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id (int)sentence1 (string)sentence2 (string)label (class label)
1
This was a series of nested angular standards , so that measurements in azimuth and elevation could be done directly in polar coordinates relative to the ecliptic .
This was a series of nested polar scales , so that measurements in azimuth and elevation could be performed directly in angular coordinates relative to the ecliptic .
0
2
His father emigrated to Missouri in 1868 but returned when his wife became ill and before the rest of the family could also go to America .
His father emigrated to America in 1868 , but returned when his wife became ill and before the rest of the family could go to Missouri .
0
3
In January 2011 , the Deputy Secretary General of FIBA Asia , Hagop Khajirian , inspected the venue together with SBP - President Manuel V. Pangilinan .
In January 2011 , FIBA Asia deputy secretary general Hagop Khajirian along with SBP president Manuel V. Pangilinan inspected the venue .
1
4
Steiner argued that , in the right circumstances , the spiritual world can be explored through direct experience by practicing ethical and cognitive forms of rigorous self-discipline .
Steiner held that the spiritual world can be researched in the right circumstances through direct experience , by persons practicing rigorous forms of ethical and cognitive self-discipline .
0
5
Luciano Williames Dias ( born July 25 , 1970 ) is a Brazilian football coach and former player .
Luciano Williames Dias ( born 25 July 1970 ) is a former football coach and Brazilian player .
0
6
During her sophomore , junior and senior summers , she spent half of it with her Alaska team , and half playing , and living in Oregon .
During her second , junior and senior summers , she spent half of it with her Alaska team , half playing and living in Oregon .
1
7
The smallest number that can be represented in two positive and seventh ways as a sum of four different powers is 2056364173794800 .
The smallest number that can be represented as a sum of four positive seventh potences in two different ways is 2056364173794800 .
0
8
His father emigrated to Missouri in 1868 , but returned when his wife became ill and before the rest of the family could go to America .
His father emigrated to Missouri in 1868 but returned when his wife became ill and before the rest of the family could also go to America .
1
9
The Villa Pesquera facilities are owned by the Municipality of Ponce , but operated by the fishermen themselves .
The facilities of Villa Pesquera are operated by the Municipality of Ponce , but are owned by the fishermen .
0
10
It is situated south of Köroğlu Mountains and to the north of Bolu .
It is situated south of Köroğlu - mountains and north of the Bolu .
1
11
The Río Blanco mine is a large copper mine located in the north of Peru in Loreto Region .
The Río Blanco - Mine is a large copper mine in northern Peru in the region of Loreto .
1
12
He appeared as General Tao in the Amazon - Show `` The Man at the High Castle '' , and as Onoda in AMC `` Hell On Wheels '' .
He appeared as General Onoda in the Amazon - Show `` The Man in High Castle '' and as Tao on AMCs '' Hell On Wheels '' .
0
13
The spectral levels of light that can be measured by plants for photosynthesis is similar to , but not the same as what 's used by lumens .
The spectral light levels that can be measured by plants for photosynthesis are similar , but not the same as what is used by lumens .
1
14
The Sunset Sunset Road comes from right and becomes Briscoe Mountain Road .
Sunset Road comes in from the right and becomes Briscoe Mountain Road .
1
15
To get there , take the Marine Drive from the Lions Gate Bridge to the West , past Lighthouse Park , Horseshoe Bay and then further on to the 7100 Marine Drive block .
To get there , take Marine Drive west from the Lions Gate Bridge past Horseshoe Bay to Lighthouse Park and then continue on to 7100 Block Marine Drive .
0
16
Inverallan is one of the parishes which formed the ecclesiastical ( later civil ) parish of `` Cromdale , Inverallan and Advie '' in Morayshire in Scotland .
Inverallan is one of the parishes that formed the civil ( later ecclesiastical ) parish of Cromdale , Inverallan and Advie in Morayshire , Scotland .
0
17
Mr. Thuso Nokwanda Mbedu was born in Pietermaritzburg as Thuso Mbebu .
Thuso Nokwanda Mbedu was born Thuso Mbebu in Pietermaritzburg .
1
18
For ideal gases , the molar volume is given by the ideal gas equation , a good approximation for many usual gases at standard temperature and pressure .
For ideal gases the molar volume is given by the standard gas equation , a good approximation for many common gases at ideal temperature and pressure .
0
19
John Barrow Island is a member of the Queen Elizabeth Islands and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in the territory of Nunavut .
John Barrow Island is a member of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and the Queen Elizabeth Islands in the Nunavut area .
0
20
It was chosen as the 19th best movie at the 7th Yokohama Film Festival .
It was chosen as the 7th best film at the 19th Yokohama Film Festival .
0
21
Christopher Griffiths ( born Christopher Llewellyn ) is an actor , best known for his role as Logan in the 2002 film `` Where Were We ... '' .
Christopher Llewellyn ( born Christopher Griffiths ) is an actor known for his role as Logan in the film 'Where Were We ... `` ' from the year 2002 .
0
22
Netanya is located on the Israeli Mediterranean Coastal Plain , the historic land bridge between Europe , Africa , and Asia .
Netanya is located on the Israeli Mediterranean coast , the historic land bridge between Europe , Africa and Asia .
1
23
Owned by Rick and Sheri Dorritie is Megasaurus and owned by Mike West Transaurus .
Megasaurus is owned by Rick and Sheri Dorritie and Transaurus is owned by Mike West .
1
24
All five events started the last day and concluded with the final on the first day .
All five events started on the last day and concluded with the final on the first day .
1
25
In January 2011 , FIBA Asia deputy secretary general Manuel V. Pangilinan along with SBP president Hagop Khajirian inspected the venue .
In January 2011 , the Deputy Secretary General of FIBA Asia , Hagop Khajirian , inspected the venue together with SBP - President Manuel V. Pangilinan .
0
26
The strong influence of Attic-figure Greek vase painting has convinced some experts that the artist who decorated the tomb was a red metic .
The strong influence of redfigurine attic vase painting has convinced some experts that the artist who decorated the tomb was a Greek Metic .
0
27
A unique feature of the human metate is the lack of ceremonial figures .
A unique feature of ceremonial metate is the lack of human figures .
0
28
Durr was born in Birmingham , Alabama , where she was brought up by southern women , but was also taught that the Ku Klux Klan were protectors of black femaleness .
Durr was born in Birmingham , Alabama , where she was brought up by black women , but was also taught that the Ku Klux Klan were protectors of southern femininity .
0
29
Katrina M. of Sputinik Music was positive and said that the song is reverse , bright and cheerful .
Katrina M. of Sputinik Music was bright and cheerful and said the song is reversed , positive .
0
30
The Nokasippi River , the Mississippi River and the Little Nokasippi River are all in the area .
The Mississippi , the Nokasippi and the Little Nokasippi are all in the vicinity .
1
31
In 2006 , the Álvarez won the South America Games against Hamilton Ventura .
Hamilton Ventura won the 2006 South America Games against Álvarez .
0
32
Some reports state `` 30 years or more '' , while others claim `` 50 years or more '' .
Some reports claim `` 30 years or more '' , while others assert `` 50 years or more '' .
1
33
The resignation of Councillor Horace Muspratt ( party ? , St. Peter , reported April 15 , 1908 ) was elected to the council on 2 June 1909 .
The resignation of Councillor Horace Muspratt ( Party ? , St. Peter 's , reported 15 April 1908 ) was elected to the Council on 2 June 1909 .
1
34
On April 11 , 2011 , a like planet , HD 38283 b , was discovered in an Earth-Saturnian orbit .
In an earth-like orbit , a Saturn planet , HD 38283 b , was discovered on April 11 , 2011 .
0
35
On July 21 , 2014 , after his two successful years at Las Palmas in Spain , Chrisantus signed a three-year contract with the Turkish Super Lig - Club Sivasspor .
On July 21 , 2014 , after his two successful years at Las Palmas in Spain , Chrisantus signed a three-year contract with Sivasspor at the Turkish Super Lig .
0
36
Ruben Bolling ( born 1963 in New Jersey ) is a pseudonym for cartoonist Ken Fisher , the author of `` Tom the Dancing Bug '' .
Ken Fisher ( born c. 1963 in New Jersey ) is a pseudonym for Ruben Bolling , a cartoonist , the author of `` Tom the Dancing Bug '' .
0
37
On December 1 , Tinnish announced that he had withdrawn from his position with Toronto and would stay with Atlanta .
On 1 December , Tinnish announced that he had withdrawn from his position with Atlanta and would remain with Toronto .
0
38
Located in the southern part of the county , it lies in the southeastern part of the state .
It is located in the southeastern part of the county , in the southern part of the state .
0
39
He was born in New York City in East Broadway on October 23 , 1806 .
He was born on 23 October 1806 in New York , East Broadway .
1
40
He always added his own surname of Bhosle and then treated the child like his own son .
He always added his own surname of Bhosle and afterwards treated the child like his own son .
1
41
After selling his house on 30 Harare drive to the Canadian Embassy he bought Bromley Farm just outside Marondera , Zimbabwe .
After selling his house on 30 Harare ride to the Canadian embassy , he bought Bromley Farm outside Marondera , Zimbabwe .
1
42
The Baldwins lived in Washington , D.C. Robert Baldwin died in 1977 , and Helen Baldwin died March 14 , 1998 , from Lou Gehrig 's disease .
The Baldwins lived in Washington , D.C. Helen Baldwin died in 1977 , and Robert Baldwin died on March 14 , 1998 , from the disease of Lou Gehrig .
0
43
Doyline is an entry point to Lake Bistineau and the Bistineau State Park .
Lake Bistineau is an entry point to Doyline and the Lake Bistineau State Park .
0
44
Companies based in the larger rivium include Rockwell Automation , Royal Dutch Shell , Sodexho Nederland , Pfizer , Van Oord and many more .
Companies based in the larger Rivium include Rockwell Automation , Pfizer Nederland , Sodexho Nederland , Royal Dutch Shell , Van Oord , and many more .
0
45
Axl Rose had wanted the Seattle rock band Nirvana to be the opening act , but frontman Kurt Cobain declined .
Axl Rose had wanted Seattle rock band Nirvana to be the opening act , but frontman Kurt Cobain refused .
1
46
He built weapons factories for Vtorov and Mikhelson in Moscow , Serpukhov , Zatishye ( Elektrostal ) , Bogorodsk ( Noginsk ) .
He built weapon factories for Vtorov and Mikhelson in electrostal , Zatishye ( Moscow , Serpukhov ) and Bogorodsk ( Noginsk ) .
0
47
In June of 1997 , Kristin met Richard Armstrong .
In June of 1997 , Armstrong met Kristin Richard .
0
48
The U.S. Route 191 leads north from Douglas to Interstate 10 near Willcox , the Arizona State Route 80 leads west to Bisbee and northeast to Interstate 10 in New Mexico .
U.S. Route 191 leads north from Douglas to Interstate 10 near Willcox . Arizona State Route 80 leads west to Bisbee and northeast to Interstate 10 in New Mexico .
1
49
Most Jewish anarchists supported anarchosyndicalism and communist anarchism , while a few were individualist anarchists .
Most individualist anarchists supported anarchosyndicalism and communist anarchism , while a few Jewish anarchists were .
0
50
From 1921 to 2012 , Blue Ash Airport was the location of Blue Ash Airport -- Cincinnati .
From 1921 to 2012 , Cincinnati -- Blue Ash Airport was the Blue Blue Ash site .
0
51
It was founded in 1982 by Samuel Lipman , a former art critic of `` New York Times '' and Hilton Kramer , pianist and music critic .
It was founded in 1982 by Hilton Kramer , former art critic for `` The New York Times '' , and Samuel Lipman , a pianist and music critic .
0
52
Constante was the wife of musicologist Victor Brauner and the sister-in-law of the painter Harry Brauner .
Constante was the wife of the musicologist Harry Brauner , and the sister-in-law of the painter Victor Brauner .
0
53
Shadow Mountain Lake is connected by a short channel to the natural Grand Lake .
The Grand Grand Lake is connected to the short Shadow Mountain Lake by a natural channel .
0
54
The painting of the trams on line 1 was decorated with blue swallows by the stylists Élisabeth Garouste and Mattia Bonetti in white .
The livery of trams on Line 1 was decorated in blue with white swallows by stylists Élisabeth Garouste and Mattia Bonetti .
0
55
In 1986 , Ray and sitcom actress Marla Gibbs were among the notables who helped dedicate Billie Holiday 's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame .
In 1986 , Ray and Sitcom were actress Marla Gibbs among the notables who helped consecrate Billie Holiday Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame .
1
56
The variable region of each heavy or light immunoglobulin chain is encoded in several pieces -- known as gene segments ( subgenes ) .
The light region of each immunoglobulin heavy or variable chain is encoded in several pieces -- known as gene segments ( subgenes ) .
0
57
Will and Dani sleep together , but he returns to Gypsy and supports her after being raped by Sam Atwell ( Kane Phillips ) .
Will and Gypsy sleep together , but he returns to Dani and supports her after being raped by Kane Phillips ( Sam Atwell ) .
0
58
Particularly dense erosion occurred in warmer melting periods during the ice ages , when the climate of the tundra prevailed and the soil was not protected by a strong vegetation .
Particularly strong erosion occurred in warmer melting periods during the ice ages , when the climate of the tundra reigned and the soil was not protected by a dense vegetation ceiling .
0
59
Torre is a Wall Street Journal , USA Today , New York Times , and Amazon International 's Bestselling Author .
Torre is a New York Times , USA today , Wall Street Journal and Amazon International Bestselling Author .
1
60
Vic participated in many different countries and fought for Armenia in the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney , Australia .
In many countries , he participated in Vic and fought for Armenia at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney , Australia .
1
61
The tour reached Shanghai on July 12 , 2008 and Bangkok , Thailand on November 22 , 2008 .
The tour reached Bangkok in Thailand on 12 July 2008 and on November 22 , 2008 in Shanghai .
0
62
He died in Culver City , California on September 28 , 1988 , and was buried at the Hillside Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles , California .
He died on 28 September 1988 in Los Angeles , California , and was buried at Hillside Memorial Park Cemetery in Culver City , California .
0
63
For the first time in league history , Gary Gait of Rochester played against his twin brother Paul Gait of Philadelphia .
For the first time in the history of the league , Paul Gait from Rochester played against his twin brother Gary Gait of Philadelphia .
0
64
The construction of the PRL began with the Chatswood section to Epping , which began in November 2002 .
The construction of the PRL began with the section Chatswood to Epping , which began in November 2002 .
1
65
Evariste Baizeau ( June 3 , 1821 - Nantes , February 6 , 1910 ) was a French military physician .
Anacharsis Evariste Baizeau ( 3 June 1821 , Paris -- 6 February 1910 , Nantes ) was a French military physician .
1
66
The school was taken over by Charles Kilroy in the 1960s , his son Patrick Kilroy took over Kilroy College in 1999 .
The school was taken over in the 1960s by Patrick Kilroy , and his son Charles Kilroy took over the management of Kilroy 's College in 1999 .
0
67
Howarth , during an April 1994 `` Soap Opera Update '' interview , said that the only thing that he admired about Todd was his clothing style .
During an interview in April 1994 `` Soap Opera Update '' Howarth said that the only thing he admired about Todd was his clothes style .
1
68
Anacharsis Evariste Baizeau ( 3 June 1821 , Paris -- 6 February 1910 , Nantes ) was a French military physician .
Anacharsis Evariste Baizeau ( June 3 , 1821 - February 6 , 1910 ) was a French military physician .
0
69
His sister Mary ( born 25 February 1956 ) won the 1500m in San Sebastian in 1977 and then became the Commonwealth Games champion in 1978 in Edmonton .
His sister Mary ( born February 25 , 1956 ) won the 1500m in San Sebastian in 1977 and was appointed in Edmonton Commonwealth Games - Champion in 1978 .
1
70
No farthings were produced during the brief reigns of Henry VI and Edward IV , or during the second reign of Edward V .
During the second reign of Henry VI and Edward IV , or during the short reign of Edward V , no farthings were produced .
0
71
The private Catholic schools are Fort Meigs , Frank , Toth and Woodland Elementary Schools , which make up the primary public school , Saint Rose , the fifth .
The private Catholic schools are Fort Meigs , Frank , Toth and Woodland Elementary Schools , with the primary public school , Saint Rose , making up the fifth .
1
72
After playing in England for Millwall , Clapton Orient and Chelmsford City , Walsingham moved to Italy to play with Genoa and Bologna .
Having played for Millwall , Clapton Orient and Chelmsford City in Italy , Walsingham moved to England to play with Genoa and Bologna .
0
73
She returns to Sunnydale in season seven , not only to perform Buffy and the Scoobies , but to help in a position of leadership .
In the seventh season she returns to Sunnydale not only to help Buffy and the Scoobies , but to perform in a leadership position .
0
74
A new South stand was built in 2005 and 2006 to make the stadium into a complete bowl .
In 2005 and 2006 , a new southern stand was built to make the stadium a complete bowl .
1
75
The death of Mao Zedong in 1976 , however , brought economic reform to the PRC , which led to Japan ’ s expected investment in the Chinese economy .
The death of Mao Zedong in 1976 , however , brought economic reform to the PRC , which led to China ’ s expected investment in the Japanese economy .
0
76
Octavian recognized the value of holding Egypt and had the kingdom annexed as a Roman province .
Octavian annexed the value of Egypt and had the kingdom recognized as a Roman province .
0
77
In his debut Sydney season with the St. George Dragons in 1957 , he represented for both Sydney firsts and New South Wales .
In his debut season in New South Wales with St. George Dragons in 1957 , he represented Sydney Firsts and Sydney .
0
78
On the left side the 10th IR would also attack the 13th Brigade line south of Marrett Wood .
On the left , the 13th IR would also attack the 10th Brigade line south of Marrett Wood .
0
79
This created a spacious atrium on the Washington St. side of the building , modernized much of the building infrastructure , and added new computers .
This created a new atrium on the Washington St. side of the building , modernized much of the building 's infrastructure and added spacious computers .
0
80
The application of the term `` controversial '' to asylum seekers is illegal .
The application of the term ‘ illegal ’ to asylum seekers is controversial .
0
81
When he died in 1719 , his eldest son , also called Joseph , followed initially Joseph Truman .
When he died in 1719 , his eldest son , also called Joseph , initially succeeded Joseph Truman .
1
82
The World Cup started on 9 January 1982 in Reit im Winkl and ended on 13 April 1982 in Kiruna , Sweden .
The 1981/82 World Cup started in Reit im Winkl , Kiruna , Sweden on 9 January 1982 and finished in Germany on 13 April 1982 .
0
83
They do not follow the pattern of caldera growth and destruction that other shield volcanoes do ; caldera may form , but they generally do not disappear .
They do not follow the pattern of caldera - growth and destruction that other shield - do volcanoes , caldera may form , but they generally do not disappear .
1
84
The first landing in Lae Airfield was possessed by Ernest Mustar on April 19 , 1927 in a De Havilland DH.37 by Guinea Gold Airways from Wau .
The first landing at Lae Airfield was made on 19 April 1927 by Ernest Mustar in a De Havilland DH.37 owned by Guinea Gold Airways from Wau .
1
85
Between Langensteinbach and the newly created Schießhüttenäcker railway station , a short double track section was also built in 2011 .
In 2011 , a short double track section was also created between Langensteinbach and the newly built station of Schießhüttenäcker .
1
86
Several members of the CFA were appointed to the McMillan Commission , as were many McMillan Plan supporters .
Several members of the McMillan Commission were appointed to the CFA as many supporters of the McMillan plan .
0
87
Revco was subsequently acquired by CVS in 1997 .
CVS was acquired in 1997 by Revco .
0
88
Nesby Phips was released in the documentary `` Mystery Lights '' , presented by Nowhere Studios , produced by Converse and published in the UK on December 4 , 2015 .
Nesby Phips was released in the documentary `` Mystery Lights '' , produced by Nowhere Studios , presented by Converse and published in the UK on 4 December 2015 .
0
89
Positive real when , Here the zeta function is Hurwitz zeta function and Beta is a valid number .
Here is the Zeta function Hurwitz - Zeta - function and beta is a valid number .
0
90
The other two rivers are the Mangles River , and the Matiri River .
The two other rivers are the Matiri and the Mangles .
1
91
On May 28 , 2011 , a leadership election was held to replace Darrell Pasloski . Dennis Fentie was chosen after only one ballot .
On 28 May 2011 , a leadership was chosen to replace Dennis Fentie , Darrell Pasloski was elected after only one ballot .
0
92
Aldous Huxley introduced Alfred Matthew Hubbard into the drug in 1955 , and Timothy Leary began to take it in 1962 .
Alfred Matthew Hubbard introduced Aldous Huxley to the drug in 1955 and Timothy Leary began taking it in 1962 .
0
93
A new system Of CCE is also implemented in the school for a continuous and a comprehensive evaluation of students .
A new system of CCE is also implemented at school for a continuous and comprehensive evaluation of the students .
1
94
The dictionary form of a verb is the infinitive , which occasionally ends with `` -ć '' ( usually with `` -c '' ) .
The dictionary form of a verb is the infinitive , which usually ends with `` -c '' ( occasionally with `` -c '' ) .
0
95
At the bottom of the hydrometer is a weighted bulb and at the top is a pan for small weights .
At the bottom of the hydrometer there is a weighted light bulb and a frying pan for small weights at the top .
1
96
He attended the Liceo Classico in Germany before studying chemistry at the University of Munich in L 'Aquila .
He attended the liceo classico in Germany before studying chemistry at the University of Munich in L'Aquila .
1
97
In April 2016 it was announced that Reid will also present the new sister broadcast `` Top Gear '' Extra Gear `` along with Harris .
In April 2016 it was announced that Harris will also present the new sister show `` Top Gear '' Extra Gear `` together with Reid .
0
98
Janet Scott was born on James Alexander Hanson , the second son of James Trickett Hanson ( a Danish immigrant ) and Jim Marchbank .
Born James Alexander Hanson , the second son of James Trickett Hanson ( a Danish immigrant ) and Janet Scott , was born .
0
99
The Total Total Evaporation is The Radiators ' fifth album and their fourth studio album .
The Total Evaporation is the fourth album by The Radiators and their fifth studio album .
0
100
David Spinozza plays the acoustic guitar in the song , Liberty DeVitto plays the drums and Robert Freedman the horn and string orchestration .
David David Spinozza plays the acoustic guitar in the song , Liberty DeVitto plays the drums and Robert Freedman plays the horn and string orchestration .
1

Dataset Card for PAWS: Paraphrase Adversaries from Word Scrambling

Dataset Summary

PAWS: Paraphrase Adversaries from Word Scrambling

This dataset contains 108,463 human-labeled and 656k noisily labeled pairs that feature the importance of modeling structure, context, and word order information for the problem of paraphrase identification. The dataset has two subsets, one based on Wikipedia and the other one based on the Quora Question Pairs (QQP) dataset.

For further details, see the accompanying paper: PAWS: Paraphrase Adversaries from Word Scrambling (https://arxiv.org/abs/1904.01130)

PAWS-QQP is not available due to license of QQP. It must be reconstructed by downloading the original data and then running our scripts to produce the data and attach the labels.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

[More Information Needed]

Languages

The text in the dataset is in English.

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

Below are two examples from the dataset:

Sentence 1 Sentence 2 Label
(1) Although interchangeable, the body pieces on the 2 cars are not similar. Although similar, the body parts are not interchangeable on the 2 cars. 0
(2) Katz was born in Sweden in 1947 and moved to New York City at the age of 1. Katz was born in 1947 in Sweden and moved to New York at the age of one. 1

The first pair has different semantic meaning while the second pair is a paraphrase. State-of-the-art models trained on existing datasets have dismal performance on PAWS (<40% accuracy); however, including PAWS training data for these models improves their accuracy to 85% while maintaining performance on existing datasets such as the Quora Question Pairs.

Data Fields

This corpus contains pairs generated from Wikipedia pages, and can be downloaded here:

  • PAWS-Wiki Labeled (Final): containing pairs that are generated from both word swapping and back translation methods. All pairs have human judgements on both paraphrasing and fluency and they are split into Train/Dev/Test sections.

  • PAWS-Wiki Labeled (Swap-only): containing pairs that have no back translation counterparts and therefore they are not included in the first set. Nevertheless, they are high-quality pairs with human judgements on both paraphrasing and fluency, and they can be included as an auxiliary training set.

  • PAWS-Wiki Unlabeled (Final): Pairs in this set have noisy labels without human judgments and can also be used as an auxiliary training set. They are generated from both word swapping and back translation methods.

All files are in the tsv format with four columns:

Column Name Data
id A unique id for each pair
sentence1 The first sentence
sentence2 The second sentence
(noisy_)label (Noisy) label for each pair

Each label has two possible values: 0 indicates the pair has different meaning, while 1 indicates the pair is a paraphrase.

Data Splits

The number of examples and the proportion of paraphrase (Yes%) pairs are shown below:

Data Train Dev Test Yes%
Labeled (Final) 49,401 8,000 8,000 44.2%
Labeled (Swap-only) 30,397 -- -- 9.6%
Unlabeled (Final) 645,652 10,000 -- 50.0%

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

Existing paraphrase identification datasets lack sentence pairs that have high lexical overlap without being paraphrases. Models trained on such data fail to distinguish pairs like flights from New York to Florida and flights from Florida to New York.

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

Their automatic generation method is based on two ideas. The first swaps words to generate a sentence pair with the same BOW, controlled by a language model. The second uses back translation to generate paraphrases with high BOW overlap but different word order. These two strategies generate high-quality, diverse PAWS pairs, balanced evenly between paraphrases and non-paraphrases.

Who are the source language producers?

Mentioned above.

Annotations

Annotation process

Sentence pairs are presented to five annotators, each of which gives a binary judgment as to whether they are paraphrases or not. They chose binary judgments to make dataset have the same label schema as the QQP corpus. Overall, human agreement is high on both Quora (92.0%) and Wikipedia (94.7%) and each label only takes about 24 seconds. As such, answers are usually straight-forward to human raters.

Who are the annotators?

[More Information Needed]

Personal and Sensitive Information

[More Information Needed]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

[More Information Needed]

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

List the people involved in collecting the dataset and their affiliation(s). If funding information is known, include it here.

Licensing Information

The dataset may be freely used for any purpose, although acknowledgement of Google LLC ("Google") as the data source would be appreciated. The dataset is provided "AS IS" without any warranty, express or implied. Google disclaims all liability for any damages, direct or indirect, resulting from the use of the dataset.

Citation Information

@InProceedings{paws2019naacl,
  title = {{PAWS: Paraphrase Adversaries from Word Scrambling}},
  author = {Zhang, Yuan and Baldridge, Jason and He, Luheng},
  booktitle = {Proc. of NAACL},
  year = {2019}
}

Contributions

Thanks to @bhavitvyamalik for adding this dataset.

Models trained or fine-tuned on paws