# Datasets: pietrolesci /scitail

Dataset Preview
premise (string)hypothesis (string)gold_label (string)label (class label)
"Pluto rotates once on its axis every 6.39 Earth days;"
"Earth rotates on its axis once times in one day."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"---Glenn ========================================================= Once per day, the earth rotates about its axis."
"Earth rotates on its axis once times in one day."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"geysers - periodic gush of hot water at the surface of the Earth."
"The surface of the sun is much hotter than almost anything on earth."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Facts: Liquid water droplets can be changed into invisible water vapor through a process called evaporation ."
"Evaporation is responsible for changing liquid water into water vapor."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"By comparison, the earth rotates on its axis once per day and revolves around the sun once per year."
"Earth rotates on its axis once times in one day."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"Pluto is about 39 times more distant from the Sun than is the Earth, and it takes about 250 Earth years for Pluto to make one complete revolution around the Sun."
"Earth makes a complete revolution around the sun about once every year."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"It takes Pluto 247.7 Earth years to make one revolution around the Sun."
"Earth makes a complete revolution around the sun about once every year."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Multicellular organisms that have a eukaryotic cell type, mitochondria and a complex nervous system."
"Single-celled organisms and multicellular organisms have this in common: both have a way to get rid of waste materials."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Distribution Water on earth is located primarily in the oceans (97.2%), polar caps (2.14%), ground water(0.61%), and surface water(0.009%)."
"Most of earth's water is located in oceans"
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"migratory birds which fly from South America to winter in Arctic Circle, where they"
"Many species of birds in new england fly south for the winter months to find an environment with more food."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Younger children learn about different forms of energy, including heat, light and sound, though concrete activities."
"Heat, light, and sound are all different forms of energy."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"When enough condensation forms, it will rain and water the plants."
"Dew forming on plants during a cold night is an example of water condensing."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"The photosynthesis of the past is what had stored the Sun's energy that ultimately produced coal;"
"Coal is nonrenewable, and the sun is renewable is how coal and the sun compare as sources of energy."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Around the liquid stor- age and liquid recovery systems, rain water runoff would be controlled by collection into a sump system."
"Rain is an example of liquid water."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"In this last example, it isn't even loudness or sound at all that needs to be made."
"The sound in a loud classroom is an example of a form of energy."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"When these winds are strong, they deflect moister air moving up from the Gulf coast and cold air masses moving down from the Arctic;"
"The best explanation for how air masses move across the united states is that the prevailing westerlies move air masses from west to east across the united states but may be deflected by the jet stream."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Evaporation : The process that changes water (liquid) into water vapor (gas)."
"Evaporation is responsible for changing liquid water into water vapor."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"A long-day plant (a plant that flowers in the early summer in response to increasing day length) will be used to isolate the appropriate promoters."
"A(n) increase in length happens to metal railroad tracks during the heat of a summer day."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Why do we find few or no human fossils in most sedimentary rock?"
"Most fossils are found in sedimentary rocks because organisms can be preserved in sedimentary rock."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Even if you don't live near a stream or river (though most people do), there are many little things you can do to help prevent too much water and soil run-off from contaminating streams and rivers where anadromous fishes live: Keep your lawn vegetated."
"People can help keep a forest a good place for birds to live by preventing too many trees from being cut down."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"MINERALS A mineral is any naturally-occurring, homogeneous solid that has a definite chemical composition and a distinctive internal crystal structure."
"A mineral is described as a solid natural material with a crystal structure."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"Selfish Cells Threaten Multicellular Life, Trends in Ecology and Evolution Excerpt: How far have conflicts at the cell and organism level influenced the evolution of multicellularity?"
"Single-celled organisms and multicellular organisms have this in common: both have a way to get rid of waste materials."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Frogs replace them with lungs in the transition from tadpoles to adults."
"A frog develops (a/an) lungs as it changes from a tadpole to an adult frog."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"3) The earth is far enough from the sun so that its surface temperature isn't unbearably hot ."
"The surface of the sun is much hotter than almost anything on earth."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Solar system: the Sun and all bodies orbiting around it."
"The largest body in our solar system is the sun."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"The sun and stars appeared exactly as they do to us upon earth."
"From earth, the sun appears brighter than any other star because the sun is the closest star"
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Indeed, these and most fungi are multicellular organisms made up of cells have cell walls, a typical plant characteristic."
"Single-celled organisms and multicellular organisms have this in common: both have a way to get rid of waste materials."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"For example, active health is offered in every grade to teach students to monitor their own healthy habits such as nutrition, substance abuse and smoking."
"Exercising every day is an example of a good health habit."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Identify her master traits and provide an example from the reading for each trait."
"Being able to read is an example of a learned trait."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"On Titan, rain and clouds are most likely made up of liquid methane, not water."
"Rain is an example of liquid water."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"CSX operates a north-south length of railroad track that connects Chrisman and Paris."
"A(n) increase in length happens to metal railroad tracks during the heat of a summer day."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Slugs, believe it or not have a very important purpose. They are decomposers, which means they eats wastes and organic materials of other organisms. They help get rid of the t…rash that animals leave behind."
"Single-celled organisms and multicellular organisms have this in common: both have a way to get rid of waste materials."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"I 4.4.3d Different forms of energy include heat, light, electrical, mechanical, sound, nuclear, and chemical."
"Heat, light, and sound are all different forms of energy."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"Your eyes of blue and hair that's straight, Comes through heredity, inheriting a human trait."
"A human offspring inherit blue eyes."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"Energy, heat and/or sound are forms of matter."
"Heat, light, and sound are all different forms of energy."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"What good are cactus spines?"
"The spines of a cactus help it survive because spines protect the cactus from animals."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"The energy in the coal came from the sun and was stored in the plants."
"Coal is nonrenewable, and the sun is renewable is how coal and the sun compare as sources of energy."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Of course, the Sun is the closest star to Earth."
"From earth, the sun appears brighter than any other star because the sun is the closest star"
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"Pumpkin Fruit RollUps Chop pumpkin and cook in saucepan until soft."
"A pumpkin is a fruit."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Wait for a series of blue blocks to appear and fill the slot."
"A blue block appears blue in the sunlight if only blue light is reflected by the block."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Be able to give examples of the marketing applications of these types of learning."
"Being able to read is an example of a learned trait."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"as, to inject cold water into a condenser;"
"Dew forming on plants during a cold night is an example of water condensing."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"The cholla, with its long spines, provides a well protected home for the cactus wren and its young."
"The spines of a cactus help it survive because spines protect the cactus from animals."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"turbulent flow) air flow rate The mass/volume of air moved per unit of time through a space opening or duct."
"The best explanation for how air masses move across the united states is that the prevailing westerlies move air masses from west to east across the united states but may be deflected by the jet stream."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"As a House of Animals There are many trees living in woods, and their flowers, nuts and fruits support the life of small animals such as a squirrel."
"A squirrel storing nuts is preparing for a seasonal change in the environment."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"We may, for example, respond to a loud noise by saying "That sounded like a gunshot.""
"The sound in a loud classroom is an example of a form of energy."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Now the carbon atom we are following is sent out inlo the air as a part of a carbon dioxide molecule again."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"In some programs, genetic counselors use DNA fingerprint information to help prospective parents understand the risk of having an affected child."
"Children resemble their parents because they have similar dna."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Genes determine all inherited traits including those that give the individual specific characteristics (blue eyes rather than brown eyes) as well as common characteristics (two eyes, two arms, etc.)."
"A human offspring inherit blue eyes."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"An organism eats other living things to survive;"
"A moose eats a plant is an example of a living thing that depends on another living thing to survive."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"In this food chain, energy flows from the grass (producer) to the deer (primary consumer) to the tiger (secondary consumer)."
"A consumer and producer in a food chain are involved when a deer eats a leaf."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"It consists of three main components: a bicycle for creating mechanical energy, a generator for converting the mechanical energy into electricity, and a display panel that has the necessary wiring and a range of gadgets"
"A person uses mechanical energy to pedal a bicycle."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"Seeking shelter from the pouring rain, you duck into a nearby music store."
"When it rains, some animals will move to seek shelter."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"This tactic is similar to the parental idea of ignoring a child having a tantrum."
"Children resemble their parents because they have similar dna."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"It rotates on its axis once every 60 Earth days."
"Earth rotates on its axis once times in one day."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Our lenses will enhance what you want to see and block out sunlight, blue-light, glare and distracting objects and terrain."
"A blue block appears blue in the sunlight if only blue light is reflected by the block."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"This respect must have been similar to the feelings of a child for its parents."
"Children resemble their parents because they have similar dna."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"For required action realization use one of the types of mechanical energy."
"A person uses mechanical energy to pedal a bicycle."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"The sun, moon and twelve stars represent the heavenly bodies of our solar system."
"The largest body in our solar system is the sun."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Both units protect against lighting, high winds, burglary, fire, tornadoes and hurricanes."
"Both hurricanes and tornadoes always have high winds."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"> >It's turned into plasma, a burning gas as hot as the surface of the sun."
"The surface of the sun is much hotter than almost anything on earth."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Looking Good: Is exercise a dangerous habit?"
"Exercising every day is an example of a good health habit."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"You will be able to distinguish between single-trait, multi-trait and social learning theories of personality."
"Being able to read is an example of a learned trait."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"a natural mineral rock salt."
"A mineral is described as a natural substance that makes up rocks."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"On sweltering summer days, city power supplies are often taxed by increased air conditioning use, as citizens struggle to beat the heat."
"A(n) increase in length happens to metal railroad tracks during the heat of a summer day."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"EVAPORATION: the process of liquid water becoming water vapor, including vaporization from water surfaces, land surfaces and snow fields, but not from leaf surfaces."
"Evaporation is responsible for changing liquid water into water vapor."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"Build with blue blocks."
"A blue block appears blue in the sunlight if only blue light is reflected by the block."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"At one temperature and pressure, called the Triple Point , all three phases of water (liquid), water vapor (gas), and ice (solid) coexist at equilibrium."
"One way to change water from a liquid to a solid is to decrease the temperature."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Use this microscope to see: microorganisms in pond water, human tissue, plant cells, insect parts and more."
"A microscope would best help a person observe the parts of a plant cell."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"The parent said she was having a difficult time explaining the situation to her child and maintaining the child's belief in Santa."
"Children resemble their parents because they have similar dna."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"One example was given: flammability - the ability of a substance to burn in the presence of oxygen. Some substances (wood, alcohol) are very flammable, others are not. Iron (see above) reacts with oxygen, but so slowly we do not say the iron burns, but that it rusts."
"Wood burning is an example of a different substance being formed."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"When the weather begins to cool off in the fall, the birds fly south to find warm winter weather and plenty of food."
"Many species of birds in new england fly south for the winter months to find an environment with more food."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"ECONOMY OF WOOD BURNING FACILITIES There are several successful examples of projects with wood burning."
"Wood burning is an example of a different substance being formed."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Evaporation is the process of changing water from liquid to gas."
"Evaporation is responsible for changing liquid water into water vapor."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"Pauling: 1.78 Allred Rochow: 1.49 Crystal Structure structure: tetragonal The following CrystalMaker image represents the solid state structure."
"A mineral is described as a solid natural material with a crystal structure."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"The railroad trestle and the highway bridge attract a small number of fishermen throughout the year, with activity increasing to approximately 20 persons per day on weekends during summer."
"A(n) increase in length happens to metal railroad tracks during the heat of a summer day."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"The blue wavelength reflected from the ground is blocked;"
"A blue block appears blue in the sunlight if only blue light is reflected by the block."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Without it, the surface temperature of Earth would be either extremely hot or extremely cold, depending on which side is facing the"
"The surface of the sun is much hotter than almost anything on earth."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"X1014316970-00284-62165</DOCNO> A Cactus A Cactus Cactus CACTUS A cactus is any of the family of plants that are native to north and South America and usually have clusters of spines."
"The spines of a cactus help it survive because spines protect the cactus from animals."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Mechanical structures of musculoskeletal systems and impedance regulation Koji Ito (Toyohashi Univ. of Technology) Dynamic simulation of bicycle ergometer pedalling using human muscle characteristics Mitsuhiko Hasegawa (Nagaoka Univ. of Technology), et al."
"A person uses mechanical energy to pedal a bicycle."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Saturn orbits the Sun once every 29.4 Earth years."
"Earth makes a complete revolution around the sun about once every year."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Heat and summer months activate and increase the biting."
"A(n) increase in length happens to metal railroad tracks during the heat of a summer day."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"As the tadpole transforms into an adult frog, its gills are absorbed into the body and the lungs take over for the process of respiration."
"A frog develops (a/an) lungs as it changes from a tadpole to an adult frog."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"freezing the change of a liquid into a solid as temperature decreases."
"One way to change water from a liquid to a solid is to decrease the temperature."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"11B sun other star Is the Sun another star?"
"From earth, the sun appears brighter than any other star because the sun is the closest star"
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Around the liquid storage and liquid recovery systems, rain water runoff would be controlled by collection into a sump system."
"Rain is an example of liquid water."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"animalAny living thing that is not a plant."
"A moose eats a plant is an example of a living thing that depends on another living thing to survive."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"A Special Message on Safety Safety should be first in the minds of administrators, teachers, and students actively involved in a science program."
"If an accident happens during a science experiment, the first thing a student should do is report to the teacher."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"the elements, plants and living things;"
"A moose eats a plant is an example of a living thing that depends on another living thing to survive."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Single organisms have certain characteristics."
"Single-celled organisms and multicellular organisms have this in common: both have a way to get rid of waste materials."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Railroad workers in the Paris region went on strike for a day or two to claim increased levels of staffing to deal with the anticipated influx of travelers for the World Cup this summer."
"A(n) increase in length happens to metal railroad tracks during the heat of a summer day."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Students learn how electric current flows through series circuits and parallel circuits."
"A parallel circuit is best described as: electricity flows along more than one pathway"
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"What if it is as large as Jupiter and so close to the sun it would be part of the solar system?"
"The largest body in our solar system is the sun."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Mass wasting is the name given to erosion due to gravity--this is, when rocks, soil, or dirt moves downhill under the influence of gravity."
"Gravity causes rocks to roll downhill."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"They're just sucking atoms out of the air to make you dinner.""
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"among other things, plants give off oxygen and take in carbon dioxide gas necessary for growth and development."
"Oxygen gas is given off by plants."
"entailment"
1 (entailment)
"But there is more to cactuses than spines."
"The spines of a cactus help it survive because spines protect the cactus from animals."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Asymmetric cell divisions - a single cell (zygote) produces a multicellular organism with many different specialized cell types, this requires cell divisions in which daughter cells have different fates."
"Single-celled organisms and multicellular organisms have this in common: both have a way to get rid of waste materials."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"Will there be hot surfaces?"
"The surface of the sun is much hotter than almost anything on earth."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
"and very little precipitation."
"The best explanation for how air masses move across the united states is that the prevailing westerlies move air masses from west to east across the united states but may be deflected by the jet stream."
"neutral"
0 (not_entailment)
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)
YAML Metadata Warning: empty or missing yaml metadata in repo card (https://huggingface.co/docs/hub/datasets-cards)

## Overview

Original dataset is available on the HuggingFace Hub here.

## Dataset curation

This is the same as the snli_format split of the SciTail dataset available on the HuggingFace Hub (i.e., same data, same splits, etc). The only differences are the following:

• selecting only the columns ["sentence1", "sentence2", "gold_label", "label"]
• renaming columns with the following mapping {"sentence1": "premise", "sentence2": "hypothesis"}
• creating a new column "label" from "gold_label" with the following mapping {"entailment": "entailment", "neutral": "not_entailment"}
• encoding labels with the following mapping {"not_entailment": 0, "entailment": 1}

Note that there are 10 overlapping instances (as found by merging on columns "label", "premise", and "hypothesis") between train and test splits.

## Code to create the dataset

from datasets import Features, Value, ClassLabel, Dataset, DatasetDict, load_dataset

# load datasets from the Hub

ds = {}
for name, df_ in dd.items():
df = df_.to_pandas()

# select important columns
df = df[["sentence1", "sentence2", "gold_label"]]

# rename columns
df = df.rename(columns={"sentence1": "premise", "sentence2": "hypothesis"})

# encode labels
df["label"] = df["gold_label"].map({"entailment": "entailment", "neutral": "not_entailment"})
df["label"] = df["label"].map({"not_entailment": 0, "entailment": 1})

# cast to dataset
features = Features({
"premise": Value(dtype="string", id=None),
"hypothesis": Value(dtype="string", id=None),
"label": ClassLabel(num_classes=2, names=["not_entailment", "entailment"]),
})
ds[name] = Dataset.from_pandas(df, features=features)

dataset = DatasetDict(ds)
dataset.push_to_hub("scitail", token="<token>")

# check overlap between splits
from itertools import combinations
for i, j in combinations(dataset.keys(), 2):
print(
f"{i} - {j}: ",
pd.merge(
dataset[i].to_pandas(),
dataset[j].to_pandas(),
on=["label", "premise", "hypothesis"],
how="inner",
).shape[0],
)
#> train - test:  10
#> train - validation:  0
#> test - validation:  0