nOT\n1968–1982\n1989\n\n\n83\nTed Hendricks\nLB\n1975–1983\n1990\n\n\n22\nMike Haynes\nCB\n1983–1989\n1997\n\n\n29\nEric Dickerson\nRB\n1992\n1999\n\n\n75\nHowie Long\nDE\n1981–1993\n2000\n\n\n42\nRonnie Lott\nS\n1991–1992\n2000\n\n\n87\nDave Casper\nTE\n1974–1980, 1984\n2002\n\n\n32\nMarcus Allen\nRB\n1982–1992\n2003\n\n\n80\nJames Lofton\nWR\n1987–1988\n2003\n\n\n76\nBob Brown\nOT\n1971–1973\n2004\n\n\n26\nRod Woodson\nS\n2002–2003\n2009\n\n\n80\nJerry Rice\nWR\n2001–2004\n2010\n\n\n99\nWarren Sapp\nDT\n2004–2007\n2013\n\n\n8\nRay Guy\nP\n1973–1986\n2014\n\n\n81\nTim Brown\nWR\n1988–2003\n2015\n\n\n12\nKen Stabler\nQB\n1970–1979\n2016\n\n\n18\nRandy Moss\nWR\n2005–2006\n2018\n\n\nCoaches and Contributors\n\n\nName\n\nPosition(s)\n\nTenure\n\nInducted\n\n\nAl Davis\nCoach-Owner-Commissioner\n1963–2011\n1992\n\n\nJohn Madden\nHead Coach\n1969–1978\n2006\n\n\nRon Wolf\nScoutPlayer Personnel Director\n1963–19741979–1989\n2015", "Raiders in the Pro Football Hall of Fame", "Players", "No.\n\nName\n\nPosition(s)\n\nTenure\n\nInducted", "77\nRon Mix\nOT\n1971\n1979", "00\nJim Otto\nC\n1960–1974\n1980", "16\nGeorge Blanda\nQB–K\n1967–1975\n1981", "24\nWillie Brown\nCB\n1967–1978\n1984", "63\nGene Upshaw\nG\n1967–1981\n1987", "14, 25\nFred Biletnikoff\nWR\n1965–1978\n1988", "78\nArt Shell\nOT\n1968–1982\n1989", "83\nTed Hendricks\nLB\n1975–1983\n1990", "22\nMike Haynes\nCB\n1983–1989\n1997", "29\nEric Dickerson\nRB\n1992\n1999", "75\nHowie Long\nDE\n1981–1993\n2000", "42\nRonnie Lott\nS\n1991–1992\n2000", "87\nDave Casper\nTE\n1974–1980, 1984\n2002", "32\nMarcus Allen\nRB\n1982–1992\n2003", "80\nJames Lofton\nWR\n1987–1988\n2003", "76\nBob Brown\nOT\n1971–1973\n2004", "26\nRod Woodson\nS\n2002–2003\n2009", "80\nJerry Rice\nWR\n2001–2004\n2010", "99\nWarren Sapp\nDT\n2004–2007\n2013", "8\nRay Guy\nP\n1973–1986\n2014", "81\nTim Brown\nWR\n1988–2003\n2015", "12\nKen Stabler\nQB\n1970–1979\n2016", "18\nRandy Moss\nWR\n2005–2006\n2018", "Coaches and Contributors", "Name\n\nPosition(s)\n\nTenure\n\nInducted", "Al Davis\nCoach-Owner-Commissioner\n1963–2011\n1992", "John Madden\nHead Coach\n1969–1978\n2006", "Ron Wolf\nScoutPlayer Personnel Director\n1963–19741979–1989\n2015", "The Raider organization does not retire the jersey numbers of former players on an official or unofficial basis. All 99 numbers are available for any player, regardless of stature or who previously wore the number.", "NFL MVP Winners\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1974\nKen Stabler\nQB\n\n\n1985\nMarcus Allen\nRB\n\n\n2002\nRich Gannon\nQB\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nSuper Bowl MVP Winners\n\n\nSuper Bowl\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\nXI\nFred Biletnikoff\nWR\n\n\nXV\nJim Plunkett\nQB\n\n\nXVIII\nMarcus Allen\nRB\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nPro Bowl MVP Winners\n\n\nPro Bowl\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n2001\nRich Gannon\nQB\n\n\n2002", "NFL MVP Winners\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1974\nKen Stabler\nQB\n\n\n1985\nMarcus Allen\nRB\n\n\n2002\nRich Gannon\nQB\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nSuper Bowl MVP Winners\n\n\nSuper Bowl\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\nXI\nFred Biletnikoff\nWR\n\n\nXV\nJim Plunkett\nQB\n\n\nXVIII\nMarcus Allen\nRB\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nPro Bowl MVP Winners\n\n\nPro Bowl\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n2001\nRich Gannon\nQB\n\n\n2002", "NFL MVP Winners\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1974\nKen Stabler\nQB\n\n\n1985\nMarcus Allen\nRB\n\n\n2002\nRich Gannon\nQB", "NFL MVP Winners", "Season\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition", "1974\nKen Stabler\nQB", "1985\nMarcus Allen\nRB", "2002\nRich Gannon\nQB", "Super Bowl MVP Winners\n\n\nSuper Bowl\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\nXI\nFred Biletnikoff\nWR\n\n\nXV\nJim Plunkett\nQB\n\n\nXVIII\nMarcus Allen\nRB", "Super Bowl MVP Winners", "Super Bowl\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition", "XI\nFred Biletnikoff\nWR", "XV\nJim Plunkett\nQB", "XVIII\nMarcus Allen\nRB", "Pro Bowl MVP Winners\n\n\nPro Bowl\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n2001\nRich Gannon\nQB\n\n\n2002", "Pro Bowl MVP Winners", "Pro Bowl\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition", "2001\nRich Gannon\nQB", "2002", "NFL Offensive Player of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1974\nKen Stabler\nQB\n\n\n1985\nMarcus Allen\nRB\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nNFL Defensive Player of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1980\nLester Hayes\nCB\n\n\n2016\nKhalil Mack\nLB\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nNFL Comeback Player of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1980\nJim Plunkett\nQB\n\n\n1982\nLyle Alzado\nDE", "NFL Offensive Player of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1974\nKen Stabler\nQB\n\n\n1985\nMarcus Allen\nRB\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nNFL Defensive Player of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1980\nLester Hayes\nCB\n\n\n2016\nKhalil Mack\nLB\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nNFL Comeback Player of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1980\nJim Plunkett\nQB\n\n\n1982\nLyle Alzado\nDE", "NFL Offensive Player of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1974\nKen Stabler\nQB\n\n\n1985\nMarcus Allen\nRB", "NFL Offensive Player of the Year", "Season\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition", "1974\nKen Stabler\nQB", "1985\nMarcus Allen\nRB", "NFL Defensive Player of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1980\nLester Hayes\nCB\n\n\n2016\nKhalil Mack\nLB", "NFL Defensive Player of the Year", "Season\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition", "1980\nLester Hayes\nCB", "2016\nKhalil Mack\nLB", "NFL Comeback Player of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1980\nJim Plunkett\nQB\n\n\n1982\nLyle Alzado\nDE", "NFL Comeback Player of the Year", "Season\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition", "1980\nJim Plunkett\nQB", "1982\nLyle Alzado\nDE", "NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1982\nMarcus Allen\nRB\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nNFL Defensive Rookie of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1998\nCharles Woodson\nCB\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nWalter Payton NFL Man of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1974\nGeorge Blanda\nQB/K", "NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1982\nMarcus Allen\nRB\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nNFL Defensive Rookie of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1998\nCharles Woodson\nCB\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nWalter Payton NFL Man of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1974\nGeorge Blanda\nQB/K", "NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1982\nMarcus Allen\nRB", "NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year", "Season\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition", "1982\nMarcus Allen\nRB", "NFL Defensive Rookie of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1998\nCharles Woodson\nCB", "NFL Defensive Rookie of the Year", "Season\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition", "1998\nCharles Woodson\nCB", "Walter Payton NFL Man of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1974\nGeorge Blanda\nQB/K", "Walter Payton NFL Man of the Year", "Season\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition", "1974\nGeorge Blanda\nQB/K", "Byron \"Whizzer\" White Man of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1979\nGene Upshaw\nG\n\n\n2009\nNnamdi Asomugha\nCB", "Byron \"Whizzer\" White Man of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1979\nGene Upshaw\nG\n\n\n2009\nNnamdi Asomugha\nCB", "Byron \"Whizzer\" White Man of the Year\n\n\nSeason\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition\n\n\n1979\nGene Upshaw\nG\n\n\n2009\nNnamdi Asomugha\nCB", "Byron \"Whizzer\" White Man of the Year", "Season\n\nPlayer\n\nPosition", "1979\nGene Upshaw\nG", "2009\nNnamdi Asomugha\nCB", "Passing Yards: 19,078 Ken Stabler (1970–1979)[147]\nPassing Touchdowns: 150 Ken Stabler (1970–1979)\nRushing Yards: 8,545 Marcus Allen (1982–1992)\nRushing Touchdowns: 79 Marcus Allen (1982–1992)\nReceptions: 1,070 Tim Brown (1988–2003)\nReceiving Yards: 14,734 Tim Brown (1988–2003)\nReceiving Touchdowns: 99 Tim Brown (1988–2003)\nTotal Touchdowns: 104 Tim Brown (1988–2003)\nPoints: 1,799 Sebastian Janikowski (2000–present)\nField Goals Made: 414 Sebastian Janikowski (2000–present)\nTotal Punt Yardage: 48,215 Shane Lechler (2000–2012)\nPunting Average: 47.5 Shane Lechler (2000–2012)\nKickoff Return Yards: 4,841 Chris Carr (2005–2007)\nPunt Return Yards: 3,272 Tim Brown (1988–2003)\nPass Interceptions: 39 Willie Brown (1967–1978), Lester Hayes (1977–1986)\nSacks: 107.5 Greg Townsend (1983–1997)\nWinningest Coach: 103 John Madden (1969–1978)", "Passing Yards: 19,078 Ken Stabler (1970–1979)[147]", "Passing Touchdowns: 150 Ken Stabler (1970–1979)", "Rushing Yards: 8,545 Marcus Allen (1982–1992)", "Rushing Touchdowns: 79 Marcus Allen (1982–1992)", "Receptions: 1,070 Tim Brown (1988–2003)", "Receiving Yards: 14,734 Tim Brown (1988–2003)", "Receiving Touchdowns: 99 Tim Brown (1988–2003)", "Total Touchdowns: 104 Tim Brown (1988–2003)", "Points: 1,799 Sebastian Janikowski (2000–present)", "Field Goals Made: 414 Sebastian Janikowski (2000–present)", "Total Punt Yardage: 48,215 Shane Lechler (2000–2012)", "Punting Average: 47.5 Shane Lechler (2000–2012)", "Kickoff Return Yards: 4,841 Chris Carr (2005–2007)", "Punt Return Yards: 3,272 Tim Brown (1988–2003)", "Pass Interceptions: 39 Willie Brown (1967–1978), Lester Hayes (1977–1986)", "Sacks: 107.5 Greg Townsend (1983–1997)", "Winningest Coach: 103 John Madden (1969–1978)", "Passing Yards: 4,689 Rich Gannon (2002)[148]\nPassing Touchdowns: 34 Daryle Lamonica (1969)\nRushing Yards: 1,759 Marcus Allen (1985)\nRushing Touchdowns: 16 Pete Banaszak (1975)\nReceptions: 104 Tim Brown (1997)\nReceiving Yards: 1,408 Tim Brown (1997)\nReceiving Touchdowns: 16 Art Powell (1963)\nTotal Touchdowns: 18 Marcus Allen (1984)\nPoints: 142 Sebastian Janikowski (2010)\nField Goals Made: 35 Jeff Jaeger (1993)\nTotal Punt Yardage: 4,930 Marquette King (2014)\nPunting Average: 51.1 Shane Lechler (2009)\nKickoff Return Yards: 1,762 Chris Carr (2006)\nPunt Return Yards: 692 Fulton Walker (1985)\nPass Interceptions: 13 Lester Hayes (1980)\nSacks: 16.0 Derrick Burgess (2005)", "Passing Yards: 4,689 Rich Gannon (2002)[148]", "Passing Touchdowns: 34 Daryle Lamonica (1969)", "Rushing Yards: 1,759 Marcus Allen (1985)", "Rushing Touchdowns: 16 Pete Banaszak (1975)", "Receptions: 104 Tim Brown (1997)", "Receiving Yards: 1,408 Tim Brown (1997)", "Receiving Touchdowns: 16 Art Powell (1963)", "Total Touchdowns: 18 Marcus Allen (1984)", "Points: 142 Sebastian Janikowski (2010)", "Field Goals Made: 35 Jeff Jaeger (1993)", "Total Punt Yardage: 4,930 Marquette King (2014)", "Punting Average: 51.1 Shane Lechler (2009)", "Kickoff Return Yards: 1,762 Chris Carr (2006)", "Punt Return Yards: 692 Fulton Walker (1985)", "Pass Interceptions: 13 Lester Hayes (1980)", "Sacks: 16.0 Derrick Burgess (2005)", "The following Raiders players have been named to the All-Pro team:", "QB Daryle Lamonica, Rich Gannon (2), Ken Stabler (1)\nRB Marcus Allen, Clem Daniels (2)\nFB Hewritt Dixon, Marcel Reece (1)\nWR Cliff Branch (3), Tim Brown (2), Fred Biletnikoff (2), Art Powell (1)\nTE Dave Casper (4), Todd Christensen (2), Billy Cannon (1)\nT Art Shell (2), Harry Schuh, Lincoln Kennedy (1)\nG Gene Upshaw (5), Steve Wisniewski (2), Kelechi Osemele (1)\nC Jim Otto (10), Barret Robbins (1)\nDE Howie Long, Khalil Mack (2), Ben Davidson (1)\nDT Tom Keating, Dan Birdwell, Bill Pickel, Chester McGlockton, Darrell Russell (1)\nLB Ted Hendricks (2), Rod Martin, Archie Matsos, Khalil Mack (1)\nCB Willie Brown (4), Dave Grayson (3), Fred Williamson, Kent McCloughan, Mike Haynes, Nnamdi Asomugha (2), Lester Hayes, Charles Woodson (1)\nS Tom Morrow, Ronnie Lott, Rod Woodson (1)\nK Jeff Jaeger (1)\nP Shane Lechler (6), Ray Guy (3), Jeff Gossett (1)", "QB Daryle Lamonica, Rich Gannon (2), Ken Stabler (1)", "RB Marcus Allen, Clem Daniels (2)", "FB Hewritt Dixon, Marcel Reece (1)", "WR Cliff Branch (3), Tim Brown (2), Fred Biletnikoff (2), Art Powell (1)", "TE Dave Casper (4), Todd Christensen (2), Billy Cannon (1)", "T Art Shell (2), Harry Schuh, Lincoln Kennedy (1)", "G Gene Upshaw (5), Steve Wisniewski (2), Kelechi Osemele (1)", "C Jim Otto (10), Barret Robbins (1)", "DE Howie Long, Khalil Mack (2), Ben Davidson (1)", "DT Tom Keating, Dan Birdwell, Bill Pickel, Chester McGlockton, Darrell Russell (1)", "LB Ted Hendricks (2), Rod Martin, Archie Matsos, Khalil Mack (1)", "CB Willie Brown (4), Dave Grayson (3), Fred Williamson, Kent McCloughan, Mike Haynes, Nnamdi Asomugha (2), Lester Hayes, Charles Woodson (1)", "S Tom Morrow, Ronnie Lott, Rod Woodson (1)", "K Jeff Jaeger (1)", "P Shane Lechler (6), Ray Guy (3), Jeff Gossett (1)", "The following Raiders players have been named to the Pro Bowl:", "QB Daryle Lamonica, Ken Stabler, Rich Gannon (4), Derek Carr (3), Cotton Davidson, Tom Flores, George Blanda, Jeff Hostetler (1)\nRB Marcus Allen (5), Clem Daniels (4), Marv Hubbard (3), Kenny King, Greg Pruitt, Bo Jackson, Latavius Murray (1)\nFB Hewritt Dixon (4), Marcel Reece (4), Alan Miller (1)\nWR Tim Brown (9), Fred Biletnikoff (6), Art Powell, Cliff Branch (4), Warren Wells, Amari Cooper (2), Jerry Rice (1)\nTE Dave Casper, Todd Christensen (5), Raymond Chester (4), Billy Cannon, Ethan Horton, Zach Miller (1)\nT Art Shell (8), Harry Schuh, Lincoln Kennedy (3), Henry Lawrence, Donald Penn (2), Bob Brown (1)\nG Steve Wisniewski (8), Gene Upshaw (7), Wayne Hawkins (5), Kelechi Osemele (2), Max Montoya, Kevin Gogan (1)\nC Jim Otto (12), Don Mosebar (3), Rodney Hudson (2), Dave Dalby, Barret Robbins (1)\nDE Howie Long (8), Ben Davidson, Khalil Mack (3), Greg Townsend, Derrick Burgess (2), Ike Lassiter (1)\nDT Chester McGlockton (4), Tom Keating, Darrell Russell, Richard Seymour (2), Dave Costa, Dan Birdwell, Otis Sistrunk (1)\nLB Phil Villapiano, Ted Hendricks (4), Dan Conners (3), Rod Martin (2), Archie Matsos, Gus Otto, Matt Millen (1)\nCB Willie Brown (7), Lester Hayes, Terry McDaniel (5), Charles Woodson (4), Fred Williamson, Dave Grayson, Mike Haynes, Nnamdi Asomugha (3), Kent McCloughan (2)\nS Jack Tatum (3), George Atkinson, Vann McElroy (2) Charles Woodson, Ronnie Lott, Rod Woodson, Reggie Nelson (1)\nK Jeff Jaeger, Sebastian Janikowski (1)\nP Ray Guy (7), Shane Lechler (7), Jeff Gossett (1)\nLS Jon Condo (2)", "QB Daryle Lamonica, Ken Stabler, Rich Gannon (4), Derek Carr (3), Cotton Davidson, Tom Flores, George Blanda, Jeff Hostetler (1)", "RB Marcus Allen (5), Clem Daniels (4), Marv Hubbard (3), Kenny King, Greg Pruitt, Bo Jackson, Latavius Murray (1)", "FB Hewritt Dixon (4), Marcel Reece (4), Alan Miller (1)", "WR Tim Brown (9), Fred Biletnikoff (6), Art Powell, Cliff Branch (4), Warren Wells, Amari Cooper (2), Jerry Rice (1)", "TE Dave Casper, Todd Christensen (5), Raymond Chester (4), Billy Cannon, Ethan Horton, Zach Miller (1)", "T Art Shell (8), Harry Schuh, Lincoln Kennedy (3), Henry Lawrence, Donald Penn (2), Bob Brown (1)", "G Steve Wisniewski (8), Gene Upshaw (7), Wayne Hawkins (5), Kelechi Osemele (2), Max Montoya, Kevin Gogan (1)", "C Jim Otto (12), Don Mosebar (3), Rodney Hudson (2), Dave Dalby, Barret Robbins (1)", "DE Howie Long (8), Ben Davidson, Khalil Mack (3), Greg Townsend, Derrick Burgess (2), Ike Lassiter (1)", "DT Chester McGlockton (4), Tom Keating, Darrell Russell, Richard Seymour (2), Dave Costa, Dan Birdwell, Otis Sistrunk (1)", "LB Phil Villapiano, Ted Hendricks (4), Dan Conners (3), Rod Martin (2), Archie Matsos, Gus Otto, Matt Millen (1)", "CB Willie Brown (7), Lester Hayes, Terry McDaniel (5), Charles Woodson (4), Fred Williamson, Dave Grayson, Mike Haynes, Nnamdi Asomugha (3), Kent McCloughan (2)", "S Jack Tatum (3), George Atkinson, Vann McElroy (2) Charles Woodson, Ronnie Lott, Rod Woodson, Reggie Nelson (1)", "K Jeff Jaeger, Sebastian Janikowski (1)", "P Ray Guy (7), Shane Lechler (7), Jeff Gossett (1)", "LS Jon Condo (2)", "The coaches and executives that have contributed to the history & success of the Los Angeles/Oakland Raiders franchise are as follows:", "Al Davis: head coach (1963–1965), general manager/owner (1966–2011), AFL commissioner (1966)\nRon Wolf: scout/executive, director of player personnel (1963–1974; 1978–1989)\nJohn Madden: head coach (1969–1978)\nTom Flores: assistant head coach, executive assistant coach (1972–1978), head coach (1979–1987), executive (1988)\nJohn Rauch: head coach (1965–1968)\nJohn Herrera: business & public relations (1967–1978), director of public relations (1978–1982), senior executive (1985–2012)\nKen Herock: scout/executive assistant, scout/personnel director (1970–1975), player personnel (1984–1986), executive assistant (1997–1998)\nAl LoCasale: executive assistant (1969–2003)\nAmy Trask: chief executive officer (1987–2013)\nArt Shell: assistant head coach (1983–1989; 1989–1994)\nBruce Allen: senior executive (1995–2003)\nJon Gruden: head coach (1998–2001; 2018–present)\nHue Jackson: assistant coach/head coach (2010–2011)\nReggie McKenzie: general manager (2012–present)\nJack Del Rio: head coach (2015–2017)", "Al Davis: head coach (1963–1965), general manager/owner (1966–2011), AFL commissioner (1966)", "Ron Wolf: scout/executive, director of player personnel (1963–1974; 1978–1989)", "John Madden: head coach (1969–1978)", "Tom Flores: assistant head coach, executive assistant coach (1972–1978), head coach (1979–1987), executive (1988)", "John Rauch: head coach (1965–1968)", "John Herrera: business & public relations (1967–1978), director of public relations (1978–1982), senior executive (1985–2012)", "Ken Herock: scout/executive assistant, scout/personnel director (1970–1975), player personnel (1984–1986), executive assistant (1997–1998)", "Al LoCasale: executive assistant (1969–2003)", "Amy Trask: chief executive officer (1987–2013)", "Art Shell: assistant head coach (1983–1989; 1989–1994)", "Bruce Allen: senior executive (1995–2003)", "Jon Gruden: head coach (1998–2001; 2018–present)", "Hue Jackson: assistant coach/head coach (2010–2011)", "Reggie McKenzie: general manager (2012–present)", "Jack Del Rio: head coach (2015–2017)", "Oakland Raiders staffvte\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nFront office\nOwner – Mark Davis\nPresident – Marc Badain\nExecutive vice president/general counsel – Dan Ventrelle\nGeneral manager – Reggie McKenzie\nDirector of football administration – Tom Delaney\nDirector of player personnel – Joey Clinkscales\nAssistant director of player personnel – Trey Scott\nDirector of pro personnel – Dane Vandernat\nAssistant director of pro personnel – Von Hutchins\nDirector of college scouting – Shaun Herock\nAssistant director of college scouting – Brad Kaplan\nHead coaches\nHead coach – Jon Gruden\nAssistant head coach/special teams coordinator – Rich Bisaccia\nOffensive coaches\nOffensive coordinator – Greg Olson\nQuarterbacks – Brian Callahan\nRunning backs – Jemal Singleton\nWide receivers – Edgar Bennett\nTight ends – Frank Smith\nOffensive line – Tom Cable\nAssistant offensive line – Lemuel Jeanpierre\nOffensive quality control – Nick Holz\nOffensive quality control – Tim Berbenich\n\n \n\n\n\n\nDefensive coaches\nDefensive coordinator – Paul Guenther\nSenior defensive assistant – Jim O'Neil\nDefensive line – Mike Trgovac\nAssistant defensive line – Marco Coleman\nLinebackers – David Lippincott\nDefensive backs – Derrick Ansley\nDefensive quality control – Travis Smith\nSpecial teams coaches\nAssistant special teams – Byron Storer\nStrength and conditioning\nHead strength and conditioning – Tom Shaw\nStrength and conditioning assistant – D'Anthony Batiste\nStrength and conditioning assistant – Deuce Gruden\nStrength and conditioning assistant – Kelsey Martinez\nStrength and conditioning assistant – Rick Slate\nCoaching support staff\nDirector of football research – Dave Razzano\n→ Coaching staff\n→ Management\n→ More NFL staffs\n\n\nAFC East\nBUF\nMIA\nNE\nNYJ\nNorth\nBAL\nCIN\nCLE\nPIT\nSouth\nHOU\nIND\nJAX\nTEN\nWest\nDEN\nKC\nLAC\nOAK\nNFC East\nDAL\nNYG\nPHI\nWAS\nNorth\nCHI\nDET\nGB\nMIN\nSouth\nATL\nCAR\nNO\nTB\nWest\nARI\nLAR\nSF\nSEA", "Oakland Raiders staffvte", "vte", "Front office\nOwner – Mark Davis\nPresident – Marc Badain\nExecutive vice president/general counsel – Dan Ventrelle\nGeneral manager – Reggie McKenzie\nDirector of football administration – Tom Delaney\nDirector of player personnel – Joey Clinkscales\nAssistant director of player personnel – Trey Scott\nDirector of pro personnel – Dane Vandernat\nAssistant director of pro personnel – Von Hutchins\nDirector of college scouting – Shaun Herock\nAssistant director of college scouting – Brad Kaplan\nHead coaches\nHead coach – Jon Gruden\nAssistant head coach/special teams coordinator – Rich Bisaccia\nOffensive coaches\nOffensive coordinator – Greg Olson\nQuarterbacks – Brian Callahan\nRunning backs – Jemal Singleton\nWide receivers – Edgar Bennett\nTight ends – Frank Smith\nOffensive line – Tom Cable\nAssistant offensive line – Lemuel Jeanpierre\nOffensive quality control – Nick Holz\nOffensive quality control – Tim Berbenich\n\n \n\n\n\n\nDefensive coaches\nDefensive coordinator – Paul Guenther\nSenior defensive assistant – Jim O'Neil\nDefensive line – Mike Trgovac\nAssistant defensive line – Marco Coleman\nLinebackers – David Lippincott\nDefensive backs – Derrick Ansley\nDefensive quality control – Travis Smith\nSpecial teams coaches\nAssistant special teams – Byron Storer\nStrength and conditioning\nHead strength and conditioning – Tom Shaw\nStrength and conditioning assistant – D'Anthony Batiste\nStrength and conditioning assistant – Deuce Gruden\nStrength and conditioning assistant – Kelsey Martinez\nStrength and conditioning assistant – Rick Slate\nCoaching support staff\nDirector of football research – Dave Razzano\n→ Coaching staff\n→ Management\n→ More NFL staffs", "Front office", "Owner – Mark Davis\nPresident – Marc Badain\nExecutive vice president/general counsel – Dan Ventrelle\nGeneral manager – Reggie McKenzie\nDirector of football administration – Tom Delaney\nDirector of player personnel – Joey Clinkscales\nAssistant director of player personnel – Trey Scott\nDirector of pro personnel – Dane Vandernat\nAssistant director of pro personnel – Von Hutchins\nDirector of college scouting – Shaun Herock\nAssistant director of college scouting – Brad Kaplan", "Owner – Mark Davis", "President – Marc Badain", "Executive vice president/general counsel – Dan Ventrelle", "General manager – Reggie McKenzie", "Director of football administration – Tom Delaney", "Director of player personnel – Joey Clinkscales", "Assistant director of player personnel – Trey Scott", "Director of pro personnel – Dane Vandernat", "Assistant director of pro personnel – Von Hutchins", "Director of college scouting – Shaun Herock", "Assistant director of college scouting – Brad Kaplan", "Head coaches", "Head coach – Jon Gruden\nAssistant head coach/special teams coordinator – Rich Bisaccia", "Head coach – Jon Gruden", "Assistant head coach/special teams coordinator – Rich Bisaccia", "Offensive coaches", "Offensive coordinator – Greg Olson\nQuarterbacks – Brian Callahan\nRunning backs – Jemal Singleton\nWide receivers – Edgar Bennett\nTight ends – Frank Smith\nOffensive line – Tom Cable\nAssistant offensive line – Lemuel Jeanpierre\nOffensive quality control – Nick Holz\nOffensive quality control – Tim Berbenich", "Offensive coordinator – Greg Olson", "Quarterbacks – Brian Callahan", "Running backs – Jemal Singleton", "Wide receivers – Edgar Bennett", "Tight ends – Frank Smith", "Offensive line – Tom Cable", "Assistant offensive line – Lemuel Jeanpierre", "Offensive quality control – Nick Holz", "Offensive quality control – Tim Berbenich", "Defensive coaches", "Defensive coordinator – Paul Guenther\nSenior defensive assistant – Jim O'Neil\nDefensive line – Mike Trgovac\nAssistant defensive line – Marco Coleman\nLinebackers – David Lippincott\nDefensive backs – Derrick Ansley\nDefensive quality control – Travis Smith", "Defensive coordinator – Paul Guenther", "Senior defensive assistant – Jim O'Neil", "Defensive line – Mike Trgovac", "Assistant defensive line – Marco Coleman", "Linebackers – David Lippincott", "Defensive backs – Derrick Ansley", "Defensive quality control – Travis Smith", "Special teams coaches", "Special teams coaches", "Assistant special teams – Byron Storer", "Assistant special teams – Byron Storer", "Strength and conditioning", "Strength and conditioning", "Head strength and conditioning – Tom Shaw\nStrength and conditioning assistant – D'Anthony Batiste\nStrength and conditioning assistant – Deuce Gruden\nStrength and conditioning assistant – Kelsey Martinez\nStrength and conditioning assistant – Rick Slate", "Head strength and conditioning – Tom Shaw", "Strength and conditioning assistant – D'Anthony Batiste", "Strength and conditioning assistant – Deuce Gruden", "Strength and conditioning assistant – Kelsey Martinez", "Strength and conditioning assistant – Rick Slate", "Coaching support staff", "Coaching support staff", "Director of football research – Dave Razzano", "Director of football research – Dave Razzano", "→ Coaching staff\n→ Management\n→ More NFL staffs", "AFC East\nBUF\nMIA\nNE\nNYJ\nNorth\nBAL\nCIN\nCLE\nPIT\nSouth\nHOU\nIND\nJAX\nTEN\nWest\nDEN\nKC\nLAC\nOAK\nNFC East\nDAL\nNYG\nPHI\nWAS\nNorth\nCHI\nDET\nGB\nMIN\nSouth\nATL\nCAR\nNO\nTB\nWest\nARI\nLAR\nSF\nSEA", "AFC East\nBUF\nMIA\nNE\nNYJ\nNorth\nBAL\nCIN\nCLE\nPIT\nSouth\nHOU\nIND\nJAX\nTEN\nWest\nDEN\nKC\nLAC\nOAK", "NFC East\nDAL\nNYG\nPHI\nWAS\nNorth\nCHI\nDET\nGB\nMIN\nSouth\nATL\nCAR\nNO\nTB\nWest\nARI\nLAR\nSF\nSEA" ]
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[]
when did fosters home for imaginary friends start
Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends
[ "Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends\n\n\n\n\n\nGenre\nSitcom\nAdventure\nFantasy\n\n\nCreated by\nCraig McCracken\n\n\nDeveloped by\n\n\n\nCraig McCracken\nLauren Faust\nMike Moon\n\n\n\n\n\nWritten by\n\n\n\nCraig McCracken\nLauren Faust\nDarrick Bachman (2006-2009)\nCraig Lewis (2004-2005)\nTim McKeon (2005-2009)\nAdam Pava (2005-2006)\nAmy Keating Rogers (2004-2005)\nChuck Klein\nChris Savino\nCindy Morrow\nMeghan McCarthy\nKirk Thatcher\nCharlie Bean\nRob Renzetti (2008-2009)\nMitch Larson\n\n\n\n\n\nDirected by\n\n\n\nCraig McCracken\nRob Renzetti (co-director, 1 episode)\n\n\n\n\n\nVoices of\nSean Marquette\nKeith Ferguson\nPhil LaMarr\nTom Kenny\nCandi Milo\nGrey DeLisle\nTom Kane\n\n\nTheme music composer\nJames L. Venable\n\n\nComposer(s)\nJames L. Venable\nJennifer Kes Remington\n\n\nCountry of origin\nUnited States\n\n\nNo. of seasons\n6\n\n\nNo. of episodes\n79\n18 shorts (list of episodes)\n\n\nProduction\n\n\nExecutive producer(s)\nCraig McCracken\n\n\nProducer(s)\n\n\n\nVincent Aniceto (Season 3–5)\nRyan Slater (Season 5–6)\nMike Moon (co-producer, Season 1–3)\nLauren Faust (supervising producer, Season 3–4)\n\n\n\n\n\nRunning time\n22 minutes\n\n\nProduction company(s)\nCartoon Network Studios\nBoulder Media Limited\n\n\nDistributor\nWarner Bros. Television Distribution\n\n\nRelease\n\n\nOriginal network\nCartoon Network\n\n\nPicture format\n\n\n\n480i (4:3 SDTV) (Seasons 1–4)\n1080i (16:9 HDTV) (Seasons 5–6)\n\n\n\n\n\nAudio format\nDolby Digital\n\n\nOriginal release\nAugust 13, 2004 (2004-08-13) – May 3, 2009 (2009-05-03)\n\n\nChronology\n\n\nRelated shows\nThe Powerpuff Girls\nWander Over Yonder\n\n\nExternal links\n\n\nWebsite\nwww.cartoonnetwork.com/tv_shows/fosters/index.html", "Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends", "Genre\nSitcom\nAdventure\nFantasy", "Created by\nCraig McCracken", "Developed by\n\n\n\nCraig McCracken\nLauren Faust\nMike Moon", "Craig McCracken\nLauren Faust\nMike Moon", "Written by\n\n\n\nCraig McCracken\nLauren Faust\nDarrick Bachman (2006-2009)\nCraig Lewis (2004-2005)\nTim McKeon (2005-2009)\nAdam Pava (2005-2006)\nAmy Keating Rogers (2004-2005)\nChuck Klein\nChris Savino\nCindy Morrow\nMeghan McCarthy\nKirk Thatcher\nCharlie Bean\nRob Renzetti (2008-2009)\nMitch Larson", "Craig McCracken\nLauren Faust\nDarrick Bachman (2006-2009)\nCraig Lewis (2004-2005)\nTim McKeon (2005-2009)\nAdam Pava (2005-2006)\nAmy Keating Rogers (2004-2005)\nChuck Klein\nChris Savino\nCindy Morrow\nMeghan McCarthy\nKirk Thatcher\nCharlie Bean\nRob Renzetti (2008-2009)\nMitch Larson", "Darrick Bachman (2006-2009)", "Craig Lewis (2004-2005)", "Tim McKeon (2005-2009)", "Adam Pava (2005-2006)", "Amy Keating Rogers (2004-2005)", "Rob Renzetti (2008-2009)", "Directed by\n\n\n\nCraig McCracken\nRob Renzetti (co-director, 1 episode)", "Craig McCracken\nRob Renzetti (co-director, 1 episode)", "Rob Renzetti (co-director, 1 episode)", "Voices of\nSean Marquette\nKeith Ferguson\nPhil LaMarr\nTom Kenny\nCandi Milo\nGrey DeLisle\nTom Kane", "Theme music composer\nJames L. Venable", "Composer(s)\nJames L. Venable\nJennifer Kes Remington", "Country of origin\nUnited States", "No. of seasons\n6", "No. of episodes\n79\n18 shorts (list of episodes)", "Production", "Executive producer(s)\nCraig McCracken", "Producer(s)\n\n\n\nVincent Aniceto (Season 3–5)\nRyan Slater (Season 5–6)\nMike Moon (co-producer, Season 1–3)\nLauren Faust (supervising producer, Season 3–4)", "Vincent Aniceto (Season 3–5)\nRyan Slater (Season 5–6)\nMike Moon (co-producer, Season 1–3)\nLauren Faust (supervising producer, Season 3–4)", "Vincent Aniceto (Season 3–5)", "Ryan Slater (Season 5–6)", "Mike Moon (co-producer, Season 1–3)", "Lauren Faust (supervising producer, Season 3–4)", "Running time\n22 minutes", "Production company(s)\nCartoon Network Studios\nBoulder Media Limited", "Distributor\nWarner Bros. Television Distribution", "Release", "Original network\nCartoon Network", "Picture format\n\n\n\n480i (4:3 SDTV) (Seasons 1–4)\n1080i (16:9 HDTV) (Seasons 5–6)", "480i (4:3 SDTV) (Seasons 1–4)\n1080i (16:9 HDTV) (Seasons 5–6)", "480i (4:3 SDTV) (Seasons 1–4)", "1080i (16:9 HDTV) (Seasons 5–6)", "Audio format\nDolby Digital", "Original release\nAugust 13, 2004 (2004-08-13) – May 3, 2009 (2009-05-03)", "Chronology", "Related shows\nThe Powerpuff Girls\nWander Over Yonder", "External links", "Website\nwww.cartoonnetwork.com/tv_shows/fosters/index.html", "Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends (commonly abbreviated as Foster's) is an American animated television series created by Craig McCracken for Cartoon Network Studios. The series, set in a world in which imaginary friends coexist with humans, centers on an 8-year-old boy, Mac, who is pressured by his mother to abandon his imaginary friend, Bloo. After Mac discovers an orphanage dedicated to housing abandoned imaginary friends, Bloo moves into the home and is kept from adoption so long as Mac visits him daily. The episodes revolve around Mac and Bloo as they interact with other imaginary friends and house staff and live out their day-to-day adventures, often getting caught up in various predicaments.", "McCracken conceived the series after adopting two dogs from an animal shelter and applying the concept to imaginary friends. The show first premiered on Cartoon Network on August 13, 2004, as a 90-minute television film. On August 20, it began its normal run of twenty-to-thirty-minute episodes on Fridays, at 7 pm. The series finished its run on May 3, 2009, with a total of six seasons and seventy-nine episodes. McCracken left Cartoon Network shortly after the series ended. Reruns have aired on Boomerang from August 11, 2012 to November 3, 2013 and again from June 1, 2014 to April 3, 2017.", "Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends was praised by critics and received high ratings during its original run, becoming popular among both younger and older audiences. It received many industry accolades, including five Annie Awards and seven Emmy Awards, winning a total of sixteen awards out of thirty-five nominations. It has since been named by Entertainment Weekly as one of the best Cartoon Network shows and by IGN as the 85th best animated series of all time.", "Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends is the first show made by Cartoon Network animated primarily with Adobe Flash.", "The series is set in a universe in which childhood imaginary friends coexist with humans. In the show's universe, imaginary friends take physical form and become real as soon as children think them up. Once children outgrow them, friends are relocated to the titular orphanage, where they stay until other children adopt them. The home is run by the elderly Madame Foster, its lovable, kind founder; her imaginary friend Mr. Herriman, the strict rule-abider and business manager; and her granddaughter Frankie, who handles day-to-day operations.", "In the series' premiere episode, a young boy named Mac is pressured by his mother to abandon his imaginary friend Bloo, since she believes that he is too old to keep him. Bloo sees an advertisement on television about Foster's Home and tells Mac, who takes him there, only to find out the home is an orphanage and if Bloo were to reside there, he would be available to be adopted by another child. Mac then bargains with Frankie, Herriman and Madame Foster and they agree to guard Bloo from adoption so long as Mac continues to visit the center daily. During the series, Mac visits the home everyday after school. The show focuses on the escapades experienced by the mischievous Bloo, Mac, and the array of eccentric, colorful characters inhabiting Foster's, and the obstacles with which they are challenged.", "Mac (voiced by Sean Marquette) – A bright, and imaginative eight-year-old boy who is Bloo's creator and best friend. Mac visits Foster's every day.[1] He is very attached to Bloo and his biggest fear is never seeing him again.[2] Mac is often the voice of reason among his friends when they are making decisions. Mac becomes extremely high and hyperactive when he eats sugar.[3] He also has a crush on Frankie.[4][5]\nBloo (voiced by Keith Ferguson) – Mac's imaginary friend and best friend. He is blue-colored and resembles a simple, domed cylinder. Bloo is often very self-centered, egotistic and narcissistic, as well as having a knack for getting in trouble.[1] Despite all this, he still has a good heart and apologizes for his wrongdoings. Bloo loves paddle balls, even though he typically cannot make the ball hit the paddle. [6]\nWilt (voiced by Phil LaMarr) – A very tall, friendly and incredibly nice red-colored friend with only a right arm and a crooked left eye-stalk. His overtly passive demeanor is often taken advantage of by the other imaginary friends.[1] He is a basketball player and fan, and is the former imaginary friend of Jordan Michaels (a parody of Michael Jordan). After an accident during a basketball game, Wilt left Jordan, fearing the latter would be disappointed by Wilt's losing the game. Years later, Wilt goes on a search to re-encounter Jordan.[7]\nEduardo (voiced by Tom Kenny) – A Latin American friend created by a young girl, Nina Valerosa, to protect her in a dangerous neighborhood.[7] Eduardo is big, hairy and violet-purple, has horns, a snout, a pointy demon-like tail and large teeth. Despite his large size, overwhelming strength, and menacing appearance, Eduardo is docile, timid and scared of almost anything.[1] However, he can be ferocious if angered or when danger befalls his friends.[2]\nCoco (voiced by Candi Milo) – A bird-airplane-palm tree hybrid friend who can only say or write her name. A talent unique to her is her ability to lay colorful, plastic eggs containing a plethora of objects, at will.[1] Other characters usually understand her when she speaks. Despite her appearance and quirky behavior, she can demonstrate intelligence and kindness. Her creator is unknown, as she was found on a South Pacific island by two scientists named Adam and Douglas.[7]\nFrankie Foster (voiced by Grey DeLisle) – Madame Foster's redheaded granddaughter, addressed as \"Miss Frances\" by Mr. Herriman. Frankie is the caregiver at Foster's and helps keep everything in order.[1] She is usually very friendly, capable, easygoing, hard-working, thoughtful, caring, and sweet, but occasionally loses her patience with Bloo and Mr. Herriman. According to her driver's license, she was born on July 25, 1984.[8]\nMr. Herriman (voiced by Tom Kane) – A gray and white elderly anthropomorphic lop ear rabbit friend imagined by Madame Foster who speaks with a British accent. He wears a tailcoat, white gloves, a top hat and a monocle. He presents himself as head of business affairs[9] of the house and later as President of the house,[10] and is extremely strict about rules and the maintenance of order in the home.[1] He frequently punishes Bloo for his various misdemeanors and scolds Frankie for her perceived laziness, despite all her hard work.\nMadame Foster (voiced by Candi Milo) – The caring founder of Foster's and grandmother of Frankie.[1] She is the creator of Mr. Herriman. Despite being elderly, Madame Foster has childlike boundless energy and occasionally becomes hyperactive and mischievous.", "Mac (voiced by Sean Marquette) – A bright, and imaginative eight-year-old boy who is Bloo's creator and best friend. Mac visits Foster's every day.[1] He is very attached to Bloo and his biggest fear is never seeing him again.[2] Mac is often the voice of reason among his friends when they are making decisions. Mac becomes extremely high and hyperactive when he eats sugar.[3] He also has a crush on Frankie.[4][5]", "Bloo (voiced by Keith Ferguson) – Mac's imaginary friend and best friend. He is blue-colored and resembles a simple, domed cylinder. Bloo is often very self-centered, egotistic and narcissistic, as well as having a knack for getting in trouble.[1] Despite all this, he still has a good heart and apologizes for his wrongdoings. Bloo loves paddle balls, even though he typically cannot make the ball hit the paddle. [6]", "Wilt (voiced by Phil LaMarr) – A very tall, friendly and incredibly nice red-colored friend with only a right arm and a crooked left eye-stalk. His overtly passive demeanor is often taken advantage of by the other imaginary friends.[1] He is a basketball player and fan, and is the former imaginary friend of Jordan Michaels (a parody of Michael Jordan). After an accident during a basketball game, Wilt left Jordan, fearing the latter would be disappointed by Wilt's losing the game. Years later, Wilt goes on a search to re-encounter Jordan.[7]", "Eduardo (voiced by Tom Kenny) – A Latin American friend created by a young girl, Nina Valerosa, to protect her in a dangerous neighborhood.[7] Eduardo is big, hairy and violet-purple, has horns, a snout, a pointy demon-like tail and large teeth. Despite his large size, overwhelming strength, and menacing appearance, Eduardo is docile, timid and scared of almost anything.[1] However, he can be ferocious if angered or when danger befalls his friends.[2]", "Coco (voiced by Candi Milo) – A bird-airplane-palm tree hybrid friend who can only say or write her name. A talent unique to her is her ability to lay colorful, plastic eggs containing a plethora of objects, at will.[1] Other characters usually understand her when she speaks. Despite her appearance and quirky behavior, she can demonstrate intelligence and kindness. Her creator is unknown, as she was found on a South Pacific island by two scientists named Adam and Douglas.[7]", "Frankie Foster (voiced by Grey DeLisle) – Madame Foster's redheaded granddaughter, addressed as \"Miss Frances\" by Mr. Herriman. Frankie is the caregiver at Foster's and helps keep everything in order.[1] She is usually very friendly, capable, easygoing, hard-working, thoughtful, caring, and sweet, but occasionally loses her patience with Bloo and Mr. Herriman. According to her driver's license, she was born on July 25, 1984.[8]", "Mr. Herriman (voiced by Tom Kane) – A gray and white elderly anthropomorphic lop ear rabbit friend imagined by Madame Foster who speaks with a British accent. He wears a tailcoat, white gloves, a top hat and a monocle. He presents himself as head of business affairs[9] of the house and later as President of the house,[10] and is extremely strict about rules and the maintenance of order in the home.[1] He frequently punishes Bloo for his various misdemeanors and scolds Frankie for her perceived laziness, despite all her hard work.", "Madame Foster (voiced by Candi Milo) – The caring founder of Foster's and grandmother of Frankie.[1] She is the creator of Mr. Herriman. Despite being elderly, Madame Foster has childlike boundless energy and occasionally becomes hyperactive and mischievous.", "Other recurring characters include Terrence (voiced by Tara Strong), Mac's older brother who constantly bullies him; Duchess (voiced by Grey DeLisle), a friend with a Cubist-looking face[9] and a pompous, narcissistic personality; Cheese (voiced by Candi Milo), a dim-witted and childish yellow friend who first appeared in season two; and Goo (voiced by Grey DeLisle), a talkative young girl who is highly imaginative and constantly creates new friends, first appearing in season three.", "The show has seventy-nine episodes in six seasons; it has also aired eighteen shorts.", "Season\nEpisodes\nOriginally aired\n\n\nFirst aired\nLast aired\n\n\n\n1\n12\nAugust 13, 2004\nOctober 22, 2004\n\n\n\n2\n14\nJanuary 11, 2005\nJuly 15, 2005\n\n\n\n3\n14\nJuly 22, 2005\nMarch 24, 2006\n\n\n\n4\n13\nApril 28, 2006\nNovember 23, 2006\n\n\n\nShorts\n18\nJuly 7, 2006\nAugust 7, 2007\n\n\n\n5\n13\nMay 4, 2007\nMarch 7, 2008\n\n\n\n6\n11\nMarch 13, 2008\nMay 3, 2009", "Season\nEpisodes\nOriginally aired", "First aired\nLast aired", "1\n12\nAugust 13, 2004\nOctober 22, 2004", "2\n14\nJanuary 11, 2005\nJuly 15, 2005", "3\n14\nJuly 22, 2005\nMarch 24, 2006", "4\n13\nApril 28, 2006\nNovember 23, 2006", "Shorts\n18\nJuly 7, 2006\nAugust 7, 2007", "5\n13\nMay 4, 2007\nMarch 7, 2008", "6\n11\nMarch 13, 2008\nMay 3, 2009", "The series was created by Craig McCracken, who had also created The Powerpuff Girls for Cartoon Network Studios. McCracken developed the idea for the series after adopting two dogs from an animal shelter with his then-fiancée Lauren Faust and Mike Moon; he adapted the concept of pet adoption to that of imaginary friends.[11] The show has an art style which is meant to evoke, according to McCracken, \"that period of late 60's psychedelia when Victorian stylings were coming into trippy poster designs\". McCracken wanted Foster's to be similar to The Muppet Show, which he believed was a \"fun, character driven show that the whole family could enjoy\".[11][12][13]", "Animation for the show was done using a process involving Adobe software Illustrator, Flash and After Effects.[14] McCracken directed, executive produced and story edited the series. Most of the episodes were produced at the Cartoon Network Studios in Burbank, California, while the rest were produced at Boulder Media Limited in Dublin, Ireland.[14][15] The theme song was composed by James L. Venable, who had originally collaborated with McCracken on The Powerpuff Girls.[14] Craig described the music as \"psychedelic ragtime\".[11] Additional music was composed by Venable and Jennifer Kes Remington.[16]", "Collette Sunderman was the casting and recording director for the show.[14][16] Sean Marquette was cast as Mac, and Keith Ferguson was cast as Bloo. The Powerpuff Girls voice actors Tom Kane, Tom Kenny and Tara Strong were cast in Foster's as Mr. Herriman, Eduardo and Terrence, respectively. Grey DeLisle was cast as Frankie Foster, and Candi Milo was cast as Coco and Madame Foster. From season two onwards, Milo also lent her voice to Cheese. DeLisle also voiced Goo after the character's debut in season three.[16]", "Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends premiered on August 13, 2004, at 7:30 pm E/P as a 90-minute special titled \"House of Bloo's\". The series' run began on August 20 on its normal timeslot of Fridays at 7 pm.[11] The special was Cartoon Network's highest rated premiere at the time.[15] 18 shorts were produced from 2006 to 2007. In addition to the premiere episode, two other specials were produced: \"Good Wilt Hunting\", which premiered on November 23, 2006, at 7 pm,[17] and \"Destination: Imagination\", which premiered on November 27, 2008, at 8 pm.[12] The final episode, titled \"Goodbye to Bloo\", aired on May 3, 2009, at 6:30 pm, preceded by a six-hour marathon of other episodes from the series. McCracken expressed a certain sadness at the series' end, but stated that he was \"crazy proud of the work\" that he and the production team had done \"on Foster's and the fact that it worked just the way [they] wanted it to\".[18] During its original run, Foster's was one of Cartoon Network's highest rated shows.[19][20][21][22] The show proved to be popular among both younger and older audiences.[13]", "Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends received critical acclaim. Anita Gates of The New York Times praised the series' premiere 90-minute episode and stated that the series would promise to be an \"admirable tale of loyalty and adventure-based learning with a contagious sense of fun\".[9] Mike Pinsky, in a review on DVD Verdict, praised the art design and the characterizations,[23] particularly singling out Cheese as possibly \"the quintessence of Foster's surreal charm\" in his season two review.[24] David Cornelius of DVD Talk called the series \"one of the best shows of any kind [then] on television, a winner for viewers of any age\" and \"a wildly inventive mix of creative wonder, comic genius, and well-crafted chaos\". In a season two review, also on DVD Talk, Cornelius called the show \"flat-out perfect\".[25][26] Joly Herman of Common Sense Media, an advocacy group focused on appropriate technology and media for children, was less enthusiastic about the show, rating it 2 stars out of 5. Herman praised the creativity and diversity of the characters and the show's premise, but criticized the storyline and writing, which presented \"confusing messages\" for young children.[27]", "The series was named the 85th best animated series of all time by IGN, which called it very funny and endearing.[28] Entertainment Weekly named the show the 6th best Cartoon Network show in their top 10 list, praising its \"catchy magical-realist setting\" and the characters \"you genuinely learned to care about\".[29]", "Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends received many industry accolades. The series received sixteen awards out of a total of thirty-five nominations. At the Annie Awards, the show received a total of twenty nominations from 2004 to 2009, and won five, including Best Animated Television Production in 2007.[30][31][32][33][34][35] At the Emmy Awards, the show received nine nominations, and won seven awards, including five Outstanding Individual Achievements in Animation and one Outstanding Animated Program (For Programming One Hour or More) award.[36][37][38][39][40] At the 2005 Pulcinella Awards, Foster's received the award for Best TV Series for All Audiences and Bloo was named \"Best Character of the Year.\"[41] At the 22nd TCA Awards, the show received a nomination for Outstanding Achievement in Children's Programming.[42] At the 2007 Ottawa International Animation Festival, the series won Best Television Animation for Children.[43]", "There are two video games based on Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends. The first has the same name as the show and was developed by Crave Entertainment for the Game Boy Advance. It was released on October 17, 2006.[44] In the game, players control Mac or Bloo while collecting items to complete objectives.[45] Jack Devries of IGN rated it a 5.5 out of 10, stating that it \"falls short\" and is \"skippable\".[45] The second game, titled Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends: Imagination Invaders, was released on November 12, 2007, for the Nintendo DS by Midway. In the game, the player controls Bloo, who performs tasks and completes quests while fighting against \"Space Nut Boogies\".[46] Devries rated it 4 out of 10, calling it \"terrible to play\" and \"completely worthless\".[46] Characters from the show also appear on the games Cartoon Network: Punch Time Explosion and FusionFall.[47][48]", "On May 15, 2006, Cartoon Network introduced an online game, Big Fat Awesome House Party, which allowed players to create an online friend to join Bloo and the others in a one-year game online, earning points that would give them gifts, cards and other on-line \"merchandise\" for their albums. A player's friend, made from one of over 900,000 possible characters, could wind up in a future episode of Foster's.[20][21] Over 13 million users were registered to play the game after its launch in May 2006. Because of its success and popularity, Cartoon Network announced in May 2007 that the game would continue for six more months, into November of that year.[21][49]", "From 2006 to 2008, Cartoon Network furnished a Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends float as part of the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade. The float was fashioned as a replica of the home.[50] On Thanksgiving Day, 2006, characters from the show performed The Beatles' \"With a Little Help from My Friends\". In 2007, the characters' performance of You're My Best Friend by Queen. In 2008, the characters' performance of Harry Nilsson's theme song to The Courtship of Eddie's Father[51] was interrupted by Rick Astley singing \"Never Gonna Give You Up\", reproducing the Internet phenomena of Rickrolling.[52][53][54]", "In March 2006, toys of characters from the show were featured in Burger King's Kids Meals.[50][55] In December 2007, Cartoon Network and Hot Topic retail stores in the United States set up a boutique for a product line based on the series, with over 693 locations featuring products such as clothing, accessories and DVD releases by Warner Home Video.[22] The episodes from the series are now available for download from Hulu, iTunes and Amazon Video. The show's second season was available on Netflix until March 2015.[56][57] All 6 seasons were added to Hulu in May 2015.[58][59]" ]
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[ 47 ]
how do you get on hgtv's love it or list it
Love It or List It
[ "Love It or List It\nGenre\nReality renovations, upgradingCreated by\n\nMaria Armstrong\nCatherine Fogarty\nDirected by\nVarious\nStarring\n\nHilary Farr\nDavid Visentin\nNarrated by\nJacqueline HennessyTheme music composer\nLou PomantiCountry of origin\n\nCanada\nUnited States\nOriginal language(s)\nEnglishNo. of seasons\n10No. of episodes\n130 (List of episodes)ProductionExecutive producer(s)\n\nMaria Armstrong\nCatherine Fogarty\nProducer(s)\nMaria ArmstrongProduction location(s)\nToronto, Ontario, Canada, Raleigh–Durham, North Carolina, United StatesRunning time\n44 minutesProduction company(s)\nBig Coat ProductionsReleaseOriginal network\nW NetworkHGTVOriginal release\nSeptember 8, 2008 – presentExternal links\nWebsite\nProduction website", "Love It or List It", "Genre\nReality renovations, upgrading", "Created by\n\nMaria Armstrong\nCatherine Fogarty", "Maria Armstrong\nCatherine Fogarty", "Directed by\nVarious", "Starring\n\nHilary Farr\nDavid Visentin", "Hilary Farr\nDavid Visentin", "Narrated by\nJacqueline Hennessy", "Theme music composer\nLou Pomanti", "Country of origin\n\nCanada\nUnited States", "Canada\nUnited States", "Original language(s)\nEnglish", "No. of seasons\n10", "No. of episodes\n130 (List of episodes)", "Production", "Executive producer(s)\n\nMaria Armstrong\nCatherine Fogarty", "Maria Armstrong\nCatherine Fogarty", "Producer(s)\nMaria Armstrong", "Production location(s)\nToronto, Ontario, Canada, Raleigh–Durham, North Carolina, United States", "Running time\n44 minutes", "Production company(s)\nBig Coat Productions", "Release", "Original network\nW NetworkHGTV", "Original release\nSeptember 8, 2008 – present", "External links", "Website", "Production website", "Love It or List It is a Canadian home design TV show currently airing on HGTV, W Network, and on OWN Canada, and is the original show in the Love it or List It franchise. The show is produced by Big Coat Productions and was based in Toronto and other surrounding areas in Ontario, Canada. The show premiered as a primetime program on W Network on September 8, 2008, and has since aired on OWN Canada as well as HGTV in the United States. In September 2014, the show began filming in the United States in North Carolina.[1]", "In September 2017, HGTV ordered 20 additional episodes of the program. The next season is to start airing in June 2018.[2]", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "Every episode of Love It or List It follows the same formula. A couple (usually, but not in all cases) presents their living situation in the current house that they own. In most episodes, the couple is split on whether or not they want to stay in the house.", "Interior designer Hilary Farr and real estate agent David Visentin tour the couple's home before meeting with them. The tour usually consists of David finding mostly negative things to say about the residence while Hilary is convinced that she can work magic with whatever plans she is given.", "At the meetup between the couple and the hosts of the show, both Hilary and David are briefed as to what the couple's desires are. Hilary is given a list of renovations the couple wants for the current house and her budget for the entire project. David, meanwhile, is tasked with searching for a new home for the couple that both meets their needs and stays within their desired budget.", "Common challenges faced by Hilary are an inadequate budget to complete the entire request list from the homeowners, often due to discovery of unforeseen issues with the house that are uncovered during the renovation such as lack of compliance with modern building codes. Common issues for David, meanwhile, depend on the homeowners' desires; for instance, the couple has children enrolled in the neighborhood school and they do not desire to change, or the potential house is too distant from family members or a workplace.", "After Hilary's renovation is complete, the homeowners are given a tour of their current home to see what she was able to accomplish. After the tour, David meets with them and hands them an evaluation of the home's current market value following the renovations. He will then remind the couple what they could have in one of the new homes they looked at and that they would not get that in their current home.", "After a moment to deliberate, Hilary and David pose a question to the homeowners. They must choose to either Love It, meaning that they will continue to live in their current home with the renovations, or to List It, meaning that they will buy one of the homes David showed them and sell their current home. After they reveal their decision, the homeowners explain their reasoning to Hilary and David (who, if they decided to Love It, reacts with incredulity) before bidding them farewell.", "Hilary Farr – Hilary Farr is a home designer from Toronto, Ontario. She has lived in Australia, England, California, and New York City. Farr honed her skills on properties in Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, New York and Toronto. When she first moved back to Toronto, she became the first designer to \"stage\" properties for sale. She continues to build and design homes in the downtown core where she herself owns properties.[3]\nDavid Visentin – David Visentin is a real estate agent in Southern Ontario with Country Living Realty Limited. He has been practicing since 1987.[4]", "Hilary Farr – Hilary Farr is a home designer from Toronto, Ontario. She has lived in Australia, England, California, and New York City. Farr honed her skills on properties in Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, New York and Toronto. When she first moved back to Toronto, she became the first designer to \"stage\" properties for sale. She continues to build and design homes in the downtown core where she herself owns properties.[3]", "David Visentin – David Visentin is a real estate agent in Southern Ontario with Country Living Realty Limited. He has been practicing since 1987.[4]", "Desta Ostapyk (Canadian episodes) – Desta is a Toronto-based designer who graduated in 2004 from the Toronto International Academy of Design and Technology in Interior Design, and has since focused on a career in the Television Industry. She first started working with Big Coat Productions during her last semester of school as an intern for HGTV's hit series My Parents House. She soon became the Design Stylist for the show.[5]", "Desta Ostapyk (Canadian episodes) – Desta is a Toronto-based designer who graduated in 2004 from the Toronto International Academy of Design and Technology in Interior Design, and has since focused on a career in the Television Industry. She first started working with Big Coat Productions during her last semester of school as an intern for HGTV's hit series My Parents House. She soon became the Design Stylist for the show.[5]", "Eric Eremita (North Carolina episodes) – General contractor and designer Eric Eremita was selected to be the one and only general contractor on HGTV's \"Love It or List It\" U.S. version, after HGTV network took notice of him when he competed in its \"Brother vs. Brother\" reality show.\nEddie Richardson (Canadian episodes) – Eddie Richardson was a contractor on Love It or List It who started his own family business. Richardson has also been a pro-beach volleyball player and professional bass fisherman.\nFergus McLaren (Canadian episodes) – Fergus McLaren started up his own construction company, R-Mac Solutions, 10 years ago.", "Eric Eremita (North Carolina episodes) – General contractor and designer Eric Eremita was selected to be the one and only general contractor on HGTV's \"Love It or List It\" U.S. version, after HGTV network took notice of him when he competed in its \"Brother vs. Brother\" reality show.", "Eddie Richardson (Canadian episodes) – Eddie Richardson was a contractor on Love It or List It who started his own family business. Richardson has also been a pro-beach volleyball player and professional bass fisherman.", "Fergus McLaren (Canadian episodes) – Fergus McLaren started up his own construction company, R-Mac Solutions, 10 years ago.", "Behind the Scenes", "Architect: Simon West\nSenior Production Coordinator: Linda Johnstone\nConstruction Coordinator: David Violante\nConstruction Assistants: Chris Blinn, Adam Dalgarno, Ahren Mrowietz, Dale George\nDesign Coordinator: Kaaveh Shoman", "Architect: Simon West", "Senior Production Coordinator: Linda Johnstone", "Construction Coordinator: David Violante", "Construction Assistants: Chris Blinn, Adam Dalgarno, Ahren Mrowietz, Dale George", "Design Coordinator: Kaaveh Shoman", "Season\n\nStart date\n\nEnd date\n\nEpisodes\n\nHilary wins\n\nDavid wins\n\n\n1\n\nSeptember 8, 2008\n\nJanuary 5, 2009\n\n12\n\n9\n\n3\n\n\n2\n\nApril 6, 2009\n\nDecember 7, 2009\n\n18\n\n10\n\n8\n\n\n3\n\nMay 3, 2010\n\nNovember 8, 2010\n\n21\n\n9\n\n12\n\n\n4\n\nMarch 14, 2011\n\nNovember 11, 2011\n\n19\n\n12\n\n7\n\n\n5\n\nFebruary 20, 2012\n\nNovember 19, 2012\n\n18\n\n10\n\n8\n\n\n6\n\nJanuary 19, 2013\n\nJuly 1, 2013\n\n14\n\n8\n\n6\n\n\n7\n\nJanuary 8, 2014\n\nApril 9, 2014\n\n14\n\n11\n\n3\n\n\n8\n\nSeptember 8, 2014\n\nJanuary 19, 2015\n\n16\n\n8\n\n8\n\n\n9\n\nMarch 9, 2015\n\nDecember 7, 2015\n\n22\n\n13\n\n9\n\n\nTotal\n\n\n\n\n\n154\n\n90\n\n64", "Season\n\nStart date\n\nEnd date\n\nEpisodes\n\nHilary wins\n\nDavid wins", "1\n\nSeptember 8, 2008\n\nJanuary 5, 2009\n\n12\n\n9\n\n3", "2\n\nApril 6, 2009\n\nDecember 7, 2009\n\n18\n\n10\n\n8", "3\n\nMay 3, 2010\n\nNovember 8, 2010\n\n21\n\n9\n\n12", "4\n\nMarch 14, 2011\n\nNovember 11, 2011\n\n19\n\n12\n\n7", "5\n\nFebruary 20, 2012\n\nNovember 19, 2012\n\n18\n\n10\n\n8", "6\n\nJanuary 19, 2013\n\nJuly 1, 2013\n\n14\n\n8\n\n6", "7\n\nJanuary 8, 2014\n\nApril 9, 2014\n\n14\n\n11\n\n3", "8\n\nSeptember 8, 2014\n\nJanuary 19, 2015\n\n16\n\n8\n\n8", "9\n\nMarch 9, 2015\n\nDecember 7, 2015\n\n22\n\n13\n\n9", "Total\n\n\n\n\n\n154\n\n90\n\n64", "Victories for Hilary are families or clients who decided to love their home and stay. Victories for David are families and clients who decided to list and move into a new or better home.", "Love It or List It has spawned five spinoffs. The first,[6] known as Love It or List It Vancouver (or Love it or List it Too in the US), was launched in winter 2012 and is hosted by Jillian Harris and Todd Talbot. The second spin-off, a British version known as Love It or List It UK, debuted in 2015,[7] is hosted by Kirstie Allsopp and Phil Spencer. The third spin off, Love It or List It Vacation Homes[8] debuted in spring 2016 and is hosted by Dan Vickery and Elisa Goldhawke. A fourth spin off, Vendre ou renover au Quebec debuted in January 2017 and is hosted by Maika Desnoyers and Daniel Corbin.[9] The fifth spin off, Love It Or List It Australia debuted in September 2017 and is hosted by Andrew Winter and Neale Whittaker.[10]", "Country / Region\n\nName\n\nTelevision Network\n\nDubbing / Subtitles\n\n\nAustralia\n\nLove It or List It\n\nLifestyle Home\n\nN/A\n\n\nCanada\n\nLove It or List It\n\nW Network\n\nN/A\n\n\nUSA\n\nLove It or List It\n\nHGTV[11]\n\nN/A\n\n\nSpain\n\nTu casa a juicio\n\nDivinity\n\nSpanish\n\n\nBrazil\n\nAme-a ou Deixe-a\n\nDiscovery Home & Health\n\nPortuguese\n\n\nNorway\n\nBolighjelpen\n\nTV 2 (Norway)\n\nNorwegian\n\n\nBulgaria\n\nPodnovi ili proday\n\nFox Life (Bulgaria)\n\nBulgarian\n\n\nItaly\n\nPrendere o lasciare\n\nCielo\n\ndubbed in Italian\n\n\nPoland\n\nPokochaj lub sprzedaj Vancouver\n\nWP\n\nlector", "Country / Region\n\nName\n\nTelevision Network\n\nDubbing / Subtitles", "Australia\n\nLove It or List It\n\nLifestyle Home\n\nN/A", "Canada\n\nLove It or List It\n\nW Network\n\nN/A", "USA\n\nLove It or List It\n\nHGTV[11]\n\nN/A", "Spain\n\nTu casa a juicio\n\nDivinity\n\nSpanish", "Brazil\n\nAme-a ou Deixe-a\n\nDiscovery Home & Health\n\nPortuguese", "Norway\n\nBolighjelpen\n\nTV 2 (Norway)\n\nNorwegian", "Bulgaria\n\nPodnovi ili proday\n\nFox Life (Bulgaria)\n\nBulgarian", "Italy\n\nPrendere o lasciare\n\nCielo\n\ndubbed in Italian", "Poland\n\nPokochaj lub sprzedaj Vancouver\n\nWP\n\nlector", "On August 31, 2010, Love It or List It was nominated for two Gemini Awards: Best Reality Program or Series and Best Direction in a Reality Program or Series. When HGTV premiered the show on the network, the company stated that Love It or List It has been the highest rating reality series since Candice Olson's Candice Tells All.[12]", "In 2012, New York Times' columnist Gail Collins noted that it was US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's favorite TV show.[13][14] According to Collins, Clinton finds the show \"very calming\"[15] after being interviewed about her departure from politics.[16][17][18]", "In a 2013 interview with Las Vegas Magazine, Vanna White from Wheel of Fortune said it was one of her favourite HGTV programs.[19] Actress Julianne Moore also gave similar praise for the show in an interview with Katie Couric and the Daily Mail.[20][21]", "According to the Wall Street Journal, the show and its Vancouver spinoff is one of Canada's beloved reality series.[22]", "In April 2016, homeowners Deanna Murphy and Tim Sullivan who had participated in a 2015 Love It or List It episode filed suit against production company Big Coat TV, as well as the North Carolina contractor (Aaron Fitz Construction)[23] who had been hired by the show to do the renovations on their home. The couple alleges that the renovation funds that they provided were not properly disbursed, and that the work on their home was done to a substandard quality.[24] Moreover, the lawsuit states that the television personalities on the show do not play an active role in the renovation process, and that they were not shown homes on the market by any licensed North Carolina real estate agent. Big Coat TV has commented that they \"do intend to vigorously defend what [they] consider to be false allegations.\"[25]", "The suit was settled in April 2017.[26] The plaintiffs had signed a confidentiality agreement; their lawyer would not comment on the settlement.[27] Big Coat had previously filed a countersuit for libel, slander and product disparagement; parts of that suit had been dismissed by the time of the settlement but that was under appeal by Big Coat. After the agreements had been concluded, both suits were dismissed.[28]" ]
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when did us get involved in vietnam war
Role of the United States in the Vietnam War
[ "This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "The role of the United States in the Vietnam War began after World War II and escalated into full commitment during the Vietnam War from 1955 to 1975.", "Wilson ignores petition by Ho Chi Minh for help in creating Vietnam independent from French rule and led by nationalist government.[1]", "Wilson ignores petition by Ho Chi Minh for help in creating Vietnam independent from French rule and led by nationalist government.[1]", "Roosevelt declines repeated requests from the French to assist France's attempts to recolonize Vietnam.[2]", "Roosevelt declines repeated requests from the French to assist France's attempts to recolonize Vietnam.[2]", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "August 15, 1945 — Japan surrenders to the Allies. In Indochina, the Japanese administration allows Hồ Chí Minh to take over control of the country. This is called the August Revolution. Hồ Chí Minh fights with a variety of other political factions for control of the major cities.\nAugust 1945 — A few days after the Vietnamese \"revolution\", Nationalist Chinese forces enter from the north and, as previously planned by the allies, establish an administration in the country as far south as the 16th parallel north.\nSeptember 26, 1945: Office of Strategic Services (OSS) officer Lieutenant Colonel A. Peter Dewey — working with the Viet Minh to repatriate Americans captured by the Japanese — is mistaken for a Frenchman, shot and killed by the Viet Minh. He thus became the first American casualty in Vietnam. (Not precisely accurate. Prior to 1950 the area later recognized as Viet Nam was known as French Indochina. Thus, LTC Dewey was the first American casualty in French Indochina).\nOctober 1945 — British troops land in southern Vietnam and establish a provisional administration. The British free French soldiers and officials imprisoned by the Japanese. The French begin taking control of cities within the British zone of occupation.\nFebruary 1946 — The French sign an agreement with China. France gives up its concessions in Shanghai and other Chinese ports. In exchange, China agrees to assist the French in returning to Vietnam north of the 17th parallel.\nMarch 6, 1946 — After negotiations with the Chinese and the Viet Minh, the French sign an agreement recognizing Vietnam within the French Union. Shortly after, the French land at Haiphong and occupy the rest of northern Vietnam. The Viet Minh use the negotiating process with France and China to buy time to use their armed forces to destroy all competing nationalist groups in the north.\nDecember 1946 — Negotiations between the Viet Minh and the French break down. The Viet Minh are driven out of Hanoi into the countryside.\n1947–1949 — The Viet Minh fight a limited insurgency in remote rural areas of northern Vietnam.\n1949 — Chinese communists reach the northern border of Indochina. The Viet Minh drive the French from the border region and begin to receive large amounts of weapons from the Soviet Union and China. The weapons transform the Viet Minh from an irregular large-scale insurgency into a conventional army.\nMay 1, 1950 — After the capture of Hainan Island from Chinese Nationalist forces by the Chinese People's Liberation Army, President Truman approves $10 million in military assistance for anti-communist efforts in Indochina. The Defense Attaché Office was established in Saigon in May 1950, a formal recognition of Viet Nam (vice French IndoChina). This was the beginning of formal U.S. military personnel assignments in Viet Nam. U.S. Naval, Army and Air Force personnel established their respective attaches at this time.\nSeptember 1950 — Truman sends the Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) Indochina to Vietnam to assist the French. The President claimed they were not sent as combat troops, but to supervise the use of $10 million worth of U.S. military equipment to support the French in their effort to fight the Viet Minh forces.\nFollowing the outbreak of the Korean War, Truman announces \"acceleration in the furnishing of military assistance to the forces of France and the Associated States in Indochina...\". and sends 123 non-combat troops to help with supplies to fight against the communist Viet Minh.\n1951 — Truman authorizes $150 million in French support.", "August 15, 1945 — Japan surrenders to the Allies. In Indochina, the Japanese administration allows Hồ Chí Minh to take over control of the country. This is called the August Revolution. Hồ Chí Minh fights with a variety of other political factions for control of the major cities.", "August 1945 — A few days after the Vietnamese \"revolution\", Nationalist Chinese forces enter from the north and, as previously planned by the allies, establish an administration in the country as far south as the 16th parallel north.", "September 26, 1945: Office of Strategic Services (OSS) officer Lieutenant Colonel A. Peter Dewey — working with the Viet Minh to repatriate Americans captured by the Japanese — is mistaken for a Frenchman, shot and killed by the Viet Minh. He thus became the first American casualty in Vietnam. (Not precisely accurate. Prior to 1950 the area later recognized as Viet Nam was known as French Indochina. Thus, LTC Dewey was the first American casualty in French Indochina).", "October 1945 — British troops land in southern Vietnam and establish a provisional administration. The British free French soldiers and officials imprisoned by the Japanese. The French begin taking control of cities within the British zone of occupation.", "February 1946 — The French sign an agreement with China. France gives up its concessions in Shanghai and other Chinese ports. In exchange, China agrees to assist the French in returning to Vietnam north of the 17th parallel.", "March 6, 1946 — After negotiations with the Chinese and the Viet Minh, the French sign an agreement recognizing Vietnam within the French Union. Shortly after, the French land at Haiphong and occupy the rest of northern Vietnam. The Viet Minh use the negotiating process with France and China to buy time to use their armed forces to destroy all competing nationalist groups in the north.", "December 1946 — Negotiations between the Viet Minh and the French break down. The Viet Minh are driven out of Hanoi into the countryside.", "1947–1949 — The Viet Minh fight a limited insurgency in remote rural areas of northern Vietnam.", "1949 — Chinese communists reach the northern border of Indochina. The Viet Minh drive the French from the border region and begin to receive large amounts of weapons from the Soviet Union and China. The weapons transform the Viet Minh from an irregular large-scale insurgency into a conventional army.", "May 1, 1950 — After the capture of Hainan Island from Chinese Nationalist forces by the Chinese People's Liberation Army, President Truman approves $10 million in military assistance for anti-communist efforts in Indochina. The Defense Attaché Office was established in Saigon in May 1950, a formal recognition of Viet Nam (vice French IndoChina). This was the beginning of formal U.S. military personnel assignments in Viet Nam. U.S. Naval, Army and Air Force personnel established their respective attaches at this time.", "September 1950 — Truman sends the Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) Indochina to Vietnam to assist the French. The President claimed they were not sent as combat troops, but to supervise the use of $10 million worth of U.S. military equipment to support the French in their effort to fight the Viet Minh forces.", "Following the outbreak of the Korean War, Truman announces \"acceleration in the furnishing of military assistance to the forces of France and the Associated States in Indochina...\". and sends 123 non-combat troops to help with supplies to fight against the communist Viet Minh.", "1951 — Truman authorizes $150 million in French support.", "1953 — By November, French commander in Indochina, General Navarre, asked U.S. General McArthur to loan twelve Fairchild C-119 aircraft, to be flown by French crews, to facilitate Operation Castor at Dien Bien Phu.\n1954 — In January, Navarre's Deputy asked for additional transport aircraft. Negotiations ended on March 3 with 24 CIA pilots (CAT) to operate 12 U.S. Air Force C-119s, flying undercover using French insignia, but maintained by the USAF.[3]\n1954 — General Paul Ely, the French Chief of Staff, proposed an American operation to rescue French forces. Operation Vulture was hastily planned but President Eisenhower, convinced that the political risks outweighed the possible benefits, decided against the intervention.[4][5]\n1954 — The Viet Minh defeat the French at the battle of Dien Bien Phu. The defeat, along with the end of the Korean War the previous year, causes the French to seek a negotiated settlement to the war.\n1954 — The Geneva Conference (1954), called to determine the post-French future of Indochina, proposes a temporary division of Vietnam, to be followed by nationwide elections to unify the country in 1956.\n1954 — Two months after the Geneva conference, North Vietnam forms Group 100 with headquarters at Ban Namèo. Its purpose is to direct, organize, train and supply the Pathet Lao to gain control of Laos, which along with Cambodia and Vietnam formed French Indochina.\n1955 — North Vietnam launches an 'anti-landlord' campaign, during which counter-revolutionaries are imprisoned or killed. The numbers killed or imprisoned are disputed, with historian Stanley Karnow estimating about 6,000 while others (see the book \"Fire in the Lake\") estimate only 800. Rudolph Rummel puts the figure as high as 200,000.[6]\nNovember 1, 1955 — President Eisenhower deploys the Military Assistance Advisory Group to train the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. This marks the official beginning of American involvement in the war as recognized by the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.[7]\nApril 1956 — The last French troops leave Vietnam.\n1954–1956 — 450,000 Vietnamese civilians flee the Viet Minh administration in North Vietnam and relocate in South Vietnam. Approximately 52,000 move in the opposite direction.\n1956 — National unification elections do not occur.\nDecember 1958 — North Vietnam invades Laos and occupies parts of the country\nJuly 8, 1959 — Charles Ovnand and Dale R. Buis become the first two American Advisers to die in Vietnam.[8]\nSeptember 1959 — North Vietnam forms Group 959, which assumes command of the Pathet Lao forces in Laos.\nNovember 1960 — Coup attempt by paratroopers is foiled after Diệm falsely promises reform, allowing loyalists to crush the rebels.\nDecember 20, 1960 — The National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) is founded.", "1953 — By November, French commander in Indochina, General Navarre, asked U.S. General McArthur to loan twelve Fairchild C-119 aircraft, to be flown by French crews, to facilitate Operation Castor at Dien Bien Phu.", "1954 — In January, Navarre's Deputy asked for additional transport aircraft. Negotiations ended on March 3 with 24 CIA pilots (CAT) to operate 12 U.S. Air Force C-119s, flying undercover using French insignia, but maintained by the USAF.[3]", "1954 — General Paul Ely, the French Chief of Staff, proposed an American operation to rescue French forces. Operation Vulture was hastily planned but President Eisenhower, convinced that the political risks outweighed the possible benefits, decided against the intervention.[4][5]", "1954 — The Viet Minh defeat the French at the battle of Dien Bien Phu. The defeat, along with the end of the Korean War the previous year, causes the French to seek a negotiated settlement to the war.", "1954 — The Geneva Conference (1954), called to determine the post-French future of Indochina, proposes a temporary division of Vietnam, to be followed by nationwide elections to unify the country in 1956.", "1954 — Two months after the Geneva conference, North Vietnam forms Group 100 with headquarters at Ban Namèo. Its purpose is to direct, organize, train and supply the Pathet Lao to gain control of Laos, which along with Cambodia and Vietnam formed French Indochina.", "1955 — North Vietnam launches an 'anti-landlord' campaign, during which counter-revolutionaries are imprisoned or killed. The numbers killed or imprisoned are disputed, with historian Stanley Karnow estimating about 6,000 while others (see the book \"Fire in the Lake\") estimate only 800. Rudolph Rummel puts the figure as high as 200,000.[6]", "November 1, 1955 — President Eisenhower deploys the Military Assistance Advisory Group to train the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. This marks the official beginning of American involvement in the war as recognized by the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.[7]", "April 1956 — The last French troops leave Vietnam.", "1954–1956 — 450,000 Vietnamese civilians flee the Viet Minh administration in North Vietnam and relocate in South Vietnam. Approximately 52,000 move in the opposite direction.", "1956 — National unification elections do not occur.", "December 1958 — North Vietnam invades Laos and occupies parts of the country", "July 8, 1959 — Charles Ovnand and Dale R. Buis become the first two American Advisers to die in Vietnam.[8]", "September 1959 — North Vietnam forms Group 959, which assumes command of the Pathet Lao forces in Laos.", "November 1960 — Coup attempt by paratroopers is foiled after Diệm falsely promises reform, allowing loyalists to crush the rebels.", "December 20, 1960 — The National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) is founded.", "January 1961 — Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev pledges support for \"wars of national liberation\" throughout the world. The idea of creating a neutral Laos is suggested to Kennedy.\nMay 1961 — Kennedy sends 400 United States Army Special Forces personnel to South Vietnam to train South Vietnamese soldiers following a visit to the country by Vice-President Johnson.\nJune 1961 — Kennedy meets with Khrushchev in Vienna. He protests North Vietnam's attacks on Laos and points out that the U.S. was supporting the neutrality of Laos. The two leaders agree to pursue a policy of creating a neutral Laos.\nJune 1961 — Kennedy said, \"Now we have a problem making our power credible and Vietnam looks like the place\" to James Reston of The New York Times (immediately after meeting Khrushchev in Vienna).\nAugust 10, 1961 — Test run of U.S. herbicidal warfare program in South Vietnam (\"Operation Trail Dust\")\nOctober 1961 — Following successful NLF attacks, Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara recommends sending six divisions (200,000 men) to Vietnam.\nFebruary 8, 1962 — The Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV) is created by President Kennedy\nFebruary 1962 — Attempted assassination of Diệm by two air force officers who bombed his palace, fails.\nJuly 23, 1962 — International Agreement on the Neutrality of Laos is signed at Geneva, promising Laotian neutrality.\nAugust 1, 1962 — Kennedy signs the Foreign Assistance Act of 1962, which provides \"... military assistance to countries which are on the rim of the Communist world and under direct attack\".\nOctober 1962 — Operation Ranch Hand begins. U.S. planes spray herbicides and defoliants over South Vietnam until 1971.\nJanuary 3, 1963 — NLF victory in the Battle of Ap Bac.\nMay 8, 1963 — Buddhists demonstrate in Huế, South Vietnam after the display of religious flags were prohibited, during the celebration of Vesak, Gautama Buddha's birthday; but, Catholic flags celebrating the consecration of Archbishop Ngô Đình Thục, brother of Ngô Đình Diệm were not prohibited. The police of Ngô Đình Cẩn, Diệm's younger brother, open fire, killing nine.\nMay 1963 — Republican Barry Goldwater declares that the U.S. should fight to win or withdraw from Vietnam. Later on, during his presidential campaign against Lyndon B. Johnson, his Democratic opponents accuse him of wanting to use nuclear weapons in the conflict.\nJune 11, 1963 — Photographs of protesting Buddhist monk, Thích Quảng Đức, burning himself to death in protest, in Saigon, appear in U.S. newspapers.\nSummer 1963 — Madame Nhu, de facto First Lady to the bachelor Diệm makes a series of vitriolic attacks on Buddhists, calling the immolations \"barbecues\". Diệm ignores U.S. calls to silence her.\nAugust 21, 1963 — ARVN special forces loyal to Ngô Đình Nhu, younger brother of Diệm, stage raids across the country, attacking Buddhist temples and firing on monks. The cremated remains of Thích Quảng Đức are confiscated from Xá Lợi Pagoda in Saigon. New U.S. ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge rebukes Diệm by visiting Xá Lợi and giving refuge to Buddhist leader Thích Trí Quang. The U.S. calls for Nhu to be dropped by Diệm, and threatens to cut aid to Colonel Lê Quang Tung's Special Forces if they are not sent into battle, rather than used to repress dissidents.\nSeptember 2, 1963 — Kennedy criticises the Diệm regime in an interview with Walter Cronkite, citing the Buddhist repression and claiming that Diệm is out of touch.\nLate October 1963 — Nhu, unaware that Saigon region commander General Tôn Thất Đính is double-crossing him, draws up plans for a phony coup and counter-coup to reaffirm the Diệm regime. Đính sends Nhu's loyal special forces out of Saigon on the pretext of fighting communists and in readiness for the counter coup, and rings Saigon with rebel troops.\nNovember 1, 1963 — Military officers launch a coup d'état against Diệm, with the tacit approval of the Kennedy administration. Diệm and Nhu escape the presidential residence via a secret exit after loyalist forces were locked out of Saigon, unable to rescue them.\nNovember 2, 1963 — Diệm and Nhu are discovered in nearby Cholon. Although they had been promised exile by the junta, they are executed by Nguyễn Văn Nhung, bodyguard of General Dương Văn Minh. Minh leads the military junta.\nNovember 1963 — By this time, Kennedy had increased the number of military personnel from the 900 that were there when he became President to 16,000 just before his death.[9]\nNovember 22, 1963 — Kennedy is assassinated.", "January 1961 — Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev pledges support for \"wars of national liberation\" throughout the world. The idea of creating a neutral Laos is suggested to Kennedy.", "May 1961 — Kennedy sends 400 United States Army Special Forces personnel to South Vietnam to train South Vietnamese soldiers following a visit to the country by Vice-President Johnson.", "June 1961 — Kennedy meets with Khrushchev in Vienna. He protests North Vietnam's attacks on Laos and points out that the U.S. was supporting the neutrality of Laos. The two leaders agree to pursue a policy of creating a neutral Laos.", "June 1961 — Kennedy said, \"Now we have a problem making our power credible and Vietnam looks like the place\" to James Reston of The New York Times (immediately after meeting Khrushchev in Vienna).", "August 10, 1961 — Test run of U.S. herbicidal warfare program in South Vietnam (\"Operation Trail Dust\")", "October 1961 — Following successful NLF attacks, Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara recommends sending six divisions (200,000 men) to Vietnam.", "February 8, 1962 — The Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV) is created by President Kennedy", "February 1962 — Attempted assassination of Diệm by two air force officers who bombed his palace, fails.", "July 23, 1962 — International Agreement on the Neutrality of Laos is signed at Geneva, promising Laotian neutrality.", "August 1, 1962 — Kennedy signs the Foreign Assistance Act of 1962, which provides \"... military assistance to countries which are on the rim of the Communist world and under direct attack\".", "October 1962 — Operation Ranch Hand begins. U.S. planes spray herbicides and defoliants over South Vietnam until 1971.", "January 3, 1963 — NLF victory in the Battle of Ap Bac.", "May 8, 1963 — Buddhists demonstrate in Huế, South Vietnam after the display of religious flags were prohibited, during the celebration of Vesak, Gautama Buddha's birthday; but, Catholic flags celebrating the consecration of Archbishop Ngô Đình Thục, brother of Ngô Đình Diệm were not prohibited. The police of Ngô Đình Cẩn, Diệm's younger brother, open fire, killing nine.", "May 1963 — Republican Barry Goldwater declares that the U.S. should fight to win or withdraw from Vietnam. Later on, during his presidential campaign against Lyndon B. Johnson, his Democratic opponents accuse him of wanting to use nuclear weapons in the conflict.", "June 11, 1963 — Photographs of protesting Buddhist monk, Thích Quảng Đức, burning himself to death in protest, in Saigon, appear in U.S. newspapers.", "Summer 1963 — Madame Nhu, de facto First Lady to the bachelor Diệm makes a series of vitriolic attacks on Buddhists, calling the immolations \"barbecues\". Diệm ignores U.S. calls to silence her.", "August 21, 1963 — ARVN special forces loyal to Ngô Đình Nhu, younger brother of Diệm, stage raids across the country, attacking Buddhist temples and firing on monks. The cremated remains of Thích Quảng Đức are confiscated from Xá Lợi Pagoda in Saigon. New U.S. ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge rebukes Diệm by visiting Xá Lợi and giving refuge to Buddhist leader Thích Trí Quang. The U.S. calls for Nhu to be dropped by Diệm, and threatens to cut aid to Colonel Lê Quang Tung's Special Forces if they are not sent into battle, rather than used to repress dissidents.", "September 2, 1963 — Kennedy criticises the Diệm regime in an interview with Walter Cronkite, citing the Buddhist repression and claiming that Diệm is out of touch.", "Late October 1963 — Nhu, unaware that Saigon region commander General Tôn Thất Đính is double-crossing him, draws up plans for a phony coup and counter-coup to reaffirm the Diệm regime. Đính sends Nhu's loyal special forces out of Saigon on the pretext of fighting communists and in readiness for the counter coup, and rings Saigon with rebel troops.", "November 1, 1963 — Military officers launch a coup d'état against Diệm, with the tacit approval of the Kennedy administration. Diệm and Nhu escape the presidential residence via a secret exit after loyalist forces were locked out of Saigon, unable to rescue them.", "November 2, 1963 — Diệm and Nhu are discovered in nearby Cholon. Although they had been promised exile by the junta, they are executed by Nguyễn Văn Nhung, bodyguard of General Dương Văn Minh. Minh leads the military junta.", "November 1963 — By this time, Kennedy had increased the number of military personnel from the 900 that were there when he became President to 16,000 just before his death.[9]", "November 22, 1963 — Kennedy is assassinated.", "Feb 1965 - Operation Rolling Thunder begins", "July 1965 - Sent troops to Vietnam for the first time[10]", "July 1965 - Sent troops to Vietnam for the first time[10]", "This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2016)", "This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2016)", "This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2016)", "This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2016)", "In 1961 the new administration of President John F. Kennedy remained essentially committed to the bi-partisan, anti-communist foreign policies inherited from the administrations of Presidents Truman and Eisenhower. During 1961, his first year in office, Kennedy found himself faced with a three-part crisis: The failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion in Cuba; the construction of the Berlin Wall by the Soviets; and a negotiated settlement between the pro-Western government of Laos and the Pathet Lao communist movement. Fearing that another failure on the part of the U.S. to stop communist expansion would fatally damage U.S. credibility with its allies, Kennedy realized, \"Now we have a problem in making our power credible... and Vietnam looks like the place.\"[11] The commitment to defend South Vietnam was reaffirmed by Kennedy on May 11 in National Security Action Memorandum 52, which became known as \"The Presidential Program for Vietnam\". Its opening statement reads:", "U.S. objectives and concept of operations [are] to prevent communist domination of South Vietnam; to create in that country a viable and increasingly democratic society, and to initiate, on an accelerated basis, a series of mutually supporting actions of a military, political, economic, psychological, and covert character designed to achieve this objective.[12]", "Kennedy was intrigued by the idea of utilizing United States Army Special Forces for counterinsurgency conflicts in Third World countries threatened by the new \"wars of national liberation\". Originally intended for use behind front lines after a conventional invasion of Europe, Kennedy believed that the guerrilla tactics employed by Special Forces would be effective in the \"brush fire\" war in South Vietnam. He saw British success in using such forces during the Malayan Emergency as a strategic template. Thus in May 1961 Kennedy sent detachments of Green Berets to South Vietnam to train South Vietnamese soldiers in guerrilla warfare.", "The Diệm regime had been initially able to cope with the insurgency of the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF, or derogatively, Viet Cong) in South Vietnam with the aid of U.S. matériel and advisers, and, by 1962, seemed to be gaining the upper hand. Senior U.S. military leaders received positive reports from the U.S. commander, General Paul D. Harkins of the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam, or MACV. By the following year, however, cracks began to appear in the façade of success. In January a possible victory that was turned into a stunning defeat for government forces at the Battle of Ap Bac caused consternation among both the military advisers in the field and among politicians in Washington, D.C. JFK also indicated to Walter Cronkite that the war may be unwinnable, and that it was ultimately a Vietnamese war, not an American war.[13]", "Diệm was already growing unpopular with many of his countrymen because of his administration's nepotism, corruption, and its apparent bias in favor of the Catholic minority—of which Diệm was a part—at the expense of the Buddhist majority. This contributed to the impression of Diệm's rule as an extension of the French Colonial regime. Promised land reforms were not instituted, and Diệm's strategic hamlet program for village self-defense (and government control) was a disaster. The Kennedy administration grew increasingly frustrated with Diệm. In 1963, a crackdown by Diệm's forces was launched against Buddhist monks protesting discriminatory practices and demanding a political voice. Diệm's repression of the protests sparked the so-called Buddhist Revolt, during which several monks committed self-immolation, which was covered in the world press. The communists took full advantage of the situation and fueled anti-Diệm sentiment to create further instability.", "On July 27, 1964, 5,000 additional U.S. military advisers were ordered to the Republic of Vietnam (RVN or South Vietnam), bringing the total American troop level to 21,000. Shortly thereafter an incident occurred off the coast of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) that was destined to escalate the conflict to new levels and lead to the full scale Americanization of the war.", "On the evening of August 2, 1964, the destroyer USS Maddox was conducting an electronic intelligence collection mission in international waters (even as claimed by North Vietnam) in the Gulf of Tonkin when it was attacked by three P-4 torpedo boats of the North Vietnamese Navy.[14] Reports later reached the Johnson administration saying that the Maddox was under attack. Two nights later, after being joined by the destroyer C. Turner Joy, the Maddox again reported that both vessels were under attack (this event, which took place under adverse weather conditions, in fact never occurred).[citation needed] Regardless, President Johnson addressed Congress asking for more political power to utilize American military forces in South Vietnam, using the attack on the Maddox as cause to get what he wanted.", "There was rampant confusion in Washington, but the incident was seen by the administration as the perfect opportunity to present Congress with \"a pre-dated declaration of war\" in order to strengthen weakening morale in South Vietnam through reprisal attacks by the U.S. on the North.[15] Even before confirmation of the phantom attack had been received in Washington, President Johnson had decided that an attack could not go unanswered.", "Just before midnight he appeared on television and announced that retaliatory air strikes were underway against North Vietnamese naval and port facilities. Neither Congress nor the American people learned the whole story about the events in the Gulf of Tonkin until the publication of the Pentagon Papers in 1969. It was on the basis of the administration's assertions that the attacks were \"unprovoked aggression\" on the part of North Vietnam, that the United States Congress approved the Southeast Asia Resolution (also known as the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution) on August 7. The law gave the President broad powers to conduct military operations without an actual declaration of war. The resolution passed unanimously in the House of Representatives and was opposed in the Senate by only two members.", "National Security Council members, including United States Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, Secretary of State Dean Rusk, and General Maxwell Taylor, agreed on November 28 to recommend that Johnson adopt a plan for a two-stage escalation of the bombing of North Vietnam.", "In February 1965, a U.S. air base at Pleiku, in the Central Highlands of South Vietnam, was attacked twice by the NLF, resulting in the deaths of over a dozen U.S. personnel. These guerrilla attacks prompted the administration to order retaliatory air strikes against North Vietnam.", "Operation Rolling Thunder was the code name given to a sustained strategic bombing campaign targeted against the North by aircraft of the U.S. Air Force and Navy that was inaugurated on March 2, 1965. Its original purpose was to bolster the morale of the South Vietnamese and to serve as a signaling device to Hanoi. U.S. airpower would act as a method of \"strategic persuasion\", deterring the North Vietnamese politically by the fear of continued or increased bombardment. Rolling Thunder gradually escalated in intensity, with aircraft striking only carefully selected targets. When that did not work, its goals were altered to destroying North Vietnam's will to fight by destroying the nation's industrial base, transportation network, and its (continually increasing) air defenses. After more than a million sorties were flown and three-quarters of a million tons of bombs were dropped, Rolling Thunder was ended on November 11, 1968.[16]", "Other aerial campaigns (Operation Barrel Roll, Operation Steel Tiger, Operation Tiger Hound, and Operation Commando Hunt) were directed to counter the flow of men and material down the PAVN logistical system that flowed from North Vietnam through southeastern Laos, and into South Vietnam known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail.", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "President Johnson had already appointed General William C. Westmoreland to succeed General Harkins as Commander of MACV in June 1964. Under Westmoreland, the expansion of American troop strength in South Vietnam took place. American forces rose from 16,000 during 1964 to more than 553,000 by 1969. With the U.S. decision to escalate its involvement, ANZUS Pact allies Australia and New Zealand agreed to contribute troops and matériel to the conflict. They were quickly joined by the Republic of Korea (second only to the Americans in troop strength), Thailand, and the Philippines. The U.S. paid for (through aid dollars) and logistically supplied all of the allied forces.", "Meanwhile, political affairs in Saigon were finally settling down — at least as far as the Americans were concerned. On February 14 the most recent military junta, the National Leadership Committee, installed Air Vice-Marshal Nguyễn Cao Kỳ as prime minister. In 1966, the junta selected General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu to run for president with Ky on the ballot as the vice-presidential candidate in the 1967 election. Thieu and Ky were elected and remained in office for the duration of the war. In the presidential election of 1971, Thieu ran for the presidency unopposed. With the installation of the Thieu and Ky government (the Second Republic), the U.S. had a pliable, stable, and semi-legitimate government in Saigon with which to deal.", "With the advent of Rolling Thunder, American airbases and facilities needed to be constructed and manned for the aerial effort. The defense of those bases would not be entrusted to the South Vietnamese. So, on March 8, 1965, 3,500 United States Marines came ashore at Da Nang as the first wave of U.S. combat troops into South Vietnam, adding to the 25,000 U.S. military advisers already in place. On May 5 the U.S. 173rd Airborne Brigade became the first U.S. Army ground unit committed to the conflict in South Vietnam. On August 18, Operation Starlite began as the first major U.S. ground operation, destroying an NLF stronghold in Quảng Ngãi Province. The NLF learned from their defeat and subsequently tried to avoid fighting an American-style ground war by reverting to small-unit guerrilla operations.", "The North Vietnamese had already sent units of their regular army into southern Vietnam beginning in late 1964. Some officials in Hanoi had favored an immediate invasion of the South, and a plan was developed to use PAVN units to split southern Vietnam in half through the Central Highlands. The two imported adversaries first faced one another during Operation Silver Bayonet, better known as the Battle of the Ia Drang. During the savage fighting that took place, both sides learned important lessons. The North Vietnamese, who had taken horrendous casualties, began to adapt to the overwhelming American superiority in air mobility, supporting arms, and close air support by moving in as close as possible during confrontations, thereby negating the effects of the above. The Americans learned that PAVN (which was basically a light infantry force) was not a rag-tag band of guerrillas, but was instead a highly disciplined, proficient, and well motivated force.", "On November 27, 1965, the Pentagon declared that if the major operations needed to neutralize North Vietnamese and NLF forces were to succeed, U.S. troop levels in South Vietnam would have to be increased from 120,000 to 400,000. In a series of meetings between Westmoreland and the President held in Honolulu in February 1966, Westmoreland argued that the U.S. presence had succeeded in preventing the immediate defeat of the South Vietnamese government but that more troops would be necessary if systematic offensive operations were to be conducted. The issue then became in what manner American forces would be used.", "The nature of the American military's strategic and tactical decisions made during this period would color the conduct and nature of the conflict for the duration of the American commitment. Classical military logic demanded that the U.S. attack the locus of PAVN/NLF in the North. If that country could not be invaded, then the enemy's logistical system in Laos and Cambodia should be cut by ground forces, isolating the southern battlefield. However, political considerations limited U.S. military actions, mainly because of the memory of communist reactions during the Korean War. Ever present in the minds of diplomats, military officers, and politicians was the possibility of a spiraling escalation of the conflict into a superpower confrontation and the possibility of a nuclear exchange. Therefore, there would be no invasion of North Vietnam, the \"neutrality\" of Laos and Cambodia would be respected, and Rolling Thunder would not resemble the bombing of Germany and Japan during the Second World War.", "These limitations were not foisted upon the military as an afterthought. Before the first U.S. soldiers came ashore at Da Nang, the Pentagon was cognizant of all of the parameters that would be imposed by their civilian leaders, yet they still agreed that the mission could be accomplished within them. Westmoreland believed that he had found a strategy that would either defeat North Vietnam or force it into serious negotiations. Attrition was to be the key. The general held that larger offensive operations would grind down the communists and eventually lead to a \"crossover point\" in PAVN/NLF casualties after which a decisive (or at least political) victory would be possible.", "It is widely held that the average U.S. serviceman was nineteen years old, as evidenced by the casual reference in a pop song (\"19\" by Paul Hardcastle); the figure is cited by Lt. Col. Dave Grossman ret. of the Killology Research Group in his 1995 book On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society (p. 265). However, it is disputed by the[17] Vietnam Helicopter Flight Crew Network Website, which claims the average age of MOS 11B personnel was 22. This compares with 26 years of age for those who participated in World War II. Soldiers served a one-year tour of duty. The average age of the U.S. military men who died in Vietnam was 22.8 years old.[18]", "The one-year tour of duty deprived units of experienced leadership. As one observer put it, \"we were not in Vietnam for 10 years, but for one year 10 times.\"[19] As a result, training programs were shortened. Some NCOs were referred to as \"Shake 'N' Bake\" to highlight their accelerated training. Unlike soldiers in World War II and Korea, there were no secure rear areas in which to get rest and relaxation.[citation needed] One unidentified soldier said to United Press International that there was nothing to do in Vietnam and therefore many of the men smoked marijuana. He said, \"One of the biggest reasons that a lot of GIs do get high over here is there is nothing to do. This place is really a drag; it's a bore over here. Like right now sitting around here, we are getting loaded. Whereas, it doesn't really get you messed up; that's I guess the main reason why we smoke it.\"[20]", "American forces would conduct operations against PAVN forces, pushing them further back into the countryside away from the heavily populated coastal lowlands. In the backcountry the U.S. could fully utilize its superiority in firepower and mobility to bleed the enemy in set-piece battles. The cleaning-out of the NLF and the pacification of the villages would be the responsibility of the South Vietnamese military. The adoption of this strategy, however, brought Westmoreland into direct conflict with his Marine Corps commander, General Lewis W. Walt, who had already recognized the security of the villages as the key to success. Walt had immediately commenced pacification efforts in his area of responsibility, but Westmoreland was unhappy, believing that the Marines were being underutilized and fighting the wrong enemy. In the end, MACV won out and Westmoreland's search and destroy concept, predicated on the attrition of enemy forces, won the day.", "Both sides chose similar strategies. PAVN, which had been operating a more conventional, large-unit war, switched back to small-unit operations in the face of U.S. military capabilities. The struggle moved to the villages, where the \"hearts and minds\" of the South Vietnamese peasants, whose cooperation was absolutely necessary to military success, would be won or lost. The U.S. had given responsibility for this struggle to the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), whose troops and commanders were notoriously unfit for the task.", "For the American soldier, whose doctrine was one of absolute commitment to total victory, this strategy led to a frustrating small-unit war. Most of the combat was conducted by units smaller than battalion-size (the majority at the platoon level). Since the goal of the operations was to kill the enemy, terrain was not taken and held as in previous wars. Savage fighting and the retreat of the communists was immediately followed by the abandonment of the terrain just seized. Combined with this was the anger and frustration engendered among American troops by the effective tactics of the NLF, who conducted a war of sniping, booby traps, mines, and terror against the Americans.", "As a result of the conference held in Honolulu, President Johnson authorized an increase in troop strength to 429,000 by August 1966. The large increase in troops enabled MACV to carry out numerous operations that grew in size and complexity during the next two years. For U.S. troops participating in these operations (Operation Masher/White Wing, Operation Attleboro, Operation Cedar Falls, Operation Junction City and dozens of others) the war boiled down to hard marching through some of the most difficult terrain on the planet and weather conditions that were alternately hot and dry, or cold and wet. It was the PAVN/NLF that actually controlled the pace of the war, fighting only when their commanders believed that they had the upper hand and then disappearing when the Americans and/or ARVN brought their superiority in numbers and firepower to bear. North Vietnam, utilizing the Ho Chi Minh and Sihanouk Trails, matched the U.S. at every point of the escalation, funneling manpower and supplies to the southern battlefields.", "During the Vietnam War, the use of the helicopter, known as \"Air Mobile\", was an essential tool for conducting the war. In fact, the whole conduct and strategy of the war depended on it. Vietnam was the first time the helicopter was used on a major scale, and in such important roles. Search and destroy missions, for example, would have been nearly impossible without it. Helicopters allowed American commanders to move large numbers of troops to virtually anywhere, regardless of the terrain or roads. Troops could also be easily resupplied in remote areas. The helicopter also provided another new and vital capability: medical evacuation. It could fly wounded soldiers to aid stations very quickly, usually within the critical first hour. This gave wounded soldiers a higher chance of survival in Vietnam than in any previous war. The helicopter was also adapted for many other roles in Vietnam, including ground attack, reconnaissance, and electronic warfare. Without the helicopter, the war would have been fought very differently.[21]", "By mid-1967, Westmoreland said that it was conceivable that U.S. forces could be phased out of the war within two years, turning over progressively more of the fighting to the ARVN.[22] That fall, however, savage fighting broke out in the northern provinces. Beginning below the DMZ at Con Tien and then spreading west to the Laotian border near Dak To, large PAVN forces began to stand their ground and fight. This willingness of the communists to remain fixed in place inspired MACV to send reinforcements from other sectors of South Vietnam. The Border Battles had begun.", "Most of the PAVN/NLF operational capability was possible only because of the unhindered movement of men along the Ho Chi Minh Trail. To threaten this flow of supplies, the Marine Corps established a combat base on the South Vietnamese side of the Laotian frontier, near the village of Khe Sanh. The U.S. used the base as a border surveillance position overlooking Route 9, the only east-west road that crossed the border in the province. Westmoreland also hoped to use the base as a jump-off point for any future incursion against the Trail system in Laos. During the spring of 1967, a series of small-unit actions near Khe Sanh prompted MACV to increase its forces. These small unit actions and increasing intelligence information indicated that the PAVN was building up significant forces just across the border.", "Indeed, PAVN was doing just that. Two regular divisions (and later elements of a third) were moving toward Khe Sanh, eventually surrounding the base and cutting off its only road access. Westmoreland, contrary to the advice of his Marine commanders, reinforced the outpost. As far as he was concerned, if the communists were willing to mass their forces for destruction by American air power, so much the better. He described the ideal outcome as a \"Dien Bien Phu in reverse\". MACV then launched the largest concentrated aerial bombardment effort of the conflict (Operation Niagara) to defend Khe Sanh. Another massive aerial effort was undertaken to keep the beleaguered Marines supplied. There were many comparisons (by the media, Americans military and political officials, and the North Vietnamese) to the possibility of PAVN staging a repeat of its victory at Dien Bien Phu, but the differences outweighed the similarities in any comparison.", "MACV used this opportunity to field its latest technology against the North Vietnamese. A sensor-driven, anti-infiltration system known as Operation Igloo White was in the process of being field tested in Laos as the siege of Khe Sanh began. Westmoreland ordered that it be employed to detect PAVN troop movements near the Marine base and the system worked well. By March, the long-awaited ground assault against the base had failed to materialize and communist forces began to melt back toward Laos. MACV (and future historians) were left with only questions. What was the goal of the PAVN? Was the siege a real attempt to stage another Dien Bien Phu? Or had the battles near the border (which eventually drew in half of MACV's maneuver battalions) been a diversion, meant to pull forces away from the cities, where another PAVN offensive would soon commence?", "General Westmoreland's public reassurances that \"the light at the end of the tunnel\" was near were countered when, on January 30, 1968, PAVN and NLF forces broke the truce that accompanied the Tết holiday and mounted their largest offensive thus far, in hopes of sparking a general uprising among the South Vietnamese. These forces, ranging in size from small groups to entire regiments, attacked nearly every city and major military installation in South Vietnam. The Americans and South Vietnamese, initially surprised by the scope and scale of the offensive, quickly responded and inflicted severe casualties on their enemies. The NLF was essentially eliminated as a fighting force and the places of the dead within its ranks were increasingly filled by North Vietnamese.", "The PAVN/NLF attacks were speedily and bloodily repulsed in virtually all areas except Saigon, where the fighting lasted for three days, and in the old imperial capital of Huế, where it continued for a month. During the occupation of the historic city, 2,800 South Vietnamese were murdered by the NLF in the single worst massacre of the conflict. The hoped-for uprising never took place; indeed, the offensive drove some previously apathetic South Vietnamese to fight for the government. Another surprise for the communists was that the ARVN did not collapse under the onslaught, instead turning in a performance that pleased even its American patrons.", "After the Tet Offensive, influential news magazines and newspapers, including the Wall Street Journal, Time and The New York Times, increasingly began to characterize the war as a stalemate. What shocked and dismayed the American public was the realization that either it had been lied to or that the American military command had been dangerously overoptimistic in its appraisal of the situation in Vietnam. The public could not understand how such an attack was possible after being told for several years that victory was just around the corner. The Tet Offensive came to embody the growing credibility gap at the heart of U.S. government statements. These realizations and changing attitudes forced the American public (and politicians) to face hard realities and to reexamine their position in Southeast Asia. The days of an open-ended commitment to the conflict were over.", "The psychological impact of the Tet Offensive effectively ended the political career of Lyndon Johnson. On March 11, Senator Eugene McCarthy won 42 percent of the vote in the Democratic New Hampshire primary. Although Johnson was not on the ballot, commentators viewed this as a defeat for the President. Shortly thereafter, Senator Robert Kennedy announced his intention to seek the Democratic nomination for the 1968 presidential election. On March 31, in a speech that took America and the world by surprise, Johnson announced that \"I shall not seek, and I will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your President\" and pledged himself to devoting the rest of his term in office to the search for peace in Vietnam.[23] Johnson announced that he was limiting bombing of North Vietnam to just north of the Demilitarized Zone and that U.S. representatives were prepared to meet with North Vietnamese counterparts in any suitable place \"to discuss the means to bring this ugly war to an end\". A few days later, much to Johnson's surprise, North Vietnam agreed to contacts between the two sides. On May 13, what became known as the Paris peace talks began.[24]", "On March 16, 1968, three companies of Task Force Barker, part of the Americal Division, took part in a search and destroy operation near the village of My Lai, in Quảng Nam Province. One of those three companies, Charlie Company, under the command of Lieutenant William Calley, entered the hamlet of Son My and proceeded to round up, rape, torture and murder as many of the inhabitants as could be found. (Citation needed.) Although not all of the members of the company participated, a significant number of them, led by Calley, did. He personally ordered the executions of hundreds of villagers in large groups. The killings ended only when an American helicopter crew, headed by Warrant Officer Hugh Thompson, Jr., discovered Calley's unit in the act and threatened to attack them with his aircraft's weapons unless they stopped. One of the soldiers on the scene was Ron Haeberle, a photographer for the newspaper Stars and Stripes, who took unobtrusive official black-and-white photos of the operation through the lens of his military-issued camera and color shots of the massacre with his personal camera. Although the operation appeared suspicious to Calley's superiors, it was forgotten.", "In 1969, investigative journalist Seymour Hersh exposed the My Lai massacre in print, and the Haeberle photos were released to the world media. The Pentagon launched an investigation headed by General William R. Peers to look into the allegations. After a flurry of activity, the Peers Commission issued its report. It declared that \"an atmosphere of atrocity\" surrounded the event, concluding that a massacre had taken place and the crime had been covered up by the commander of the Americal Division and his executive officer. Perhaps 400 Vietnamese civilians, mostly old men, women, and children had been killed by Charlie company. Several men were charged in the killings, but only Calley was convicted. He was given a life sentence by a court-martial in 1970, but after numerous appeals he was finally set free; he had served just over three years of house arrest.", "Although My Lai generated a lot of civilian recriminations and bad publicity for the military, it was not the only massacre. The Vietnam War Crimes Working Group Files made public in 1994 by the \"Freedom of Information Act\" reveal seven, albeit much smaller, massacres previously unacknowledged by the Pentagon, in which at least 137 civilians had died.[1] Cover-ups may have occurred in other cases, as detailed in the Pulitzer Prize-winning series of articles concerning the Tiger Force of the 101st Airborne Division by the Toledo Blade in 2003.", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "Richard Nixon had campaigned in the 1968 presidential election under the slogan that he would end the war in Vietnam and bring \"peace with honor\". However, there was no plan to do this, and the American commitment continued for another five years. The goal of the American military effort was to buy time, gradually building up the strength of the South Vietnamese armed forces, and re-equipping it with modern weapons so that they could defend their nation on their own. This policy became the cornerstone of the so-called Nixon Doctrine. As applied to Vietnam, it was labeled Vietnamization.", "Nixon's papers show that in 1968, as a presidential candidate, he ordered Anna Chennault, his liaison to the South Vietnam government, to persuade them to refuse a cease-fire being brokered by President Lyndon Johnson. This action violated the Logan Act, banning private citizens from intruding into official government negotiations with a foreign nation, and has been said to constitute treason.[25]", "Soon after Tet, General Westmoreland was promoted to Army Chief of Staff and he was replaced by his deputy, General Creighton W. Abrams. Because of the change in American strategy posed by Vietnamization, Abrams pursued a very different approach. The U.S. was gradually withdrawing from the conflict, and Abrams favored smaller-scale operations aimed at PAVN/NLF logistics, more openness with the media, less indiscriminate use of American firepower, elimination of the body count as the key indicator of battlefield success, and more meaningful cooperation with South Vietnamese forces.", "Vietnamization of the war, however, created a dilemma for U.S. forces: the strategy required that U.S. troops fight long enough for the ARVN to improve enough to hold its own against Communist forces. Morale in the U.S. ranks rapidly declined during 1969–1972, as evidenced by declining discipline, worsening drug use among soldiers, and increased \"fraggings\" of U.S. officers by disgruntled troops.", "One of Nixon's main foreign policy goals had been the achievement of a breakthrough in U.S. relations with the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union. An avowed anti-communist since early in his political career, Nixon could make diplomatic overtures to the communists without being accused of being \"soft on communism\". The result of his overtures was an era of détente that led to nuclear arms reductions by the U.S. and Soviet Union and the beginning of a dialogue with China. In this context, Nixon viewed Vietnam as simply another limited conflict forming part of the larger tapestry of superpower relations; however, he was still determined to preserve South Vietnam until such time as he could not be blamed for what he saw as its inevitable collapse (or a \"decent interval\", as it was known). To this end he and National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger employed Chinese and Soviet foreign policy gambits to successfully defuse some of the anti-war opposition at home and secured movement at the negotiations that had begun in Paris.", "China and the Soviet Union had been the principal backers of North Vietnam's effort through large-scale military and financial aid. The two communist superpowers had competed with one another to prove their \"fraternal socialist links\" with the regime in Hanoi. The North Vietnamese had become adept at playing the two nations off against one another. Even with Nixon's rapprochement, their support of North Vietnam increased significantly in the years leading up to the U.S. departure in 1973, enabling the North Vietnamese to mount full-scale conventional offensives against the South, complete with tanks, heavy artillery, and the most modern surface-to-air missiles.", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "The credibility of the U.S. government again suffered in 1971 when The New York Times, The Washington Post and other newspapers serially published The Pentagon Papers (actually U.S.-Vietnam Relations, 1945–1967). This top-secret historical study of the American commitment in Vietnam, from the Franklin Roosevelt administration until 1967, had been contracted to the RAND Corporation by Secretary of Defense McNamara. The documents were leaked to the press by Daniel Ellsberg, a former State Department official who had worked on the study.", "The Pentagon Papers laid out the missteps taken by four administrations in their Vietnam policies. For example, they revealed the Johnson administration's obfuscations to Congress concerning the Gulf of Tonkin incidents that had led to direct U.S. intervention; they exposed the clandestine bombing of Laos that had begun in 1964; and they detailed the American government's complicity in the death of Ngô Đình Diệm. The study presented a continuously pessimistic view of the likelihood of victory and generated fierce criticism of U.S. policies.", "The importance of the actual content of the papers to U.S. policy-making was disputed, but the window that they provided into the flawed decision-making process at the highest levels of the U.S. government opened the issue for other questions. Their publication was a news event and the government's legal (Nixon lost to the Supreme Court) and extra-legal efforts (the \"Plumbers\" break-in at the office of Ellsberg's psychiatrist committed to gain material to discredit him, was one of the first steps on the road to Watergate) carried out to prevent their publication—mainly on national security grounds—then went on to generate yet more criticism and suspicion of the government by the American public.", "By 1969 the policy of non-alignment and neutrality had worn thin for Prince Sihanouk, ruler of Cambodia. Pressures from the right in Cambodia caused the prince to begin a shift away from the pro-left position he had assumed in 1965–1966. He began to make overtures for normalized relations with the U.S. and created a Government of National Salvation with the assistance of the pro-American General Lon Nol. Seeing a shift in the prince's position, President Nixon ordered the launching of a top-secret bombing campaign, targeted at the PAVN/NLF Base Areas and sanctuaries along Cambodia's eastern border.", "On March 18, 1970, Sihanouk, who was out of the country on a state visit, was deposed by a vote of the National Assembly and replaced by General Lon Nol. Cambodia's ports were immediately closed to North Vietnamese military supplies, and the government demanded that PAVN/NLF forces be removed from the border areas within 72 hours. On March 29, 1970, the Vietnamese had taken matters into their own hands and launched an offensive against the Cambodian army. A force of North Vietnamese quickly overran large parts of eastern Cambodia reaching to within 15 miles (24 km) of Phnom Penh allowing their allies, the Chinese-supported Khmer Rouge to extend their power. Nixon ordered a military incursion into Cambodia by U.S. and ARVN troops in order to both destroy PAVN/NLF sanctuaries bordering South Vietnam and to buy time for the U.S. withdrawal. During the Cambodian Campaign, U.S. and ARVN forces discovered and removed or destroyed a huge logistical and intelligence haul in Cambodia.", "The incursion also sparked large-scale demonstrations on and closures of American college campuses. The expansion of the conflict into Cambodia was seen as an expansion of the conflict into yet another country, nullifying Nixon's promises of de-escalating the war. During the ensuing protests, four students were killed and a score were wounded by Ohio National Guardsmen during a demonstration at Kent State University. Two other students were killed at Jackson State University in Mississippi. In an effort to lessen opposition to the U.S. commitment, Nixon announced on October 12 that the U.S. would withdraw 40,000 more troops from Vietnam before Christmas.", "Following the coup, Sihanouk arrived in Beijing, where he established and headed a government in exile, throwing his substantial personal support behind the Khmer Rouge, the North Vietnamese, and the Laotian Pathet Lao.", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "In 1971 the U.S. authorized the ARVN to carry out an offensive operation aimed at cutting the Ho Chi Minh Trail in southeastern Laos. Besides attacking the PAVN logistical system (which would buy time for the U.S. withdrawal) the incursion would be a significant test of Vietnamization. Backed by U.S. air and artillery support (American troops were forbidden to enter Laos), the ARVN moved across the border along Route 9, utilizing the abandoned Marine outpost of Khe Sanh as a jumping-off point. At first, the incursion went well, but unlike the Cambodian operation of 1970, the PAVN decided to stand and fight, finally mustering around 60,000 men on the battlefield.", "The North Vietnamese first struck the flanks of the ARVN column, smashed its outposts, and then moved in on the main ARVN force. Unlike previous encounters during the conflict, the PAVN fielded armored formations, heavy artillery, and large amounts of the latest anti-aircraft artillery. After two months of savage fighting, the ARVN retreated back across the border, closely pursued by the North Vietnamese. One half of the invasion force was killed or captured during the operation, and Vietnamization was seen as a failure.", "On August 18, Australia and New Zealand decided to withdraw their troops from the conflict. The total number of U.S. forces in South Vietnam dropped to 196,700 on October 29, 1971, the lowest level since January 1966. On November 12, 1971, Nixon set a February 1, 1972 deadline for the removal of another 45,000 troops.", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "Vietnamization received another severe test in the spring of 1972 when the North Vietnamese launched a massive conventional offensive across the Demilitarized Zone. Beginning on March 30, the Easter Offensive (known as the Nguyễn Huệ Offensive to the North Vietnamese) quickly overran the three northernmost provinces of South Vietnam, including the provincial capital of Quảng Trị City. PAVN forces then drove south toward Huế.", "Early in April, PAVN opened two additional operations. The first, a three-division thrust supported by tanks and heavy artillery, advanced out of Cambodia on April 5. The North Vietnamese seized the town of Loc Ninh and advanced toward the provincial capital of An Lộc in Bình Long Province. The second new offensive, launched from the tri-border region into the Central Highlands, seized a complex of ARVN outposts near Dak To and then advanced toward Kon Tum, threatening to split South Vietnam in two.", "The U.S. countered with a buildup of American airpower to support ARVN defensive operations and to conduct Operation Linebacker, the first offensive bombing of North Vietnam since Rolling Thunder had been terminated in 1968. The PAVN attacks against Huế, An Lộc, and Kon Tum were contained and the ARVN launched a counteroffensive in May to retake the lost northern provinces. On September 10, the South Vietnamese flag once again flew over the ruins of the Citadel of Quảng Trị City, but the ARVN offensive then ran out of steam, conceding the rest of the occupied territory to the North Vietnamese. South Vietnam had countered the heaviest attack since Tet, but it was very evident that it was totally dependent on U.S. airpower for its survival. Meanwhile, the withdrawal of American troops, who numbered less than 100,000 at the beginning of the year, was continued as scheduled. By June only six infantry battalions remained. On August 12, the last American ground combat division left the country. However, the U.S. continued to operate the base At Long Binh. Combat patrols continued there until November 11 when the U.S. handed over the base to the South Vietnamese. After this, only 24,000 American troops remained in Vietnam and President Nixon announced that they would stay there until all U.S. POW's were freed.", "At the beginning of the North Vietnamese invasion, the media, including conservative commentator William F. Buckley, predicted the downfall of the Republic of Vietnam; Buckley even called for the firing of General Creighton Abrams as an incompetent military leader. But the ARVN succeeded in defeating General Giap and his huge invading army. His forces were shattered at the Battle of An Lộc, where he threw several divisions at the entrenched South Vietnamese forces, ultimately losing over half of his army as casualties. General Giap's loss and subsequent retreat was viewed as so great a failure by the North Vietnamese Communist Party that Giap was relieved of his command. Although ARVN troops withstood and repelled the massive PAVN attack at An Lộc, American air power seems to have been a key to the ARVN success, just as it had been a key factor in supporting U.S. ground forces when they operated in South Vietnam prior to 1972. Thus, the 1973 withdrawal of U.S. military support and passage of Congressional resolutions cutting off U.S. funding for combat activities in Indochina (H.R. 9055 and H.J.Res. 636) opened the way for the 1975 defeat of the Republic of Vietnam.", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "During the run-up to the 1972 presidential election, the war was once again a major issue. An antiwar Democrat, George McGovern, ran against President Nixon. The president ended Operation Linebacker on October 22 after the negotiating deadlock was broken and a tentative agreement had been hammered out by U.S. and North Vietnamese representatives at the peace negotiations in Paris. The head of the U.S. negotiating team, Henry Kissinger, declared that \"peace is at hand\" shortly before election day, dealing a death blow to McGovern's already doomed campaign. Kissinger had not, however, counted on the intransigence of South Vietnamese President Thieu, who refused to accept the agreement and demanded some 90 changes in its text. These the North Vietnamese refused to accept, and Nixon was not inclined to put too much pressure on Thieu just before the election, even though his victory was all but assured. The mood between the U.S. and North further turned sour when Hanoi went public with the details of the agreement. The Nixon Administration claimed that North Vietnamese negotiators had used the pronouncement as an opportunity to embarrass the President and to weaken the United States. White House Press Secretary Ron Ziegler told the press on November 30 that there would be no more public announcements concerning U.S. troop withdrawals from Vietnam since force levels were down to 27,000.", "Because of Thieu's unhappiness with the agreement, primarily the stipulation that North Vietnamese troops could remain \"in place\" on South Vietnamese soil, the negotiations in Paris stalled as Hanoi refused to accept Thieu's changes and retaliated with amendments of its own. To reassure Thieu of American resolve, Nixon ordered a massive bombing campaign against North Vietnam utilizing B-52s and tactical aircraft in Operation Linebacker II, which began on December 18 with large raids against both Hanoi and the port of Haiphong. Nixon justified his actions by blaming the impasse in negotiations on the North Vietnamese, causing one commentator to describe his actions as \"War by tantrum\". Although this heavy bombing campaign caused protests, both domestically and internationally, and despite significant aircraft losses over North Vietnam, Nixon continued the operation until December 29. He also exerted pressure on Thieu to accept the terms of the agreement reached in October.", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)", "On January 15, 1973, citing progress in peace negotiations, Nixon announced the suspension of all offensive actions against North Vietnam, to be followed by a unilateral withdrawal of all U.S. troops. The Paris Peace Accords on \"Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam\" were signed on January 27, officially ending direct U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.", "The agreement called for the withdrawal of all U.S. personnel and an exchange of prisoners of war. Within South Vietnam, a cease-fire was declared (to be overseen by a multi-national, 1,160-man International Control Commission force) and both ARVN and PAVN/NLF forces would remain in control of the areas they then occupied, effectively partitioning South Vietnam. Both sides pledged to work toward a compromise political solution, possibly resulting in a coalition government. To maximize the area under their control, both sides in South Vietnam almost immediately engaged in land-grabbing military operations, which turned into flashpoints. The signing of the Accords was the main motivation for the awarding of the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize to Henry Kissinger and to leading North Vietnamese negotiator Le Duc Tho. A separate cease-fire had been installed in Laos in February. Five days before the signing of the agreement in Paris, President Lyndon Johnson, whose presidency had been tainted with the Vietnam issue, died.", "The first U.S. prisoners of war were released by North Vietnam on February 11, and all U.S. military personnel were ordered to leave South Vietnam by March 29. As an inducement for Thieu's government to sign the agreement, Nixon had promised that the U.S. would provide financial and limited military support (in the form of air strikes) so that the South would not be overrun. But Nixon was fighting for his political life in the growing Watergate scandal and facing an increasingly hostile Congress that withheld funding. The President was able to exert little influence on a hostile public long sick of the Vietnam War.", "Thus, Nixon (or his successor Gerald Ford) was unable to fulfill his promises to Thieu. At the same time, aid to North Vietnam from the Soviet Union increased. With the U.S. no longer heavily involved, both the U.S. and the Soviet Union no longer saw the war as significant to their relations. The balance of power shifted decisively in North Vietnam's favor, and the North subsequently launched a major military offensive, the Ho Chi Minh Campaign, against the South that culminated in the surrender of the Republic of Vietnam to PAVN forces on April 30, 1975." ]
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[ 2 ]
who built the world's first empire and what did that empire include
Akkadian Empire
[ "Coordinates: 33°6′N 44°6′E / 33.100°N 44.100°E / 33.100; 44.100", "Akkadian Empire\n\n\n𒆳𒌵ğ’†", "Akkadian Empire", "𒆳𒌵ğ’†", "c. 2334 – 2154 BC", "c. 2334 – 2154 BC", "c. 2334 – 2154 BC", "Map of the Akkadian Empire (brown) and the directions in which military campaigns were conducted (yellow arrows)", "Capital\nAkkad", "Languages\nAkkadian\nSumerian language (declining)", "Religion\nAkkadian", "Government\nMonarchy", "Å¡arrum", "• \nc. 2334–2279 BC\nSargon (first)", "• \nc. 2170–2154 BC\nShu-turul (last)", "Historical era\nBronze Age", "• \nEstablished\nc. 2334 BC", "• \nConquests of Sargon of Akkad\nc. 2340 – 2284 BC", "• \nDisestablished\nc. 2154 BC", "Area", "• \n2350 BC[1]\n30,000 km2 (12,000 sq mi)", "• \n2300 BC[1]\n650,000 km2 (250,000 sq mi)", "• \n2250 BC[1]\n800,000 km2 (310,000 sq mi)", "• \n2200 BC[1]\n250,000 km2 (97,000 sq mi)", "Preceded by\nSucceeded by\n\n\n\n\n\n\nEarly Dynastic Period\n\n\n\nSecond Mariote Kingdom\n\n\n\nUmma\n\n\n\n\n\n\nGutian Period (Sumer)\n\n\n\nThird Mariote Kingdom\n\n\n\nEbla", "Preceded by\nSucceeded by\n\n\n\n\n\n\nEarly Dynastic Period\n\n\n\nSecond Mariote Kingdom\n\n\n\nUmma\n\n\n\n\n\n\nGutian Period (Sumer)\n\n\n\nThird Mariote Kingdom\n\n\n\nEbla", "Preceded by\nSucceeded by", "Early Dynastic Period\n\n\n\nSecond Mariote Kingdom\n\n\n\nUmma\n\n\n\n\n\n\nGutian Period (Sumer)\n\n\n\nThird Mariote Kingdom\n\n\n\nEbla", "Early Dynastic Period\n\n\n\nSecond Mariote Kingdom\n\n\n\nUmma", "Early Dynastic Period", "Second Mariote Kingdom", "Umma", "Gutian Period (Sumer)\n\n\n\nThird Mariote Kingdom\n\n\n\nEbla", "Gutian Period (Sumer)", "Third Mariote Kingdom", "Ebla", "Part of a series on the\n\n\n\nHistory of Iraq\n\n\n\n\n\nAncient Mesopotamia\n\n\n\n\nSumer\nAssyria\nAkkadian Empire\nBabylonia\nNeo-Assyrian Empire\nNeo-Babylonian Empire\nMedian Kingdom\n\n\n\n\nClassical antiquity\n\n\n\n\nAchaemenid Assyria\nSeleucid Babylonia\nParthian Babylonia\nRoman Mesopotamia\nSasanian Asorestan\n\n\n\n\nMiddle Ages\n\n\n\n\nIslamic conquest\nRashidun Caliphate\nUmayyad Caliphate\nAbbasid Caliphate\nHamdanids\nBuyid amirate of Iraq\nMarwanids\nUqaylids\nAl-Mazeedi\nAyyubids\nSeljuk Empire\nZengids\nIlkhanate\nJalairid Sultanate\nKara Koyunlu\nAq Qoyunlu\n\n\n\n\nEarly modern period\n\n\n\n\nSafavids\nOttoman Iraq\nMamluk dynasty\n\n\n\n\nModern Iraq\n\n\n\n\nMandatory Iraq\nKingdom of Iraq\nRepublic (1958–68)\nBa'athist rule (1968–2003)\nOccupation (2003–11)\nRecent history\n\n\n\n\n Iraq portal\n\n\n\n\n\nv\nt\ne", "Part of a series on the", "History of Iraq", "Ancient Mesopotamia", "Sumer\nAssyria\nAkkadian Empire\nBabylonia\nNeo-Assyrian Empire\nNeo-Babylonian Empire\nMedian Kingdom", "Sumer\nAssyria\nAkkadian Empire\nBabylonia\nNeo-Assyrian Empire\nNeo-Babylonian Empire\nMedian Kingdom", "Classical antiquity", "Achaemenid Assyria\nSeleucid Babylonia\nParthian Babylonia\nRoman Mesopotamia\nSasanian Asorestan", "Achaemenid Assyria\nSeleucid Babylonia\nParthian Babylonia\nRoman Mesopotamia\nSasanian Asorestan", "Middle Ages", "Islamic conquest\nRashidun Caliphate\nUmayyad Caliphate\nAbbasid Caliphate\nHamdanids\nBuyid amirate of Iraq\nMarwanids\nUqaylids\nAl-Mazeedi\nAyyubids\nSeljuk Empire\nZengids\nIlkhanate\nJalairid Sultanate\nKara Koyunlu\nAq Qoyunlu", "Islamic conquest\nRashidun Caliphate\nUmayyad Caliphate\nAbbasid Caliphate\nHamdanids\nBuyid amirate of Iraq\nMarwanids\nUqaylids\nAl-Mazeedi\nAyyubids\nSeljuk Empire\nZengids\nIlkhanate\nJalairid Sultanate\nKara Koyunlu\nAq Qoyunlu", "Buyid amirate of Iraq", "Al-Mazeedi", "Early modern period", "Safavids\nOttoman Iraq\nMamluk dynasty", "Safavids\nOttoman Iraq\nMamluk dynasty", "Modern Iraq", "Mandatory Iraq\nKingdom of Iraq\nRepublic (1958–68)\nBa'athist rule (1968–2003)\nOccupation (2003–11)\nRecent history", "Mandatory Iraq\nKingdom of Iraq\nRepublic (1958–68)\nBa'athist rule (1968–2003)\nOccupation (2003–11)\nRecent history", "Kingdom of Iraq", "Republic (1958–68)", "Ba'athist rule (1968–2003)", "Occupation (2003–11)", "Iraq portal", "v\nt\ne", "v\nt\ne", "The Akkadian Empire (/əˈkeɪdiən/)[2] was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad /ˈækæd/[3] and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible. The empire united Akkadian and Sumerian speakers under one rule. The Akkadian Empire exercised influence across Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Anatolia, sending military expeditions as far south as Dilmun and Magan (modern Bahrain and Oman) in the Arabian Peninsula.[4]", "During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism.[5] Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as a spoken language somewhere between the 3rd and the 2nd millennia BC (the exact dating being a matter of debate).[6]", "The Akkadian Empire reached its political peak between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests by its founder Sargon of Akkad.[7] Under Sargon and his successors, the Akkadian language was briefly imposed on neighboring conquered states such as Elam and Gutium. Akkad is sometimes regarded as the first empire in history, though the meaning of this term is not precise, and there are earlier Sumerian claimants.[8][9]", "After the fall of the Akkadian Empire, the people of Mesopotamia eventually coalesced into two major Akkadian-speaking nations: Assyria in the north, and, a few centuries later, Babylonia in the south.", "The Bible refers to Akkad in Genesis 10:10[10], which states that the beginning of Nimrod's kingdom was in the land of Akkad. Nimrod's historical identity is unknown, but some have compared him with the legendary Gilgamesh, founder of Uruk.[11][12] Today, scholars have documented some 7,000 texts from the Akkadian period, written in both Sumerian and Akkadian. Many later texts from the successor states of Assyria and Babylonia also deal with the Akkadian Empire.[12]", "Understanding of the Akkadian Empire continues to be hampered by the fact that its capital Akkad has not yet been located, despite numerous attempts.[13][14] Precise dating of archaeological sites is hindered by the fact that there are no clear distinctions between artifact assemblages thought to stem from the preceding Early Dynastic period, and those thought to be Akkadian. Likewise, material that is thought to be Akkadian continues to be in use into the Ur III period.[15]", "Many of the more recent insights on the Akkadian Empire have come from excavations in the Upper Khabur area in modern northeastern Syria which was to become a part of Assyria after the fall of Akkad. For example, excavations at Tell Mozan (ancient Urkesh) brought to light a sealing of Tar'am-Agade, a previously unknown daughter of Naram-Sin, who was possibly married to an unidentified local endan (ruler).[16] The excavators at nearby Tell Leilan (ancient Shekhna/Shubat-Enlil) have used the results from their investigations to argue that the Akkadian Empire came to an end due to a sudden drought, the so-called 4.2 kiloyear event.[17] The impact of this climate event on Mesopotamia in general, and on the Akkadian Empire in particular, continues to be hotly debated.[18]", "Excavation at the modern site of Tell Brak has suggested that the Akkadians rebuilt a city (\"Brak\" or \"Nagar\") on this site, for use as an administrative center. The city included two large buildings including a complex with temple, offices, courtyard, and large ovens.[19][20]", "The Akkadian Period is generally dated to either: c. 2334 BC – c. 2154 BC (according to the middle chronology timeline of the Ancient Near East), or c. 2270 BC – c. 2083 BC (according to the short chronology timeline of the Ancient Near East.) It was preceded by the Early Dynastic Period of Mesopotamia (ED) and succeeded by the Ur III Period, although both transitions are blurry. For example: it is likely that the rise of Sargon of Akkad coincided with the late ED Period and that the final Akkadian kings ruled simultaneously with the Gutian kings alongside rulers at the city-states of both: Uruk and Lagash. The Akkadian Period is contemporary with: EB IV (in Israel), EB IVA and EJ IV (in Syria), and EB IIIB (in Turkey.)[12][21]", "The relative order of Akkadian kings is clear. The absolute dates of their reigns are approximate (as with all dates prior to the late Bronze Age collapse c. 1200 BC).[22]", "Ruler\nMiddle Chronology\nAll dates BC\nShort Chronology\nAll dates BC\n\n\nSargon\n2334–2279\n\n\n\nRimush\n2278–2270\n\n\n\nManishtushu\n2269–2255\n\n\n\nNaram-Sin\n2254–2218\n\n\n\nShar-Kali-Sharri\n2217–2193\n\n\n\nInterregnum\n2192–2190\n\n\n\nDudu\n2189–2169\n\n\n\nShu-turul\n2168–2154", "Ruler\nMiddle Chronology\nAll dates BC\nShort Chronology\nAll dates BC", "Sargon\n2334–2279", "Rimush\n2278–2270", "Manishtushu\n2269–2255", "Naram-Sin\n2254–2218", "Shar-Kali-Sharri\n2217–2193", "Interregnum\n2192–2190", "Dudu\n2189–2169", "Shu-turul\n2168–2154", "The Akkadian Empire takes its name from the region and the city of Akkad, both of which were localized in the general confluence area of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Although the city of Akkad has not yet been identified on the ground, it is known from various textual sources. Among these is at least one text predating the reign of Sargon. Together with the fact that the name Akkad is of non-Akkadian origin, this suggests that the city of Akkad may have already been occupied in pre-Sargonic times.[13][23]", "Sargon of Akkad (Sharru-kin = \"legitimate king\", possibly a title he took on gaining power) defeated and captured Lugal-zage-si in the Battle of Uruk and conquered his empire. The earliest records in the Akkadian language date to the time of Sargon. Sargon was claimed to be the son of La'ibum or Itti-Bel, a humble gardener, and possibly a hierodule, or priestess to Ishtar or Inanna. One legend related to Sargon in Assyrian times says that", "My mother was a changeling, my father I knew not. The brothers of my father loved the hills. My city is Azurpiranu (the wilderness herb fields), which is situated on the banks of the Euphrates. My changeling mother conceived me, in secret she bore me. She set me in a basket of rushes, with bitumen she sealed my lid. She cast me into the river which rose not over me. The river bore me up and carried me to Akki, the drawer of water. Akki, the drawer of water, took me as his son and reared me. Akki the drawer of water, appointed me as his gardener. While I was gardener Ishtar granted me her love, and for four and (fifty?) ... years I exercised kingship.[24]", "Later claims made on behalf of Sargon were that his mother was an \"entu\" priestess (high priestess). The claims might have been made to ensure a descendancy of nobility, considering only a highly placed family can be made such a position.[25]", "Originally a cupbearer (Rabshakeh) to a king of Kish with a Semitic name, Ur-Zababa, Sargon thus became a gardener, responsible for the task of clearing out irrigation canals. This gave him access to a disciplined corps of workers, who also may have served as his first soldiers. Displacing Ur-Zababa, Sargon was crowned king, and he entered upon a career of foreign conquest.[26] Four times he invaded Syria and Canaan, and he spent three years thoroughly subduing the countries of \"the west\" to unite them with Mesopotamia \"into a single empire\".", "However, Sargon took this process further, conquering many of the surrounding regions to create an empire that reached westward as far as the Mediterranean Sea and perhaps Cyprus (Kaptara); northward as far as the mountains (a later Hittite text asserts he fought the Hattian king Nurdaggal of Burushanda, well into Anatolia); eastward over Elam; and as far south as Magan (Oman) — a region over which he reigned for purportedly 56 years, though only four \"year-names\" survive. He consolidated his dominion over his territories by replacing the earlier opposing rulers with noble citizens of Akkad, his native city where loyalty would thus be ensured.[27]", "Trade extended from the silver mines of Anatolia to the lapis lazuli mines in modern Afghanistan, the cedars of Lebanon and the copper of Magan. This consolidation of the city-states of Sumer and Akkad reflected the growing economic and political power of Mesopotamia. The empire's breadbasket was the rain-fed agricultural system of Assyria and a chain of fortresses was built to control the imperial wheat production.", "Images of Sargon were erected on the shores of the Mediterranean, in token of his victories, and cities and palaces were built at home with the spoils of the conquered lands. Elam and the northern part of Mesopotamia (Assyria/Subartu) were also subjugated, and rebellions in Sumer were put down. Contract tablets have been found dated in the years of the campaigns against Canaan and against Sarlak, king of Gutium. He also boasted of having subjugated the \"four quarters\" — the lands surrounding Akkad to the north (Assyria), the south (Sumer), the east (Elam), and the west (Martu). Some of the earliest historiographic texts (ABC 19, 20) suggest he rebuilt the city of Babylon (Bab-ilu) in its new location near Akkad.[28]", "Sargon, throughout his long life, showed special deference to the Sumerian deities, particularly Inanna (Ishtar), his patroness, and Zababa, the warrior god of Kish. He called himself \"The anointed priest of Anu\" and \"the great ensi of Enlil\" and his daughter, Enheduanna, was installed as priestess to Nanna at the temple in Ur.", "Troubles multiplied toward the end of his reign. A later Babylonian text states:", "In his old age, all the lands revolted against him, and they besieged him in Akkad (the city) [but] he went forth to battle and defeated them, he knocked them over and destroyed their vast army.", "It refers to his campaign in \"Elam\", where he defeated a coalition army led by the King of Awan and forced the vanquished to become his vassals.[29]", "Also shortly after, another revolt took place:", "the Subartu (mountainous tribes of Assyria) the upper country—in their turn attacked, but they submitted to his arms, and Sargon settled their habitations, and he smote them grievously.", "Sargon had crushed opposition even at old age. These difficulties broke out again in the reign of his sons, where revolts broke out during the nine-year reign of Rimush (2278–2270 BC), who fought hard to retain the empire, and was successful until he was assassinated by some of his own courtiers. Rimush's elder brother, Manishtushu (2269–2255 BC) succeeded him. The latter seems to have fought a sea battle against 32 kings who had gathered against him and took control over their pre-Arab country, consisting of modern-day United Arab Emirates and Oman. Despite the success, like his brother he seems to have been assassinated in a palace conspiracy.[30]", "Manishtushu's son and successor, Naram-Sin (2254–2218 BC), due to vast military conquests, assumed the imperial title \"King Naram-Sin, king of the four quarters\" (Lugal Naram-Sîn, Šar kibrat 'arbaim), the four quarters as a reference to the entire world. He was also for the first time in Sumerian culture, addressed as \"the god (Sumerian = DINGIR, Akkadian = ilu) of Agade\" (Akkad), in opposition to the previous religious belief that kings were only representatives of the people towards the gods.[32][33] He also faced revolts at the start of his reign,[34] but quickly crushed them.", "Naram-Sin also recorded the Akkadian conquest of Ebla as well as Armanum and its king.[35] Armanum location is debated; it is sometimes identified with a Syrian kingdom mentioned in the tablets of Ebla as Armi, the location of Armi is also debated; while historian Adelheid Otto identifies it with the Citadel of Bazi – Tall Banat complex on the Euphrates River between Ebla and Tell Brak,[36][37] others like Wayne Horowitz identify it with Aleppo.[38] Further, if most scholars place Armanum in Syria, Michael C. Astour believes it to be located north of the Hamrin Mountains in northern Iraq.[39]", "To better police Syria, he built a royal residence at Tell Brak, a crossroads at the heart of the Khabur River basin of the Jezirah. Naram-Sin campaigned against Magan which also revolted; Naram-Sin \"marched against Magan and personally caught Mandannu, its king\", where he instated garrisons to protect the main roads. The chief threat seemed to be coming from the northern Zagros Mountains, the Lulubis and the Gutians. A campaign against the Lullubi led to the carving of the \"Victory Stele of Naram-Suen\", now in the Louvre. Hittite sources claim Naram-Sin of Akkad even ventured into Anatolia, battling the Hittite and Hurrian kings Pamba of Hatti, Zipani of Kanesh, and 15 others. This newfound Akkadian wealth may have been based upon benign climatic conditions, huge agricultural surpluses and the confiscation of the wealth of other peoples.[40]", "The economy was highly planned. Grain was cleaned, and rations of grain and oil were distributed in standardized vessels made by the city's potters. Taxes were paid in produce and labour on public walls, including city walls, temples, irrigation canals and waterways, producing huge agricultural surpluses.[41]", "In later Assyrian and Babylonian texts, the name Akkad, together with Sumer, appears as part of the royal title, as in the Sumerian LUGAL KI-EN-GI KI-URI or Akkadian Šar māt Šumeri u Akkadi,[42] translating to \"king of Sumer and Akkad\".[43] This title was assumed by the king who seized control of Nippur,[42] the intellectual and religious center of southern Mesopotamia.", "During the Akkadian period, the Akkadian language became the lingua franca of the Middle East, and was officially used for administration, although the Sumerian language remained as a spoken and literary language. The spread of Akkadian stretched from Syria to Elam, and even the Elamite language was temporarily written in Mesopotamian cuneiform. Akkadian texts later found their way to far-off places, from Egypt (in the Amarna Period) and Anatolia, to Persia (Behistun).", "The empire of Akkad fell, perhaps in the 22nd century BC, within 180 years of its founding, ushering in a \"Dark Age\" with no prominent imperial authority until Third Dynasty of Ur. The region's political structure may have reverted to the status quo ante of local governance by city-states.[44]", "Shu-Durul appears to have restored some centralized authority, however, he was unable to prevent the empire eventually collapsing outright from the invasion of barbarian peoples from the Zagros Mountains known as the Gutians.", "Little is known about the Gutian period, or how long it endured. Cuneiform sources suggest that the Gutians' administration showed little concern for maintaining agriculture, written records, or public safety; they reputedly released all farm animals to roam about Mesopotamia freely and soon brought about famine and rocketing grain prices. The Sumerian king Ur-Nammu (2112–2095 BC) cleared the Gutians from Mesopotamia during his reign.", "The Sumerian King List, describing the Akkadian Empire after the death of Shar-kali-shari, states:", "Who was king? Who was not king? Irgigi the king; Nanum, the king; Imi the king; Ilulu, the king—the four of them were kings but reigned only three years. Dudu reigned 21 years; Shu-Turul, the son of Dudu, reigned 15 years. ... Agade was defeated and its kingship carried off to Uruk. In Uruk, Ur-ningin reigned 7 years, Ur-gigir, son of Ur-ningin, reigned 6 years; Kuda reigned 6 years; Puzur-ili reigned 5 years, Ur-Utu reigned 6 years. Uruk was smitten with weapons and its kingship carried off by the Gutian hordes.", "However, there are no known year-names or other archaeological evidence verifying any of these later kings of Akkad or Uruk, apart from a single artefact referencing king Dudu of Akkad. The named kings of Uruk may have been contemporaries of the last kings of Akkad, but in any event could not have been very prominent.", "In the Gutian hordes, (first reigned) a nameless king; (then) Imta reigned 3 years as king; Shulme reigned 6 years; Elulumesh reigned 6 years; Inimbakesh reigned 5 years; Igeshuash reigned 6 years; Iarlagab reigned 15 years; Ibate reigned 3 years; ... reigned 3 years; Kurum reigned 1 year; ... reigned 3 years; ... reigned 2 years; Iararum reigned 2 years; Ibranum reigned 1 year; Hablum reigned 2 years; Puzur-Sin son of Hablum reigned 7 years; Iarlaganda reigned 7 years; ... reigned 7 years; ... reigned 40 days. Total 21 kings reigned 91 years, 40 days.", "The period between c. 2112 BC and 2004 BC is known as the Ur III period. Documents again began to be written in Sumerian, although Sumerian was becoming a purely literary or liturgical language, much as Latin later would be in Medieval Europe.[24]", "One explanation for the end of the Akkadian empire is simply that the Akkadian dynasty could not maintain its political supremacy over other independently powerful city-states.[46][44]", "One theory associates regional decline at the end of the Akkadian period (and of the First Intermediary Period following the Old Kingdom in Ancient Egypt) was associated with rapidly increasing aridity, and failing rainfall in the region of the Ancient Near East, caused by a global centennial-scale drought.[47][48] Harvey Weiss has shown that \"archaeological and soil-stratigraphic data define the origin, growth, and collapse of Subir, the third millennium rain-fed agriculture civilization of northern Mesopotamia on the Habur Plains of Syria. At 2200 BC, a marked increase in aridity and wind circulation, subsequent to a volcanic eruption, induced a considerable degradation of land-use conditions. After four centuries of urban life, this abrupt climatic change evidently caused abandonment of Tell Leilan, regional desertion, and collapse of the Akkadian empire based in southern Mesopotamia. Synchronous collapse in adjacent regions suggests that the impact of the abrupt climatic change was extensive\".[17] Peter B. deMenocal, has shown \"there was an influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the stream flow of the Tigris and Euphrates at this time, which led to the collapse of the Akkadian Empire\".[49]", "Excavation at Tell Leilan suggests that this site was abandoned soon after the city's massive walls were constructed, its temple rebuilt and its grain production reorganised. The debris, dust and sand that followed show no trace of human activity. Soil samples show fine wind-blown sand, no trace of earthworm activity, reduced rainfall and indications of a drier and windier climate. Evidence shows that skeleton-thin sheep and cattle died of drought, and up to 28,000 people abandoned the site, seeking wetter areas elsewhere. Tell Brak shrank in size by 75%. Trade collapsed. Nomadic herders such as the Amorites moved herds closer to reliable water suppliers, bringing them into conflict with Akkadian populations. This climate-induced collapse seems to have affected the whole of the Middle East, and to have coincided with the collapse of the Egyptian Old Kingdom.[17]", "This collapse of rain-fed agriculture in the Upper Country meant the loss to southern Mesopotamia of the agrarian subsidies which had kept the Akkadian Empire solvent. Water levels within the Tigris and Euphrates fell 1.5 metres beneath the level of 2600 BC, and although they stabilised for a time during the following Ur III period, rivalries between pastoralists and farmers increased. Attempts were undertaken to prevent the former from herding their flocks in agricultural lands, such as the building of a 180 km (112 mi) wall known as the \"Repeller of the Amorites\" between the Tigris and Euphrates under the Ur III ruler Shu-Sin. Such attempts led to increased political instability; meanwhile, severe depression occurred to re-establish demographic equilibrium with the less favourable climatic conditions.[50][51][52]", "Richard Zettler has critiqued the drought theory, observing that the chronology of the Akkadian empire is very uncertain and that available evidence is not sufficient to show its economic dependence on the northern areas excavated by Weiss and others. He also criticizes Weiss for taking Akkadian writings literally to describe certain catastrophic events.[53]", "According to Joan Oates, at Tell Brak the soil \"signal\" associated with the drought lies below the level of Naram-Sin's palace. However, evidence", "may suggest a tightening of Akkadian control following the Brak 'event', for example the construction of the heavily fortified 'palace' itself and the apparent introduction of greater numbers of Akkadian as opposed to local officials, perhaps a reflection of unrest in the countryside of the type that often follows some natural catastrophe.", "Furthermore, Brak remained occupied and functional after the fall of the Akkadians.[54]", "The Akkadian government formed a \"classical standard\" with which all future Mesopotamian states compared themselves. Traditionally, the ensi was the highest functionary of the Sumerian city-states. In later traditions, one became an ensi by marrying the goddess Inanna, legitimising the rulership through divine consent.", "Initially, the monarchical lugal (lu = man, gal =Great) was subordinate to the priestly ensi, and was appointed at times of troubles, but by later dynastic times, it was the lugal who had emerged as the preeminent role, having his own \"é\" (= house) or \"palace\", independent from the temple establishment. By the time of Mesalim, whichever dynasty controlled the city of Kish was recognised as šar kiššati (= king of Kish), and was considered preeminent in Sumer, possibly because this was where the two rivers approached, and whoever controlled Kish ultimately controlled the irrigation systems of the other cities downstream.", "As Sargon extended his conquest from the \"Lower Sea\" (Persian Gulf), to the \"Upper Sea\" (Mediterranean), it was felt that he ruled \"the totality of the lands under heaven\", or \"from sunrise to sunset\", as contemporary texts put it. Under Sargon, the ensis generally retained their positions, but were seen more as provincial governors. The title šar kiššati became recognised as meaning \"lord of the universe\". Sargon is even recorded as having organised naval expeditions to Dilmun (Bahrain) and Magan, amongst the first organised military naval expeditions in history. Whether he also did in the case of the Mediterranean with the kingdom of Kaptara (possibly Cyprus), as claimed in later documents, is more questionable.", "With Naram-Sin, Sargon's grandson, this went further than with Sargon, with the king not only being called \"Lord of the Four Quarters (of the Earth)\", but also elevated to the ranks of the dingir (= gods), with his own temple establishment. Previously a ruler could, like Gilgamesh, become divine after death but the Akkadian kings, from Naram-Sin onward, were considered gods on earth in their lifetimes. Their portraits showed them of larger size than mere mortals and at some distance from their retainers.[55]", "One strategy adopted by both Sargon and Naram-Sin, to maintain control of the country, was to install their daughters, Enheduanna and Emmenanna respectively, as high priestess to Sin, the Akkadian version of the Sumerian moon deity, Nanna, at Ur, in the extreme south of Sumer; to install sons as provincial ensi governors in strategic locations; and to marry their daughters to rulers of peripheral parts of the Empire (Urkesh and Marhashe). A well documented case of the latter is that of Naram-Sin's daughter Tar'am-Agade at Urkesh.[56]", "Records at the Brak administrative complex suggest that the Akkadians appointed locals as tax collectors.[57]", "The population of Akkad, like nearly all pre-modern states, was entirely dependent upon the agricultural systems of the region, which seem to have had two principal centres: the irrigated farmlands of southern Iraq that traditionally had a yield of 30 grains returned for each grain sown and the rain-fed agriculture of northern Iraq, known as the \"Upper Country.\"", "Southern Iraq during Akkadian period seems to have been approaching its modern rainfall level of less than 20 mm (1 in) per year, with the result that agriculture was totally dependent upon irrigation. Before the Akkadian period the progressive salinisation of the soils, produced by poorly drained irrigation, had been reducing yields of wheat in the southern part of the country, leading to the conversion to more salt-tolerant barley growing. Urban populations there had peaked already by 2,600 BC, and demographic pressures were high, contributing to the rise of militarism apparent immediately before the Akkadian period (as seen in the Stele of the Vultures of Eannatum). Warfare between city states had led to a population decline, from which Akkad provided a temporary respite.[58] It was this high degree of agricultural productivity in the south that enabled the growth of the highest population densities in the world at this time, giving Akkad its military advantage.", "The water table in this region was very high and replenished regularly—by winter storms in the headwaters of the Tigris and Euphrates from October to March and from snow-melt from March to July. Flood levels, that had been stable from about 3,000 to 2,600 BC, had started falling, and by the Akkadian period were a half-meter to a meter lower than recorded previously. Even so, the flat country and weather uncertainties made flooding much more unpredictable than in the case of the Nile; serious deluges seem to have been a regular occurrence, requiring constant maintenance of irrigation ditches and drainage systems. Farmers were recruited into regiments for this work from August to October—a period of food shortage—under the control of city temple authorities, thus acting as a form of unemployment relief. Gwendolyn Leick has[59] suggested that this was Sargon's original employment for the king of Kish, giving him experience in effectively organising large groups of men; a tablet reads, \"Sargon, the king, to whom Enlil permitted no rival—5,400 warriors ate bread daily before him\".[60]", "Harvest was in the late spring and during the dry summer months. Nomadic Amorites from the northwest would pasture their flocks of sheep and goats to graze on the stubble and be watered from the river and irrigation canals. For this privilege, they would have to pay a tax in wool, meat, milk, and cheese to the temples, who would distribute these products to the bureaucracy and priesthood. In good years, all would go well, but in bad years, wild winter pastures would be in short supply, nomads would seek to pasture their flocks in the grain fields, and conflicts with farmers would result. It would appear that the subsidizing of southern populations by the import of wheat from the north of the Empire temporarily overcame this problem,[61] and it seems to have allowed economic recovery and a growing population within this region.", "As a result, Sumer and Akkad had a surplus of agricultural products but was short of almost everything else, particularly metal ores, timber and building stone, all of which had to be imported. The spread of the Akkadian state as far as the \"silver mountain\" (possibly the Taurus Mountains), the \"cedars\" of Lebanon, and the copper deposits of Magan, was largely motivated by the goal of securing control over these imports. One tablet reads \"Sargon, the king of Kish, triumphed in thirty-four battles (over the cities) up to the edge of the sea (and) destroyed their walls. He made the ships from Meluhha, the ships from Magan (and) the ships from Dilmun tie up alongside the quay of Agade. Sargon the king prostrated himself before (the god) Dagan (and) made supplication to him; (and) he (Dagan) gave him the upper land, namely Mari, Yarmuti, (and) Ebla, up to the Cedar Forest (and) up to the Silver Mountain\".", "In art, there was a great emphasis on the kings of the dynasty, alongside much that continued earlier Sumerian art. Little architecture remains. In large works and small ones such as seals, the degree of realism was considerably increased,[62] but the seals show a \"grim world of cruel conflict, of danger and uncertainty, a world in which man is subjected without appeal to the incomprehensible acts of distant and fearful divinities who he must serve but cannot love. This sombre mood ... remained characteristic of Mesopotamian art...\"[63]", "During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism.[5] The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian (and vice versa) is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence.[5] This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the third millennium as a sprachbund.[5] Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as a spoken language somewhere around 2000 BC (the exact dating being a matter of debate),[6] but Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary, and scientific language in Mesopotamia until the 1st century AD.[64]", "Sumerian literature continued in rich development during the Akkadian period. Enheduanna, the \"wife (Sumerian dam = high priestess) of Nanna [the Sumerian moon god] and daughter of Sargon\"[65] of the temple of Sin at Ur, who lived c. 2285–2250 BC, is the first poet in history whose name is known. Her known works include hymns to the goddess Inanna, the Exaltation of Inanna and In-nin sa-gur-ra. A third work, the Temple Hymns, a collection of specific hymns, addresses the sacred temples and their occupants, the deity to whom they were consecrated. The works of this poet are significant, because although they start out using the third person, they shift to the first person voice of the poet herself, and they mark a significant development in the use of cuneiform. As poet, princess, and priestess, she was a person who, according to William W Hallo, \"set standards in all three of her roles for many succeeding centuries\"[66]", "In the Exultation of Inanna,", "Enheduanna depicts Inanna as disciplining mankind as a goddess of battle. She thereby unites the warlike Akkadian Ishtar's qualities to those of the gentler Sumerian goddess of love and fecundity. She likens Inanna to a great storm bird who swoops down on the lesser gods and sends them fluttering off like surprised bats. Then, in probably the most interesting part of the hymn, Enheduanna herself steps forward in the first person to recite her own past glories, establishing her credibility, and explaining her present plight. She has been banished as high priestess from the temple in the city of Ur and from Uruk and exiled to the steppe. She begs the moon god Nanna to intercede for her because the city of Uruk, under the ruler Lugalanne, has rebelled against Sargon. The rebel, Lugalanne, has even destroyed the temple Eanna, one of the greatest temples in the ancient world, and then made advances on his sister-in-law.[67]", "Later material described how the fall of Akkad was due to Nara-Sin's attack upon the city of Nipper. When prompted by a pair of inauspicious oracles, the king sacked the E-kur temple, supposedly protected by the god Enlil, head of the pantheon. As a result of this, eight chief deities of the Anunnaki pantheon were supposed to have come together and withdrawn their support from Akkad.[68]", "For the first time since cities were built and founded,\nThe great agricultural tracts produced no grain,\nThe inundated tracts produced no ostriches,\nThe irrigated orchards produced neither wine nor syrup,\nThe gathered clouds did not rain, the masgurum did not grow.\nAt that time, one shekel's worth of oil was only one-half quart,\nOne shekel's worth of grain was only one-half quart. . . .\nThese sold at such prices in the markets of all the cities!\nHe who slept on the roof, died on the roof,\nHe who slept in the house, had no burial,\nPeople were flailing at themselves from hunger.[69]", "For the first time since cities were built and founded,", "The great agricultural tracts produced no grain,", "The inundated tracts produced no ostriches,", "The irrigated orchards produced neither wine nor syrup,", "The gathered clouds did not rain, the masgurum did not grow.", "At that time, one shekel's worth of oil was only one-half quart,", "One shekel's worth of grain was only one-half quart. . . .", "These sold at such prices in the markets of all the cities!", "He who slept on the roof, died on the roof,", "He who slept in the house, had no burial,", "People were flailing at themselves from hunger.[69]", "The kings of Akkad were legendary among later Mesopotamian civilizations, with Sargon understood as the prototype of a strong and wise leader, and his grandson Naram-Sin considered the wicked and impious leader (Unheilsherrscher in the analysis of Hans Gustav Güterbock) who brought ruin upon his kingdom.[70][71]", "Tablets from the periods reads, \"(From the earliest days) no-one had made a statue of lead, (but) Rimush king of Kish, had a statue of himself made of lead. It stood before Enlil; and it recited his (Rimush's) virtues to the idu of the gods\". The copper Bassetki Statue, cast with the lost wax method, testifies to the high level of skill that craftsmen achieved during the Akkadian period.[72]", "The empire was bound together by roads, along which there was a regular postal service. Clay seals that took the place of stamps bear the names of Sargon and his son. A cadastral survey seems also to have been instituted, and one of the documents relating to it states that a certain Uru-Malik, whose name appears to indicate his Canaanite origin, was governor of the land of the Amorites, or Amurru as the semi-nomadic people of Syria and Canaan were called in Akkadian. It is probable that the first collection of astronomical observations and terrestrial omens was made for a library established by Sargon. The earliest \"year names\", whereby each year of a king's reign was named after a significant event performed by that king, date from Sargon's reign. Lists of these \"year names\" henceforth became a calendrical system used in most independent Mesopotamian city-states. In Assyria, however, years came to be named for the annual presiding limmu official appointed by the king, rather than for an event." ]
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diana ross and marvin gaye ain no mountain high enough
Ain't No Mountain High Enough
[ "\"Ain't No Mountain High Enough\"\nSingle by Marvin Gaye & Tammi Terrellfrom the album UnitedB-side\n\"Give a Little Love\"Released\nApril 20, 1967Format\n7-inch singleRecorded\nDecember 1966 – February 1967Studio\nHitsville USA, Detroit, MichiganGenre\nSoulrhythm and bluespopLength\n2:28Label\nTamla (T-54149)Songwriter(s)\nNickolas AshfordValerie SimpsonProducer(s)\nHarvey FuquaJohnny BristolMarvin Gaye & Tammi Terrell singles chronology\n\n\n\n\n\"Ain't No Mountain High Enough\" (1967)\n\n\"Your Precious Love\" (1967)\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\"Aint No Mountain High Enough\"(1967)\n\n\"Your Precious Love\"(1967)", "\"Ain't No Mountain High Enough\"", "Single by Marvin Gaye & Tammi Terrell", "from the album United", "B-side\n\"Give a Little Love\"", "Released\nApril 20, 1967", "Format\n7-inch single", "Recorded\nDecember 1966 – February 1967", "Studio\nHitsville USA, Detroit, Michigan", "Genre\nSoulrhythm and bluespop", "Soulrhythm and bluespop", "rhythm and blues", "Length\n2:28", "Label\nTamla (T-54149)", "Songwriter(s)\nNickolas AshfordValerie Simpson", "Nickolas AshfordValerie Simpson", "Producer(s)\nHarvey FuquaJohnny Bristol", "Harvey FuquaJohnny Bristol", "Marvin Gaye & Tammi Terrell singles chronology", "\"Ain't No Mountain High Enough\" (1967)\n\n\"Your Precious Love\" (1967)", "\"Ain't No Mountain High Enough\" (1967)\n\n\"Your Precious Love\" (1967)", "\"Ain't No Mountain High Enough\" (1967)\n\n\"Your Precious Love\" (1967)", "\"Aint No Mountain High Enough\"(1967)\n\n\"Your Precious Love\"(1967)", "\"Aint No Mountain High Enough\"(1967)\n\n\"Your Precious Love\"(1967)", "\"Aint No Mountain High Enough\"(1967)\n\n\"Your Precious Love\"(1967)", "\"Ain't No Mountain High Enough\" is an R&B/soul song written by Nickolas Ashford & Valerie Simpson in 1966 for the Tamla label, a division of Motown. The composition was first successful as a 1967 hit single recorded by Marvin Gaye and Tammi Terrell, becoming a hit again in 1970 when recorded by former Supremes frontwoman Diana Ross. The song became Ross' first solo number-one hit on the Billboard Hot 100 chart and was nominated for a Grammy Award.", "The song was written by Ashford and Simpson prior to joining Motown. British soul singer Dusty Springfield wanted to record the song but the duo declined, hoping it would give them access to the Detroit-based label. As Valerie Simpson later recalled, \"We played that song for her (Springfield) but wouldn't give it to her, because we wanted to hold that back. We felt like that could be our entry to Motown. Nick called it the 'golden egg'.\"[1] Dusty recorded a similar verse melody in 'I'm Gonna Leave You' on Dusty.", "The original 1967 version of \"Ain't No Mountain High Enough\" was a top twenty hit. According to record producers, Terrell was a little nervous and intimidated during recording because she did not rehearse the lyrics. Terrell recorded her vocals alone with producers Harvey Fuqua and Johnny Bristol, who added Gaye's vocal at a later date.[2] \"Ain't No Mountain\" peaked at number nineteen on the Billboard pop charts, and went to number three on the R&B charts.[3]", "This original version of \"Ain't No Mountain\", produced by Fuqua and Bristol, was a care-free, danceable, and romantic love song that became the signature duet between Gaye and Terrell. Its success led to a string of more Ashford/Simpson penned duets (including \"You're All I Need to Get By\", \"Ain't Nothing Like the Real Thing\", and \"Your Precious Love\").", "The Gaye/Terrell version was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1999, and is regarded today as one of the most important records ever released by Motown.", "Diana Ross & The Supremes recorded a version of \"Ain't No Mountain High Enough\" which was more faithful to the Terrell-Gaye original version as a duet with The Temptations. That song was an album cut from a joint LP released by Motown Records in 1968 on the two superstar groups, titled Diana Ross & the Supremes Join The Temptations.", "\"Ain't No Mountain High Enough\"