Datasets:

Languages: English
Multilinguality: monolingual
Size Categories: 10K<n<100K
Language Creators: crowdsourced
Annotations Creators: expert-generated
Source Datasets: extended|other
Licenses: mit
Dataset Preview
Go to dataset viewer
sentence (string)target (string)
"Some plant varieties can grow up to <mask> feet tall."
"nine"
"Histiocytosis represents <mask> related diseases which range from benign to aggressive."
"three"
"Latin verbs have <mask> principal parts."
"four"
"Numbers can be positive or <mask> only."
"zero"
"White men have <mask> times the risk of blacks of developing testicular cancer."
"four"
"Calves are totally dependent on their mother for the first <mask> months."
"three"
"Black bears are about <mask> metres tall."
"two"
"Lobelia Take <mask> capsules after three meals each day."
"two"
"Lobelia Take two capsules after <mask> meals each day."
"three"
"Adolescent males are <mask> times more likely than adolescent females to commit suicide."
"four"
"Tomatoes require about <mask> to eight weeks from seeding until they reach transplant size."
"six"
"Tomatoes require about six to <mask> weeks from seeding until they reach transplant size."
"eight"
"Deer ticks carry all <mask> diseases."
"three"
"Homosexuals have <mask> times the rate of alcoholism, drug abuse and suicide as heterosexuals."
"three"
"Advanced monotheism recognises a universal sway of <mask> opposite forces."
"two"
"Female dugongs give birth to just <mask> calf about once every five years."
"one"
"Female dugongs give birth to just one calf about once every <mask> years."
"five"
"Somatic evolution comes as <mask> parts."
"two"
"Space is defined by at least <mask> identical particles."
"four"
"People normally sleep in patterns that follow <mask> definite, gradual stages."
"four"
"Many countries have less than <mask> chiropractors in the entire country."
"ten"
"Hair grows through <mask> distinct growth phases."
"three"
"Bacteriophage lambda has <mask> different life cycles."
"two"
"Heart attacks are <mask> times more likely to be fatal for a person who is depressed."
"five"
"Orangutans spend up to <mask> hours a day eating or foraging for food."
"six"
"Positive numbers are more than <mask> and negative numbers are less than zero."
"zero"
"Today there are <mask> federal states, each based on cultural affiliations."
"nine"
"Valencia types have <mask> to six small seeds per pod."
"three"
"Valencia types have three to <mask> small seeds per pod."
"six"
"Bivalves have <mask> shells, like a clam or oyster."
"two"
"Every worm also has <mask> sperm receptacles."
"two"
"Vertebrates possess <mask> types of bone."
"two"
"Modulation is the first of <mask> efficiency related features unique to the linear compressor."
"three"
"Most dark colorations begin to lighten after <mask> weeks of treatment."
"four"
"Mental problems causing sleep disturbance are <mask> times more common in younger adults."
"three"
"Sulfur is needed for the synthesis of <mask> amino acids."
"two"
"Dragonflies have <mask> wings."
"four"
"Morality is a biological adaptation <mask> less than are hands and feet and teeth."
"no"
"Many women have <mask> to five abortions during their life time."
"four"
"Many women have four to <mask> abortions during their life time."
"five"
"Toxicity can occur in <mask> different modalities, acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity."
"three"
"Baby backs are about <mask> inches long and come from the part of the rib nearest the spine."
"four"
"Skunks can live about <mask> years in captivity."
"ten"
"Bicycles generate less friction because they have only <mask> tires."
"two"
"Enantiomers interact differently with the <mask> forms of light."
"two"
"Saliva comes from <mask> pairs of salivary glands, plus many smaller glands."
"three"
"Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for the first <mask> months of life."
"six"
"Copper has <mask> naturally occurring isotopes."
"two"
"Notebooks are laptop computers that weigh between <mask> and seven pounds."
"five"
"Notebooks are laptop computers that weigh between five and <mask> pounds."
"seven"
"Cities have various sizes, and can contain from <mask> to four armies depending on size."
"one"
"Cities have various sizes, and can contain from one to <mask> armies depending on size."
"four"
"Biologists estimate that for every coyote killed, there are at least <mask> more still at large."
"ten"
"Real numbers are on the x axis, and therefore theta is <mask> or pi ."
"zero"
"Octopuses live in different habitats between the tidal zone and up to <mask> kilometres depth."
"seven"
"Harvesting occurs every <mask> to four years in the winter after leaves fall from the trees."
"three"
"Harvesting occurs every three to <mask> years in the winter after leaves fall from the trees."
"four"
"Clays are silica minerals with a <mask> dimensional sheet structure."
"two"
"Sex is something <mask> people have."
"two"
"Ribosomes contain <mask> different histone proteins."
"four"
"Some printers add all <mask> colors to a plate before placing the image on paper."
"four"
"Lights have <mask> uses, to see and be seen."
"two"
"Cuckoos live less than <mask> years in the wild."
"six"
"Summit County has <mask> golf courses and many public tennis courts."
"four"
"Heaves is more likely to appear in horses older than <mask> years."
"nine"
"Fireflies twinkle every <mask> seconds to attract mates."
"three"
"Binocular vision is <mask> dimensional and contributes to depth perception."
"three"
"Unemployment Identify the <mask> types of unemployment."
"four"
"Most people have five fingers on each hand and <mask> toes on each foot."
"five"
"Earthquakes produce <mask> different types of seismic waves."
"three"
"Grace is an invisible meeting of <mask> distant perceptions."
"two"
"Moles create tunnels for <mask> purposes, traveling and feeding."
"two"
"Most apartment buildings have at least <mask> exit stairways."
"two"
"Indian population is <mask> years less than that of the overall Canadian population."
"seven"
"Children usually outgrow food allergies by the time they are <mask> years of age."
"five"
"Some physicians make the mistake of prescribing a medication for only <mask> or four weeks."
"three"
"Some physicians make the mistake of prescribing a medication for only three or <mask> weeks."
"four"
"Violence has <mask> boundaries and effects every person no matter one's race or religion."
"no"
"Violence has no boundaries and effects every person <mask> matter one's race or religion."
"no"
"Dholes are highly social animals and live in packs of about <mask> dogs."
"ten"
"Most children usually stop having multiple ear infections by the time they are about <mask> years old."
"four"
"Cancer affects <mask> in three individuals."
"one"
"Cancer affects one in <mask> individuals."
"three"
"Some infected horses show <mask> signs and become chronic carriers of the disease."
"no"
"Conjugation begins with <mask> animals adhering to each other."
"two"
"Cassowaries have <mask> toes on each foot."
"three"
"Trees begin to bear <mask> to seven years after planting the root shoot."
"five"
"Trees begin to bear five to <mask> years after planting the root shoot."
"seven"
"Hemp fiber is about <mask> times stronger than cotton and more abrasion resistant."
"three"
"Water includes ocean up to <mask> miles offshore."
"three"
"Rodents are a commonly studied by professionals of all <mask> fields."
"three"
"Rape victims are <mask> times more likely than victims of other crimes to attempt suicide."
"nine"
"Bacteria vary widely in size and shape, but in general are at least <mask> times larger than viruses."
"ten"
"Some people routinely sleep only <mask> hours a night but feel fine during the day."
"four"
"Rotifers fall into <mask> salinity categories - marine and freshwater."
"two"
"Cysteine proteinases are important virulence factors, which are encoded by at least <mask> genes."
"six"
"Anthropology is composed of <mask> fields."
"four"
"Earth completes a single total rotation every twenty <mask> hours."
"four"
"Uncombined elements have a <mask> oxidation state."
"zero"
"Negative numbers are left of <mask> on a number line."
"zero"
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for [Dataset Name]

Dataset Summary

NumerSense is a new numerical commonsense reasoning probing task, with a diagnostic dataset consisting of 3,145 masked-word-prediction probes. The general idea is to mask numbers between 0-10 in sentences mined from a commonsense corpus and evaluate whether a language model can correctly predict the masked value.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

The dataset supports the task of slot-filling, specifically as an evaluation of numerical common sense. A leaderboard is included on the dataset webpage with included benchmarks for GPT-2, RoBERTa, BERT, and human performance. Leaderboards are included for both the core set and the adversarial set discussed below.

Languages

This dataset is in English.

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

Each instance consists of a sentence with a masked numerical value between 0-10 and (in the train set) a target. Example from the training set:

sentence: Black bears are about <mask> metres tall.
target: two

Data Fields

Each value of the training set consists of:

  • sentence: The sentence with a number masked out with the <mask> token.
  • target: The ground truth target value. Since the test sets do not include the ground truth, the target field values are empty strings in the test_core and test_all splits.

Data Splits

The dataset includes the following pre-defined data splits:

  • A train set with >10K labeled examples (i.e. containing a ground truth value)
  • A core test set (test_core) with 1,132 examples (no ground truth provided)
  • An expanded test set (test_all) encompassing test_core with the addition of adversarial examples for a total of 3,146 examples. See section 2.2 of [the paper] for a discussion of how these examples are constructed.

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

The purpose of this dataset is "to study whether PTLMs capture numerical commonsense knowledge, i.e., commonsense knowledge that provides an understanding of the numeric relation between entities." This work is motivated by the prior research exploring whether language models possess commonsense knowledge.

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

The dataset is an extension of the Open Mind Common Sense corpus. A query was performed to discover sentences containing numbers between 0-12, after which the resulting sentences were manually evaluated for inaccuracies, typos, and the expression of commonsense knowledge. The numerical values were then masked.

Who are the source language producers?

The Open Mind Common Sense corpus, from which this dataset is sourced, is a crowdsourced dataset maintained by the MIT Media Lab.

Annotations

Annotation process

No annotations are present in this dataset beyond the target values automatically sourced from the masked sentences, as discussed above.

Who are the annotators?

The curation and inspection was done in two rounds by graduate students.

Personal and Sensitive Information

[More Information Needed]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

The motivation of measuring a model's ability to associate numerical values with real-world concepts appears relatively innocuous. However, as discussed in the following section, the source dataset may well have biases encoded from crowdworkers, particularly in terms of factoid coverage. A model's ability to perform well on this benchmark should therefore not be considered evidence that it is more unbiased or objective than a human performing similar tasks.

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

This dataset is sourced from a crowdsourced commonsense knowledge base. While the information contained in the graph is generally considered to be of high quality, the coverage is considered to very low as a representation of all possible commonsense knowledge. The representation of certain factoids may also be skewed by the demographics of the crowdworkers. As one possible example, the term "homophobia" is connected with "Islam" in the ConceptNet knowledge base, but not with any other religion or group, possibly due to the biases of crowdworkers contributing to the project.

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

This dataset was collected by Bill Yuchen Lin, Seyeon Lee, Rahul Khanna, and Xiang Ren, Computer Science researchers at the at the University of Southern California.

Licensing Information

The data is hosted in a GitHub repositor with the MIT License.

Citation Information

@inproceedings{lin2020numersense,
  title={Birds have four legs?! NumerSense: Probing Numerical Commonsense Knowledge of Pre-trained Language Models},
  author={Bill Yuchen Lin and Seyeon Lee and Rahul Khanna and Xiang Ren}, 
  booktitle={Proceedings of EMNLP},
  year={2020},
  note={to appear}
}

Contributions

Thanks to @joeddav for adding this dataset.