Dataset Preview Go to dataset viewer
pubid (int)question (string)context (json)long_answer (string)final_decision (string)
21,645,374
Do mitochondria play a role in remodelling lace plant leaves during programmed cell death?
{ "contexts": [ "Programmed cell death (PCD) is the regulated death of cells within an organism. The lace plant (Aponogeton madagascariensis) produces perforations in its leaves through PCD. The leaves of the plant consist of a latticework of longitudinal and transverse veins enclosing areoles. PCD occurs in the cells at the center of these areoles and progresses outwards, stopping approximately five cells from the vasculature. The role of mitochondria during PCD has been recognized in animals; however, it has been less studied during PCD in plants.", "The following paper elucidates the role of mitochondrial dynamics during developmentally regulated PCD in vivo in A. madagascariensis. A single areole within a window stage leaf (PCD is occurring) was divided into three areas based on the progression of PCD; cells that will not undergo PCD (NPCD), cells in early stages of PCD (EPCD), and cells in late stages of PCD (LPCD). Window stage leaves were stained with the mitochondrial dye MitoTracker Red CMXRos and examined. Mitochondrial dynamics were delineated into four categories (M1-M4) based on characteristics including distribution, motility, and membrane potential (ΔΨm). A TUNEL assay showed fragmented nDNA in a gradient over these mitochondrial stages. Chloroplasts and transvacuolar strands were also examined using live cell imaging. The possible importance of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) formation during PCD was indirectly examined via in vivo cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment. This treatment resulted in lace plant leaves with a significantly lower number of perforations compared to controls, and that displayed mitochondrial dynamics similar to that of non-PCD cells." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Alismataceae", "Apoptosis", "Cell Differentiation", "Mitochondria", "Plant Leaves" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Results depicted mitochondrial dynamics in vivo as PCD progresses within the lace plant, and highlight the correlation of this organelle with other organelles during developmental PCD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of mitochondria and chloroplasts moving on transvacuolar strands to form a ring structure surrounding the nucleus during developmental PCD. Also, for the first time, we have shown the feasibility for the use of CsA in a whole plant system. Overall, our findings implicate the mitochondria as playing a critical and early role in developmentally regulated PCD in the lace plant.
yes
16,418,930
Landolt C and snellen e acuity: differences in strabismus amblyopia?
{ "contexts": [ "Assessment of visual acuity depends on the optotypes used for measurement. The ability to recognize different optotypes differs even if their critical details appear under the same visual angle. Since optotypes are evaluated on individuals with good visual acuity and without eye disorders, differences in the lower visual acuity range cannot be excluded. In this study, visual acuity measured with the Snellen E was compared to the Landolt C acuity.", "100 patients (age 8 - 90 years, median 60.5 years) with various eye disorders, among them 39 with amblyopia due to strabismus, and 13 healthy volunteers were tested. Charts with the Snellen E and the Landolt C (Precision Vision) which mimic the ETDRS charts were used to assess visual acuity. Three out of 5 optotypes per line had to be correctly identified, while wrong answers were monitored. In the group of patients, the eyes with the lower visual acuity, and the right eyes of the healthy subjects, were evaluated.", "Differences between Landolt C acuity (LR) and Snellen E acuity (SE) were small. The mean decimal values for LR and SE were 0.25 and 0.29 in the entire group and 0.14 and 0.16 for the eyes with strabismus amblyopia. The mean difference between LR and SE was 0.55 lines in the entire group and 0.55 lines for the eyes with strabismus amblyopia, with higher values of SE in both groups. The results of the other groups were similar with only small differences between LR and SE." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "PATIENTS AND METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Adult", "Aged", "Aged, 80 and over", "Amblyopia", "Cataract", "Child", "Eye Diseases", "Female", "Humans", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Reference Values", "Refractive Errors", "Reproducibility of Results", "Retinal Diseases", "Strabismus", "Vision Tests", "Visual Acuity" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
Using the charts described, there was only a slight overestimation of visual acuity by the Snellen E compared to the Landolt C, even in strabismus amblyopia. Small differences in the lower visual acuity range have to be considered.
no
9,488,747
Syncope during bathing in infants, a pediatric form of water-induced urticaria?
{ "contexts": [ "Apparent life-threatening events in infants are a difficult and frequent problem in pediatric practice. The prognosis is uncertain because of risk of sudden infant death syndrome.", "Eight infants aged 2 to 15 months were admitted during a period of 6 years; they suffered from similar maladies in the bath: on immersion, they became pale, hypotonic, still and unreactive; recovery took a few seconds after withdrawal from the bath and stimulation. Two diagnoses were initially considered: seizure or gastroesophageal reflux but this was doubtful. The hypothesis of an equivalent of aquagenic urticaria was then considered; as for patients with this disease, each infant's family contained members suffering from dermographism, maladies or eruption after exposure to water or sun. All six infants had dermographism. We found an increase in blood histamine levels after a trial bath in the two infants tested. The evolution of these \"aquagenic maladies\" was favourable after a few weeks without baths. After a 2-7 year follow-up, three out of seven infants continue to suffer from troubles associated with sun or water." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "CASE REPORTS" ], "meshes": [ "Baths", "Histamine", "Humans", "Infant", "Syncope", "Urticaria", "Water" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
"Aquagenic maladies" could be a pediatric form of the aquagenic urticaria.
yes
17,208,539
Are the long-term results of the transanal pull-through equal to those of the transabdominal pull-through?
{ "contexts": [ "The transanal endorectal pull-through (TERPT) is becoming the most popular procedure in the treatment of Hirschsprung disease (HD), but overstretching of the anal sphincters remains a critical issue that may impact the continence. This study examined the long-term outcome of TERPT versus conventional transabdominal (ABD) pull-through for HD.", "Records of 41 patients more than 3 years old who underwent a pull-through for HD (TERPT, n = 20; ABD, n = 21) were reviewed, and their families were thoroughly interviewed and scored via a 15-item post-pull-through long-term outcome questionnaire. Patients were operated on between the years 1995 and 2003. During this time, our group transitioned from the ABD to the TERPT technique. Total scoring ranged from 0 to 40: 0 to 10, excellent; 11 to 20 good; 21 to 30 fair; 31 to 40 poor. A 2-tailed Student t test, analysis of covariance, as well as logistic and linear regression were used to analyze the collected data with confidence interval higher than 95%.", "Overall scores were similar. However, continence score was significantly better in the ABD group, and the stool pattern score was better in the TERPT group. A significant difference in age at interview between the 2 groups was noted; we therefore reanalyzed the data controlling for age, and this showed that age did not significantly affect the long-term scoring outcome between groups." ], "labels": [ "PURPOSE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Child", "Child, Preschool", "Colectomy", "Female", "Hirschsprung Disease", "Humans", "Male", "Treatment Outcome" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
Our long-term study showed significantly better (2-fold) results regarding the continence score for the abdominal approach compared with the transanal pull-through. The stool pattern and enterocolitis scores were somewhat better for the TERPT group. These findings raise an important issue about the current surgical management of HD; however, more cases will need to be studied before a definitive conclusion can be drawn.
no
10,808,977
Can tailored interventions increase mammography use among HMO women?
{ "contexts": [ "Telephone counseling and tailored print communications have emerged as promising methods for promoting mammography screening. However, there has been little research testing, within the same randomized field trial, of the efficacy of these two methods compared to a high-quality usual care system for enhancing screening. This study addressed the question: Compared to usual care, is tailored telephone counseling more effective than tailored print materials for promoting mammography screening?", "Three-year randomized field trial.", "One thousand ninety-nine women aged 50 and older recruited from a health maintenance organization in North Carolina.", "Women were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: (1) usual care, (2) tailored print communications, and (3) tailored telephone counseling.", "Adherence to mammography screening based on self-reports obtained during 1995, 1996, and 1997.", "Compared to usual care alone, telephone counseling promoted a significantly higher proportion of women having mammograms on schedule (71% vs 61%) than did tailored print (67% vs 61%) but only after the first year of intervention (during 1996). Furthermore, compared to usual care, telephone counseling was more effective than tailored print materials at promoting being on schedule with screening during 1996 and 1997 among women who were off-schedule during the previous year." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "DESIGN", "PARTICIPANTS", "INTERVENTION", "MAIN OUTCOME", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Cost-Benefit Analysis", "Female", "Health Maintenance Organizations", "Humans", "Logistic Models", "Mammography", "Marketing of Health Services", "Middle Aged", "North Carolina", "Odds Ratio", "Pamphlets", "Patient Acceptance of Health Care", "Patient Satisfaction", "Reminder Systems", "Telephone" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
The effects of the intervention were most pronounced after the first intervention. Compared to usual care, telephone counseling seemed particularly effective at promoting change among nonadherent women, the group for whom the intervention was developed. These results suggest that telephone counseling, rather than tailored print, might be the preferred first-line intervention for getting nonadherent women on schedule for mammography screening. Many questions would have to be answered about why the tailored print intervention was not more powerful. Nevertheless, it is clear that additional interventions will be needed to maintain women's adherence to mammography. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): mammography screening, telephone counseling, tailored print communications, barriers.
yes
23,831,910
Double balloon enteroscopy: is it efficacious and safe in a community setting?
{ "contexts": [ "From March 2007 to January 2011, 88 DBE procedures were performed on 66 patients. Indications included evaluation anemia/gastrointestinal bleed, small bowel IBD and dilation of strictures. Video-capsule endoscopy (VCE) was used prior to DBE in 43 of the 66 patients prior to DBE evaluation.", "The mean age was 62 years. Thirty-two patients were female, 15 were African-American; 44 antegrade and 44 retrograde DBEs were performed. The mean time per antegrade DBE was 107.4±30.0 minutes with a distance of 318.4±152.9 cm reached past the pylorus. The mean time per lower DBE was 100.7±27.3 minutes with 168.9±109.1 cm meters past the ileocecal valve reached. Endoscopic therapy in the form of electrocautery to ablate bleeding sources was performed in 20 patients (30.3%), biopsy in 17 patients (25.8%) and dilation of Crohn's-related small bowel strictures in 4 (6.1%). 43 VCEs with pathology noted were performed prior to DBE, with findings endoscopically confirmed in 32 cases (74.4%). In 3 cases the DBE showed findings not noted on VCE." ], "labels": [ "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Community Health Centers", "Double-Balloon Enteroscopy", "Female", "Humans", "Intestinal Diseases", "Male", "Middle Aged" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
DBE appears to be equally safe and effective when performed in the community setting as compared to a tertiary referral center with a comparable yield, efficacy, and complication rate.
yes
26,037,986
30-Day and 1-year mortality in emergency general surgery laparotomies: an area of concern and need for improvement?
{ "contexts": [ "Emergency surgery is associated with poorer outcomes and higher mortality with recent studies suggesting the 30-day mortality to be 14-15%. The aim of this study was to analyse the 30-day mortality, age-related 30-day mortality and 1-year mortality following emergency laparotomy. We hope this will encourage prospective data collection, improvement of care and initiate strategies to establish best practice in this area.", "This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent emergency laparotomy from June 2010 to May 2012. The primary end point of the study was 30-day mortality, age-related 30-day mortality and 1-year all-cause mortality.", "477 laparotomies were performed in 446 patients. 57% were aged<70 and 43% aged>70 years. 30-day mortality was 12, 4% in those aged<70 years and 22% in those>70 years (p<0.001). 1-year mortality was 25, 15% in those aged under 70 years and 38% in those aged>70 years (p<0.001)." ], "labels": [ "AIMS", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Age Factors", "Aged", "Aged, 80 and over", "Cause of Death", "Cohort Studies", "Emergency Treatment", "Female", "General Surgery", "Humans", "Incidence", "Laparotomy", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Needs Assessment", "Retrospective Studies", "Risk Assessment", "Time Factors", "United Kingdom" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Emergency laparotomy carries a high rate of mortality, especially in those over the age of 70 years, and more needs to be done to improve outcomes, particularly in this group. This could involve increasing acute surgical care manpower, early recognition of patients requiring emergency surgery, development of clear management protocols for such patients or perhaps even considering centralisation of emergency surgical services to specialist centres with multidisciplinary teams involving emergency surgeons and care of the elderly physicians in hospital and related community outreach services for post-discharge care.
maybe
26,852,225
Is adjustment for reporting heterogeneity necessary in sleep disorders?
{ "contexts": [ "Anchoring vignettes are brief texts describing a hypothetical character who illustrates a certain fixed level of a trait under evaluation. This research uses vignettes to elucidate factors associated with sleep disorders in adult Japanese before and after adjustment for reporting heterogeneity in self-reports. This study also evaluates the need for adjusting for reporting heterogeneity in the management of sleep and energy related problems in Japan.", "We investigated a dataset of 1002 respondents aged 18 years and over from the Japanese World Health Survey, which collected information through face-to-face interview from 2002 to 2003. The ordered probit model and the Compound Hierarchical Ordered Probit (CHOPIT) model, which incorporated anchoring vignettes, were employed to estimate and compare associations of sleep and energy with socio-demographic and life-style factors before and after adjustment for differences in response category cut-points for each individual.", "The prevalence of self-reported problems with sleep and energy was 53 %. Without correction of cut-point shifts, age, sex, and the number of comorbidities were significantly associated with a greater severity of sleep-related problems. After correction, age, the number of comorbidities, and regular exercise were significantly associated with a greater severity of sleep-related problems; sex was no longer a significant factor. Compared to the ordered probit model, the CHOPIT model provided two changes with a subtle difference in the magnitude of regression coefficients after correction for reporting heterogeneity." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Aged", "Female", "Health Status Disparities", "Health Surveys", "Humans", "Japan", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Physical Fitness", "Prevalence", "Self Report", "Self-Assessment", "Sleep Wake Disorders", "Socioeconomic Factors" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
Sleep disorders are common in the general adult population of Japan. Correction for reporting heterogeneity using anchoring vignettes is not a necessary tool for proper management of sleep and energy related problems among Japanese adults. Older age, gender differences in communicating sleep-related problems, the presence of multiple morbidities, and regular exercise should be the focus of policies and clinical practice to improve sleep and energy management in Japan.
no
17,113,061
Do mutations causing low HDL-C promote increased carotid intima-media thickness?
{ "contexts": [ "Although observational data support an inverse relationship between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and coronary heart disease (CHD), genetic HDL deficiency states often do not correlate with premature CHD.", "Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) measurements were obtained in cases comprising 10 different mutations in LCAT, ABCA1 and APOA1 to further evaluate the relationship between low HDL resulting from genetic variation and early atherosclerosis.", "In a 1:2 case-control study of sex and age-related (+/-5 y) subjects (n=114), cIMT was nearly identical between cases (0.66+/-0.17 cm) and controls (0.65+/-0.18 cm) despite significantly lower HDL cholesterol (0.67 vs. 1.58 mmol/l) and apolipoprotein A-I levels (96.7 vs. 151.4 mg/dl) (P<0.05)" ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Cholesterol, HDL", "Contrast Media", "Coronary Disease", "Female", "Humans", "Male", "Mutation", "Risk Factors" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
Genetic variants identified in the present study may be insufficient to promote early carotid atherosclerosis.
no
10,966,337
A short stay or 23-hour ward in a general and academic children's hospital: are they effective?
{ "contexts": [ "We evaluated the usefulness of a short stay or 23-hour ward in a pediatric unit of a large teaching hospital, Westmead Hospital, and an academic Children's hospital, The New Children's Hospital, to determine if they are a useful addition to the emergency service.", "This is a descriptive comparison of prospectively collected data on all children admitted to the short stay ward at Westmead Hospital (WH) during 1994 and the short stay ward at the New Children's Hospital (NCH) during 1997-98. These hospitals service an identical demographic area with the latter (NCH) a tertiary referral center. The following outcome measures were used: length of stay, appropriateness of stay, rate of admission to an in-hospital bed, and rate of unscheduled visits within 72 hours of discharge. Adverse events were reported and patient follow-up was attempted at 48 hours after discharge in all cases.", "The short stay ward accounted for 10.3% (Westmead Hospital) and 14.7% (New Children's Hospital) of admissions, with 56% medical in nature, 30% surgical, and the remainder procedural or psychological. Admission patterns were similar, with asthma, gastroenteritis, convulsion, pneumonia, and simple surgical conditions accounting for most short stay ward admissions. The short stay ward increased hospital efficiency with an average length of stay of 17.5 hours (Westmead Hospital) compared to 20.5 hours (New Children's Hospital). The users of the short stay ward were children of young age less than 2 years, with stay greater than 23 hours reported in only 1% of all admissions to the short stay ward. The rate of patient admission to an in-hospital bed was low, (4% [Westmead Hospital] compared to 6% [New Children's Hospital]), with the number of unscheduled visits within 72 hours of short stay ward discharge less than 1%. There were no adverse events reported at either short stay ward, with parental satisfaction high. The short stay ward was developed through reallocation of resources from within the hospital to the short stay ward. This resulted in estimated savings of $1/2 million (Westmead Hospital) to $2.3 million (New Children's Hospital) to the hospital, due to more efficient bed usage." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Academic Medical Centers", "Acute Disease", "Adolescent", "Child", "Child, Preschool", "Critical Pathways", "Emergency Service, Hospital", "Follow-Up Studies", "Hospital Units", "Hospitals, General", "Hospitals, Pediatric", "Humans", "Infant", "Length of Stay", "New South Wales", "Outcome Assessment (Health Care)", "Pediatrics", "Prospective Studies", "Time Factors" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
This data demonstrates the robust nature of the short stay ward. At these two very different institutions we have shown improved bed efficient and patient care in a cost-effective way. We have also reported on greater parental satisfaction and early return of the child with their family to the community.
yes
25,432,938
Did Chile's traffic law reform push police enforcement?
{ "contexts": [ "The objective of the current study is to determine to what extent the reduction of Chile's traffic fatalities and injuries during 2000-2012 was related to the police traffic enforcement increment registered after the introduction of its 2005 traffic law reform.", "A unique dataset with assembled information from public institutions and analyses based on ordinary least square and robust random effects models was carried out. Dependent variables were traffic fatality and severe injury rates per population and vehicle fleet. Independent variables were: (1) presence of new national traffic law; (2) police officers per population; (3) number of traffic tickets per police officer; and (4) interaction effect of number of traffic tickets per police officer with traffic law reform. Oil prices, alcohol consumption, proportion of male population 15-24 years old, unemployment, road infrastructure investment, years' effects and regions' effects represented control variables.", "Empirical estimates from instrumental variables suggest that the enactment of the traffic law reform in interaction with number of traffic tickets per police officer is significantly associated with a decrease of 8% in traffic fatalities and 7% in severe injuries. Piecewise regression model results for the 2007-2012 period suggest that police traffic enforcement reduced traffic fatalities by 59% and severe injuries by 37%." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Accidents, Traffic", "Automobile Driving", "Chile", "Humans", "Law Enforcement", "Models, Statistical", "Police", "Risk Factors" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Findings suggest that traffic law reforms in order to have an effect on both traffic fatality and injury rates reduction require changes in police enforcement practices. Last, this case also illustrates how the diffusion of successful road safety practices globally promoted by WHO and World Bank can be an important influence for enhancing national road safety practices.
yes
18,847,643
Therapeutic anticoagulation in the trauma patient: is it safe?
{ "contexts": [ "Trauma patients who require therapeutic anticoagulation pose a difficult treatment problem. The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) the incidence of complications using therapeutic anticoagulation in trauma patients, and (2) if any patient factors are associated with these complications.", "An 18-month retrospective review was performed on trauma patients>or= 15 years old who received therapeutic anticoagulation using unfractionated heparin (UH) and/or fractionated heparin (FH). Forty different pre-treatment and treatment patient characteristics were recorded. Complications of anticoagulation were documented and defined as any unanticipated discontinuation of the anticoagulant for bleeding or other adverse events.", "One-hundred-fourteen trauma patients were initiated on therapeutic anticoagulation. The most common indication for anticoagulation was deep venous thrombosis (46%). Twenty-four patients (21%) had at least 1 anticoagulation complication. The most common complication was a sudden drop in hemoglobin concentration requiring blood transfusion (11 patients). Five patients died (4%), 3 of whom had significant hemorrhage attributed to anticoagulation. Bivariate followed by logistic regression analysis identified chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR = 9.2, 95%CI = 1.5-54.7), UH use (OR = 3.8, 95%CI = 1.1-13.0), and lower initial platelet count (OR = 1.004, 95%CI = 1.000-1.008) as being associated with complications. Patients receiving UH vs. FH differed in several characteristics including laboratory values and anticoagulation indications." ], "labels": [ "PURPOSE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Anticoagulants", "Cohort Studies", "Confidence Intervals", "Emergency Treatment", "Female", "Follow-Up Studies", "Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight", "Humans", "Injury Severity Score", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Odds Ratio", "Postoperative Care", "Preoperative Care", "Probability", "Retrospective Studies", "Risk Assessment", "Safety Management", "Survival Analysis", "Thromboembolism", "Thrombolytic Therapy", "Trauma Centers", "Treatment Outcome", "Warfarin", "Wounds and Injuries" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
Trauma patients have a significant complication rate related to anticoagulation therapy, and predicting which patients will develop a complication remains unclear. Prospective studies are needed to determine which treatment regimen, if any, is appropriate to safely anticoagulate this high risk population.
no
18,239,988
Differentiation of nonalcoholic from alcoholic steatohepatitis: are routine laboratory markers useful?
{ "contexts": [ "Specific markers for differentiation of nonalcoholic (NASH) from alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) are lacking. We investigated the role of routine laboratory parameters in distinguishing NASH from ASH.", "Liver biopsies performed at our hospital over a 10-year period were reviewed, 95 patients with steatohepatitis identified and their data prior to biopsy reevaluated. The diagnosis NASH or ASH was assigned (other liver diseases excluded) on the basis of the biopsy and history of alcohol consumption (<140 g/week). Logistic regression models were used for analysis.", "NASH was diagnosed in 58 patients (61%; 30 f) and ASH in 37 (39%; 9 f). High-grade fibrosis (59% vs. 19%, P<0.0001) and an AST/ALT ratio>1 (54.1% vs 20.7%, P = 0.0008) were more common in ASH. The MCV was elevated in 53% of ASH patients and normal in all NASH patients (P<0.0001). Multivariate analysis identified the MCV (P = 0.0013), the AST/ALT ratio (P = 0.011) and sex (P = 0.0029) as relevant regressors (aROC = 0.92). The AST/ALT ratio (P<0.0001) and age (P = 0.00049) were independent predictors of high-grade fibrosis. Differences in MCV were more marked in high-grade fibrosis." ], "labels": [ "AIMS", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Adult", "Aged", "Alanine Transaminase", "Aspartate Aminotransferases", "Biomarkers", "Biopsy", "Diagnosis, Differential", "Erythrocyte Indices", "Fatty Liver", "Fatty Liver, Alcoholic", "Female", "Humans", "Liver", "Liver Cirrhosis", "Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic", "Liver Function Tests", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Predictive Value of Tests", "Retrospective Studies" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
Higher MCVs and AST/ALT ratios in ASH reflect the severity of underlying liver disease and do not differentiate NASH from ASH. Instead, these biomarkers might prove useful in guiding selection of patients for liver biopsy and in targeting therapy.
yes
25,957,366
Prompting Primary Care Providers about Increased Patient Risk As a Result of Family History: Does It Work?
{ "contexts": [ "Electronic health records have the potential to facilitate family history use by primary care physicians (PCPs) to provide personalized care. The objective of this study was to determine whether automated, at-the-visit tailored prompts about family history risk change PCP behavior.", "Automated, tailored prompts highlighting familial risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and breast, colorectal, or ovarian cancer were implemented during 2011 to 2012. Medical records of a cohort of community-based primary care patients, aged 35 to 65 years, who previously participated in our Family Healthware study and had a moderate or strong familial risk for any of the 6 diseases were subsequently reviewed. The main outcome measures were PCP response to the prompts, adding family history risk to problem summary lists, and patient screening status for each disease.", "The 492 eligible patients had 847 visits during the study period; 152 visits had no documentation of response to a family history prompt. Of the remaining 695 visits, physician responses were reviewed family history (n = 372, 53.5%), discussed family history (n = 159, 22.9%), not addressed (n = 155, 22.3%), and reviewed family history and ordered tests/referrals (n = 5, 0.7%). There was no significant change in problem summary list documentation of risk status or screening interventions for any of the 6 diseases." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Aged", "Electronic Health Records", "Female", "Genetic Predisposition to Disease", "Heredity", "Humans", "Male", "Medical History Taking", "Middle Aged", "Practice Patterns, Physicians'", "Primary Health Care", "Prospective Studies", "Reminder Systems", "Risk Assessment", "Risk Factors" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
No change occurred upon instituting simple, at-the-visit family history prompts geared to improve PCPs' ability to identify patients at high risk for 6 common conditions. The results are both surprising and disappointing. Further studies should examine physicians' perception of the utility of prompts for family history risk.
no
24,866,606
Do emergency ultrasound fellowship programs impact emergency medicine residents' ultrasound education?
{ "contexts": [ "Recent years have seen a rapid proliferation of emergency ultrasound (EUS) programs in the United States. To date, there is no evidence supporting that EUS fellowships enhance residents' ultrasound (US) educational experiences. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of EUS fellowships on emergency medicine (EM) residents' US education.", "We conducted a cross-sectional study at 9 academic medical centers. A questionnaire on US education and bedside US use was pilot tested and given to EM residents. The primary outcomes included the number of US examinations performed, scope of bedside US applications, barriers to residents' US education, and US use in the emergency department. The secondary outcomes were factors that would impact residents' US education. The outcomes were compared between residency programs with and without EUS fellowships.", "A total of 244 EM residents participated in this study. Thirty percent (95% confidence interval, 24%-35%) reported they had performed more than 150 scans. Residents in programs with EUS fellowships reported performing more scans than those in programs without fellowships (P = .04). Significant differences were noted in most applications of bedside US between residency programs with and without fellowships (P<.05). There were also significant differences in the barriers to US education between residency programs with and without fellowships (P<.05)." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVES", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Attitude of Health Personnel", "Clinical Competence", "Educational Measurement", "Emergency Medicine", "Fellowships and Scholarships", "Internship and Residency", "Radiology", "Ultrasonography", "United States" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Emergency US fellowship programs had a positive impact on residents' US educational experiences. Emergency medicine residents performed more scans overall and also used bedside US for more advanced applications in programs with EUS fellowships.
yes
26,578,404
Patient-Controlled Therapy of Breathlessness in Palliative Care: A New Therapeutic Concept for Opioid Administration?
{ "contexts": [ "Breathlessness is one of the most distressing symptoms experienced by patients with advanced cancer and noncancer diagnoses alike. Often, severity of breathlessness increases quickly, calling for rapid symptom control. Oral, buccal, and parenteral routes of provider-controlled drug administration have been described. It is unclear whether patient-controlled therapy (PCT) systems would be an additional treatment option.", "To investigate whether intravenous opioid PCT can be an effective therapeutic method to reduce breathlessness in patients with advanced disease. Secondary aims were to study the feasibility and acceptance of opioid PCT in patients with refractory breathlessness.", "This was a pilot observational study with 18 inpatients with advanced disease and refractory breathlessness receiving opioid PCT. Breathlessness was measured on a self-reported numeric rating scale. Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale scores, Palliative Performance Scale scores, vital signs, and a self-developed patient satisfaction questionnaire were used for measuring secondary outcomes. Descriptive and interference analyses (Friedman test) and post hoc analyses (Wilcoxon tests and Bonferroni corrections) were performed.", "Eighteen of 815 patients (advanced cancer; median age = 57.5 years [range 36-81]; 77.8% female) received breathlessness symptom control with opioid PCT; daily morphine equivalent dose at Day 1 was median = 20.3 mg (5.0-49.6 mg); Day 2: 13.0 mg (1.0-78.5 mg); Day 3: 16.0 mg (8.3-47.0 mg). Numeric rating scale of current breathlessness decreased (baseline: median = 5 [range 1-10]; Day 1: median = 4 [range 0-8], P < 0.01; Day 2: median = 4 [range 0-5], P < 0.01). Physiological parameters were stable over time. On Day 3, 12/12 patients confirmed that this mode of application provided relief of breathlessness." ], "labels": [ "CONTEXT", "OBJECTIVES", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Administration, Intravenous", "Adult", "Aged", "Aged, 80 and over", "Analgesia, Patient-Controlled", "Analgesics, Opioid", "Dyspnea", "Feasibility Studies", "Female", "Humans", "Longitudinal Studies", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Neoplasms", "Palliative Care", "Patient Satisfaction", "Prospective Studies", "Self Report", "Severity of Illness Index" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Opioid PCT is a feasible and acceptable therapeutic method to reduce refractory breathlessness in palliative care patients.
yes
11,729,377
Is there still a need for living-related liver transplantation in children?
{ "contexts": [ "To assess and compare the value of split-liver transplantation (SLT) and living-related liver transplantation (LRT).", "The concept of SLT results from the development of reduced-size transplantation. A further development of SLT, the in situ split technique, is derived from LRT, which itself marks the optimized outcome in terms of postoperative graft function and survival. The combination of SLT and LRT has abolished deaths on the waiting list, thus raising the question whether living donor liver transplantation is still necessary.", "Outcomes and postoperative liver function of 43 primary LRT patients were compared with those of 49 primary SLT patients (14 ex situ, 35 in situ) with known graft weight performed between April 1996 and December 2000. Survival rates were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method.", "After a median follow-up of 35 months, actual patient survival rates were 82% in the SLT group and 88% in the LRT group. Actual graft survival rates were 76% and 81%, respectively. The incidence of primary nonfunction was 12% in the SLT group and 2.3% in the LRT group. Liver function parameters (prothrombin time, factor V, bilirubin clearance) and surgical complication rates did not differ significantly. In the SLT group, mean cold ischemic time was longer than in the LRT group. Serum values of alanine aminotransferase during the first postoperative week were significantly higher in the SLT group. In the LRT group, there were more grafts with signs of fatty degeneration than in the SLT group." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Child", "Child, Preschool", "Fatty Liver", "Female", "Graft Survival", "Humans", "Immunosuppressive Agents", "Infant", "Liver", "Liver Transplantation", "Living Donors", "Male", "Postoperative Complications", "Reperfusion Injury", "Survival Rate" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
The short- and long-term outcomes after LRT and SLT did not differ significantly. To avoid the risk for the donor in LRT, SLT represents the first-line therapy in pediatric liver transplantation in countries where cadaveric organs are available. LRT provides a solution for urgent cases in which a cadaveric graft cannot be found in time or if the choice of the optimal time point for transplantation is vital.
yes
17,096,624
Do patterns of knowledge and attitudes exist among unvaccinated seniors?
{ "contexts": [ "To examine patterns of knowledge and attitudes among adults aged>65 years unvaccinated for influenza.", "Surveyed Medicare beneficiaries in 5 areas; clustered unvaccinated seniors by their immunization related knowledge and attitudes.", "Identified 4 clusters: Potentials (45%) would receive influenza vaccine to prevent disease; Fearful Uninformeds (9%) were unsure if influenza vaccine causes illness; Doubters (27%) were unsure if vaccine is efficacious; Misinformeds (19%) believed influenza vaccine causes illness. More Potentials (75%) and Misinformeds (70%) ever received influenza vaccine than did Fearful Uninformeds (18%) and Doubters (29%)." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Aged", "Aged, 80 and over", "Female", "Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice", "Humans", "Immunization Programs", "Influenza A virus", "Influenza, Human", "Interviews as Topic", "Male", "United States" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Findings suggest that cluster analyses may be useful in identifying groups for targeted health messages.
yes
22,694,248
Is there a model to teach and practice retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy?
{ "contexts": [ "Although the retroperitoneal approach has been the preferred choice for open urological procedures, retroperitoneoscopy is not the preferred approach for laparoscopy. This study aims to develop a training model for retroperitoneoscopy and to establish an experimental learning curve.", "Fifteen piglets were operated on to develop a standard retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy (RPN) training model. All procedures were performed with three ports. Intraoperative data (side, operative time, blood loss, peritoneal opening) were recorded. Animals were divided into groups A, the first eight, and B, the last seven cases. Data were statistically analyzed.", "We performed fifteen RPNs. The operative time varied from 15 to 50 minutes (median 30 minutes). Blood loss varied from 5 to 100 mL (median 20 mL). We experienced five peritoneal openings; we had two surgical vascular complications managed laparoscopically. There was statistical difference between groups A and B for peritoneal opening (p = 0.025), operative time (p = 0.0037), and blood loss (p = 0.026).", "RPN in a porcine model could simulate the whole procedure, from creating the space to nephrectomy completion. Experimental learning curve was eight cases, after statistical data analysis." ], "labels": [ "INTRODUCTION", "MATERIAL AND METHODS", "RESULTS", "DISCUSSION" ], "meshes": [ "Animals", "Blood Loss, Surgical", "Feasibility Studies", "Laparoscopy", "Models, Animal", "Nephrectomy", "Operative Time", "Retroperitoneal Space", "Swine" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
RPN in a porcine model is feasible and could be very useful for teaching and practicing retroperitoneoscopy.
yes
22,990,761
Cardiovascular risk in a rural adult West African population: is resting heart rate also relevant?
{ "contexts": [ "Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is a neglected marker in cardiovascular risk factor studies of sub-Saharan African populations. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of elevated RHR and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to investigate any associations between RHR and these risk factors in a rural population in Ghana.", "Cross-sectional analysis.", "A total of 574 adults aged between 18-65 years were randomly sampled from a population register. Data collected included those on sociodemographic variables and anthropometric, blood pressure (BP), and RHR measurements. Within-person variability in RHR was calculated using data from repeat measurements taken 2 weeks apart.", "Of study participants, 36% were male. Prevalence of casual high BP was 19%. In the population, 10% were current cigarette smokers and habitual alcohol use was high at 56%. As measured by body mass index, 2% were obese and 14% had abdominal obesity. RHR was elevated (>90 bpm) in 19%. Overall, 79% of study participants were found to have at least one CVD risk factor. RHR was significantly associated with age, waist circumference, and BP. Individuals with an elevated RHR had a higher risk (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.15-3.26%, p = 0.013) of casual high BP compared with participants with normal RHR independently of several established CVD risk factors. The regression dilution ratio of RHR was 0.75 (95% CI 0.62-0.89)." ], "labels": [ "INTRODUCTION", "DESIGN", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Adult", "Aged", "Asian Continental Ancestry Group", "Cardiovascular Diseases", "Comorbidity", "Cross-Sectional Studies", "Female", "Ghana", "Health Surveys", "Heart Rate", "Humans", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Prevalence", "Risk Assessment", "Risk Factors", "Rural Health", "Young Adult" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Significant associations were observed between RHR and several established cardiovascular risk factors. Prospective studies are needed in sub-Saharan African populations to establish the potential value of RHR in cardiovascular risk assessment.
yes
19,394,934
Israeli hospital preparedness for terrorism-related multiple casualty incidents: can the surge capacity and injury severity distribution be better predicted?
{ "contexts": [ "The incidence of large-scale urban attacks on civilian populations has significantly increased across the globe over the past decade. These incidents often result in Hospital Multiple Casualty Incidents (HMCI), which are very challenging to hospital teams. 15 years ago the Emergency and Disaster Medicine Division in the Israeli Ministry of Health defined a key of 20 percent of each hospital's bed capacity as its readiness for multiple casualties. Half of those casualties are expected to require immediate medical treatment. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the current readiness guidelines based on the epidemiology of encountered HMCIs.", "A retrospective study of HMCIs was recorded in the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) home front command and the Israeli National Trauma Registry (ITR) between November 2000 and June 2003. An HMCI is defined by the Emergency and Disaster Medicine Division in the Israeli Ministry of Health as>or=10 casualties or>or=4 suffering from injuries with an ISS>or=16 arriving to a single hospital.", "The study includes a total of 32 attacks, resulting in 62 HMCIs and 1292 casualties. The mean number of arriving casualties to a single hospital was 20.8+/-13.3 (range 4-56, median 16.5). In 95% of the HMCIs the casualty load was<or=52. Based on severity scores and ED discharges 1022 (79.2%) casualties did not necessitate immediate medical treatment." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Disaster Planning", "Emergency Service, Hospital", "Health Resources", "Hospitalization", "Humans", "Israel", "Mass Casualty Incidents", "Registries", "Retrospective Studies", "Risk Assessment", "Risk Management", "Surge Capacity", "Terrorism", "Trauma Severity Indices", "Wounds and Injuries" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Hospital preparedness can be better defined by a fixed number of casualties rather than a percentile of its bed capacity. Only 20% of the arriving casualties will require immediate medical treatment. Implementation of this concept may improve the utilisation of national emergency health resources both in the preparation phase and on real time.
yes
11,481,599
Acute respiratory distress syndrome in children with malignancy--can we predict outcome?
{ "contexts": [ "The purpose of this study was to delineate early respiratory predictors of mortality in children with hemato-oncology malignancy who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).", "We conducted a retrospective chart review of children with malignant and ARDS who needed mechanical ventilation and were admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit from January 1987 to January 1997.", "Seventeen children with ARDS and malignancy aged 10.5 +/- 5.1 years were identified. Six of the 17 children (35.3%) survived. Sepsis syndrome was present in 70.6% of all the children. Peak inspiratory pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and ventilation index values could distinguish outcome by day 3. A significant relationship between respiratory data and outcome related to efficiency of oxygenation, as determined by PaO(2)/FIO(2) and P(A-a)O(2), was present from day 8 after onset of mechanical ventilation." ], "labels": [ "PURPOSE", "MATERIALS AND METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Analysis of Variance", "Child", "Child, Preschool", "Female", "Humans", "Leukemia", "Lymphoma", "Male", "Positive-Pressure Respiration", "Prognosis", "Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult", "Retrospective Studies" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Peak inspiratory pressure, PEEP, and ventilation index values could distinguish survivors from nonsurvivors by day 3. This may assist in early application of supportive nonconventional therapies in children with malignancy and ARDS.
yes
21,669,959
Secondhand smoke risk in infants discharged from an NICU: potential for significant health disparities?
{ "contexts": [ "Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) threatens fragile infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Smoking practices were examined in families with a high respiratory risk infant (born at very low birth weight; ventilated>12 hr) in a Houston, Texas, NICU. Socioeconomic status, race, and mental health status were hypothesized to be related to SHSe and household smoking bans.", "Data were collected as part of The Baby's Breath Project, a hospital-based SHSe intervention trial targeting parents with a high-risk infant in the NICU who reported a smoker in the household (N = 99). Measures of sociodemographics, smoking, home and car smoking bans, and depression were collected.", "Overall, 26% of all families with a high-risk infant in the NICU reported a household smoker. Almost half of the families with a smoker reported an annual income of less than $25,000. 46.2% of families reported having a total smoking ban in place in both their homes and cars. Only 27.8% families earning less than $25,000 reported having a total smoking ban in place relative to almost 60% of families earning more (p<.01). African American and Caucasian families were less likely to have a smoking ban compared with Hispanics (p<.05). Mothers who reported no smoking ban were more depressed than those who had a household smoking ban (p<.02)." ], "labels": [ "INTRODUCTION", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "African Americans", "Air Pollution, Indoor", "Asian Continental Ancestry Group", "Caregivers", "Depression", "Environmental Exposure", "European Continental Ancestry Group", "Family Characteristics", "Female", "Follow-Up Studies", "Healthcare Disparities", "Hispanic Americans", "Humans", "Infant", "Infant, Newborn", "Intensive Care Units, Neonatal", "Male", "Prevalence", "Risk", "Risk Reduction Behavior", "Smoking", "Socioeconomic Factors", "Texas", "Tobacco Smoke Pollution" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
The most disadvantaged families were least likely to have protective health behaviors in place to reduce SHSe and, consequently, are most at-risk for tobacco exposure and subsequent tobacco-related health disparities. Innovative SHSe interventions for this vulnerable population are sorely needed.
yes
23,806,388
Do nomograms designed to predict biochemical recurrence (BCR) do a better job of predicting more clinically relevant prostate cancer outcomes than BCR?
{ "contexts": [ "To examine the ability of various postoperative nomograms to predict prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and to validate that they could predict aggressive biochemical recurrence (BCR). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), grade, and stage are the classic triad used to predict BCR after radical prostatectomy (RP). Multiple nomograms use these to predict risk of BCR. A previous study showed that several nomograms could predict aggressive BCR (prostate-specific antigen doubling time [PSADT] <9 months) more accurately than BCR. However, it remains unknown if they can predict more definitive endpoints, such as PCSM.", "We performed Cox analyses to examine the ability of 4 postoperative nomograms, the Duke Prostate Center (DPC) nomogram, the Kattan postoperative nomogram, the Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) nomogram, and the joint Center for Prostate Disease Research(CPDR)/Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE) nomogram to predict BCR and PCSM among 1778 men in the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database who underwent RP between 1990 and 2009. We also compared their ability to predict BCR and aggressive BCR in a subset of men. We calculated the c-index for each nomogram to determine its predictive accuracy for estimating actual outcomes.", "We found that each nomogram could predict aggressive BCR and PCSM in a statistically significant manner and that they all predicted PCSM more accurately than they predicted BCR (ie, with higher c-index values)." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Aged", "Humans", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Neoplasm Grading", "Neoplasm Recurrence, Local", "Neoplasm Staging", "Nomograms", "Predictive Value of Tests", "Proportional Hazards Models", "Prostate-Specific Antigen", "Prostatectomy", "Prostatic Neoplasms", "Time Factors" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Currently available nomograms used to predict BCR accurately predict PCSM and other more clinically relevant endpoints. Moreover, not only do they significantly predict PCSM, but do so with generally greater accuracy than BCR.
yes
17,919,952
Are reports of mechanical dysfunction in chronic oro-facial pain related to somatisation?
{ "contexts": [ "(i) To examine the association between self-reported mechanical factors and chronic oro-facial pain. (ii) To test the hypothesis that this relationship could be explained by: (a) reporting of psychological factors, (b) common association of self-reported mechanical factors with other unexplained syndromes.", "A population based cross-sectional study of 4200 randomly selected adults registered with a General Medical Practice in North West, England. The study examined the association of chronic oro-facial pain with a variety of self-reported mechanical factors: teeth grinding, facial trauma, missing teeth and the feeling that the teeth did not fit together properly. Information was also collected on demographic factors, psychological factors and the reporting of other frequently unexplained syndromes.", "An adjusted response rate of 72% was achieved. Only two mechanical factors: teeth grinding (odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.0) and facial trauma (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.3-2.9) were independently associated with chronic oro-facial pain after adjusting for psychological factors. However, these factors were also commonly associated with the reporting of other frequently unexplained syndromes: teeth grinding (odds ratio (OR) 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.2), facial trauma (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.7-2.6)." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVES", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Adult", "Aged", "Bruxism", "Chronic Disease", "Cross-Sectional Studies", "Facial Injuries", "Facial Pain", "Female", "Humans", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Mouth, Edentulous", "Multivariate Analysis", "Prevalence", "Stress, Mechanical", "Surveys and Questionnaires" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
Self-reported mechanical factors associated with chronic oro-facial pain are confounded, in part, by psychological factors and are equally common across other frequently unexplained syndromes. They may represent another feature of somatisation. Therefore the use of extensive invasive therapy such as occlusal adjustments and surgery to change mechanical factors may not be justified in many cases.
yes
10,966,943
Amblyopia: is visual loss permanent?
{ "contexts": [ "The records of 465 patients with an established diagnosis of age related macular degeneration who had attended a specialist macular clinic between 1990 and 1998 were scrutinised. A full clinical examination and standardised refraction had been carried out in 189 of these cases on a minimum of two occasions. Cases were looked for where an improvement of one or more lines of either distance or near acuity was recorded in the eye unaffected by macular disease. In each one of these cases the improvement in visual acuity could not be attributed to treatment of other existing pathology.", "12 such cases were detected. In nine of these the eye showing improvement of acuity had a history of amblyopia. The mean improvement in distance and near acuity in amblyopic eyes by 12 months was 3.3 and 1.9 lines logMAR respectively. The improvement in acuity generally occurred between 1 and 12 months from baseline and remained stable over the period of follow up." ], "labels": [ "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Amblyopia", "Distance Perception", "Female", "Follow-Up Studies", "Humans", "Macular Degeneration", "Male", "Neuronal Plasticity", "Retrospective Studies", "Visual Acuity" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
Older people with a history of amblyopia who develop visual loss in the previously normal eye can experience recovery of visual function in the amblyopic eye over a period of time. This recovery in visual function occurs in the wake of visual loss in the fellow eye and the improvement appears to be sustained.
no
23,690,198
Implementation of epidural analgesia for labor: is the standard of effective analgesia reachable in all women?
{ "contexts": [ "Social and cultural factors combined with little information may prevent the diffusion of epidural analgesia for pain relief during childbirth. The present study was launched contemporarily to the implementation of analgesia for labor in our Department in order to perform a 2 years audit on its use. The goal is to evaluate the epidural acceptance and penetration into hospital practice by women and care givers and safety and efficacy during childbirth.", "This audit cycle measured epidural analgesia performance against 4 standards: (1) Implementation of epidural analgesia for labor to all patients; (2) Acceptance and good satisfaction level reported by patients and caregivers. (3) Effectiveness of labor analgesia; (4) No maternal or fetal side effects.", "During the audit period epidural analgesia increased from 15.5% of all labors in the first trimester of the study to 51% in the last trimester (p<0.005). Satisfaction levels reported by patients and care givers were good. A hierarchical clustering analysis identified two clusters based on VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) time course: in 226 patients (cluster 1) VAS decreased from 8.5±1.4 before to 4.1±1.3 after epidural analgesia; in 1002 patients (cluster 2) VAS decreased from 8.12±1.7 before (NS vs cluster 1), to 0.76±0.79 after (p<0.001 vs before and vs cluster 2 after). No other differences between clusters were observed." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "PATIENTS AND METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Analgesia, Epidural", "Analgesia, Obstetrical", "Apgar Score", "Cesarean Section", "Cluster Analysis", "Female", "Hemodynamics", "Humans", "Infant, Newborn", "Pain Measurement", "Parity", "Patient Safety", "Patient Satisfaction", "Pregnancy" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Present audit shows that the process of implementation of labor analgesia was quick, successful and safe, notwithstanding the identification of one cluster of women with suboptimal response to epidural analgesia that need to be further studies, overall pregnant womens'adhesion to labor analgesia was satisfactory.
yes
17,940,352
Does HER2 immunoreactivity provide prognostic information in locally advanced urothelial carcinoma patients receiving adjuvant M-VEC chemotherapy?
{ "contexts": [ "To evaluate the impact of HER2 immunoreactivity on clinical outcome in locally advanced urothelial carcinoma patients who received surgery alone, or methotrexate, vinblastine, epirubicin, and cisplatin (M-VEC) as adjuvant chemotherapy.", "We studied 114 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens obtained from locally advanced urothelial carcinoma patients receiving surgery alone or adjuvant M-VEC. The authors evaluated HER2 immunoreactivity using immunohistochemical staining and explored the influence of pathological parameters and HER2 immunoreactivity on progression-free survival (PFS) and disease-specific overall survival (OS) using univariate and multivariate Cox's analyses.", "Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder had a significantly higher frequency of HER2 immunoreactivity than that of the upper urinary tract (60.7 vs. 20.7%, p<0.0001). Overall, nodal status was a strong and independent prognostic indicator for clinical outcome. The HER2 immunoreactivity was significantly associated with PFS (p = 0.02) and disease-specific OS (p = 0.005) in advanced urothelial carcinoma patients. As for patients with adjuvant M-VEC, HER2 immunoreactivity was a significant prognostic factor for PFS (p = 0.03) and disease-specific OS (p = 0.02) using univariate analysis, but not multivariate analysis, and not for patients receiving watchful waiting." ], "labels": [ "INTRODUCTION", "MATERIALS AND METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Aged", "Aged, 80 and over", "Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols", "Carcinoma", "Chemotherapy, Adjuvant", "Cisplatin", "Disease-Free Survival", "Epirubicin", "Female", "Follow-Up Studies", "Humans", "Immunohistochemistry", "Lymphatic Metastasis", "Male", "Methotrexate", "Middle Aged", "Proportional Hazards Models", "Receptor, ErbB-2", "Time Factors", "Treatment Outcome", "Urinary Bladder Neoplasms", "Urothelium", "Vinblastine" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ] }
HER2 immunoreactivity might have a limited prognostic value for advanced urothelial carcinoma patients with adjuvant M-VEC.
maybe
20,537,205
Is halofantrine ototoxic?
{ "contexts": [ "Halofantrine is a newly developed antimalarial drug used for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The introduction of this drug has been delayed because of its possible side effects, and due to insufficient studies on adverse reactions in humans. There have been no studies investigating its effect on hearing.", "Thirty guinea pigs were divided into three groups: a control group, a halofantrine therapeutic dose group and a halofantrine double therapeutic dose group. One cochlea specimen from each animal was stained with haematoxylin and eosin and the other with toluidine blue.", "No changes were detected in the control group. The halofantrine therapeutic dose group showed loss and distortion of inner hair cells and inner phalangeal cells, and loss of spiral ganglia cells. In the halofantrine double therapeutic dose group, the inner and outer hair cells were distorted and there was loss of spiral ganglia cells." ], "labels": [ "INTRODUCTION", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Animals", "Antimalarials", "Cochlea", "Dose-Response Relationship, Drug", "Guinea Pigs", "Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer", "Phenanthrenes", "Staining and Labeling" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Halofantrine has mild to moderate pathological effects on cochlea histology, and can be considered an ototoxic drug.
yes
28,707,539
Visceral adipose tissue area measurement at a single level: can it represent visceral adipose tissue volume?
{ "contexts": [ "Measurement of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) needs to be accurate and sensitive to change for risk monitoring. The purpose of this study is to determine the CT slice location where VAT area can best reflect changes in VAT volume and body weight.", "60 plain abdominal CT images from 30 males [mean age (range) 51 (41-68) years, mean body weight (range) 71.1 (101.9-50.9) kg] who underwent workplace screenings twice within a 1-year interval were evaluated. Automatically calculated and manually corrected areas of the VAT of various scan levels using \"freeform curve\" region of interest on CT were recorded and compared with body weight changes.", "The strongest correlations of VAT area with VAT volume and body weight changes were shown in a slice 3 cm above the lower margin of L3 with r values of 0.853 and 0.902, respectively." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Abdomen", "Adult", "Aged", "Humans", "Intra-Abdominal Fat", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Multidetector Computed Tomography", "Reproducibility of Results", "Retrospective Studies" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
VAT area measurement at a single level 3 cm above the lower margin of the L3 vertebra is feasible and can reflect changes in VAT volume and body weight. Advances in knowledge: As VAT area at a CT slice 3cm above the lower margin of L3 can best reflect interval changes in VAT volume and body weight, VAT area measurement should be selected at this location.
yes
7,482,275
Necrotizing fasciitis: an indication for hyperbaric oxygenation therapy?
{ "contexts": [ "The accepted treatment protocol for necrotizing fasciitis (NF) consists of extensive surgery and wide spectrum antibiotics. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been recommended as adjuvant therapy for NF, improving patient mortality and outcome. However, the beneficial effect of HBO for NF remains controversial.", "A retrospective evaluation of treatment outcome in 37 patients treated for NF between 1984 and 1993 was carried out. The mortality rate, morbidity criteria, and risk factors for grave prognosis were compared between a group of 25 patients who received HBO as part of their treatment protocol and a group of the remaining 12 patients treated by surgical excision and antibiotics alone.", "The two groups were found to be similar with regard to age, gender, the incidence of individual risk factors for ominous prognosis, and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score for disease's severity on presentation. The mortality rate among the HBO-treated patients was 36%, as opposed to 25% in the non-HBO group. The mean number of surgical débridements required per patient was significantly higher in the HBO group: 3.3 compared with 1.5 in the non-HBO-treated patients. Although the average length of hospitalization for survivors was shorter for the HBO group, the difference between the groups did not reach statistical significance." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Adult", "Aged", "Aged, 80 and over", "Fasciitis, Necrotizing", "Female", "Humans", "Hyperbaric Oxygenation", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Retrospective Studies" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
The results of this study cast doubt on the suggested advantage of HBO in reducing patient mortality and morbidity when used as adjuvant therapy for NF.
no
24,183,388
Is the Hawkins sign able to predict necrosis in fractures of the neck of the astragalus?
{ "contexts": [ "To assess if the Hawkins sign can predict whether or not astragalus fractures of the neck will develop avascular necrosis. It is also assessed whether the occurrence of this complication is related to the displacement of the fracture, soft tissue injury, or delay in the reduction or surgery. The results were compared with those found in the literature.", "A retrospective study was conducted on 23 talar neck fractures recorded over a a period of thirteen years. The following variables were analysed: displacement of the fracture, soft tissue injury, delay and type of treatment, complications, observation of the Hawkins sign, and functional outcome.", "There were 7 type I Hawkins fractures, 11 type II, and 4 type III and 1 type IV. Four cases developed avascular necrosis (2 Hawkins type II and 2 type III). Hawkins sign was observed in 12 cases, of which none developed necrosis. Four cases with negative Hawkins sign developed necrosis. No statistically significant differences were found when comparing the development of avascular necrosis with the displacement of the fracture, soft tissue injury, or delay in treatment. Differences were found when comparing the development of avascular necrosis with the Hawkins sign (P=.03)." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "MATERIAL AND METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Adult", "Child", "Child, Preschool", "Female", "Fractures, Bone", "Humans", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Osteonecrosis", "Prognosis", "Retrospective Studies", "Talus", "Young Adult" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ] }
A positive Hawkins sign rules out that the fractured talus has developed avascular necrosis, but its absence does not confirm it.
maybe
9,645,785
Is a mandatory general surgery rotation necessary in the surgical clerkship?
{ "contexts": [ "Changes in the spectrum of general surgery and the delivery of surgical care have placed the requirement for a mandatory general surgery rotation in the surgical clerkship in question.", "We tested the hypothesis that equal mastery of surgical clerkship objectives can be obtained in a clerkship with and without general surgery. Students chose any two surgical rotations and were assessed by written examination, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), ward evaluations, self-assessment objectives questionnaire, and satisfaction survey.", "Data for 54 students showed no differences in scores between groups on any parameter. No specific concerns related to the absence of general surgery were identified." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Attitude", "Clinical Clerkship", "Educational Measurement", "General Surgery", "Humans", "Medicine", "Specialization", "Students, Medical" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
Effective undergraduate surgical education can be offered in many specialty settings. Removal of the requirement for general surgery in clerkship may lead to a more effective use of all educational opportunities. A careful analysis of local programs and facilities is necessary before suggesting this change to other institutions.
no
26,298,839
Is Acupuncture Efficacious for Treating Phonotraumatic Vocal Pathologies?
{ "contexts": [ "To investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating phonotraumatic vocal fold lesions.STUDY DESIGN/", "A total of 123 dysphonic individuals with benign vocal pathologies were recruited. They were given either genuine acupuncture (n = 40), sham acupuncture (n = 44), or no treatment (n = 39) for 6 weeks (two 30-minute sessions/wk). The genuine acupuncture group received needles puncturing nine voice-related acupoints for 30 minutes, two times a week for 6 weeks, whereas the sham acupuncture group received blunted needles stimulating the skin surface of the nine acupoints for the same frequency and duration. The no-treatment group did not receive any intervention but attended just the assessment sessions. One-hundred seventeen subjects completed the study (genuine acupuncture = 40; sham acupuncture = 43; and no treatment = 34), but only 84 of them had a complete set of vocal functions and quality of life measures (genuine acupuncture = 29; sham acupuncture = 33; and no-treatment = 22) and 42 of them with a complete set of endoscopic data (genuine acupuncture = 16; sham acupuncture = 15; and no treatment = 11).", "Significant improvement in vocal function, as indicated by the maximum fundamental frequency produced, and also perceived quality of life, were found in both the genuine and sham acupuncture groups, but not in the no-treatment group. Structural (morphological) improvements were, however, only noticed in the genuine acupuncture group, which demonstrated a significant reduction in the size of the vocal fold lesions." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVES", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Acoustics", "Acupuncture Therapy", "Adult", "Dysphonia", "Female", "Hong Kong", "Humans", "Laryngoscopy", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Quality of Life", "Recovery of Function", "Speech Production Measurement", "Stroboscopy", "Surveys and Questionnaires", "Time Factors", "Treatment Outcome", "Video Recording", "Vocal Cords", "Voice Quality", "Wound Healing", "Young Adult" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
The findings showed that acupuncture of voice-related acupoints could bring about improvement in vocal function and healing of vocal fold lesions.
yes
24,153,338
Is aneurysm repair justified for the patients aged 80 or older after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage?
{ "contexts": [ "With the advancement of an aging society in the world, an increasing number of elderly patients have been hospitalized due to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). There is no study that compares the elderly cases of aSAH who receive the definitive treatment with those who treated conservatively. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the definitive surgery for the acute subarachnoid cases aged 80 or older.", "We reviewed 500 consecutive cases with acute aSAH with surgical indication for aneurysm repair. Inoperable cases such as dead-on-arrival and the cases with both pupils dilated were excluded. We compared the cases aged 80 or older that received clipping or coil embolization with the controls that the family selected conservative treatment.", "69 cases were included in this study (ranged 80-98, male:female=9:60). 56 cases (81.2%) had an aneurysm in the anterior circulation. 23 cases received clipping, 20 cases coil embolization and 26 cases treated conservatively. The cases with aneurysm repair showed significantly better clinical outcome than the controls, while World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grade on admission and premorbid modified Rankin Scale showed no difference between them." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Aged, 80 and over", "Aneurysm, Ruptured", "Cerebrovascular Circulation", "Cohort Studies", "Embolization, Therapeutic", "Female", "Humans", "Male", "Neurosurgical Procedures", "Prognosis", "Retrospective Studies", "Subarachnoid Hemorrhage", "Treatment Outcome" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Better prognosis was obtained when ruptured aneurysm was repaired in the elderly than it was treated conservatively. From the results of this study, we should not hesitate to offer the definitive surgery for the elderly with aSAH.
yes
18,534,072
Do general practice characteristics influence uptake of an information technology (IT) innovation in primary care?
{ "contexts": [ "Recent evaluations of IT innovations in primary care have highlighted variations between centres and practices in uptake and use. We evaluated whether structural characteristics of a general practice were associated with variations in use of a web-based clinical information system underpinning a Managed Clinical Network in diabetes, between the years 2001 and 2003.", "Using a computerised audit trail, we calculated the numbers of web-based operations that occurred in each practice, stratified by staff type and year, and adjusted for the numbers of registered diabetic patients. In regression analyses, we determined whether total use was associated with structural characteristics of the practice (total list size, training status, numbers of GPs (general practitioners), mean age of the GPs, numbers of female GPs, level of deprivation of the population and whether staff had received advanced training in diabetes care).", "Initially there were a few practices which made very frequent use of the information system, with relatively high numbers of practices using the facility infrequently. However, overall use gradually became more evenly spread. This effect was particularly evident among nurse users. Frequent use by GPs was evident in only a small number of practices, with mean GP use decreasing over the three years. In linear regression analyses, none of the general practice variables were associated with online use, either overall or stratified by staff type, except for the numbers of diabetes-educated staff. This was consistently associated with increased use by nurses and GPs." ], "labels": [ "INTRODUCTION", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Age Factors", "Diabetes Mellitus", "Diffusion of Innovation", "Disease Management", "Family Practice", "Humans", "Information Systems", "Internet", "Sex Factors", "Socioeconomic Factors", "Time Factors" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
The analyses show that structural characteristics of a practice are not associated with uptake of a new IT facility, but that its use may be influenced by post-graduate education in the relevant clinical condition. For this diabetes system at least, practice nurse use was critical in spreading uptake beyond initial GP enthusiasts and for sustained and rising use in subsequent years.
no
8,847,047
Prognosis of well differentiated small hepatocellular carcinoma--is well differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma clinically early cancer?
{ "contexts": [ "The purpose of this study is to examine whether or not well differentiated (w-d) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is indeed clinically early cancer.", "Seventy six patients with solitary small HCCs up to 3 cm in diameter, who underwent hepatectomy, were observed for at least 2 years for possible recurrence. These patients were divided into two groups: 10 patients with w-d HCCs (Edmondson and Steiner's grade I) and 66 patients with less differentiated (l-d) HCCs (Edmondson and Steiner's grade I-II, II-III, and III).", "The histological analysis revealed that w-d HCCs had lower incidences of fibrous capsule formation (P<0.01), when compared to l-d HCCs. There were no significant differences in the incidence of intrahepatic metastasis, or portal vein invasion. In a resected specimen of w-d HCC, barium sulfate and gelatin were injected into portal vein and a transparent specimen was made. The transparent specimen showed that the portal vein in the tumor seemed to be intact. Microscopically, cancer cell infiltration into the fibrous frame of the portal tract was present. There were no significant differences in the disease free survival between the two groups. An analysis of tumor volume doubling time in recurrent foci suggested that minute cancerous foci had been present at the time of operation." ], "labels": [ "AIMS", "MATERIALS AND METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Carcinoma, Hepatocellular", "Case-Control Studies", "Disease-Free Survival", "Female", "Follow-Up Studies", "Hepatectomy", "Humans", "Incidence", "Liver", "Liver Neoplasms", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Neoplasm Invasiveness", "Neoplasm Recurrence, Local", "Portal Vein", "Prognosis", "Time Factors" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
W-d HCCs were clinically demonstrated not to be early cancer, because there was no significant difference in disease free survival between the patients with w-d and l-d HCCs.
no
10,575,390
Do follow-up recommendations for abnormal Papanicolaou smears influence patient adherence?
{ "contexts": [ "To compare adherence to follow-up recommendations for colposcopy or repeated Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for women with previously abnormal Pap smear results.", "Retrospective cohort study.", "Three northern California family planning clinics.", "All women with abnormal Pap smear results referred for initial colposcopy and a random sample of those referred for repeated Pap smear. Medical records were located and reviewed for 90 of 107 women referred for colposcopy and 153 of 225 women referred for repeated Pap smears.", "Routine clinic protocols for follow-up--telephone call, letter, or certified letter--were applied without regard to the type of abnormality seen on a Pap smear or recommended examination.", "Documented adherence to follow-up within 8 months of an abnormal result. Attempts to contact the patients for follow-up, adherence to follow-up recommendations, and patient characteristics were abstracted from medical records. The probability of adherence to follow-up vs the number of follow-up attempts was modeled with survival analysis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine multivariate relationships related to adherence.", "The rate of overall adherence to follow-up recommendations was 56.0% (136/243). Adherence to a second colposcopy was not significantly different from that to a repeated Pap smear (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-2.46). The use of as many as 3 patient reminders substantially improved adherence to follow-up. Women without insurance and women attending 1 of the 3 clinics were less likely to adhere to any follow-up recommendation (hazard ratio for no insurance, 0.43 [95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.93], and for clinic, 0.35 [95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.73])." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "DESIGN", "SETTING", "PATIENTS", "INTERVENTION", "MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Adult", "Aged", "Cervix Uteri", "Colposcopy", "Female", "Humans", "Middle Aged", "Papanicolaou Test", "Patient Compliance", "Retrospective Studies", "Uterine Cervical Neoplasms", "Vaginal Smears" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
Adherence to follow-up was low in this family planning clinic population, no matter what type of follow-up was advised. Adherence was improved by the use of up to 3 reminders. Allocating resources to effective methods for improving adherence to follow-up of abnormal results may be more important than which follow-up procedure is recommended.
no
20,084,845
Biomolecular identification of allergenic pollen: a new perspective for aerobiological monitoring?
{ "contexts": [ "Accurate and updated information on airborne pollen in specific areas can help allergic patients. Current monitoring systems are based on a morphologic identification approach, a time-consuming method that may represent a limiting factor for sampling network enhancement.", "To verify the feasibility of developing a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach, an alternative to optical analysis, as a rapid, accurate, and automated tool for the detection and quantification of airborne allergenic pollen taxa.", "The traditional cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-based method was modified for DNA isolation from pollen. Taxon-specific DNA sequences were identified via bioinformatics or literature searches and were PCR amplified from the matching allergenic taxa; based on the sequences of PCR products, complementary or degenerate TaqMan probes were developed. The accuracy of the quantitative real-time PCR assay was tested on 3 plant species.", "The setup of a modified DNA extraction protocol allowed us to achieve good-quality pollen DNA. Taxon-specific nuclear gene fragments were identified and sequenced. Designed primer pairs and probes identified selected pollen taxa, mostly at the required classification level. Pollen was properly identified even when collected on routine aerobiological tape. Preliminary quantification assays on pollen grains were successfully performed on test species and in mixes." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "OBJECTIVE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Antigens, Plant", "Computational Biology", "DNA Primers", "DNA Probes", "DNA, Plant", "Environmental Monitoring", "Italy", "Molecular Probe Techniques", "Plant Leaves", "Plant Proteins", "Pollen", "Polymerase Chain Reaction" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
The real-time PCR approach revealed promising results in pollen identification and quantification, even when analyzing pollen mixes. Future perspectives could concern the development of multiplex real-time PCR for the simultaneous detection of different taxa in the same reaction tube and the application of high-throughput molecular methods.
yes
15,703,931
Does diabetes mellitus influence the efficacy of FDG-PET in the diagnosis of cervical cancer?
{ "contexts": [ "Compared with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) may have additional value in the assessment of primary and recurrent cervical cancer. However, the degree of tumour uptake of (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D: -glucose (FDG) uptake is sometimes influenced by diabetes mellitus (DM). Therefore, we conducted this prospective study to compare the diagnostic ability of FDG-PET in patients with cervical cancer complicated by DM and those without DM.", "Patients with untreated locally advanced primary or clinically curable recurrent cervical carcinoma were enrolled. Both FDG-PET and MRI/CT scans were performed within 2 weeks. Patients were categorised into the following groups: hyperglycaemic DM (fasting blood sugar>126 mg/dl), euglycaemic DM and non-DM. The lesions were confirmed histologically or by clinical follow-up. The receiver operating characteristic curve method, with calculation of the area under the curve (AUC), was used to evaluate the discriminative power.", "From February 2001 to January 2003, 219 patients (75 with primary and 144 with recurrent cervical cancer) were eligible for analysis. Sixteen had hyperglycaemic DM, 12 had euglycaemic DM and 191 were in the non-DM group. The diagnostic power of PET in the hyperglycaemic DM, euglycaemic DM and non-DM groups did not differ significantly with regard to the identification of either metastatic lesions (AUC, 0.967/0.947/0.925, P>0.05) or primary tumours/local recurrence (AUC, 0.950/0.938/0.979, P>0.05). Considering all DM patients, PET showed a significantly higher detection power than MRI/CT scans in respect of metastatic lesions (AUC=0.956 vs 0.824, P=0.012)." ], "labels": [ "PURPOSE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Aged", "Aged, 80 and over", "Artifacts", "Diabetes Complications", "Female", "Fluorodeoxyglucose F18", "Humans", "Middle Aged", "Positron-Emission Tomography", "Radiopharmaceuticals", "Reproducibility of Results", "Sensitivity and Specificity", "Uterine Cervical Neoplasms" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
In comparison with its accuracy in non-DM patients, the accuracy of PET in cervical cancer patients with mild to moderate DM was not significantly reduced.
no
18,269,157
Biomechanical and wound healing characteristics of corneas after excimer laser keratorefractive surgery: is there a difference between advanced surface ablation and sub-Bowman's keratomileusis?
{ "contexts": [ "To describe the biomechanical and wound healing characteristics of corneas after excimer laser keratorefractive surgery.", "Histologic, ultrastructural, and cohesive tensile strength evaluations were performed on 25 normal human corneal specimens, 206 uncomplicated LASIK specimens, 17 uncomplicated sub-Bowman's keratomileusis (SBK) specimens, 4 uncomplicated photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) specimens, 2 uncomplicated advanced surface ablation (ASA) specimens, 5 keratoconus specimens, 12 postoperative LASIK ectasia specimens, and 1 postoperative PRK ectasia specimen and compared to previously published studies.", "Histologic and ultrastructural studies of normal corneas showed significant differences in the direction of collagen fibrils and/or the degree of lamellar interweaving in Bowman's layer, the anterior third of the corneal stroma, the posterior two-thirds of the corneal stroma, and Descemet's membrane. Cohesive tensile strength testing directly supported these morphologic findings as the stronger, more rigid regions of the cornea were located anteriorly and peripherally. This suggests that PRK and ASA, and secondarily SBK, should be biomechanically safer than conventional LASIK with regard to risk for causing keratectasia after surgery. Because adult human corneal stromal wounds heal slowly and incompletely, all excimer laser keratorefractive surgical techniques still have some distinct disadvantages due to inadequate reparative wound healing. Despite reducing some of the risk for corneal haze compared to conventional PRK, ASA cases still can develop corneal haze or breakthrough haze from the hypercellular fibrotic stromal scarring. In contrast, similar to conventional LASIK, SBK still has the short- and long-term potential for interface wound complications from the hypocellular primitive stromal scar." ], "labels": [ "PURPOSE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Biomechanical Phenomena", "Bowman Membrane", "Compressive Strength", "Cornea", "Corneal Surgery, Laser", "Humans", "Keratoconus", "Lasers, Excimer", "Tensile Strength", "Wound Healing" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ] }
Ophthalmic pathology and basic science research show that SBK and ASA are improvements in excimer laser keratorefractive surgery compared to conventional LASIK or PRK, particularly with regard to maintaining corneal biomechanics and perhaps moderately reducing the risk of corneal haze. However, most of the disadvantages caused by wound healing issues remain.
yes
25,489,696
Does radiotherapy of the primary rectal cancer affect prognosis after pelvic exenteration for recurrent rectal cancer?
{ "contexts": [ "Radiotherapy reduces local recurrence rates but is also capable of short- and long-term toxicity. It may also render treatment of local recurrence more challenging if it develops despite previous radiotherapy.", "This study examined the impact of radiotherapy for the primary rectal cancer on outcomes after pelvic exenteration for local recurrence.", "We conducted a retrospective review of exenteration databases.", "The study took place at a quaternary referral center that specializes in pelvic exenteration.", "Patients referred for pelvic exenteration from October 1994 to November 2012 were reviewed. Patients who did and did not receive radiotherapy as part of their primary rectal cancer treatment were compared.", "The main outcomes of interest were resection margins, overall survival, disease-free survival, and surgical morbidities.", "There were 108 patients, of which 87 were eligible for analysis. Patients who received radiotherapy for their primary rectal cancer (n = 41) required more radical exenterations (68% vs 44%; p = 0.020), had lower rates of clear resection margins (63% vs 87%; p = 0.010), had increased rates of surgical complications per patient (p = 0.014), and had a lower disease-free survival (p = 0.022). Overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with clear margins were also lower in the primary irradiated patients (p = 0.049 and p<0.0001). This difference in survival persisted in multivariate analysis that corrected for T and N stages of the primary tumor.", "This study is limited by its retrospective nature and heterogeneous radiotherapy regimes among radiotherapy patients." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "OBJECTIVE", "DESIGN", "SETTING", "PATIENTS", "MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES", "RESULTS", "LIMITATIONS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Aged", "Aged, 80 and over", "Combined Modality Therapy", "Female", "Humans", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Neoplasm Recurrence, Local", "Neoplasm Staging", "Pelvic Exenteration", "Prognosis", "Rectal Neoplasms", "Retrospective Studies", "Survival Rate", "Treatment Outcome" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Patients who previously received radiotherapy for primary rectal cancer treatment have worse oncologic outcomes than those who had not received radiotherapy after pelvic exenteration for locally recurrent rectal cancer.
yes
14,599,616
Can a practicing surgeon detect early lymphedema reliably?
{ "contexts": [ "Lymphedema may be identified by simpler circumference changes as compared with changes in limb volume.", "Ninety breast cancer patients were prospectively enrolled in an academic trial, and seven upper extremity circumferences were measured quarterly for 3 years. A 10% volume increase or greater than 1 cm increase in arm circumference identified lymphedema with verification by a lymphedema specialist. Sensitivity and specificity of several different criteria for detecting lymphedema were compared using the academic trial as the standard.", "Thirty-nine cases of lymphedema were identified by the academic trial. Using a 10% increase in circumference at two sites as the criterion, half the lymphedema cases were detected (sensitivity 37%). When using a 10% increase in circumference at any site, 74.4% of cases were detected (sensitivity 49%). Detection by a 5% increase in circumference at any site was 91% sensitive." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Arm", "Breast Neoplasms", "Early Diagnosis", "Female", "Follow-Up Studies", "Humans", "Lymphedema", "Middle Aged", "Postoperative Complications", "Prospective Studies", "Radiotherapy, Adjuvant", "Sensitivity and Specificity", "Time Factors" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ] }
An increase of 5% in circumference measurements identified the most potential lymphedema cases compared with an academic trial.
maybe
22,537,902
Colorectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases: does global management at the same centre improve results?
{ "contexts": [ "Synchronous liver metastases (SLM) occur in 20% of colorectal cancers (CRC). Resection of SLM and CLC can be undertaken at different centres (separate management, SM) or at the same centre (global management, GM).", "Retrospective study of SLM and CRC resections carried out during 01/2000 - 12/2006 by SM or GM, using a combined or delayed strategy.", "Morphologic characteristics and type of CRC and SLM resection were similar for the GM (n = 45) or SM (n = 66) groups. In patients with delayed liver resection (62 SM, 17 GM), chemotherapy prior to liver surgery was used in 92% and 38% of SM and GM patients (P<0.0001) and the median delay between procedures was 212 and 182 days, respectively (P = 0.04). First step of liver resection was more often performed during colorectal surgery in the GM group (62 vs. 6% for SM, P<0.0001) and the mean number of procedures (CRC+SLM) was lower (1.6 vs. 2.3, P = 0.003). Three-month mortality was 3% for GM and 0% for SM (n.s.). Overall survival rates were 67% and 51% for SM and GM at 3 years (n.s.), and 35 and 31% at 5 years (n.s.). Disease-free survival to 5 years was higher in SM patients (14% vs. 11%, P = 0.009)." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Colorectal Neoplasms", "Combined Modality Therapy", "Female", "Humans", "Liver Neoplasms", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Retrospective Studies", "Treatment Outcome" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
GM of CRC and SLM was associated with fewer procedures but did not influence overall survival. SM was associated with a longer delay and increased use of chemotherapy between procedures, suggesting that more rigorous selection of SM patients for surgery may explain the higher disease-free survival after SLM resection.
no
19,054,501
Is motion perception deficit in schizophrenia a consequence of eye-tracking abnormality?
{ "contexts": [ "Studies have shown that schizophrenia patients have motion perception deficit, which was thought to cause eye-tracking abnormality in schizophrenia. However, eye movement closely interacts with motion perception. The known eye-tracking difficulties in schizophrenia patients may interact with their motion perception.", "Two speed discrimination experiments were conducted in a within-subject design. In experiment 1, the stimulus duration was 150 msec to minimize the chance of eye-tracking occurrence. In experiment 2, the duration was increased to 300 msec, increasing the possibility of eye movement intrusion. Regular eye-tracking performance was evaluated in a third experiment.", "At 150 msec, speed discrimination thresholds did not differ between schizophrenia patients (n = 38) and control subjects (n = 33). At 300 msec, patients had significantly higher thresholds than control subjects (p = .03). Furthermore, frequencies of eye tracking during the 300 msec stimulus were significantly correlated with speed discrimination in control subjects (p = .01) but not in patients, suggesting that eye-tracking initiation may benefit control subjects but not patients. The frequency of eye tracking during speed discrimination was not significantly related to regular eye-tracking performance." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Adult", "Discrimination (Psychology)", "Female", "Fixation, Ocular", "Humans", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Motion Perception", "Ocular Motility Disorders", "Psychomotor Performance", "Pursuit, Smooth", "Schizophrenic Psychology", "Temporal Lobe", "Visual Pathways", "Young Adult" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Speed discrimination, per se, is not impaired in schizophrenia patients. The observed abnormality appears to be a consequence of impairment in generating or integrating the feedback information from eye movements. This study introduces a novel approach to motion perception studies and highlights the importance of concurrently measuring eye movements to understand interactions between these two systems; the results argue for a conceptual revision regarding motion perception abnormality in schizophrenia.
yes
16,432,652
Transgastric endoscopic splenectomy: is it possible?
{ "contexts": [ "We have previously reported the feasibility of diagnostic and therapeutic peritoneoscopy including liver biopsy, gastrojejunostomy, and tubal ligation by an oral transgastric approach. We present results of per-oral transgastric splenectomy in a porcine model. The goal of this study was to determine the technical feasibility of per-oral transgastric splenectomy using a flexible endoscope.", "We performed acute experiments on 50-kg pigs. All animals were fed liquids for 3 days prior to procedure. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. The flexible endoscope was passed per orally into the stomach and puncture of the gastric wall was performed with a needle knife. The puncture was extended to create a 1.5-cm incision using a pull-type sphincterotome, and a double-channel endoscope was advanced into the peritoneal cavity. The peritoneal cavity was insufflated with air through the endoscope. The spleen was visualized. The splenic vessels were ligated with endoscopic loops and clips, and then mesentery was dissected using electrocautery.", "Endoscopic splenectomy was performed on six pigs. There were no complications during gastric incision and entrance into the peritoneal cavity. Visualization of the spleen and other intraperitoneal organs was very good. Ligation of the splenic vessels and mobilization of the spleen were achieved using commercially available devices and endoscopic accessories." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Animals", "Endoscopy", "Models, Animal", "Spleen", "Splenectomy", "Stomach", "Swine" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Transgastric endoscopic splenectomy in a porcine model appears technically feasible. Additional long-term survival experiments are planned.
yes
19,504,993
It's Fournier's gangrene still dangerous?
{ "contexts": [ "Fournier's gangrene is known to have an impact in the morbidity and despite antibiotics and aggressive debridement, the mortality rate remains high.", "To assess the morbidity and mortality in the treatment of Fournier's gangrene in our experience.", "The medical records of 14 patients with Fournier's gangrene who presented at the University Hospital Center \"Mother Teresa\" from January 1997 to December 2006 were reviewed retrospectively to analyze the outcome and identify the risk factor and prognostic indicators of mortality.", "Of the 14 patients, 5 died and 9 survived. Mean age was 54 years (range from 41-61): it was 53 years in the group of survivors and 62 years in deceased group. There was a significant difference in leukocyte count between patients who survived (range 4900-17000/mm) and those died (range 20.300-31000/mm3). Mean hospital stay was about 19 days (range 2-57 days)." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "OBJECTIVES", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Female", "Fournier Gangrene", "Humans", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Survival Rate" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
The interval from the onset of clinical symptoms to the initial surgical intervention seems to be the most important prognostic factor with a significant impact on outcome. Despite extensive therapeutic efforts, Fournier's gangrene remains a surgical emergency and early recognition with prompt radical debridement is the mainstays of management.
yes
20,571,467
Is it appropriate to implant kidneys from elderly donors in young recipients?
{ "contexts": [ "Kidneys from elderly donors tend to be implanted in recipients who are also elderly. We present the results obtained after 10 years of evolution on transplanting elderly kidneys into young recipients.", "Ninety-one consecutive transplants are studied, carried out in our center with kidneys from cadaver donors older than 60 years implanted in recipients younger than 60 years. The control group is made up of 91 transplants, matched with those from the study group, whose donor and recipient were younger than 60 years.", "There were no differences between groups with regard to recipient age, sex, cause of death and renal function of the donor, hepatitis C and cytomegalovirus serologies, cold ischemia time, tubular necrosis, immediate diuresis, need for dialysis, human leukocyte antigen incompatibilities, hypersensitized patients, acute rejection, waiting time on dialysis, and days of admission. Survival in both groups at 1, 5, and 10 years was 97.6%, 87.2%, and 76.6% vs. 98.8%, 87.5%, and 69.5% for the patient (P=0.642), 92.9%, 81.3%, and 64.2% vs. 93.9%, 76.4%, and 69.5% for the graft (P=0.980), and 94.4%, 92.6%, and 77.4% vs. 94.3%, 86.7%, and 84.4% for the graft with death censured (P=0.747), respectively. Creatininaemias at 1, 5, and 10 years were 172, 175, and 210 vs. 139, 134, and 155 (P<0.05)." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Age Factors", "Aged", "Biomarkers", "Case-Control Studies", "Chi-Square Distribution", "Creatinine", "Donor Selection", "Female", "Glomerular Filtration Rate", "Graft Survival", "Humans", "Kaplan-Meier Estimate", "Kidney Transplantation", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Prospective Studies", "Resource Allocation", "Risk Assessment", "Risk Factors", "Time Factors", "Tissue Donors", "Treatment Outcome", "Young Adult" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
We conclude that patient and graft survival on transplanting kidneys from elderly donors to young recipients is superimposable on that obtained with young donors. However, renal function is better in the group of young donors.
yes
24,237,112
Do provider service networks result in lower expenditures compared with HMOs or primary care case management in Florida's Medicaid program?
{ "contexts": [ "To determine the impact of Florida's Medicaid Demonstration 4 years post-implementation on per member per month (PMPM) Medicaid expenditures and whether receiving care through HMOs versus provider service networks (PSNs) in the Demonstration was associated with PMPM expenditures.DATA: Florida Medicaid claims from two fiscal years prior to implementation of the Demonstration (FY0405, FY0506) and the first four fiscal years after implementation (FY0607-FY0910) from two urban Demonstration counties and two urban non-Demonstration counties.", "A difference-in-difference approach was used to compare changes in enrollee expenditures before and after implementation of the Demonstration overall and specifically for HMOs and PSNs.", "Claims data were extracted for enrollees in the Demonstration and non-Demonstration counties and collapsed into monthly amounts (N = 26,819,987 person-months).", "Among SSI enrollees, the Demonstration resulted in lower increases in PMPM expenditures over time ($40) compared with the non-Demonstration counties ($186), with Demonstration PSNs lowering PMPM expenditures by $7 more than HMOs. Savings were also seen among TANF enrollees but to a lesser extent." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "STUDY DESIGN", "DATA EXTRACTION", "PRINCIPAL FINDINGS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Adult", "Aged", "Case Management", "Child", "Child, Preschool", "Female", "Florida", "Health Expenditures", "Health Maintenance Organizations", "Humans", "Infant", "Male", "Medicaid", "Middle Aged", "Primary Health Care", "United States", "Young Adult" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
The Medicaid Demonstration in Florida appears to result in lower PMPM expenditures. Demonstration PSNs generated slightly greater reductions in expenditures compared to Demonstration HMOs. PSNs appear to be a promising model for delivering care to Medicaid enrollees.
yes
21,402,341
Assessment of carotid artery stenosis before coronary artery bypass surgery. Is it always necessary?
{ "contexts": [ "Extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis is a risk factor for perioperative stroke in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CAB). Although selective and non-selective methods of preoperative carotid screening have been advocated, it remains unclear if this screening is clinically relevant.AIM: To test whether selective carotid screening is as effective as non-selective screening in detecting significant carotid disease.", "The case records of patients consecutively undergoing CAB were reviewed. Patients were stratified retrospectively into high- or low-risk groups according to risk factors for significant carotid stenosis and perioperative stroke: peripheral vascular disease (PVD), carotid bruit, diabetes mellitus, age>70 years and/or history of cerebrovascular disease. Prevalence of carotid stenosis detected by ultrasonography, surgical management and perioperative stroke rates were determined in each group.", "Overall, 205 consecutive patients underwent preoperative carotid screening. The prevalence of significant carotid stenosis was 5.8%. Univariate analysis confirmed that PVD (P=0.005), carotid bruit (P=0.003) and diabetes mellitus (P=0.05) were significant risk factors for stenosis. Carotid stenosis was a risk factor for stroke (P=0.03). Prevalence of carotid stenosis was higher in the high-risk group (9.1%) than the low-risk group (1.2%) (P<0.05). All concomitant or staged carotid endarterectomies/CAB (5/205) and all patients who had perioperative strokes (5/205) were in the high-risk group (P=0.01)." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Aged", "Algorithms", "Carotid Stenosis", "Chi-Square Distribution", "Coronary Artery Bypass", "Coronary Artery Disease", "Endarterectomy, Carotid", "Female", "France", "Humans", "Male", "Patient Selection", "Predictive Value of Tests", "Preoperative Care", "Prevalence", "Retrospective Studies", "Risk Assessment", "Risk Factors", "Severity of Illness Index", "Stroke", "Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ] }
In our cohort, selective screening of patients aged>70 years, with carotid bruit, a history of cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus or PVD would have reduced the screening load by 40%, with trivial impact on surgical management or neurological outcomes.
no
20,082,356
Should direct mesocolon invasion be included in T4 for the staging of gastric cancer?
{ "contexts": [ "One of the sites most frequently invaded by gastric cancer is the mesocolon; however, the UICC does not mention this anatomical site as an adjacent structure involved in gastric cancer. The purpose of this study was to characterize and classify mesocolon invasion from gastric cancer.", "We examined 806 patients who underwent surgery for advanced gastric carcinoma from 1992 to 2007 at the Department of Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Korea. Among these, patients who showed macroscopically direct invasion into the mesocolon were compared to other patients with advanced gastric cancer.", "The curability, number and extent of nodal metastasis, and the survival of the mesocolon invasion group were significantly worse than these factors in the T3 group. However, the survival of the mesocolon invasion group after curative resection was much better than that of patients who had incurable factors." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Aged", "Female", "Humans", "Lymphatic Metastasis", "Male", "Mesocolon", "Middle Aged", "Neoplasm Invasiveness", "Neoplasm Staging", "Stomach Neoplasms", "Survival Rate" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Mesocolon invasion should be included in T4 for the staging of gastric cancer.
maybe
26,606,599
Do Surrogates of Injury Severity Influence the Occurrence of Heterotopic Ossification in Fractures of the Acetabulum?
{ "contexts": [ "To determine the relationship between injury severity surrogates and other patient factors with the development and severity of heterotopic ossification (HO) following open reduction internal fixation of acetabular fractures treated with a posterior approach.", "Retrospective review.", "Academic level 1 trauma center.", "Two hundred forty-one patients who were treated through a posterior approach with a minimum of 6-month radiographic follow-up were identified from an acetabular fracture database.", "None.", "The occurrence and severity (Brooker Grade III/IV) of HO 6 months postsurgery.", "Length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU), non-ICU LOS>10 days, and HO prophylaxis with external radiation beam therapy (XRT) were significantly associated with the development of HO in a multivariate model [", "1-2 days, odds ratio (OR) = 4.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-18.25; 3-6 days, OR = 4.1, 95% CI, 1.27-13.27;>6 days, OR = 11.7, 95% CI, 3.24-42.22; non-ICU LOS>10 days (vs. 0-6 days): OR = 7.6, 95% CI, 2.6-22.25; XRT HO prophylaxis: OR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.10-0.85]. Other variables evaluated in multivariate modeling not significantly associated with development and severity of HO included age, gender, mechanism of injury, injury severity score, presence of neurologic injury, Letournel fracture type, occurrence of hip dislocation, interval from injury to surgery, operative time, and estimated blood loss." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVES", "DESIGN", "SETTING", "PARTICIPANTS", "INTERVENTION", "MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES", "RESULTS", "ICU LOS" ], "meshes": [ "Acetabulum", "Adult", "Aged", "Aged, 80 and over", "Causality", "Comorbidity", "Female", "Fracture Fixation, Internal", "Fractures, Bone", "Humans", "Incidence", "Length of Stay", "Middle Aged", "Ohio", "Open Fracture Reduction", "Ossification, Heterotopic", "Prognosis", "Reproducibility of Results", "Retrospective Studies", "Risk Factors", "Sensitivity and Specificity", "Trauma Severity Indices" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Surrogates of injury severity, including days in the ICU and non-ICU hospital LOS>10 days, were associated with the development of HO in our cohort of acetabular fracture patients. Prophylaxis with XRT was significantly protective against the development of HO, and the ability to provide prophylaxis is very likely related to the severity of injury.
maybe
11,340,218
Does pretreatment with statins improve clinical outcome after stroke?
{ "contexts": [ "In primary and secondary prevention trials, statins have been shown to reduce the risk of stroke. In addition to lipid lowering, statins have a number of antiatherothrombotic and neuroprotective properties. In a preliminary observational study, we explored whether clinical outcome is improved in patients who are on treatment with statins when stroke occurs.", "We conducted a population-based case-referent study of 25- to 74-year-old stroke patients with, for each case of a patient who was on statin treatment at the onset of stroke (n=125), 2 referent patients who were not treated with statins but were matched for age, gender, year of onset, and stroke subtype (n=250).", "The unadjusted odds ratio for early discharge to home (versus late discharge or death) was 1.41 (95% CI 0.91 to 2.17) when patients on statin treatment were compared with referent stroke patients not on statins. Prognostic factors were, in general, more unfavorable among patients on statins. When this was adjusted for in a logistic regression model, the use of statins was a moderately strong but statistically nonsignificant predictor of discharge to home (multiple-adjusted odds ratio 1.42, 95% CI 0.90 to 2.22)." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Acute Disease", "Adult", "Age Distribution", "Aged", "Case-Control Studies", "Cerebral Hemorrhage", "Comorbidity", "Diabetes Mellitus", "Female", "Humans", "Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors", "Logistic Models", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Myocardial Infarction", "Odds Ratio", "Pilot Projects", "Prognosis", "Retrospective Studies", "Secondary Prevention", "Sex Distribution", "Simvastatin", "Stroke", "Sweden", "Treatment Outcome" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ] }
The statistical power of this case-referent study was such that only large beneficial effects of statins in acute stroke could be confirmed. However, the observed trend, together with experimental observations, is interesting enough to warrant a more detailed analysis of the relationship between statins and stroke outcome.
no
25,481,573
Processing fluency effects: can the content and presentation of participant information sheets influence recruitment and participation for an antenatal intervention?
{ "contexts": [ "To assess the extent to which the title and font of participant information sheets (PISs) can influence pregnant women's and trainee midwives' perceptions of an antenatal intervention.", "Pregnant women (n=35) and trainee midwives (n=36) were randomly presented with one of four PISs where the title and font of the PIS had been manipulated to create four experimental conditions (i.e., Double Fluent; Double Awkward; Fluent Title-Awkward Font; Awkward Title-Fluent Font). After reading the PIS, participants rated their perceptions of the intervention (i.e., Attractiveness, Complexity, Expected Risk, Required Effort) using five-point Likert scales.", "A 4×2 factorial multivariate analysis of variance revealed that pregnant women rated the Double Awkward condition as significantly more complex than the Double Fluent (p=.024) and Awkward Title-Fluent Font (p=.021) conditions." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Female", "Humans", "Midwifery", "Multivariate Analysis", "Pamphlets", "Patient Selection", "Pregnancy", "Pregnant Women", "Prenatal Care", "Reading" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Font influenced pregnant women's ratings of intervention complexity.
yes
25,277,731
Sternal fracture in growing children : A rare and often overlooked fracture?
{ "contexts": [ "Sternal fractures in childhood are rare. The aim of the study was to investigate the accident mechanism, the detection of radiological and sonographical criteria and consideration of associated injuries.", "In the period from January 2010 to December 2012 all inpatients and outpatients with sternal fractures were recorded according to the documentation.", "A total of 4 children aged 5-14 years with a sternal fracture were treated in 2 years, 2 children were hospitalized for pain management and 2 remained in outpatient care." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHOD", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Chest Pain", "Child", "Child, Preschool", "Diagnosis, Differential", "Fractures, Bone", "Humans", "Male", "Rare Diseases", "Sternum" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ] }
Isolated sternal fractures in childhood are often due to typical age-related traumatic incidents. Ultrasonography is a useful diagnostic tool for fracture detection and radiography is the method of choice for visualization of the extent of the dislocation.
maybe
25,475,395
Is there a correlation between androgens and sexual desire in women?
{ "contexts": [ "For women, the correlation between circulating androgens and sexual desire is inconclusive. Substitution with androgens at physiological levels improves sexual function in women who experience decreased sexual desire and androgen deficiency from surgical menopause, pituitary disease, and age-related decline in androgen production in the ovaries. Measuring bioactive testosterone is difficult and new methods have been proposed, including measuring the primary androgen metabolite androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G).AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate a possible correlation between serum levels of androgens and sexual desire in women and whether the level of ADT-G is better correlated than the level of circulating androgens with sexual desire.", "This was a cross-sectional study including 560 healthy women aged 19-65 years divided into three age groups. Correlations were considered to be statistically significant at P<0.05.", "Sexual desire was determined as the total score of the sexual desire domain of the Female Sexual Function Index. Total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (FT), androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and ADT-G were analyzed using mass spectrometry.", "Sexual desire correlated overall with FT and androstenedione in the total cohort of women. In a subgroup of women aged 25-44 years with no use of systemic hormonal contraception, sexual desire correlated with TT, FT, androstenedione, and DHEAS. In women aged 45-65 years, androstenedione correlated with sexual desire. No correlations between ADT-G and sexual desire were identified." ], "labels": [ "INTRODUCTION", "METHODS", "MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Age Factors", "Aged", "Androgens", "Androstenedione", "Androstenols", "Androsterone", "Cross-Sectional Studies", "Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate", "Female", "Humans", "Libido", "Middle Aged", "Molecular Sequence Data", "Socioeconomic Factors", "Testosterone", "Women's Health" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
In the present study, FT and androstenedione were statistically significantly correlated with sexual desire in the total cohort of women. ADT-G did not correlate more strongly than circulating androgens with sexual desire and is therefore not superior to measuring circulating androgens by mass spectrometry.
yes
23,177,368
Does immediate breast reconstruction compromise the delivery of adjuvant chemotherapy?
{ "contexts": [ "Immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) provides psychological benefit to many early breast cancer patients however concerns persist regarding its potential impact on chemotherapy delivery. We investigated the association between IBR, complications and adjuvant chemotherapy delivery.", "Retrospective analysis of patients in an academic breast service, who underwent mastectomy, with or without reconstruction, and received adjuvant chemotherapy.", "Comparisons were made between 107 patients who received IBR and 113 who received mastectomy alone. Those receiving IBR were on average younger, with lower body mass index (BMI) and better prognoses. Overall complication rates were comparable (mastectomy alone: 45.1% versus IBR: 35.5%, p = 0.2). There was more return to surgery in the IBR group with 11.5% of tissue expanders requiring removal, whilst more seromas occurred in the mastectomy group. There was no significant difference in the median time to chemotherapy." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHOD", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Aged", "Antineoplastic Agents", "Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols", "Breast Neoplasms", "Chemotherapy, Adjuvant", "Cisplatin", "Cyclophosphamide", "Doxorubicin", "Female", "Fluorouracil", "Humans", "Incidence", "Kaplan-Meier Estimate", "Logistic Models", "Mammaplasty", "Mastectomy", "Methotrexate", "Middle Aged", "Multivariate Analysis", "Postoperative Complications", "Retrospective Studies", "Taxoids", "Time Factors", "Treatment Outcome" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
We found no evidence that IBR compromised the delivery of adjuvant chemotherapy, although there was a significant incidence of implant infection.
no
17,179,167
Human papillomavirus and pterygium. Is the virus a risk factor?
{ "contexts": [ "Pterygium is a disease of unknown origin and pathogenesis that might be vision threatening. It is characterised by a wing-like conjunctival overgrowth of the cornea. Several studies have investigated human papillomavirus (HPV) as a risk factor for the development of pterygia, but the results are inconclusive.AIM: To investigate a large sample of pterygia for the presence of HPV in order to clarify the putative association between pterygia and HPV.", "100 specimens of pterygium from Danish patients and 20 normal conjunctival biopsy specimens were investigated for the presence of HPV with PCR technique using beta-globin primers to access the quality of the extracted DNA and the HPV primers MY09/11 and GP5+/6+. HPV-positive specimens underwent subsequent HPV typing with type-specific HPV primers and further investigation with DNA in situ hybridisation (ISH).", "90 of 100 investigated pterygia proved suitable for HPV analysis by PCR. As beta-globin could not be amplified, 10 specimens were excluded from the study. 4 of 90 pterygia harboured HPV. HPV type 6 was identified in all four HPV-positive pterygia. The 20 normal conjunctival biopsy specimens were beta-globin positive and HPV negative. All four pterygia that were HPV type 6 positive were DNA ISH negative." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Aged", "Aged, 80 and over", "Cornea", "DNA, Viral", "Female", "Humans", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Papillomaviridae", "Papillomavirus Infections", "Polymerase Chain Reaction", "Pterygium", "Risk Factors", "Tumor Virus Infections" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
The low presence of HPV DNA in pterygia does not support the hypothesis that HPV is involved in the development of pterygia in Denmark.
maybe
14,612,308
Can PRISM predict length of PICU stay?
{ "contexts": [ "PRISM is claimed to score disease severity which has attributed an impact on length of PICU stay (LOS).", "To determine the impact of PRISM on LOS, and evaluate an Artificial Neural Network's (ANN) performance to estimate LOS from PRISM item patterns.", "Retrospectively we performed correlation and regression analyses on routinely scored PRISM data of all consecutive admissions to our level-III PICU from 1994 to 1999 (n>2000) with individual LOS. In addition, an ANN was trained on the chronologically first 75% of those data (inputs, PRISM items + age + sex; output, LOS). The ANN's performance was tested on the remaining most recent 25% of the data sets.", "The Spearman and Pearson coefficients of correlation between PRISM and LOS were 0.2 (p<0.001) and 0.08 (p = 0.0003), the latter being slightly higher when LOS was logarithmically transformed. Pearson's coefficient of correlation between ANN derived LOS estimate and actual LOS was 0.21 (p<0.001) (LOS logarithmically transformed: 0.34; p<0.001) in the independent validation sample." ], "labels": [ "UNLABELLED", "PRIMARY OBJECTIVE", "RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS", "MAIN RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Cohort Studies", "Health Services Research", "Humans", "Intensive Care Units, Pediatric", "Length of Stay", "Netherlands", "Neural Networks (Computer)", "Patient Readmission", "Probability", "Retrospective Studies", "Severity of Illness Index" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
The ANN with its intrinsic ability to detect non-linear correlation, and to relate specific item patterns to LOS, outperformed linear statistics but was still disappointing in estimating individual LOS. It might be speculated that therapeutic intervention modulates the natural course of the disease thus counteracting both disease severity as initially scored by PRISM, and LOS. This being true, the inverse of the correlation between PRISM (or PRISM based LOS estimate) and LOS might be a candidate indicator of quality of care.
no
27,491,658
Can predilatation in transcatheter aortic valve implantation be omitted?
{ "contexts": [ "The use of a balloon expandable stent valve includes balloon predilatation of the aortic stenosis before valve deployment. The aim of the study was to see whether or not balloon predilatation is necessary in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVI).", "Sixty consecutive TAVI patients were randomized to the standard procedure or to a protocol where balloon predilatation was omitted.", "There were no significant differences between the groups regarding early hemodynamic results or complication rates." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Aged", "Aged, 80 and over", "Aortic Valve", "Aortic Valve Stenosis", "Balloon Valvuloplasty", "Cardiac Catheterization", "Dilatation", "Female", "Hemodynamics", "Humans", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Preoperative Care", "Prospective Studies", "Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement", "Treatment Outcome" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
TAVI can be performed safely without balloon predilatation and with the same early results as achieved with the standard procedure including balloon predilatation. The reduction in the number of pacing periods required may be beneficial for the patient.
yes
19,822,586
Autoerotic asphyxiation: secret pleasure--lethal outcome?
{ "contexts": [ "Voluntary asphyxiation among children, preteens, and adolescents by hanging or other means of inducing hypoxia/anoxia to enhance sexual excitement is not uncommon and can lead to unintended death. This study addresses autoerotic asphyxiation (AEA) with the intent of increasing pediatricians' knowledge of the syndrome and awareness of its typical onset among young patients. AEA is characteristically a clandestine and elusive practice. Provided with relevant information, pediatricians can identify the syndrome, demonstrate a willingness to discuss concerns about it, ameliorate distress, and possibly prevent a tragedy.", "A retrospective study was undertaken of published cases both fatal and nonfatal and included personal communications, referenced citations, clinical experience, and theoretical formulations as to causation. Characteristic AEA manifestations, prevalence, age range, methods of inducing hypoxia/anoxia, and gender weighting are presented. All sources were used as a basis for additional considerations of etiology and possibilities for intervention.", "AEA can be conceptualized as a personalized, ritualized, and symbolic biopsychosocial drama. It seems to be a reenactment of intense emotional feeling-states involving an identification and sadomasochistic relationship with a female figure. Inept AEA practitioners can miscalculate the peril of the situation that they have contrived and for numerous reasons lose their gamble with death." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Adult", "Asphyxia", "Child", "Female", "Humans", "Male", "Paraphilic Disorders" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ] }
Pediatricians should be alert to the earliest manifestations of AEA. Awareness of choking games among the young and, of those, a subset who eventually progress to potentially fatal AEA is strongly encouraged among all primary care professionals who may be able to interrupt the behavior.
yes
27,643,961
Major depression and alcohol use disorder in adolescence: Does comorbidity lead to poorer outcomes of depression?
{ "contexts": [ "Comorbid major depression (MD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD), particularly in adolescents, have been shown to be associated with poorer subsequent MD outcomes.", "Longitudinal data were used to model associations between a four-level classification of MD/AUD during the period 15-18 years (neither; MD-only; AUD-only; comorbid MD/AUD) and MD over the period 18-35 years. These associations were then adjusted for confounding by a series of factors measured in childhood.", "The three disorder groups had rates of adult MD during the period 18-35 years that were significantly (p<.05) higher than that of the group with no disorder. Furthermore, those in the comorbid MD/AUD group had significantly (p<.05) higher rates of adult MD than those in the AUD-only group, and marginally (p<.10) higher rates of adult MD than those in the MD-only group. After adjustment for confounding, the difference in rates of adult MD between the MD-only group and the MD/AUD group were no longer statistically significant. The factors that explained the associations were gender, childhood behavior problems, and exposure to physical and sexual abuse.", "The data were obtained by self-report, and may have been subject to biases." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS", "LIMITATIONS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Adult", "Alcohol-Related Disorders", "Comorbidity", "Depressive Disorder, Major", "Female", "Humans", "Longitudinal Studies", "Male", "Prevalence", "Risk Factors", "Sex Offenses", "Young Adult" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
The results of these analyses suggest that marginally higher rates of depression to age 35 amongst the comorbid MD/AUD group were explained by increased exposure to adverse childhood circumstances amongst members of the comorbid group. Adolescent MD/AUD comorbidity is likely to be a risk marker, rather than a causal factor in subsequent MD.
no
23,539,689
Cold preparation use in young children after FDA warnings: do concerns still exist?
{ "contexts": [ "To characterize the use and delivery of cough and cold medicines in children younger than 6 presenting to an inner-city pediatric emergency department (PED) following 2007 FDA warnings.", "A cross-sectional observational study was performed using a convenience sampling of PED patients during the fall of 2010. Caregivers were presented with 6 commonly used cough medicine preparations and were asked to demonstrate if and how they would administer these to their children.", "In all, 65 patients and their caregivers consented and participated in the study. During the demonstration, 82% (53/65) stated that they would treat with cough or cold medicines, and 72% (38/53) incorrectly dosed the medication they desired to give." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Antitussive Agents", "Caregivers", "Child", "Child, Preschool", "Common Cold", "Cough", "Cross-Sectional Studies", "Drug Packaging", "Female", "Humans", "Infant", "Infant, Newborn", "Male", "Nasal Decongestants", "Nonprescription Drugs", "United States", "United States Food and Drug Administration" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ] }
Despite current recommendations, cough and cold medicines are still used in children younger than 6 years of age. A significant portion of caregivers report that they are still unaware of public warnings, potential side effects, and interactions with other medications.
yes
22,453,060
Does a 4 diagram manual enable laypersons to operate the Laryngeal Mask Supreme®?
{ "contexts": [ "Bystander resuscitation plays an important role in lifesaving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A significant reduction in the \"no-flow-time\", quantitatively better chest compressions and an improved quality of ventilation can be demonstrated during CPR using supraglottic airway devices (SADs). Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of inexperienced persons to operate SADs after brief instruction. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether an instruction manual consisting of four diagrams enables laypersons to operate a Laryngeal Mask Supreme® (LMAS) in the manikin.", "An instruction manual of four illustrations with speech bubbles displaying the correct use of the LMAS was designed. Laypersons were handed a bag containing a LMAS, a bag mask valve device (BMV), a syringe prefilled with air and the instruction sheet, and were asked to perform and ventilate the manikin as displayed. Time to ventilation was recorded and degree of success evaluated.", "A total of 150 laypersons took part. Overall 145 participants (96.7%) inserted the LMAS in the manikin in the right direction. The device was inserted inverted or twisted in 13 (8.7%) attempts. Eight (5.3%) individuals recognized this and corrected the position. Within the first 2 minutes 119 (79.3%) applicants were able to insert the LMAS and provide tidal volumes greater than 150 ml (estimated dead space). Time to insertion and first ventilation was 83.2 ± 29 s. No significant difference related to previous BLS training (P = 0.85), technical education (P = 0.07) or gender could be demonstrated (P = 0.25)." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation", "Female", "First Aid", "Germany", "Humans", "Laryngeal Masks", "Male", "Manikins", "Manuals as Topic", "Pilot Projects", "Program Evaluation", "Resuscitation", "Volunteers", "Young Adult" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
In manikin laypersons could insert LMAS in the correct direction after onsite instruction by a simple manual with a high success rate. This indicates some basic procedural understanding and intellectual transfer in principle. Operating errors (n = 91) were frequently not recognized and corrected (n = 77). Improvements in labeling and the quality of instructional photographs may reduce individual error and may optimize understanding.
yes
22,227,642
Can we measure mesopic pupil size with the cobalt blue light slit-lamp biomicroscopy method?
{ "contexts": [ "The aim of this work is to assess a previously described slit-lamp biomicroscopy-based method (SLBM) for measuring pupil diameter and compare it to Colvard infrared pupillometry (CIP).", "Two examiners performed three repeated measurements with each instrument in 40 healthy eyes. We determined the agreement of SLBM and CIP, intraobserver and interobserver repeatabilities, and interobserver concordance (kappa) and SLBM ability for detecting pupil sizes over 6.0 mm.", "The mean (±standard deviation [SD]) pupil diameter was 5.81 ± 0.70 mm with SLBM and 6.26 ± 0.68 mm with CIP (p = 0.01) averaging both examiner's results. Mean differences between the SLBM and CIP were -0.60 mm and -0.30 mm for each examiner using the average of the three readings (p = 0.02), and they were very similar using the first reading. Intraobserver reproducibility: the width of the 95% LoA ranged from 1.79 to 2.30 mm. The ICCs were 0.97 and 0.92 for SLBM, and 0.96 and 0.90 for CIP. Interobserver reproducibility: the width of the LoA ranged from 1.82 to 2.09 mm. Kappa statistics were 0.39 and 0.49 for the first and mean SLBM readings, respectively, and 0.45 for both the first and mean CIP readings. Sensitivity and specificity of SLBM for detection of pupils larger than 6 mm ranged from 55.56% to 73.68% and from 76.19% to 95.45%, respectively. The best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity ranged from 5.4 mm to 6.2 mm." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Dark Adaptation", "Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological", "Female", "Humans", "Iris", "Light", "Male", "Mesopic Vision", "Microscopy", "Middle Aged", "Observer Variation", "Organ Size", "Prospective Studies", "Pupil", "ROC Curve", "Sensitivity and Specificity", "Young Adult" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
Although the SLBM is quite repeatable, it underestimates mesopic pupil size and shows a too wide range of agreement with CIP. SLBM shows low sensitivity in detecting pupils larger than 6 mm, which may be misleading when planning anterior segment surgery. Previous grading-consensus training strategies may increase interrater reproducibility, and compensation for the systematic underestimation could improve accuracy of the SLBM.
no
12,380,309
Should circumcision be performed in childhood?
{ "contexts": [ "To evaluate prepuce development and retractibility in a group of boys. To point out the value of circumcision and prepucial forced dilation during childhood.", "Prepuce development and retractibility were evaluated in 400 boys ages between 0-16 year old.", "In boys under 1 year prepuce retractibility (assessed only in children who did not undergo forced dilation previously) was type I (non retractile) in 71.5% whereas type V (completely retractile) was only 5.5%. In adolescent boys type I prepuce was observed in 1 boy only, 1.6%, whereas type V was observed in 82.3%. Furthermore, it was observed that at the time of examination for the study 106 boys who had undergone forced dilation at an earlier age had balano-prepucial adhesions again, which demonstrates that prepuce adheres again to glans penis in many boys after a forced dilation is performed. Only 11 boys were considered in need for circumcision, three of them for prepucial orifice stenosis, which prevented normal micturition, causing a prepucial sac, one case due to a constrictive ring below the prepucial edge that would have prevented ulterior retractability, two cases with repetitive balanopostitis, and five cases secondary to xerosol balanitis, accounting for 2.7% of all examined boys." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Age Factors", "Child, Preschool", "Circumcision, Male", "Dilatation", "Humans", "Infant", "Male", "Penile Diseases", "Penis", "Phimosis", "Tissue Adhesions", "Unnecessary Procedures" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
Incomplete separation between prepuce and glans penis is normal and common among new-borns, progressing until adolescence to spontaneous separation, at which time it is complete in the majority of boys. Accordingly to the criteria we have sustained for years and present study's findings, circumcision has few indications during childhood, as well as forced prepucial dilation.
no
22,186,742
Does a colonoscopy after acute diverticulitis affect its management?
{ "contexts": [ "Medical records of 220 patients hospitalized for acute diverticulitis between June 1, 2002 and September 1, 2009 were reviewed. Acute diverticulitis was diagnosed by clinical criteria and characteristic CT findings. Fifteen patients were excluded either because of questionable CT or hematochezia. Mean age was 61.8±14.3 years (61% females). Clinical parameters, laboratory results, imaging, endoscopic and histopathological reports, and long-term patients' outcome were analyzed.", "One hundred patients (aged 61.8±13.3 y, 54.1% females), underwent an early (4 to 6 wk) colonoscopy after hospital discharge. There were no significant differences in patients' characteristics or survival between those with or without colonoscopy (4±1.9 vs. 4.2±2.1 y, P=0.62). No colonic malignancy was detected. However, in 32 patients (32%) at least 1 polyp was found. Only 1 was determined as an advanced adenoma. No new or different diagnosis was made after colonoscopy." ], "labels": [ "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Acute Disease", "Aged", "Colonoscopy", "Diverticulitis, Colonic", "Female", "Humans", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Retrospective Studies", "Survival Rate", "Tomography, X-Ray Computed" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
Our results suggest that colonoscopy does not affect the management of patients with acute diverticulitis nor alter the outcome. The current practice of a routine colonoscopy after acute diverticulitis, diagnosed by typical clinical symptoms and CT needs to be reevaluated.
no
22,188,074
Do instrumental activities of daily living predict dementia at 1- and 2-year follow-up?
{ "contexts": [ "To investigate whether problems in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) can add to conventionally used clinical measurements in helping to predict a diagnosis of dementia at 1- and 2-year follow-up.", "Multicenter prospective cohort study.", "Memory clinics in Europe.", "Individuals aged 55 and older without dementia.", "IADLs were measured using pooled activities from five informant-based questionnaires. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate the relation between IADLs and dementia. Age, sex, education, depression, and cognitive measures (Mini-Mental State Examination and verbal memory) were included in the model.", "Five hundred thirty-one participants had baseline and 1-year follow-up assessments; 69 (13.0%) of these had developed dementia at 1-year follow-up. At 2-year follow-up, 481 participants were seen, of whom 100 (20.8%) had developed dementia. Participants with IADL disabilities at baseline had a higher conversion rate (24.4%) than participants without IADL disabilities (16.7%) (chi-square = 4.28, degrees of freedom = 1, P = .04). SEM showed that IADL disability could help predict dementia in addition to the measured variables at 1-year follow-up (odds ratio (OR) = 2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.51-3.13) and 2-year follow-up (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.33-3.33)." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVES", "DESIGN", "SETTING", "PARTICIPANTS", "MEASUREMENTS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Activities of Daily Living", "Aged", "Dementia", "Female", "Follow-Up Studies", "Humans", "Male", "Prognosis", "Prospective Studies", "Time Factors" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
IADL disability is a useful addition to the diagnostic process in a memory clinic setting, indicating who is at higher risk of developing dementia at 1- and 2-year follow-up.
yes
27,989,969
Does the Simultaneous Use of a Neuroendoscope Influence the Incidence of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Infection?
{ "contexts": [ "The relationship between the use of an endoscope during ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) procedures and infection remains poorly defined. In this study, we sought to analyze whether the simultaneous use of an endoscope could in fact increase the infection rate associated with VPS procedures.", "This study included 438 VPS procedures, 49 in which an endoscope was used (11.2%) and 389 in which an endoscope was not used (88.8%). The infection rates in these 2 main groups were calculated and compared. Subsequently, 4 new groups were created, composed of patients with a shunt inserted for the first time (groups 1A and 1B) and patients with a shunt reviewed or inserted for a second time (groups 2A and 2B). Groups 1A and 2A comprised patients in whom an endoscope was used simultaneously with VPS surgery, and groups 1B and 2B comprised patients in whom an endoscope was not used. These groups were compared to determine the infection rate.", "The overall infection rate was 18.5%, including 22.4% in the groups in which an endoscope was used and 18% in those in which an endoscope was not used (P = 0.449). Groups 1A and 1B and groups 2A and 2B were matched for possible intervening risk factors. The infection rate was 28.6% in group 1A and 16.2% in group 1B (P = 0.27), and 20% in group 2A and 19.8% in group 2B (P = 0.977)." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Aged", "Aged, 80 and over", "Female", "Follow-Up Studies", "Humans", "Incidence", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Neuroendoscopes", "Retrospective Studies", "Surgical Wound Infection", "Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
In the present study, the use of an endoscope during VPS procedures did not increase the risk of surgical infection.
no
18,607,272
Body perception: do parents, their children, and their children's physicians perceive body image differently?
{ "contexts": [ "To compare children's, parents' and physicians' perceptions of children's body size.", "We administered a structured questionnaire of body size perception using a descriptive Likert scale keyed to body image figures to children ages 12 to 18 years. The same scale was given to parents of children ages 5 to 18 years. The sample consisted of 91 children and their parents being seen in the Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic for concerns unrelated to overweight. Weight and height of the children were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The children's BMI percentiles were categorized as underweight (<15th), normal (15th-85th), overweight (85th-95th), and obese (95th and above). The attending physician independently completed the body image and description scale and indicated the figure that most accurately represented the patient without reference to BMI standards. Accuracy of the patients', parents', and doctors' estimates were statistically compared.", "The sample population consisted of 6.4% underweight, 70.5% normal weight, 7.7% overweight, and 15.4% obese. Forty-four percent of parents underestimated children's body size using word descriptions and 47% underestimated using figures. Forty percent of the children underestimated their own body size using descriptions and 43% underestimated using figures. The physicians in this study had a higher percentage of correct estimates; however, they underestimated 33% of the patients using both word descriptions and figures. Some obese children were not recognized, and several average children were perceived as underweight." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVES", "PATIENTS AND METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Adult", "Awareness", "Body Image", "Body Mass Index", "Child", "Child, Preschool", "Female", "Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice", "Health Surveys", "Humans", "Male", "Obesity", "Overweight", "Parents", "Perception", "Physicians", "Psychology, Child", "Social Perception", "Surveys and Questionnaires", "Thinness" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Many children underestimated their degree of overweight. Their parents and even their attending physicians shared this misperception. This study demonstrates the need to further educate physicians to recognize obesity and overweight so that they can counsel children and their families.
yes
18,235,194
Is a specialised training of phonological awareness indicated in every preschool child?
{ "contexts": [ "In a prospective study 218 preschool children were enrolled (stratified in 2 training programs, one specialized for phonologic awareness in order to prevent dyslexia, the other consisting in training of general perception) during the last year of kindergarten. After finishing the first grade 131 children were compared in their reading and writing abilities.", "In the whole group only a slight difference was found between both training modalities concerning their writing abilities. However, children with a history of hearing loss, actual hearing loss or pathologic middle ear findings profited most from the specialized training program compared to the control in their reading abilities." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE AND METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Child Language", "Child, Preschool", "Correction of Hearing Impairment", "Curriculum", "Dyslexia", "Education, Special", "Female", "Germany", "Hearing Disorders", "Humans", "Language Development Disorders", "Linguistics", "Male", "Multilingualism", "Pattern Recognition, Physiological", "Perception", "Phonetics", "Prospective Studies", "Reading", "Speech Disorders", "Vision Disorders", "Writing" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ] }
A specialized training program to improve phonologic awareness as a basis for reading and writing in every kindergarten and preschool child seems to be unnecessary. However, children with temporary hearing deficits benefit from such a program. For all other children general perception training may be sufficient.
maybe
18,049,437
Is there any relationship between streptococcal infection and multiple sclerosis?
{ "contexts": [ "Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease of uncertain etiology. Although the mechanisms of inducting autoimmunity by some of the infectious agents have been investigated, there is not yet enough research on streptococcal infections.MATERIAL/", "To understand the effect of past group A streptococcal infection on MS, antistreptolysin O (ASO) and antideoxyribonuclease B (ADNase B) were measured in 21 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 21 healthy blood donors by nephelometric assay.", "ADNase B levels in the patients with MS were found to be significantly higher than in the controls (p<0.001); however, ASO levels were similar in both groups." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Antibodies, Bacterial", "Antistreptolysin", "Deoxyribonucleases", "Female", "Humans", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Multiple Sclerosis", "Streptococcal Infections", "Streptococcus pyogenes" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ] }
These findings indicate that a relationship between multiple sclerosis and streptococcal infections may exist, but to acquire a better understanding of the role of group A streptococci in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, more studies with animal models are necessary.
yes
15,597,845
Is the combination with 2-methoxyestradiol able to reduce the dosages of chemotherapeutices in the treatment of human ovarian cancer?
{ "contexts": [ "The endogenous estradiol metabolite, 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME), has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of cell growth and a strong anti-angiogenic substance. We investigated for the first time whether in vitro combinations of 2ME with various chemotherapeutic compounds may result in an additive inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human ovary cancer cells.", "As a model two different human ovary cancer cell lines were used. All cell lines were incubated with equimolar concentrations of 2ME (0.8-25 microM) and the chemotherapeutics epirubicine, doxorubicine, paclitaxel, docetaxel, carboplatin, vinorelbine, 5-fluorouracil and mafosfamide. Proliferation was measured after four days using the ATP-chemosensitivity test.", "For both ovary cancer cell lines a significant additive effect of 2ME with epirubicine and carboplatin was observed at the lower concentration range of these chemotherapeutic substances." ], "labels": [ "PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION", "METHOD", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols", "Carboplatin", "Cell Line, Tumor", "Cell Proliferation", "Cyclophosphamide", "Dose-Response Relationship, Drug", "Doxorubicin", "Drug Administration Schedule", "Epirubicin", "Estradiol", "Female", "Fluorouracil", "Humans", "Ovarian Neoplasms", "Paclitaxel", "Taxoids", "Vinblastine" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
2ME is able to enhance the antiproliferative activity of certain chemotherapeutics at pharmacological relevant concentrations. This estradiol metabolite is currently in a phase II trial in patients with refractary metastatic breast cancer and the tolerability has been shown to be very good. The combination of 2ME with chemotherapeutics may therefore offer a new clinically relevant treatment regimen for hormone-dependent cancer.
yes
24,996,865
Assessing joint line positions by means of the contralateral knee: a new approach for planning knee revision surgery?
{ "contexts": [ "Reconstructing the natural joint line in knee revision surgery improves clinical and functional outcome but may be challenging when both cartilage and bone were removed during previous operations. Assessing joint lines (JLs) by means of bony landmarks is inadvisable because of large variations in human anatomy. Because of the inherent symmetry of the human body, we hypothesised that JLs may be directly assessed by measuring the distances from the bony landmarks to the JL of the contralateral knee by means of radiographic images.", "Using scaled weight-bearing radiographs in anteroposterior view of both knees, two independent observers measured the distances from the fibular head, the medial and lateral epicondyle, and the adductor tubercle to the JL. A two-sided p value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.", "Two hundred knees of 100 patients (50 men and 50 women) were examined. For the fibular head, the mean difference between the treated and the control knee was 0.0 mm with narrow confidence limits ranging from -1.1 to 1.1." ], "labels": [ "PURPOSE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Aged", "Aged, 80 and over", "Anatomic Landmarks", "Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee", "Female", "Humans", "Knee Joint", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Preoperative Care", "Radiography", "Reoperation", "Weight-Bearing" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
As a new assessment method, we have suggested to assess the JL by means of radiographs of the contralateral knee. The most precise parameter was found to be the distance between the fibular head and the JL. The level of arthritis, age, gender, visibility of the landmarks, and misalignment did not influence measurement accuracy. This parameter is the first tibia-related landmark for assessing the JL, which advantageously corresponds to the tibia-first technique in revision surgery.
yes
23,361,217
Does the type of tibial component affect mechanical alignment in unicompartmental knee replacement?
{ "contexts": [ "There are a number of factors responsible for the longevity of unicompartmental knee replacements (UKR). These include the magnitude of postoperative alignment and the type of material used. The effect of component design and material on postoperative alignment, however, has not been explored.", "We retrospectively reviewed 89 patients who underwent UKR with robotic guidance. Patients were divided into two groups, according to whether they had received an all-polyethylene inlay component (Inlay group) or a metal-backed onlay component (Onlay group). We explored the magnitude of mechanical alignment correction obtained in both groups.", "Mean postoperative mechanical alignment was significantly closer to neutral in the Onlay group (mean=2.8°; 95% CI=2.4°, 3.2°) compared to the Inlay group (mean=3.9°; 95% CI=3.4°, 4.4°) (R2=0.65; P=0.003), adjusting for gender, BMI, age, side and preoperative mechanical alignment (Fig. 2). Further exploration revealed that the thickness of the tibial polyethyelene insert had a significant effect on postoperative alignment when added to the model (R2=0.68; P=0.01)." ], "labels": [ "PURPOSE", "MATERIALS AND METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee", "Biocompatible Materials", "Biomechanical Phenomena", "Body Mass Index", "Confidence Intervals", "Female", "Humans", "Knee Prosthesis", "Male", "Medical Audit", "Middle Aged", "Polyethylene", "Prosthesis Failure", "Retrospective Studies", "Tibia", "United States" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Patients who received a metal-backed Onlay tibial component obtained better postoperative mechanical alignment compared to those who received all-polyethylene Inlay prostheses. The thicker overall construct of Onlay prostheses appears to be an important determinant of postoperative alignment. Considering their higher survivorship rates and improved postoperative mechanical alignment, Onlay prostheses should be the first option when performing medial UKR.
yes
17,489,316
Is tumour expression of VEGF associated with venous invasion and survival in pT3 renal cell carcinoma?
{ "contexts": [ "To determine whether there is a relationship between VEGF expression and renal vein and vena cava invasion in stage pT3 renal cell carcinoma and to evaluate the impact of VEGF expression on survival in pT3 renal cell carcinoma.", "78 patients with a pT3a or pT3b tumour without vena cava invasion or pT3b tumour with vena cava invasion were compared for age, gender, Fuhrman grade and immunohistochemical expression of VEGF. All these variables were submitted to univariate and multivariate analysis to establish their impact on survival.", "Only tumour size appeared to be significantly different between the 3 groups. On univariate analysis, invasion of the perirenal fat, lymph node involvement, distant metastases and VEGF expression were significantly associated with survival (p<0.01). On multivariate analysis, lymph node involvement, distant metastases and VEGF expression (OR 6.07) were identified as independent predictive factors of survival." ], "labels": [ "STUDY OBJECTIVE", "MATERIAL AND METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Aged", "Aged, 80 and over", "Carcinoma, Renal Cell", "Cause of Death", "Disease-Free Survival", "Female", "Follow-Up Studies", "Humans", "Kidney Neoplasms", "Lymphatic Metastasis", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Neoplasm Invasiveness", "Neoplasm Staging", "Prognosis", "Renal Veins", "Survival Rate", "Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A", "Vascular Neoplasms", "Vena Cava, Inferior" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ] }
Progression of a pT3 tumour into the renal vein and vena cava is not associated with increased tumour expression of VEGF. However, VEGF is an independent prognostic factor in this group of poor prognosis renal tumours.
maybe
14,518,645
Injury and poisoning mortality among young men--are there any common factors amenable to prevention?
{ "contexts": [ "Deaths from injury and poisoning (suicide, accidents, undetermined deaths, and homicide) are the major cause of death among young men aged 15-39 years in England and Wales and have been increasing in recent years.AIM: To describe common characteristics among young men who die from injury and poisoning.", "We employed a retrospective survey methodology to investigate factors associated with deaths by injury and poisoning among young men aged 15-39 years (n = 268) in Merseyside and Cheshire during 1995. Data were collected from Coroner's inquest notes and General Practitioner records.", "The most common cause of death was poisoning by alcohol and drugs (29.1%, n = 78). A high proportion of cases were unemployed (39.4%, n = 106). Cases were also more likely to be single compared to the general population (74.2% vs 55.5%). Self-destructive behaviour was evident in 77% of deaths (n = 206)." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "DESIGN", "MAIN RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Adult", "Cause of Death", "Data Collection", "England", "Humans", "Male", "Poisoning", "Retrospective Studies", "Risk Factors", "Self-Injurious Behavior", "Substance-Related Disorders", "Suicide", "Wales", "Wounds and Injuries" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Alcohol and drug use are important contributory factors to injury and poisoning deaths. More research is needed into the effects of unemployment and being single on the health of young men, and to investigate the motivations behind risk taking and self-destructive behaviour.
yes
20,337,202
Continuation of pregnancy after antenatal corticosteroid administration: opportunity for rescue?
{ "contexts": [ "To determine the duration of continuing pregnancy after antenatal corticosteroid (AC) administration and to evaluate the potential opportunity for rescue AC.", "Retrospective analysis of women at 24-32 weeks' gestation who received AC at one institution.", "Six hundred ninety-two women received AC. Two hundred forty-seven (35.7%) delivered at>or = 34 weeks' gestation. Three hundred twenty-one (46.4%) delivered within 1 week of AC; 92 of those women (13.3%) delivered within 24 hours. Only 124 (17.9%) remained pregnant 1 week after AC and delivered at<34 weeks. The latter were compared to women delivering>2 week after AC but>or = 34 weeks. More likely to deliver at<34 weeks were those women who received AC for premature preterm rupture of membranes (OR 3.83, 95% CI 2.06-7.17), twins (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.42-5.95) or before 28 weeks (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.38-3.52)." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "STUDY DESIGN", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adrenal Cortex Hormones", "Adult", "Drug Administration Schedule", "Feasibility Studies", "Female", "Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture", "Gestational Age", "Humans", "Obstetric Labor, Premature", "Pregnancy", "Prenatal Care", "Retrospective Studies", "Treatment Outcome", "Young Adult" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ] }
Rescue AC may apply to only 18% of cases, and we identified subsets of more likely candidates.
maybe
26,449,554
Does either obesity or OSA severity influence the response of autotitrating CPAP machines in very obese subjects?
{ "contexts": [ "The pressures delivered by autotitrating continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) devices not only treat obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) effectively but also give potentially interesting physiological information about the forces impinging on the pharynx. In earlier work from this unit, we used correlations between autoCPAP pressure and both OSA severity and obesity, to construct an algorithm to estimate the fixed CPAP pressure a patient required for subsequent clinical use. We wished to discover if these relationships could be reliably extended to a much more obese group.", "We performed a prospective cohort study in an obese population. Measurements of obesity were made, OSA severity was recorded, and the 95th centile autoCPAP pressure was recorded during 1 week of autoCPAP. Spearman's rank correlation was performed between measurements of obesity and autoCPAP pressure, and between OSA severity and autoCPAP pressure.", "Fifty-four obese individuals (median body mass index (BMI) 43.0 kg/m(2)), 52 % of whom had OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥ 15), had a median 95th centile autoCPAP pressure of 11.8 cmH2O. We found no significant correlation between autoCPAP pressure and neck circumference, waist circumference or BMI. There was a moderate correlation between autoCPAP pressure and OSA severity (AHI r = 0.34, p = 0.02; oxygen desaturation index (ODI) r = 0.48, p < 0.001)." ], "labels": [ "PURPOSE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Body Mass Index", "Cohort Studies", "Continuous Positive Airway Pressure", "Female", "Humans", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Obesity, Morbid", "Pharynx", "Polysomnography", "Prospective Studies", "Sleep Apnea, Obstructive", "Statistics as Topic", "Therapy, Computer-Assisted", "Treatment Outcome" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
In this population, neither BMI nor neck circumference nor waist circumference is predictive of autoCPAP pressure. Therefore, the previously derived algorithm does not adequately predict the fixed CPAP pressure for subsequent clinical use in these obese individuals. In addition, some subjects without OSA generated high autoCPAP pressures, and thus, the correlation between OSA severity and autoCPAP pressure was only moderate.
yes
26,215,326
Does the clinical presentation of a prior preterm birth predict risk in a subsequent pregnancy?
{ "contexts": [ "The objective of the study was to determine whether risk of recurrent preterm birth differs based on the clinical presentation of a prior spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB): advanced cervical dilatation (ACD), preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), or preterm labor (PTL).", "This retrospective cohort study included singleton pregnancies from 2009 to 2014 complicated by a history of prior SPTB. Women were categorized based on the clinical presentation of their prior preterm delivery as having ACD, PPROM, or PTL. Risks for sonographic short cervical length and recurrent SPTB were compared between women based on the clinical presentation of their prior preterm birth. Log-linear regression was used to control for confounders.", "Of 522 patients included in this study, 96 (18.4%) had prior ACD, 246 (47.1%) had prior PPROM, and 180 (34.5%) had prior PTL. Recurrent PTB occurred in 55.2% of patients with a history of ACD compared with 27.2% of those with PPROM and 32.2% with PTL (P = .001). The mean gestational age at delivery was significantly lower for those with a history of ACD (34.0 weeks) compared with women with prior PPROM (37.2 weeks) or PTL (37.0 weeks) (P = .001). The lowest mean cervical length prior to 24 weeks was significantly shorter in patients with a history of advanced cervical dilation when compared with the other clinical presentations." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "STUDY DESIGN", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Female", "Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture", "Gestational Age", "Humans", "Labor Stage, First", "Pregnancy", "Pregnancy Outcome", "Premature Birth", "Recurrence", "Retrospective Studies", "Risk Assessment" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Patients with a history of ACD are at an increased risk of having recurrent preterm birth and cervical shortening in a subsequent pregnancy compared with women with prior preterm birth associated PPROM or PTL.
yes
29,112,560
Is the Distance Worth It?
{ "contexts": [ "It is unclear whether traveling long distances to high-volume centers would compensate for travel burden among patients undergoing rectal cancer resection.", "The purpose of this study was to determine whether operative volume outweighs the advantages of being treated locally by comparing the outcomes of patients with rectal cancer treated at local, low-volume centers versus far, high-volume centers.", "This was a population-based study.", "The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with rectal cancer.", "Patients with stage II or III rectal cancer who underwent surgical resection between 2006 and 2012 were included.", "The outcomes of interest were margins, lymph node yield, receipt of neoadjuvant chemoradiation, adjuvant chemotherapy, readmission within 30 days, 30-day and 90-day mortality, and 5-year overall survival.", "A total of 18,605 patients met inclusion criteria; 2067 patients were in the long-distance/high-volume group and 1362 in the short-distance/low-volume group. The median travel distance was 62.6 miles for the long-distance/high-volume group and 2.3 miles for the short-distance/low-volume group. Patients who were younger, white, privately insured, and stage III were more likely to have traveled to a high-volume center. When controlled for patient factors, stage, and hospital factors, patients in the short-distance/low-volume group had lower odds of a lymph node yield ≥12 (OR = 0.51) and neoadjuvant chemoradiation (OR = 0.67) and higher 30-day (OR = 3.38) and 90-day mortality (OR = 2.07) compared with those in the long-distance/high-volume group. The short-distance/low-volume group had a 34% high risk of overall mortality at 5 years compared with the long-distance/high-volume group.", "We lacked data regarding patient and physician decision making and surgeon-specific factors." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "OBJECTIVE", "DESIGN", "SETTINGS", "PATIENTS", "MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES", "RESULTS", "LIMITATIONS" ], "meshes": [ "Adenocarcinoma", "Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous", "Aged", "Chemoradiotherapy", "Chemotherapy, Adjuvant", "Female", "Health Services Accessibility", "Hospitals, High-Volume", "Humans", "Lymph Node Excision", "Male", "Margins of Excision", "Middle Aged", "Neoplasm Staging", "Patient Readmission", "Rectal Neoplasms", "Risk Factors", "Survival Rate", "Travel", "Treatment Outcome", "United States" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Our results indicate that when controlled for patient, tumor, and hospital factors, patients who traveled a long distance to a high-volume center had improved lymph node yield, neoadjuvant chemoradiation receipt, and 30- and 90-day mortality compared with those who traveled a short distance to a low-volume center. They also had improved 5-year survival. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A446.
yes
24,315,783
Aripiprazole: a new risk factor for pathological gambling?
{ "contexts": [ "It is commonly accepted that pathological gambling results from the interaction of multiple risk factors. Among these, dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) prescribed for Parkinson disease can be cited. Another dopamine agonist, aripiprazole, could be a new risk factor. We decided to explore this potential adverse drug reaction (ADR).", "Based on a cohort of 166 pathological gamblers starting treatment in our department, data of each of the 8 patients treated by aripiprazole at inclusion were analyzed.", "The patients involved were schizophrenic or bipolar, mostly young men with a history of addictive disorders and regular gambling prior to the prescription of aripiprazole. For each one of them, the causality of aripiprazole was considered, using an algorithm. The probability that pathological gambling is actually due to aripiprazole is \"possible\" in 7 cases out of 8, and \"doubtful\" in one." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "METHOD", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Antipsychotic Agents", "Aripiprazole", "Bipolar Disorder", "Dopamine Agonists", "Female", "Gambling", "Humans", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Piperazines", "Quinolones", "Risk Factors", "Schizophrenia", "Young Adult" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Adverse drug reactions were confronted with other already published case reports. Dopamine partial agonist mechanism of aripiprazole could explain the occurrence of pathological gambling.
yes
9,381,529
Immune suppression by lysosomotropic amines and cyclosporine on T-cell responses to minor and major histocompatibility antigens: does synergy exist?
{ "contexts": [ "Using murine models, we have shown that the lysosomotropic amine, chloroquine, is effective in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) mediated by donor T cells reactive with recipient minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHCs). Because lysosomotropic amines can suppress major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen presentation, their mechanism of action is potentially different from current immune suppressant drugs used to control GVHD such as cyclosporine.", "We investigated the use of cyclosporine and the lysosomotropic amines chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in combination for additive or synergistic immunosuppression on T-cell responses in vitro to MiHC and MHC in mice.", "We found that similar concentrations of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine suppress the T-cell response to MiHC in mice (C57BL/6 anti-BALB.B) and that lysosomotropic amines in combination with cyclosporine result in synergistic suppression of a proliferative response to MiHC. Similar suppression and synergy appear to be present in an alloreactive response (C57BL/6 anti-BALB/c). Direct inhibition by chloroquine of T-cell proliferative responses induced by anti-CD3epsilon in the absence of antigen-presenting cells is present at higher concentrations than that required to suppress responses to MiHC or MHC. Chloroquine appears to induce decreased T-cell viability at high concentrations. This effect does not appear to be due to decreased T-cell production of interleukin-2 or interferon-gamma. At lower concentrations (<25 microg/ml), chloroquine can also decrease the ability of antigen-presenting cells to stimulate an a C57BL/6 anti-BALB/c T-cell response and can inhibit MHC class II expression after activation with lipopolysaccharide." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Animals", "Cell Survival", "Cells, Cultured", "Chloroquine", "Concanavalin A", "Cyclosporine", "Drug Synergism", "Female", "Graft vs Host Disease", "Histocompatibility Antigens Class II", "Hydroxychloroquine", "Interferon-gamma", "Interleukin-2", "Kinetics", "Lymphocyte Activation", "Lysosomes", "Mice", "Mice, Inbred C57BL", "Mice, Inbred Strains", "Minor Histocompatibility Antigens", "Spleen", "T-Lymphocytes" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Lysosomotropic amines in combination with cyclosporine appear to be synergistic in the suppression of T-cell proliferation to MiHC and MHC. Use of chloroquine in combination with cyclosporine may result in improved control of GVHD.
yes
8,985,020
Does induction chemotherapy have a role in the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma?
{ "contexts": [ "To assess the outcomes of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) whose treatment was determined by computerized tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging staging and to analyze the impact of induction chemotherapy and accelerated fractionated radiotherapy.", "The analysis is based on 122 of 143 previously untreated patients with NPC treated with radiation therapy at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1983 and 1992. Excluded were 4 patients treated with palliative intent, 4 children, 12 patients not staged with CT, and 1 patient who died of a cerebrovascular accident prior to completion of treatment. The stage distribution was as follows: AJCC Stage I-2, Stage II-7, Stage III-12, Stage IV-101; Tl-15, T2-33, T3-22, T4-52; N0-32, N1-10, N2-47, N3-32, Nx-1. Fifty-nine (48%) patients had squamous cell carcinoma; 63 (52%) had lymphoepitheliomas, undifferentiated NPC or poorly differentiated carcinoma, NOS (UNPC). Sixty-seven patients (65 with Stage IV disease) received induction chemotherapy. Fifty-eight patients (24 of whom had induction chemotherapy) were treated with the concomitant boost fractionation schedule. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 57 months.", "The overall actuarial 2- and 5-year survival rates were 78 and 68%, respectively. Forty-nine patients (40%) had disease recurrence. Thirty-three (27%) had local regional failures; 19 at the primary site only, 8 in the neck and 6 in both. Local failure occurred in 31% of patients staged T4 compared to 13% of T1-T3 (p = 0.007). Sixteen patients failed at distant sites alone. Among Stage IV patients the 5-year actuarial rates for patients who did and did not receive induction chemotherapy were as follows: overall survival: 68 vs. 56% (p = 0.02), freedom from relapse: 64 vs. 37% (p = 0.01), and local control: 86 vs. 56% (p = 0.009). The actuarial 5-year distant failure rate in patients with UNPC who were treated with induction chemotherapy and controlled in the primary and neck was 13%. In patients who did not receive chemotherapy, the actuarial 5-year local control rates for patients treated with concomitant boost or conventional fractionation were 66 and 67%, respectively." ], "labels": [ "PURPOSE", "METHODS AND MATERIALS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Adult", "Aged", "Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols", "Combined Modality Therapy", "Humans", "Middle Aged", "Multivariate Analysis", "Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms", "Neoplasm Staging", "Radiotherapy Dosage", "Survival Rate", "Tomography, X-Ray Computed" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
While not providing conclusive evidence, this single institution experience suggests that neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Stage IV NPC patients improves both survival and disease control. Recurrence within the irradiated volume was the most prevalent mode of failure and future studies will evaluate regimens to enhance local regional control.
yes
26,708,803
Treatment of contralateral hydrocele in neonatal testicular torsion: Is less more?
{ "contexts": [ "Treatment of neonatal testicular torsion has two objectives: salvage of the involved testicle (which is rarely achieved) and preservation of the contralateral gonad. The second goal universally involves contralateral testicular scrotal fixation to prevent the future occurrence of contralateral torsion. However, there is controversy with regards to management of a synchronous contralateral hydrocele. It has been our policy not to address the contralateral hydrocele through an inguinal incision to minimize potential injury to the spermatic cord. Our objective in this study was to determine whether the decision to manage a contralateral hydrocele in cases of neonatal testicular torsion solely through a scrotal approach is safe and effective.", "We reviewed all cases of neonatal testicular torsion occurring at our institution between the years 1999 and 2006. Age at presentation, physical examination, ultrasonographic and intraoperative findings were recorded. Patients were followed after initial surgical intervention to determine the likelihood of developing a subsequent hydrocele or hernia.", "Thirty-seven patients were identified as presenting with neonatal torsion. Age of presentation averaged 3.5 days (range 1-14 days). Left-sided pathology was seen more commonly than the right, with a 25:12 distribution. All torsed testicles were nonviable. Twenty-two patients were noted to have a contralateral hydrocele at presentation. All hydroceles were opened through a scrotal approach at the time of contralateral scrotal fixation. No patient underwent an inguinal exploration to examine for a patent process vaginalis. None of the patients who presented with a hydrocele have developed a clinical hydrocele or hernia after an average 7.5 years (range 4.3-11.2) follow-up." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "PATIENTS AND METHOD", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Humans", "Infant, Newborn", "Male", "Retrospective Studies", "Spermatic Cord Torsion", "Testicular Hydrocele", "Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
We have demonstrated that approaching a contralateral hydrocele in cases of neonatal testicular torsion solely through a scrotal incision is safe and effective. Inguinal exploration was not performed in our study and our long-term results demonstrate that such an approach would have brought no additional benefit. In avoiding an inguinal approach we did not subject our patients to unnecessary risk of testicular or vasal injury. Contralateral hydrocele is commonly seen in cases of neonatal testicular torsion. In our experience this is a condition of minimal clinical significance and does not warrant formal inguinal exploration for treatment. This conservative management strategy minimizes the potential of contralateral spermatic cord injury in the neonate. The aims of the study were met.
maybe
22,427,593
Are normally sighted, visually impaired, and blind pedestrians accurate and reliable at making street crossing decisions?
{ "contexts": [ "The purpose of this study is to measure the accuracy and reliability of normally sighted, visually impaired, and blind pedestrians at making street crossing decisions using visual and/or auditory information.", "Using a 5-point rating scale, safety ratings for vehicular gaps of different durations were measured along a two-lane street of one-way traffic without a traffic signal. Safety ratings were collected from 12 normally sighted, 10 visually impaired, and 10 blind subjects for eight different gap times under three sensory conditions: (1) visual plus auditory information, (2) visual information only, and (3) auditory information only. Accuracy and reliability in street crossing decision-making were calculated for each subject under each sensory condition.", "We found that normally sighted and visually impaired pedestrians were accurate and reliable in their street crossing decision-making ability when using either vision plus hearing or vision only (P>0.05). Under the hearing only condition, all subjects were reliable (P>0.05) but inaccurate with their street crossing decisions (P<0.05). Compared to either the normally sighted (P = 0.018) or visually impaired subjects (P = 0.019), blind subjects were the least accurate with their street crossing decisions under the hearing only condition." ], "labels": [ "PURPOSE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Automobiles", "Blindness", "Contrast Sensitivity", "Humans", "Middle Aged", "Psychomotor Performance", "Reproducibility of Results", "Safety", "Sensory Aids", "Signal Detection, Psychological", "Vision, Low", "Visual Acuity", "Visually Impaired Persons", "Walking" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ] }
Our data suggested that visually impaired pedestrians can make accurate and reliable street crossing decisions like those of normally sighted pedestrians. When using auditory information only, all subjects significantly overestimated the vehicular gap time. Our finding that blind pedestrians performed significantly worse than either the normally sighted or visually impaired subjects under the hearing only condition suggested that they may benefit from training to improve their detection ability and/or interpretation of vehicular gap times.
maybe
11,570,976
Is it Crohn's disease?
{ "contexts": [ "Sulfasalazine is a widely used anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and several rheumatological disorders. Although as many as 20% of treated patients may experience reversible, dose-dependent side effects, less frequent but potentially severe, systemic reactions have also been reported.", "A severe systemic reaction to sulfasalazine developed in a 21-year old female with rheumatoid arthritis characterized by eosinophilia, granulomatous enteritis and myelotoxicity, cholestatic hepatitis, and seizures. The clinical course and management of this patient are presented as well as a review of the incidence and outcome of severe systemic reactions to sulfasalazine." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "CASE PRESENTATION" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Antirheumatic Agents", "Arthritis, Rheumatoid", "Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury", "Crohn Disease", "Diagnosis, Differential", "Enteritis", "Eosinophilia", "Female", "Granuloma", "Humans", "Seizures", "Sulfasalazine" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ] }
Granulomatous myelotoxicity and enteritis developed in a 21 year old female within 3 weeks of initiating sulfasalazine for rheumatoid arthritis. Following a short course of corticosteroids, the patient had resolution of her cholestatic hepatitis, rash, eosinophilia, and gastrointestinal symptoms with no residual manifestations at 7 months follow-up. Although severe reactions to sulfasalazine are rare and unpredictable, practicing physicians should be aware of unusual clinical presentations of toxicity when prescribing sulfasalazine.
maybe
19,757,704
Is Chaalia/Pan Masala harmful for health?
{ "contexts": [ "To determine the practices and knowledge of harmful effects regarding use of Chaalia and Pan Masala in three schools of Mahmoodabad and Chanesar Goth, Jamshed Town, Karachi, Pakistan.", "To achieve the objective a cross-sectional design was used in three government schools of Mahmoodabad and Chanesar Goth, Jamshed Town, Karachi. Students of either gender drawn from these schools fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were interviewed using a pre-coded structured questionnaire. Along with demographic data, questions regarding frequency of Chaalia and Pan Masala use, practices of this habit in friends and family and place of procurement of these substances, were inquired. Knowledge was assessed about harmful effects and its source of information. In addition, practices in relation to that knowledge were assessed.", "A total of 370 students were interviewed over a period of six weeks, of which 205 (55.4%) were boys. The ages of the students were between 10 and 15 years. Thirty one percent of the fathers and 62% of the mothers were uneducated. The frequency of use of any brand of Chaalia was found to be 94% and that of Pan Masala was 73.8%. Eighty five percent of them were regular users. A large majority (88%) procured the substances themselves from near their homes. Ninety five percent of the children had friends with the same habits. Eighty four percent were using the substances in full knowledge of their families. Chaalia was considered harmful for health by 96% and Pan Masala by 60%. Good taste was cited as a reason for continuing the habit by 88.5% of the children and use by friends by 57%. Knowledge about established harmful effects was variable. Knowledge about harmful effects was high in both \"daily\" and \"less than daily users\"." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Areca", "Child", "Confidence Intervals", "Cross-Sectional Studies", "Female", "Health Behavior", "Health Education", "Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice", "Humans", "Male", "Mastication", "Pakistan", "Psychotropic Drugs", "Risk-Taking", "Schools", "Socioeconomic Factors", "Students", "Substance-Related Disorders", "Surveys and Questionnaires" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ] }
The frequency of habits of Chaalia and Pan Masala chewing, by school children in lower socio-economic areas is extremely high. The probable reasons for this high frequency are taste, the widespread use of these substances by family members and friends, low cost and easy availability.
yes
27,592,038
Does multi-modal cervical physical therapy improve tinnitus in patients with cervicogenic somatic tinnitus?
{ "contexts": [ "Tinnitus can be related to many different aetiologies such as hearing loss or a noise trauma, but it can also be related to the somatosensory system of the cervical spine, called cervicogenic somatic tinnitus (CST). Case studies suggest a positive effect of cervical spine treatment on tinnitus complaints in patients with CST, but no experimental studies are available.", "To investigate the effect of a multimodal cervical physical therapy treatment on tinnitus complaints in patients with CST.", "Randomized controlled trial.", "Patients with a combination of severe subjective tinnitus (Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI): 25-90 points) and neck complaints (Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire (NBQ) > 14 points).", "All patients received cervical physical therapy for 6 weeks (12 sessions). Patients were randomized in an immediate-start therapy group (n = 19) and a 6-week delayed-start therapy group (n = 19).", "TFI and NBQ-scores were documented at baseline, after the wait-and-see period in the delayed-start group, after treatment and after 6 weeks follow-up. The Global Perceived Effect (GPE) was documented at all measuring moments, except at baseline.", "In all patients (n = 38) TFI and NBQ-scores decreased significantly after treatment (p = 0.04 and p < 0.001). NBQ-scores remained significantly lower after follow-up (p = 0.001). Immediately after treatment, 53% (n = 38) experienced substantial improvement of tinnitus. This effect was maintained in 24% of patients after follow-up at six weeks." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "OBJECTIVE", "DESIGN", "PATIENTS", "INTERVENTION", "MEASUREMENTS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Aged", "Aged, 80 and over", "Cervical Vertebrae", "Female", "Humans", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Neck Pain", "Physical Therapy Modalities", "Somatosensory Disorders", "Tinnitus", "Treatment Outcome" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Cervical physical therapy can have a positive effect on subjective tinnitus complaints in patients with a combination of tinnitus and neck complaints. Larger studies, using more responsive outcome measures, are however necessary to prove this effect.
yes
27,044,366
Detailed analysis of sputum and systemic inflammation in asthma phenotypes: are paucigranulocytic asthmatics really non-inflammatory?
{ "contexts": [ "The technique of induced sputum has allowed to subdivide asthma patients into inflammatory phenotypes according to their level of granulocyte airway infiltration. There are very few studies which looked at detailed sputum and blood cell counts in a large cohort of asthmatics divided into inflammatory phenotypes. The purpose of this study was to analyze sputum cell counts, blood leukocytes and systemic inflammatory markers in these phenotypes, and investigate how those groups compared with healthy subjects.", "We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on 833 asthmatics recruited from the University Asthma Clinic of Liege and compared them with 194 healthy subjects. Asthmatics were classified into inflammatory phenotypes.", "The total non-squamous cell count per gram of sputum was greater in mixed granulocytic and neutrophilic phenotypes as compared to eosinophilic, paucigranulocytic asthma and healthy subjects (p < 0.005). Sputum eosinophils (in absolute values and percentages) were increased in all asthma phenotypes including paucigranulocytic asthma, compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.005). Eosinophilic asthma showed higher absolute sputum neutrophil and lymphocyte counts than healthy subjects (p < 0.005), while neutrophilic asthmatics had a particularly low number of sputum macrophages and epithelial cells. All asthma phenotypes showed an increased blood leukocyte count compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.005), with paucigranulocytic asthmatics having also increased absolute blood eosinophils compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.005). Neutrophilic asthma had raised CRP and fibrinogen while eosinophilic asthma only showed raised fibrinogen compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.005)." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Aged", "Asthma", "C-Reactive Protein", "Case-Control Studies", "Cross-Sectional Studies", "Eosinophils", "Female", "Fibrinogen", "Granulocytes", "Humans", "Inflammation", "Leukocyte Count", "Lymphocyte Count", "Macrophages", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Neutrophils", "Phenotype", "Retrospective Studies", "Sputum" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
This study demonstrates that a significant eosinophilic inflammation is present across all categories of asthma, and that paucigranulocytic asthma may be seen as a low grade inflammatory disease.
maybe
9,792,366
Is HIV/STD control in Jamaica making a difference?
{ "contexts": [ "To assess the impact of the comprehensive HIV/STD Control Program established in Jamaica since the late 1980s on the HIV/AIDS epidemic.", "AIDS case reports, HIV testing of blood donors, antenatal clinic attenders (ANC), food service workers, sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic attenders, female prostitutes, homosexuals and other groups were used to monitor the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Primary and secondary syphilis and cases of congenital syphilis were also monitored. National knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) surveys were conducted in 1988, 1989, 1992, 1994 and 1996.", "The annual AIDS incidence rate in Jamaica increased only marginally in the past three years from 18.5 per 100000 population to 21.4 in 1997. HIV prevalence in the general population groups tested has been about 1% or less. Among those at high risk, HIV prevalence rates have risen to 6.3% (95% confidence interval 5.0-8.0) in STD clinic attenders, around 10% and 21% in female prostitutes in Kingston and Montego Bay respectively and approximately 30% among homosexuals. Syphilis rates and congenital syphilis cases have declined. The proportion of men aged 15-49 years reporting sex with a non-regular partner declined from 35% in 1994 to 26% in 1996 (P<0.001). Women ever having used condoms increased from 51% in 1988 to 62.5% in 1992 and 73% in 1994 and 1996 (P<0.001), while condom use with a non-regular partner increased from 37% in 1992 to 73% in 1996 (P= 0.006). Condom use among men was high over the period: around 81% had ever used condoms and 77% used them with non-regular partners. Gay men, inner-city adults and adolescents aged 12-14 years all reported increases in condom use while condom sales and distribution increased from around 2 million in 1985 to 10 million in 1995." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Adult", "Child", "Condoms", "Confidence Intervals", "Female", "HIV Infections", "HIV Seroprevalence", "Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice", "Humans", "Incidence", "Jamaica", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Sexually Transmitted Diseases" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
HIV/STD control measures appear to have slowed the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Jamaica, however a significant minority of persons continue to have unprotected sex in high risk situations.
yes
17,562,682
Is Panton-Valentine leucocidin associated with the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in the UK?
{ "contexts": [ "The morbidity and mortality associated with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive Staphylococcus aureus suggest that this toxin is a key marker of disease severity. Nevertheless, the importance of PVL in the pathogenesis of primary bacteraemia caused by S. aureus is uncertain. We have determined the prevalence of PVL-encoding genes among isolates of S. aureus from bacteraemic patients.", "Consecutive bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus (n=244) from patients hospitalized in 25 centres in the UK and Ireland during 2005 were screened for PVL and mecA genes. PVL-positive isolates were characterized by toxin gene profiling, PFGE, spa-typing and MIC determinations for a range of antimicrobials.", "Four out of 244 isolates (1.6%) were PVL-positive and susceptible to oxacillin [methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA)]. Eighty-eight out of 244 (36%) were oxacillin-resistant (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), but none was PVL-positive. The four patients (two males: 30 and 33 years; two females: 62 and 80 years) had infection foci of: skin and soft tissue, unknown, indwelling line, and surgical site, and were located at one centre in Wales, one in England and two in Ireland. One of four PVL-positive isolates was resistant to penicillin and fusidic acid, the remainder were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. Genotypic analyses showed that the four isolates represented three distinct strains; the two isolates from Ireland were related." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Adult", "Aged", "Aged, 80 and over", "Anti-Bacterial Agents", "Bacteremia", "Bacterial Proteins", "Bacterial Toxins", "Child", "Child, Preschool", "Exotoxins", "Female", "Fusidic Acid", "Humans", "Infant", "Ireland", "Leukocidins", "Male", "Methicillin Resistance", "Microbial Sensitivity Tests", "Middle Aged", "Oxacillin", "Penicillin Resistance", "Penicillin-Binding Proteins", "Staphylococcal Infections", "Staphylococcus aureus", "United Kingdom" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
We found that 1.6% of S. aureus (all MSSA) from bacteraemic patients were PVL-positive. This low incidence suggests that PVL-positive S. aureus are of no particular significance as causative agents of S. aureus bacteraemia.
maybe
15,800,018
Are even impaired fasting blood glucose levels preoperatively associated with increased mortality after CABG surgery?
{ "contexts": [ "Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) below the diagnostic threshold for diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with macrovascular pathology and increased mortality after percutaneous coronary interventions. The study goal was to determine whether pre-operative fasting blood glucose (fB-glu) is associated with an increased mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).", "During 2001-03, 1895 patients underwent primary CABG [clinical DM (CDM) in 440/1895; complete data on fB-glu for n=1375/1455]. Using pre-operative fB-glu, non-diabetics were categorized as having normal fB-glu (<5.6 mmol/L), IFG (5.6<or =fB-glu<6.1 mmol/L), or suspected DM (SDM) (>or =6.1 mmol/L). fB-glu was normal in 59%. The relative risks of 30 day and 1 year mortality compared with patients with normal fB-glu was 1.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5-5.5] and 2.9 (CI: 0.8-11.2) with IFG, 2.8 (CI: 1.1-7.2) and 1.9 (CI: 0.5-6.3) with SDM vs. 1.8 (CI: 0.8-4.0) and 1.6 (CI: 0.6-4.3) if CDM, respectively. The receiver operator characteristic area for the continuous variable fB-glu and 1 year mortality was 0.65 (P=0.002)." ], "labels": [ "AIMS", "METHODS AND RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Aged", "Blood Glucose", "Coronary Artery Bypass", "Diabetes Mellitus", "Diabetic Angiopathies", "Fasting", "Female", "Humans", "Male", "Multivariate Analysis", "Myocardial Infarction", "Preoperative Care", "ROC Curve", "Retrospective Studies", "Risk Factors", "Survival Analysis", "Sweden" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
The elevated risk of death after CABG surgery known previously to be associated with CDM seems also to be shared by a group of similar size that includes patients with IFG and undiagnosed DM.
yes
14,978,612
Does positron emission tomography change management in primary rectal cancer?
{ "contexts": [ "The influence of positron emission tomography in the management of recurrent rectal cancer is well established but its role in primary rectal cancer remains uncertain. This study therefore prospectively assesses the impact of position emission tomography scanning on the management of primary rectal cancer.", "Forty-six patients with advanced primary rectal cancer referred for consideration of adjuvant preoperative therapy underwent position emission tomography scanning. The referring physicians prospectively recorded each patient's stage following conventional imaging and the proposed treatment plan prior to position emission tomography scanning. This was then compared with subsequent stage and actual management implemented, and the appropriateness of position emission tomography-induced changes was noted by subsequent clinical follow-up.", "The surgical management of 36 of 46 patients (78 percent) was unchanged as a result of position emission tomography, even though position emission tomography upstaged disease in 3 of 36 cases (8 percent) and downstaged disease in 5 of 36 cases (14 percent). In 8 of 46 cases (17 percent), management was altered because of the position emission tomography scan findings, including 6 cases (13 percent) in which surgery was cancelled and 2 other cases (4 percent) in which the radiotherapy field was changed. Where available, follow-up confirmed the appropriateness of position emission tomography-induced management change in each case. Two patients had a change in therapy independent of the position emission tomography scan due to clinical circumstances. Overall tumor stage was changed following position emission tomography in 18 of 46 patients (39 percent)." ], "labels": [ "PURPOSE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Aged", "Aged, 80 and over", "Carcinoma", "Female", "Humans", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Neoplasm Recurrence, Local", "Neoplasm Staging", "Patient Care Planning", "Predictive Value of Tests", "Prognosis", "Prospective Studies", "Radiotherapy, Adjuvant", "Rectal Neoplasms", "Sensitivity and Specificity", "Tomography, Emission-Computed" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Position emission tomography scanning appears to accurately change the stage or appropriately alter the therapy of almost a third of patients with advanced primary rectal cancer. In view of this, we suggest that position emission tomography scanning be considered part of standard workup for such patients, particularly if neoadjuvant chemoradiation is being considered as part of primary management.
yes
18,843,057
Can you deliver accurate tidal volume by manual resuscitator?
{ "contexts": [ "One of the problems with manual resuscitators is the difficulty in achieving accurate volume delivery. The volume delivered to the patient varies by the physical characteristics of the person and method. This study was designed to compare tidal volumes delivered by the squeezing method, physical characteristics and education and practice levels.", "114 individuals trained in basic life support and bag-valve-mask ventilation participated in this study. Individual characteristics were obtained by the observer and the education and practice level were described by the subjects. Ventilation was delivered with a manual resuscitator connected to a microspirometer and volumes were measured. Subjects completed three procedures: one-handed, two-handed and two-handed half-compression.", "The mean (standard deviation) volumes for the one-handed method were 592.84 ml (SD 117.39), two-handed 644.24 ml (SD 144.7) and two-handed half-compression 458.31 ml (SD 120.91) (p<0.01). Tidal volume delivered by two hands was significantly greater than that delivered by one hand (r = 0.398, p<0.01). The physical aspects including hand size, volume and grip power had no correlation with the volume delivered. There were slight increases in tidal volume with education and practice, but correlation was weak (r = 0.213, r = 0.281, r = 0.131, p<0.01)." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVES", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adult", "Clinical Competence", "Emergency Medical Services", "Female", "Hand", "Hand Strength", "Health Personnel", "Humans", "Male", "Respiration, Artificial", "Tidal Volume", "Ventilators, Mechanical" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
The tidal volume delivered by a manual resuscitator shows large variations. There were significant differences in the volume delivered by compression methods, but physical characteristics are not a predictor of tidal volume delivery. The manual resuscitator is not a suitable device for accurate ventilation.
no
23,076,787
Can increases in the cigarette tax rate be linked to cigarette retail prices?
{ "contexts": [ "To explain China's cigarette pricing mechanism and the role of the Chinese State Tobacco Monopoly Administration (STMA) on cigarette pricing and taxation.", "Published government tobacco tax documentation and statistics published by the Chinese STMA are used to analyse the interrelations among industry profits, taxes and retail price of cigarettes in China.", "The 2009 excise tax increase on cigarettes in China has not translated into higher retail prices because the Chinese STMA used its policy authority to ensure that retail cigarette prices did not change. The government tax increase is being collected at both the producer and wholesale levels. As a result, the 2009 excise tax increase in China has resulted in higher tax revenue for the government and lower profits for the tobacco industry, with no increase in the retail price of cigarettes for consumers." ], "labels": [ "OBJECTIVE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "China", "Commerce", "Government Regulation", "Humans", "Taxes", "Tobacco Industry", "Tobacco Products" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "n", "o" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
Numerous studies have found that taxation is one of the most effective policy instruments for tobacco control. However, these findings come from countries that have market economies where market forces determine prices and influence how cigarette taxes are passed to the consumers in retail prices. China's tobacco industry is not a market economy; therefore, non-market forces and the current Chinese tobacco monopoly system determine cigarette prices. The result is that tax increases do not necessarily get passed on to the retail price.
no
9,199,905
Vertical lines in distal esophageal mucosa (VLEM): a true endoscopic manifestation of esophagitis in children?
{ "contexts": [ "We observed an endoscopic abnormally in a group of children with histological esophagitis. We termed this finding \"vertical lines in esophageal mucosa\" (VLEM). We examined the relationship between the presence of VLEM and significant histologic changes in esophageal mucosal biopsies.", "Between January 1, 1992, and August 31, 1994, the senior author (JFF) performed 255 esophageal biopsies. The procedure reports, available endoscopic photographs, and histology reports were reviewed to establish the endoscopic and histologic appearance of the esophageal mucosa. Intraepithelial cells were counted in a blind review of 42 randomly selected biopsies.", "The esophageal mucosa had a normal appearance on 160 endoscopic studies (Group 1) and VLEM were the only mucosal abnormalities in 41 endoscopies (Group 2). Histology was normal in 92 of 160 biopsies (57.5%) from Group 1, and 1 of 41 biopsies (2.4%) from Group 2. Most patients in Group 2 had eosinophilic esophagitis (34 of 41, 83%, specificity 0.85, sensitivity 0.5, p>0.001) which was of moderate to severe intensity (31 of 34, 91.2%, specificity 0.88, sensitivity 0.73, p<0.001)." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Adolescent", "Biopsy", "Cell Count", "Child", "Child, Preschool", "Endosonography", "Esophagitis", "Esophagoscopy", "Female", "Humans", "Infant", "Infant, Newborn", "Intestinal Mucosa", "Male", "Observer Variation", "Random Allocation", "Retrospective Studies", "Sensitivity and Specificity" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
Histology usually demonstrated moderate to severe inflammation when VLEM were present. VLEM may be a highly specific endoscopic feature of esophagitis in children.
yes
23,999,452
Does hypoglycaemia increase the risk of cardiovascular events?
{ "contexts": [ "Hypoglycaemia caused by glucose-lowering therapy has been linked to cardiovascular (CV) events. The ORIGIN trial provides an opportunity to further assess this relationship.", "A total of 12 537 participants with dysglycaemia and high CV-risk were randomized to basal insulin glargine titrated to a fasting glucose of ≤ 5.3 mmol/L (95 mg/dL) or standard glycaemic care. Non-severe hypoglycaemia was defined as symptoms confirmed by glucose ≤ 54 mg/dL and severe hypoglycaemia as a requirement for assistance or glucose ≤ 36 mg/dL. Outcomes were: (i) the composite of CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke; (ii) mortality; (iii) CV mortality; and (iv) arrhythmic death. Hazards were estimated before and after adjustment for a hypoglycaemia propensity score. During a median of 6.2 years (IQR: 5.8-6.7), non-severe hypoglycaemic episodes occurred in 41.7 and 14.4% glargine and standard group participants, respectively, while severe episodes occurred in 5.7 and 1.8%, respectively. Non-severe hypoglycaemia was not associated with any outcome following adjustment. Conversely, severe hypoglycaemia was associated with a greater risk for the primary outcome (HR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.24-2.02, P<0.001), mortality (HR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.39-2.19, P<0.001), CV death (HR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.27-2.30, P<0.001) and arrhythmic death (HR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.17-2.67, P = 0.007). Similar findings were noted for severe nocturnal hypoglycaemia for the primary outcome and mortality. The severe hypoglycaemia hazard for all four outcomes was higher with standard care than with insulin glargine." ], "labels": [ "AIMS", "METHODS AND RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Arrhythmias, Cardiac", "Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2", "Diabetic Angiopathies", "Female", "Glycated Hemoglobin A", "Humans", "Hypoglycemia", "Hypoglycemic Agents", "Insulin Glargine", "Insulin, Long-Acting", "Male", "Middle Aged", "Myocardial Infarction", "Prognosis", "Risk Factors", "Stroke" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "m", "a", "y", "b", "e" ] }
Severe hypoglycaemia is associated with an increased risk for CV outcomes in people at high CV risk and dysglycaemia. Although allocation to insulin glargine vs. standard care was associated with an increased risk of severe and non-severe hypoglycaemia, the relative risk of CV outcomes with hypoglycaemia was lower with insulin glargine-based glucose-lowering therapy than with the standard glycaemic control. Trial Registration (ORIGIN ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00069784).
yes
22,534,881
Does the radiographic transition zone correlate with the level of aganglionosis on the specimen in Hirschsprung's disease?
{ "contexts": [ "The correlation between radiographic transition zone on contrast enema in Hirschsprung's disease and the total length of aganglionosis is known to be inaccurate. The aim of our study was to analyse this correlation more precisely to improve preoperative planning of the corrective surgery.", "From 1998 to 2009, 79 patients were operated on for Hirschsprung's disease. All available preoperative contrast enemas (n = 61) had been single blind reviewed by the same radiologist who defined the radiographic transition zone when present in vertebral level. Four groups were determined (rectal, rectosigmoid, long segment, and absence of transition zone) and by Kappa coefficient of agreement correlated to the length of aganglionosis in the pathological report.", "Radiological findings were concordant with the specimen in pathology in 8 cases of 19 in rectal form (42 %), in 20 cases of 35 in rectosigmoid form (57 %), in all 6 cases of long-segment form (100 %), in the 2 cases of total colonic form (100 %) with a global agreement of 58.1 %, κ = 0.39 CI [0.24; 0.57]." ], "labels": [ "PURPOSE", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Female", "Hirschsprung Disease", "Humans", "Infant", "Infant, Newborn", "Male", "Radiography", "Retrospective Studies" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "n", "o" ] }
Correlation between level of radiographic transition zone on contrast enema and length of aganglionosis remains low. Systematic preoperative biopsy by coelioscopy or ombilical incision is mandatory.
no
24,785,562
Is dexamethasone an effective alternative to oral prednisone in the treatment of pediatric asthma exacerbations?
{ "contexts": [ "A short course of systemic corticosteroids is an important therapy in the treatment of pediatric asthma exacerbations. Although a 5-day course of oral prednisone or prednisolone has become the most commonly used regimen, dexamethasone has also been used for a shorter duration (1-2 days) with potential for improvement in compliance and palatability. We reviewed the literature to determine if there is sufficient evidence that dexamethasone can be used as an effective alternative in the treatment of pediatric asthma exacerbations in the inpatient setting.", "A Medline search was conducted on the use of dexamethasone in the treatment of asthma exacerbations in children. The studies selected were clinical trials comparing the efficacy of dexamethasone with prednisone. Meta-analysis was performed examining physician revisitation rates and symptomatic return to baseline.", "Six completed pediatric clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. All of the pediatric trials found that prednisone is not superior to dexamethasone in treating mild to moderate asthma exacerbations. Meta-analysis demonstrated homogeneity between the dexamethasone and prednisone groups when examining symptomatic return to baseline and unplanned physician revisits after the initial emergency department encounter. Some studies found potential additional benefits of dexamethasone, including improved compliance and less vomiting." ], "labels": [ "BACKGROUND", "METHODS", "RESULTS" ], "meshes": [ "Administration, Oral", "Anti-Inflammatory Agents", "Asthma", "Child", "Dexamethasone", "Disease Progression", "Glucocorticoids", "Humans", "Prednisone", "Treatment Outcome" ], "reasoning_required_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ], "reasoning_free_pred": [ "y", "e", "s" ] }
The current literature suggests that dexamethasone can be used as an effective alternative to prednisone in the treatment of mild to moderate acute asthma exacerbations in children, with the added benefits of improved compliance, palatability, and cost. However, more research is needed to examine the role of dexamethasone in hospitalized children.
yes
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for [Dataset Name]

Dataset Summary

[More Information Needed]

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

[More Information Needed]

Languages

[More Information Needed]

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

[More Information Needed]

Data Fields

[More Information Needed]

Data Splits

[More Information Needed]

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

[More Information Needed]

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

[More Information Needed]

Who are the source language producers?

[More Information Needed]

Annotations

Annotation process

[More Information Needed]

Who are the annotators?

[More Information Needed]

Personal and Sensitive Information

[More Information Needed]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

[More Information Needed]

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

[More Information Needed]

Licensing Information

[More Information Needed]

Citation Information

[More Information Needed]

Contributions

Thanks to @tuner007 for adding this dataset.

Update on GitHub
Papers with Code