# Datasets:paws

Languages: English
Multilinguality: monolingual
Language Creators: machine-generated
Source Datasets: original
ArXiv:
Dataset Preview
id (int32)sentence1 (string)sentence2 (string)label (class label)
1
"In Paris , in October 1560 , he secretly met the English ambassador , Nicolas Throckmorton , asking him for a passport to return to England through Scotland ."
"In October 1560 , he secretly met with the English ambassador , Nicolas Throckmorton , in Paris , and asked him for a passport to return to Scotland through England ."
0 (0)
2
"The NBA season of 1975 -- 76 was the 30th season of the National Basketball Association ."
"The 1975 -- 76 season of the National Basketball Association was the 30th season of the NBA ."
1 (1)
3
"There are also specific discussions , public profile debates and project discussions ."
"There are also public discussions , profile specific discussions , and project discussions ."
0 (0)
4
"When comparable rates of flow can be maintained , the results are high ."
"The results are high when comparable flow rates can be maintained ."
1 (1)
5
"It is the seat of Zerendi District in Akmola Region ."
"It is the seat of the district of Zerendi in Akmola region ."
1 (1)
6
"William Henry Henry Harman was born on 17 February 1828 in Waynesboro , Virginia , where his parents were Lewis and Sally ( Garber ) Harman ."
"William Henry Harman was born in Waynesboro , Virginia on February 17 , 1828 . His parents were Lewis and Sally ( Garber ) Harman ."
1 (1)
7
"Bullion Express - concept is being introduced new store in Dallas , Texas in Preston Center opened ."
"2011-DGSE Bullion Express concept is introduced , new store opened in Preston Center in Dallas , Texas"
0 (0)
8
"With a discrete amount of probabilities Formula 1 with the condition formula 2 and Formula 3 any real number , the Tsallis is defined as entropy as"
"Given a discrete set of probabilities formula _ 1 with the condition formula _ 2 , and formula _ 3 any real number , the Tsallis entropy is defined as"
1 (1)
9
"The Soviet Union maintained an embassy in Oslo and a consulate in Barentsburg , while Norway maintained a message in Moscow ."
"The Soviet Union maintained an embassy in Moscow and a consulate in Barentsburg , while Norway maintained a message in Oslo ."
0 (0)
10
"Vocabulary even went to Brazil through leaving Portuguese settlers with some Macanese and Chinese settlers ."
"Vocabulary even went to Brazil by leaving Macanese and Chinese settlers with some Portuguese settlers ."
0 (0)
11
"Kabir Suman recorded several albums under the name of Suman Chattopaddhyay or Suman Chatterjee between 1992 and 1999 ."
"Suman Chatterjee , recorded a number of albums between 1992 and 1999 under the name Suman Chattopaddhyay or Kabir Suman ."
0 (0)
12
"He was a scholar in Metaphysical Literature , Theology and Classical sciences ."
"He was a scholar in metaphysical literature , theology , and classical science ."
1 (1)
13
"The city sits at the confluence of the Snake River with the great Weiser River , which marks the border with Oregon ."
"The city lies at the confluence of the Snake River and the Great Weiser River , which marks the border with Oregon ."
1 (1)
14
"He has been trained by his grandfather , Nick Dakin , and is now trained by Geoff Barraclough ."
"He has been trained by his grandfather , Geoff Barraclough , and is now coached by Nick Dakin ."
0 (0)
15
"The Austrian school assumes that the subjective choices of individuals , including individual knowledge , time , expectations , and other subjective factors , cause all economic phenomena ."
"The Austrian school assumes that the subjective choices of individuals , including subjective knowledge , time , expectation , and other individual factors , cause all economic phenomena ."
0 (0)
16
"Werder 's forces invested Belfort and reached the city on 3 November ."
"Werder 's troops invested Belfort and reached the city on November 3 ."
1 (1)
17
"The kBox facilitates both isometric and concentric contractions as well as eccentric training ."
"The kBox facilitates eccentric as well as concentric contractions and isometric training ."
0 (0)
18
"The first five weapons were delivered in the first half of 1916 , with a total of 57 barrels and 56 cars completed by the end of the war ."
"The first five weapons were delivered in the first half of 1916 . A total of 57 barrels and 56 carriages were completed by the end of the war ."
1 (1)
19
"Elizabeth II was an ancestor of Queens Edzard II and Beatrix of the Netherlands ."
"Edzard II was an ancestor of the Queens Elizabeth II and the Beatrix of the Netherlands ."
0 (0)
20
"The friendship between him and Duncan ended at a club meeting in 1951 when the two disagreed at an annual meeting and Duncan reported that Greaves said :"
"The friendship between him and Duncan ended in 1951 at a club meeting , when the two did not agree at an annual meeting , and Duncan reported that Greaves said :"
1 (1)
21
"Pluto was classified as the planet when the Grand Tour was proposed and was launched at the time  New Horizons '' ."
"Note : Pluto was classified as a planet when the Grand Tour was launched and at the time  New Horizons '' was proposed ."
0 (0)
22
"For their performances in the game , quarterback Jameis Winston and defensive back P. J. Williams were named the game 's most valuable players ."
"Quarterback P. J. Williams and Defensive Back Jameis Winston were named the most valuable players of the game for their performances in the game ."
0 (0)
23
"Shaffer Creek is a tributary of the Raystown Branch Juniata River ( Brush Creek ) in Bedford County , Pennsylvania , United States ."
"Shaffer Creek is an tributary of Brush Creek ( Raystown Branch Juniata River ) in Bedford County , Pennsylvania in the United States ."
1 (1)
24
"Kevin Spacey ( Henry Drummond ) and David Troughton ( Matthew Harrison Brady ) starred in a 2009 revival at The Old Vic in London ."
"Kevin Spacey ( Henry Drummond ) and David Troughton ( Matthew Harrison Brady ) played in a resume in 2009 at the Old Vic London ."
0 (0)
25
"Briggs later met Briggs at the 1967 Monterey Pop Festival , where Ravi Shankar was also performing , with Eric Burdon and The Animals ."
"Briggs met Briggs later at the Monterey Pop Festival of 1967 , where Ravi Shankar also performed with Eric Burdon and The Animals ."
1 (1)
26
"Laura Myntti was born in Salt Lake City and lived in Sioux City , Iowa and San Diego before settling in Minnesota in 1968 ."
"Born in Minnesota , Laura Myntti lived in Sioux City , Iowa and San Diego , before settling in Salt Lake City in 1968 ."
0 (0)
27
"The female lead role was played by Cortez in  Ali Baba and the Sacred Crown '' , directed by Erminio Salvi ."
"Cortez played the female lead in  Ali Baba and the Sacred Crown '' , directed by Erminio Salvi ."
1 (1)
28
"She worked and lived in Stuttgart , Berlin ( Germany ) and in Vienna ( Austria ) ."
"She worked and lived in Germany ( Stuttgart , Berlin ) and in Vienna ( Austria ) ."
1 (1)
29
"Akshuat dendropark ( Russian : Акшуатский дендропарк ) is a natural monument ( Ulyanovsk Oblast protected areas )"
"Akshuat dendropark ( Russian : Акшуатский дендропарк ) is a natural monument ( Protected areas of Ulyanovsk Oblast )"
1 (1)
30
"The Little Jocko River flows across the Saint Lawrence River and the Ottawa River to the Jocko River ."
"The Little Jocko River flows via the Saint Lawrence River and the Ottawa River to the Jocko River ."
1 (1)
31
"In 1951 , he died and retired in 1956 ."
"He died in 1951 and retired in 1956 ."
1 (1)
32
"WORHP , also referred to as eNLP ( European NLP Solver ) , is a mathematical software library for numerically solving continuous , nonlinear optimization problems on a large scale ."
"WORHP , also referred to as eNLP ( European NLP solver ) by ESA , is a mathematical software library for solving continuous large scale nonlinear optimization problems numerically ."
1 (1)
33
"On January 17 , 2000 , there were reports of the RSS and some BJP - hardliners threatening to restart the party ."
"On 17 January 2000 , there were reports of the BJP and some RSS hard-liners threatening to restart the party ."
0 (0)
34
"The leaves are generally 1.5-4 mm long and 0.2-0.7 mm wide ."
"The leaves are usually 1.5-4 mm long and 0.2-0.7 mm wide ."
1 (1)
35
"BA transferred the former BCal routes to Heathrow to Tokyo and Saudi Arabia ."
"BA relocated the former BCal routes to Tokyo and Saudi Arabia to Heathrow ."
0 (0)
36
"In addition to Michael Boddicker , and Patrick Moraz , the album includes musical contributions from Diana Hubbard , John Goodsall , Chick Corea , Stanley Clarke ."
"In addition to Diana Hubbard , the album contains musical contributions from Chick Corea , Stanley Clarke , John Goodsall , Michael Boddicker and Patrick Moraz ."
0 (0)
37
"These geographically correspond to the traditional Glasgow District , South , Edinburgh District , and North and Midlands districts ."
"These geographically roughly correspond to the traditional districts of Glasgow District , South , Edinburgh District and North and Midlands ."
1 (1)
38
"Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus was the second son of Roman politician and general Lucius Caecilius Metellus Diadematus ."
"Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus was the second son of the Roman politician , General Lucius Caecilius Metellus Diadematus ."
1 (1)
39
"He is trained by Andre Rozier and shares a gym with the former World Champion Daniel Jacobs ."
"He is trained by Daniel Jacobs and shares a gym with former world champion Andre Rozier ."
0 (0)
40
"Here we view pseudo-differential operators as a generalization of differential operators ."
"We consider pseudo-differential operators here as a generalization of differential operators ."
1 (1)
41
"Although there are overwhelming social implications , there also seem to be regional financial patterns that can perpetuate this trend ."
"Although there are regional financial implications , there also seem to be overwhelming social patterns that perpetuate this trend ."
0 (0)
42
"The museum building retains its European style of oriental modern architecture through the standing bricks on the southeast corner of the building and the classical image of the foyer ."
"The museum building retains its classic style of oriental modern architecture through the standing bricks on the southeast corner of the building and the European image of the foyer ."
0 (0)
43
"Based on the city of Baltimore , only mentioned , never visited in the show ."
"Based on the city of Baltimore , only mentioned , has never visited in the show ."
1 (1)
44
"Debbie Downer is a name of a fictional  Saturday Night Live '' character that was debuted in 2004 and portrayed by Rachel Dratch ."
"Debbie Downer is a name of a fictional  Saturday Night Live '' character who debuted in 2004 , and who was portrayed by Rachel Dratch ."
1 (1)
45
"Taieri is a former parliamentary electorate in the Otago region of New Zealand , from 1866 to 1911 ."
"Taieri is a former parliamentary electorate in the New Zealand region of Otago , from 1866 to 1911 ."
1 (1)
46
"This work caused him to trigger important reflections on the practices of molecular genetics and genomics at a time when this was not considered ethical ."
"This work led him to trigger ethical reflections on the practices of molecular genetics and genomics at a time when this was not considered important ."
0 (0)
47
"Brockton is approximately 25 miles northeast of Providence , Rhode Island , and 30 miles south of Boston ."
"Brockton is located approximately 25 miles northeast of Providence , Rhode Island and 30 miles south of Boston ."
1 (1)
48
"Seb Janiak is a French photographer and video director of Polish origin ."
"Seb Janiak is the French photographer and video director of Polish origin ."
1 (1)
49
"Singer Angélique Kidjo and actor Djimon Hounsou were born in Cotonou , Benin ."
"Singer Djimon Hounsou and actor Angélique Kidjo were born in Cotonou in Benin ."
0 (0)
50
"In the 2015 regional elections , after Tosi was excluded by the Federal Party , Gidoni was elected to the Veneto Regional Council in the province of Belluno ."
"In the 2015 federal election , after Tosi was sidelined by the regional party , Gidoni was elected to the Regional Council of Veneto in the province of Belluno ."
0 (0)
51
"Ashley was born on 1 November 1986 and is a contemporary dancer from Los Angeles who originally grew up in Arizona ."
"Born on November 1 , 1986 , Ashley is a contemporary dancer from Los Angeles who was originally raised in Arizona ."
1 (1)
52
"These include replicas at Ramat Shlomo in Israel and in Kfar Chabad in Jerusalem ."
"These include replicas in Ramat Shlomo in Jerusalem and in Kfar Chabad , Israel ."
0 (0)
53
"Dorothy Kate Richmond , Frances Hodgkins , and Gwen Knight was a contemporary of Stewart ."
"Dorothy Kate Richmond , Frances Hodgkins and Gwen Knight was a Stewart contemporary ."
1 (1)
54
"Hastings Ndlovu was buried with Hector Pieterson at Avalon Cemetery in Johannesburg ."
"Hastings Ndlovu , together with Hector Pieterson , was buried at the Avalon cemetery in Johannesburg ."
1 (1)
55
"Davidson is a statue created by Will Rogers , which unveiled two versions in 1938 ."
"Will Rogers is a statue created by Jo Davidson , two versions of which were unveiled in 1938 ."
0 (0)
56
"Other car manufacturers that have produced models with suicide doors include Citroën , Lancia , Opel , Panhard , Rover , Saab , Saturn , Skoda and Volkswagen ."
"Other car manufacturers which have produced models with suicide doors include Opel , Lancia , Citroën , Panhard , Rover , Saab , Saturn , Škoda , and Volkswagen ."
1 (1)
57
"The first main bridge was completed in 1857 and the positioned bridge opened on 2 May 1859 by Prince Albert ."
"The first main span was positioned in 1857 and the completed bridge was opened by Prince Albert on 2 May 1859 ."
0 (0)
58
"English also has many words , such as  zillion '' , used informally to mean indefinite and fictitious but unspecified amounts ; see large numbers ."
"English also has many words , such as '' zillion  , which are used informally to mean large but unspecified amounts , see indefinite and fictitious figures ."
0 (0)
59
"His family moved from Brooklyn to Manhattan later on 110th Street and Amsterdam Avenue ."
"Later , his family moved from Brooklyn to 110th Street and Amsterdam Avenue in Manhattan ."
0 (0)
60
"In 1991 he left Italy to work in the palliative care of cancer patients in Germany as well as in various countries of the Third World ."
"He left Germany in 1991 to work in the palliative care of cancer patients in Italy as well as in various Third World countries ."
0 (0)
61
"When Mustafa marched to Murad in Anatolia , Junayd was persuaded to confront him ."
"When Mustafa marched to confront Murad in Anatolia , Junayd was persuaded to desert him ."
0 (0)
62
"The progress teacher Jürgen Reichen ( Swiss Education ) founded this method  Writing to read '' 1982 ."
"The Swiss teacher Jürgen Reichen ( progressive education ) founded this  writing to read '' method 1982 ."
0 (0)
63
"After their departure from the Spear family in 1954 , Speer stopped singing and moved to Nashville in 1968 and back to Ohio after her husband had died ."
"After her departure from the Speer Family in 1954 , Speer stopped singing and moved to Ohio and back to Nashville in 1968 after her husband died ."
0 (0)
64
"She has taken part in the second season of the most popular non - fiction controversial bengali reality show  Bigg Boss Bangla '' ."
"She has participated in the second season of the most controversial non fiction popular bengali reality show  Bigg Boss Bangla '' ."
0 (0)
65
"It is covered with a natural vegetation of grassland of less fertile red clay bases , and Saltbush bushland on more fertile earths ."
"It is covered with a natural vegetation of grassland of less fertile red clay soils , and saltbush shrubland on more fertile earths ."
1 (1)
66
"Jonté Buhl ( born April 4 , 1982 ) is a former Canadian professional football player who played for four years at the Edmonton Eskimos of the Canadian Football League ."
"Jonté Buhl ( born April 4 , 1982 ) is a Canadian former professional football cornerback who played four seasons for the Edmonton Eskimos of the Canadian Football League ."
1 (1)
67
"The continuous power density is determined by the product 's continuous torque density and the constant torque speed range of the electric machine ."
"The constant power density is determined by the product of the continuous torque density and the continuous torque speed range of the electric machine ."
0 (0)
68
"She plays for Naisten Liiga of Åland United ."
"She plays for Naisten Liiga of the Åland United ."
1 (1)
69
"Smaller small cross circuit pylons may have two single arms on one side and one on the other ."
"Smaller small cross pylons may have two single arms on one side and one on the other ."
1 (1)
70
" The Timber '' was released in North America on February 27 , 2015 , Well Go USA Entertainment released it in Germany on October 6 , 2015 ."
"On February 27 , 2015 ,  The Timber '' was released in North America , Well Go USA Entertainment was released on October 6 , 2015 in Germany ."
1 (1)
71
"Although five issues of the series were printed , the project was finished without any of them being aborted ."
"Although five issues of the series were printed , the project was finished without any of them being cancelled ."
1 (1)
72
"As a songwriter , Lars Ankerstjerne has written songs for Nik & Jay , Burhan G and Rasmus Seebach ."
"Lars Ankerstjerne has written as songwriter for Nik 'Jay , Burhan G and Rasmus Seebach songs ."
1 (1)
73
"This is also a shearing effect : when the focal length is larger , the shear effect is smaller ."
"This is also a shearing effect : when the focal length is smaller , the shearing effect is greater ."
0 (0)
74
"In 1968 , the boardwalk Bowl followed the Tangerine Bowl , and the Pecan Bowl moved within Texas , from Abilene to Arlington ."
"In 1968 , the boardwalk Bowl followed Tangerine Bowl , and the Pecan Bowl moved from Abilene to Texas within Arlington ."
0 (0)
75
"Concord is of imperfective type in the ergative aspect but perfective in the nominative aspect ."
"Concord is in the imperfective aspect of the nominative type , but supplementary in the perfective aspect ."
0 (0)
76
"The Soviet cosmonaut was Yuri Gagarin 's first air force pilot , also the first man in space ."
"The first cosmonaut was the Soviet air force pilot Yuri Gagarin , also the first person in space ."
0 (0)
77
"On May 6 , 2016 it was announced that Palafox signed to National Premier Soccer League B of the New York Cosmos ."
"On 6 May 2016 , it was announced that Palafox had signed the National Premier Soccer League after New York Cosmos B ."
0 (0)
78
"On 7 July 2011 , Russell was traded for Kris Russell on the Columbus Blue Jackets and joined his brother Michael Blunden with the Blue Jackets organization ."
"On July 7 , 2011 , Russell was traded to the Columbus Blue Jackets for Kris Russell . He joined his brother Michael Blunden with the Blue Jackets organization ."
1 (1)
79
"A boy who survived the attack said that Oliveira selectively shot to kill girls while shooting boys only to immobilize them ."
"A boy who survived the attack said that Oliveira shot selectively to immobilize girls while shot boys simply to kill them ."
0 (0)
80
"The second board revision has true JAMMA and also has a switch to select between JAMMA output as well as MVS output , which is stereo sound ."
"The second board revision is real JAMMA and also has a switch to select between JAMMA output as well as MVS output , which has stereo sound ."
0 (0)
81
"Born in Dublin about 1582 , he was second but third surviving son of Arland Ussher and his wife Margaret ."
"Born in Dublin in 1582 , he was the third but second surviving son of Arland Ussher and his wife Margaret ."
0 (0)
82
"Another memorable ruler was Max Franz ( founded in 1784 -- 1794 ) , who ruled the university and the spa quarter of Bad Godesberg ."
"Another memorable ruler was Max Franz ( reg . 1784 - 1794 ) , who founded the university and the spa quarter of Bad Godesberg ."
0 (0)
83
"For example , to enter a vertical line of 4 cm in length , it is sufficient to draw :"
"For example , in order to draw a vertical line of 4 cm length , it is sufficient to type :"
0 (0)
84
"In 2014 , when Santa Anita Park was closed the race moved to Hollywood Park Racetrack ."
"In 2014 , when Hollywood Park Racetrack was closed the race in Santa Anita Park was moved ."
0 (0)
85
"( Don Wyatt had been in the penguins in 1956 , and both Eddie and Ray had been with Ray in the later Colts / Fortunes . )"
"( Don Wyatt had been in the Penguins in 1956 and both Eddie and Ray had been in the later Colts/Fortunes with Ray . )"
1 (1)
86
"This circuit is said to have appeared in the earliest evolution of the reptilian brain and corresponds to the triune brain of invertebrate brain theory ."
"This circuit is supposed to have appeared in the earliest evolution of the invertebrate brain and corresponds to the reptile brain of the triune - brain theory ."
0 (0)
87
"Lemmings , by contrast , are conspicuously colored and behave aggressively towards predators and even human observers ."
"By contrast , the lemmings are strikingly colored and behave aggressively towards predators and even human observers ."
1 (1)
88
"It is located in Shawnee Township and adjacent to Duchouquet Township in Allen County ."
"It is located in Shawnee Township and is adjacent to Duchouquet Township in Allen County ."
1 (1)
89
"He was asked for his opinion about the books '' Mission to Moscow  by Joseph E. Davies and '' One World  by Wendell Willkie ."
"He was asked about his opinions on the books '' Mission to Moscow  by Wendell Willkie and '' One World  by Joseph E. Davies ."
0 (0)
90
"The eastern part of Fenghuang Mountain is home to a mountain that has been called Chaoyang since ancient times ."
"The eastern part of Chaoyang is home to a mountain that has been called the Fenghuang Mountain since the ancient times ."
0 (0)
91
"Guillermo Pérez Roldán defeated Andrés Gómez with 6 -- 0 , 7 -- 6 , 3 -- 6 , 0 - 6 , 6 - 2 ."
"Andrés Gómez defeated Guillermo Pérez Roldán 6 -- 0 , 7 -- 6 , 3 - 6 , 0 - 6 , 6 - 2"
0 (0)
92
"The 2007 -- 08 Kansas State Wildcats Men 's Basketball Team represents Kansas State University at the 2007 -- 08 College - Basketball - Season ."
"The 2007 -- 08 Kansas State Wildcats men 's basketball team represented Kansas State University in the 2007 -- 08 college basketball season ."
1 (1)
93
"This was the last AFL Championship to end the season ; the first Super Bowl followed the 1966 season ."
"This was the last AFL Championship to complete the season , the first Super Bowl followed in the 1966 season ."
1 (1)
94
"Higher is the fifth album , and the fourth studio album , by Ezio , released in 2000 ."
"Higher is the fourth album and the fifth studio album of Ezio , released in 2000 ."
0 (0)
95
"Finsch 's monitor was only known by Blanche Bay , Ralum and Massawa in New Britain ."
"The Finsch monitor was known only from Blanche Bay , Ralum and New Britain in Massawa ."
0 (0)
96
"After his dismissal , he moved from Germany to New Mexico and then to Los Angeles , then to San Francisco ."
"After his discharge he moved from Germany to New Mexico and then to Los Angeles then to San Francisco ."
1 (1)
97
"The bones of Zrinski and Frankopan were found in Austria in 1907 and brought to Zagreb in 1919 , where they were reburied in the Zagreb Cathedral ."
"The bones of Zrinski and Frankopan were found in 1907 in Austria and brought to Zagreb in 1919 , where they were rebuilt in the Zagreb Cathedral ."
1 (1)
98
"Morrow can either mean the next day in particular , or the future in general ."
"Morrow can mean either the next day in general or the future in particular ."
0 (0)
99
"Your character was later killed in the fourth episode of the second season ,  First Down '' ."
"The character was later killed off in the second episode of the fourth season ,  First Down '' ."
0 (0)
100
"Below is the early version of the album with all the original segues and  The Sacrifice of Victor '' is slightly longer in the early configuration ."
"Below is the early version of the album with all the original segues . Also ,  The Sacrifice of Victor '' is slightly longer on the early configuration ."
1 (1)
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

# Dataset Card for PAWS: Paraphrase Adversaries from Word Scrambling

### Dataset Summary

PAWS: Paraphrase Adversaries from Word Scrambling

This dataset contains 108,463 human-labeled and 656k noisily labeled pairs that feature the importance of modeling structure, context, and word order information for the problem of paraphrase identification. The dataset has two subsets, one based on Wikipedia and the other one based on the Quora Question Pairs (QQP) dataset.

For further details, see the accompanying paper: PAWS: Paraphrase Adversaries from Word Scrambling (https://arxiv.org/abs/1904.01130)

PAWS-QQP is not available due to license of QQP. It must be reconstructed by downloading the original data and then running our scripts to produce the data and attach the labels.

### Languages

The text in the dataset is in English.

## Dataset Structure

### Data Instances

Below are two examples from the dataset:

Sentence 1 Sentence 2 Label
(1) Although interchangeable, the body pieces on the 2 cars are not similar. Although similar, the body parts are not interchangeable on the 2 cars. 0
(2) Katz was born in Sweden in 1947 and moved to New York City at the age of 1. Katz was born in 1947 in Sweden and moved to New York at the age of one. 1

The first pair has different semantic meaning while the second pair is a paraphrase. State-of-the-art models trained on existing datasets have dismal performance on PAWS (<40% accuracy); however, including PAWS training data for these models improves their accuracy to 85% while maintaining performance on existing datasets such as the Quora Question Pairs.

### Data Fields

• PAWS-Wiki Labeled (Final): containing pairs that are generated from both word swapping and back translation methods. All pairs have human judgements on both paraphrasing and fluency and they are split into Train/Dev/Test sections.

• PAWS-Wiki Labeled (Swap-only): containing pairs that have no back translation counterparts and therefore they are not included in the first set. Nevertheless, they are high-quality pairs with human judgements on both paraphrasing and fluency, and they can be included as an auxiliary training set.

• PAWS-Wiki Unlabeled (Final): Pairs in this set have noisy labels without human judgments and can also be used as an auxiliary training set. They are generated from both word swapping and back translation methods.

All files are in the tsv format with four columns:

Column Name Data
id A unique id for each pair
sentence1 The first sentence
sentence2 The second sentence
(noisy_)label (Noisy) label for each pair

Each label has two possible values: 0 indicates the pair has different meaning, while 1 indicates the pair is a paraphrase.

### Data Splits

The number of examples and the proportion of paraphrase (Yes%) pairs are shown below:

Data Train Dev Test Yes%
Labeled (Final) 49,401 8,000 8,000 44.2%
Labeled (Swap-only) 30,397 -- -- 9.6%
Unlabeled (Final) 645,652 10,000 -- 50.0%

## Dataset Creation

### Curation Rationale

Existing paraphrase identification datasets lack sentence pairs that have high lexical overlap without being paraphrases. Models trained on such data fail to distinguish pairs like flights from New York to Florida and flights from Florida to New York.

### Source Data

#### Initial Data Collection and Normalization

Their automatic generation method is based on two ideas. The first swaps words to generate a sentence pair with the same BOW, controlled by a language model. The second uses back translation to generate paraphrases with high BOW overlap but different word order. These two strategies generate high-quality, diverse PAWS pairs, balanced evenly between paraphrases and non-paraphrases.

Mentioned above.

### Annotations

#### Annotation process

Sentence pairs are presented to five annotators, each of which gives a binary judgment as to whether they are paraphrases or not. They chose binary judgments to make dataset have the same label schema as the QQP corpus. Overall, human agreement is high on both Quora (92.0%) and Wikipedia (94.7%) and each label only takes about 24 seconds. As such, answers are usually straight-forward to human raters.

## Considerations for Using the Data

### Dataset Curators

List the people involved in collecting the dataset and their affiliation(s). If funding information is known, include it here.

### Licensing Information

The dataset may be freely used for any purpose, although acknowledgement of Google LLC ("Google") as the data source would be appreciated. The dataset is provided "AS IS" without any warranty, express or implied. Google disclaims all liability for any damages, direct or indirect, resulting from the use of the dataset.

### Citation Information

@InProceedings{paws2019naacl,
title = {{PAWS: Paraphrase Adversaries from Word Scrambling}},
author = {Zhang, Yuan and Baldridge, Jason and He, Luheng},
booktitle = {Proc. of NAACL},
year = {2019}
}


### Contributions

Thanks to @bhavitvyamalik for adding this dataset.