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head_qa

Multilinguality: monolingual
Size Categories: 1K<n<10K
Language Creators: expert-generated
Annotations Creators: no-annotation
Source Datasets: original
License: mit
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name (string)year (string)category (string)qid (int32)qtext (string)ra (int32)image (image)answers (list)
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
1
"The excitatory postsynaptic potentials:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "They are all or nothing." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "They are hyperpolarizing." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "They can be added." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "They spread long distances." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "They present a refractory period." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
2
"Motor plate is the union between the motor neuron and the:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Smooth muscle." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Skeletal muscle" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Cardiac muscle" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Muscle spindle" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Tendon." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
3
"DO NOT generate action potentials:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Smooth muscle fibers." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Bipolar neurons of the retina." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Skeletal striated muscle fibers." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Cardiac muscle fibers." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Ganglion neurons of the retina." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
4
"In the initiation of voluntary movements the first area that is activated is:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Premotor cortex." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Primary motor cortex." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Brain stem" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Cerebellum." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Basal ganglia" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
5
"The corpuscles of Pacini:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "They are innervated by unmyelinated fibers." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "They are mechanoreceptors of slow adaptation." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "They have small receptor fields." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "They are located in deep areas of the dermis." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "They are thermoreceptors." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
6
"The color of the eyes depends on the pigment present in:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Pupil." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Cornea." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Iris." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Choroid" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Retina." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
7
"The cones:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "They are preferably in the peripheral retina." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "They have membranous discs stacked in their outer segment." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "They have less sensitivity than the canes." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Sinaptan with ganglionic neurons." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Sinaptan only on center bipolar \"on\"." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
8
"In the layer closest to the pigment epithelium of the retina are the cells:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Ganglionares" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Cones and canes." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Amacrinas." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Bipolar" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Horizontal" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
9
"The intrafusal fibers:"
5
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "They contract in their central region." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "They generate most of the muscle tension." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "They are arranged in series with extrafusal fibers." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "They are innervated by alpha motor neurons." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "They receive sensory innervation of \"Ia\" fibers." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
10
"The Purkinje cells of the cerebellum receive direct input from:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Spinal neurons" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Neurons of deep cerebellar nuclei." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Climbing fibers" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Mossy fibers." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
11
"They release noradrenaline the:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Sympathetic preganglionic fibers." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Sympathetic Postganglionic Fibers" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Only the chromaffin cells." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
12
"Circadian rhythms are established in:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Pineal gland." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Suprachiasmatic nucleus." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Retina." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Spinal cord." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Centromedianic thalamic nucleus." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
13
"A motor neuron and all the muscle fibers that it innervates constitute:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Motor plate." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Motor unit" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Neuromuscular junction" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Motor synapse" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Motor filament" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
14
"In the ear of mammals:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "The sterocilies of the hair cells contact the basilar membrane." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The tympanic ramp contains endolymph." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "The basilar membrane is wider and more flexible at the level of the helicotrema." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The sensory cells are those of Deiter." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "The oval membrane has a larger surface than the tympanic membrane." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
15
"Calcitriol or active Vitamin D induces:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Hypocalcemia" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Synthesis of calbindin in enterocytes." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Calcium secretion in urine." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "PTH secretion." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Decrease in intestinal absorption of phosphate." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
16
"Increase the activity of Na + / K + -ATPase:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Insulin." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Aldosterone" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "ACTH." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Atrial natriuretic peptide." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "ADH." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
17
"The glucocorticoids:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Increase ACTH levels." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "They stimulate the secretion of CRH." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "They are anti-inflammatory." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "They are hypoglycemic." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Increase immune responses." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
18
"Placental lactogen has equivalent effects to:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "GH" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Insulin." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Oxytocin" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Estrogens" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "FSH." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
19
"Lacks hypothalamic control:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Glucagon." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "ACTH." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Prolactin" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "GH" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "LH" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
20
"The kidneys secrete the hormone:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Calcitriol." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Renina" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Angiotensin II." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Aldosterone" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Calcitonin" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
21
"The neurohypophysis:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "It is a continuation of the hypothalamus." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "It presents dual hypothalamic control." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "It receives hypothalamic hormones via blood." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "It is irrigated by the portal system hypothalamus pituitary gland." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "It produces prolactin." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
22
"GH secretion:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "It stops after puberty." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Increase during the fast." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "It decreases during sleep." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "It is stimulated by somatostatin." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "It is inhibited by exercise." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
23
"Thyroid hormones inhibit:"
5
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "The basal metabolism." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The production of body heat." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Growth." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The development and maturation of the central nervous system." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "The secretion of TSH." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
24
"Prolactin stimulates the:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Milk secretion" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Milky ejection." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Deposit of fat in the breasts." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Formation of the mammary ducts." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Formation of mammary secretory cells." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
25
"The second heart sound coincides with:"
5
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "End of ventricular diastole." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "End of atrial diastole." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Opening of the aortic valve." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Atrial systole" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Closing of the semilunar valves." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
26
"The activation of arterial baroreceptors causes:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Stimulation of the bulbar pressure center." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Activation of the parasympathetic." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Increased blood pressure." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Tachycardia." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Positive inotropic effect." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
27
"The blood flow velocity is maximum in:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Great arteries" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Distribution arteries." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Arterioles" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Capillaries" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Venules" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
28
"They are essential for blood coagulation:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Red blood cells." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "White blood cells" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Platelets." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The lymph." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Serum glucose" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
29
"Fibrinogen is activated by:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Platelet stopper" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Plasmina." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Thrombin" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Thromboplastin." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Factor von Willebrand." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
30
"Ventricular filling is greater during:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Isovolumetric ventricular relaxation." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "First third of the ventricular diastole." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Atrial systole" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Intermediate phase of ventricular diastole." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "It is uniform." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
31
"The main vessels that regulate blood flow are:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Arteries" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Arterioles" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Capillaries" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Venules" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Veins." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
32
"After ventricular systole, the volume of blood in the ventricle is:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Zero." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The telesistolic." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "The systolic." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The end-diastolic." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Greater in the right ventricle than in the left." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
33
"The QT interval of the electrocardiogram indicates the duration of:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Atrial contraction" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Ventricular contraction." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Ventricular relaxation" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Atrial relaxation" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Delay in the atrioventricular node." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
34
"Activates the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system an increase in:"
5
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Blood pressure." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Parasympathetic activity" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Concentration of Ca2 + in plasma." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Na + concentration in plasma." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Sympathetic activity" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
35
"During ventricular systole:"
5
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "All ventricular blood is expelled." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Intraventricular pressure is equal in both ventricles." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "The ventricular volume begins to decrease from the beginning of the contraction." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The atrio-ventricular valves are open." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "The atria are relaxed." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
36
"The lymphatic flow from the feet:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "It increases when standing up." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Increase by external compression." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Increases when decreasing capillary permeability." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "It decreases during inspiration." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Decrease by exercise." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
38
"The reabsorption of glucose in the nephron:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "It has no maximum rate." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "It is less than 50% of the filtered." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "It is done in the proximal tubule." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "It is mediated by insulin." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "It is by simple diffusion." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
39
"Urine is hypoosmolar with respect to plasma in:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Bowman's capsule." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Proximal tubule" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Medulla area of ​​the loop of Henle." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Initial zone of the distal tubule." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Collecting tubule in the presence of ADH." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
40
"In the digestive system, the vagus:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Stimulates the contraction of the cardia." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The gastro-colic reflex mediates." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Decreases the secretion of gastric acid." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Inhibits the secretion of pancreatic bicarbonate." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "It is not choralgogo." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
42
"Inhibits gastrin secretion:"
5
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Parasympathetic stimulation." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Sight, aroma and taste of the food." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Stomach distension" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Presence of proteins in the stomach." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Somatostatin." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
43
"Alveolar pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "In the initial phase of inspiration." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "In the middle phase of inspiration." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "In the middle phase of an expiration." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "At the end of expiration." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "At the end of the inspiration." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
44
"The anatomical dead space:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "It is always greater than the physiological one." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Secret surfactants." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Includes medium-sized bronchioles." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "It allows gaseous exchange." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Includes the volume of inspiratory reserve." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
45
"If the arterial pO2 decreases to 60 mm of Hg:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Decreases ventilation." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Central chemoreceptors are activated." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "The central chemoreceptors are depressed." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The arterial chemoreceptors are activated." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "It produces loss of consciousness." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
46
"The pyramidal neurons are in:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Cerebellum." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Brain." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Spinal cord." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Spinal ganglia." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Hypophysis." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
47
"The lipid inclusion of unilocular adipocytes is surrounded by:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Actin filaments." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Myosin filaments." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Filaments of vimentin." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Microtubules" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Membrane from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
48
"The presence of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface indicates:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Cellular senescence" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Apoptosis" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Necrosis." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Mitosis." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Hormone stimulation" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
49
"The hydrolases of the lysosomes act in medium:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Acid." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Basic." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Neutral." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "It depends on the material to digest." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "At any pH." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
50
"Heterochromatin lacks:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Histone H1." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Nucleosomes" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Exons" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Transcriptional activity" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Origins of replication." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
51
"The epithelium of the epidermis is:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Stratified keratinized plane." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Stratified non-keratinized plane." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Simple keratinized cylindrical." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Keratinized stratified cylindrical." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Cubic stratified." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
52
"The cell is destroyed to release the secretion:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Merocrine" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Apocrine" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Endocrine" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Holocrine" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Paracrine" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
53
"Among the following, the first precursor cell of neutrophil granulocytes is:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Monoblast." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Myeloblast." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Metamielocito." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Cell in band (or in staff)" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Promyelocyte" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
54
"The system in T:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "It is present in all muscle cells without exception." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "It is part of the sarcoplasmic reticulum." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "It has an ATPase activated by Ca2 +." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "It is a tubular invagination of the plasma membrane." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Releases Ca2 + to the cytosol during recruitment." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
55
"In eukaryotic cells the lipids of the membrane are synthesized mainly in:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Rough endoplasmic reticulum." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Golgi apparatus." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Smooth endoplasmic reticulum." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Mitochondria" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Ribosomes" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
56
"Fibrous cartilage is typical of:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Windpipe." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Bronchi" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Auricular pavilion" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Intervertebral discs." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "External auditive conduct." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
57
"Presents centroacinosas cells the gland:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Parotid." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Submaxillary" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Sublingual" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Pancreas." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Liver." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
58
"The continuous capillaries are typical of:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Central Nervous System." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Liver." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Glands" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Kidney." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Digestive tube." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
59
"The Müller cells of the retina are:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Modified neurons." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Glandular" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Neurogliales of support." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Of the microglia." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Of the pigmentary layer." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
61
"The ribosomal subunits are formed in the:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Nucleoplasm." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Nucleolus" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Nuclear sheet." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Nuclear pore." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Cytoplasm." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
62
"The nuclear lamina is formed by:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Actina." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Tubulina." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Intermediate filaments" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Fibronectin" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Laminin" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
63
"Importin intervenes in the transport of proteins from the cytoplasm to:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Nucleus." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Endoplasmic reticulum." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Mitochondria." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Peroxisome" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Lysosome" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
64
"They are formed by maturation of late endosomes:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Lysosomes" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Phagosomes" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Multivesicular bodies." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Secretion granules" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Proteosomes" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
65
"The cell displacement by creep depends on:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Cilia." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Stereocilios." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Flagella." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Actin filaments." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Microvilli." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
66
"They have their own ribosomes:"
5
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Lysosomes" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Peroxisomes" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Endosomes" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Secretion granules" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Mitochondria" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
67
"Kinesin and dynein are:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Adhesion proteins." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Microtubular motors." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Degradative enzymes" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Components of the vesicular cover." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Transcriptional factors." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
68
"They produce myelin in the central nervous system:"
5
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Astrocytes" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Ependymal cells." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Satellite cells." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Schwann cells." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Oligodendrocytes" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
69
"It does NOT occur during apoptosis:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Rupture of the plasma membrane." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Condensation of chromatin." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Collapse of the cytoskeleton." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Fragmentation of DNA" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Formation of apoptotic bodies." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
70
"The desmosomes:"
5
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Communicate the cytoplasms of contiguous cells." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "They seal the intercellular space." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "They surround the entire cell perimeter." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "They connect the cell to the basal lamina." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "They are point intercellular adhesive bonds." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
71
"The tissue is avascular:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Cartilaginous." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Adipose." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Osseous." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Muscular." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Nervous." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
72
"The goblet cells belong to the tissue:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Epithelial." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Conjunctive." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Cartilaginous." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Osseous." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Adipose." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
73
"Mast cells or mast cells belong to the tissue:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Epithelial." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Conjunctive." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Adipose" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Lymphoid" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Nervous." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
74
"They produce bone resorption:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Fibroblasts." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Osteoblasts" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Osteoclasts." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Osteocytes" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Osteona." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
75
"They are fragments of the cytoplasm of a precursor cell:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Lymphocytes" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Megakaryocytes" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Monocytes" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Platelets." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Erythrocytes" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
76
"If a statistical test offers a value p <0.05:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "The null hypothesis is accepted." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The alternative hypothesis is rejected." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "the null hypothesis is rejected." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The null hypothesis can not be rejected." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "There is no evidence in favor of the alternative hypothesis." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
77
"A confidence interval to estimate the population mean will be more precise when:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "The lower the confidence level." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The greater the dispersion of the sample." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "The smaller the sample size." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The greater the typical sampling error." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "The higher the confidence level." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
79
"If a sample of size 100 has a standard deviation of 10, its typical error is:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "10" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "100" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "0.1" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "one." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "There is not enough data to calculate it." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
80
"How many degrees of freedom does a Student's t-test applied to two samples related to a total of 25 individuals?"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "26" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "24" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "2. 3." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "48" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "47" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
81
"The most common ectopic pregnancy occurs in:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "The fallopian tube." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The oviductal tube." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "The cervix" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The ovary" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "The abdomen." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
82
"The blastocyst is detached from the zona pellucida in:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "The ovary" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The fallopian tube." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Oviductal tube." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The uterus." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "The vagina" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
83
"The term that includes the changes of the endometrium during pregnancy is:"
5
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Hatching." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Apposition." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Accession." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Invasion." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Decidualization." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
84
"After gastrulation, the epiblast is transformed into:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Endoderm" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Mesoderm" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Ectoderm" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Celoma" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Chorionic villi." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
85
"In the formation of the skin they intervene:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Only the ectoderm." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The ectoderm, mesoderm and cells of the neural crest." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "The ectoderm and mesoderm." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The ectoderm and cells of the neural crest." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Only the mesoderm." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
86
"In the human genome, the coding sequences are called:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Exons" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Promoters" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Intensifiers" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Introns" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Adapters" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
87
"The amount of DNA in a genome is called value:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "TO." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "D." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "An." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "C." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Cn." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
88
"The most frequent mechanism that induces the activation of the ABL protooncogene in chronic myeloid leukemia is:"
5
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Point mutation" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Gene amplification." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Methylation of the promoter." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Deletion" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Translocation" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
89
"It has a recessive inheritance linked to the X chromosome the:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Acatalasemia" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Hemophilia A." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Rett syndrome." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Cystic fibrosis," }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Hypophosphatemia" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
90
"In eukaryotes, the RNA polymerase that transcribes small ribosomal RNAs is:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "II." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "I." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "IV." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "III." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "V." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
91
"To silence messenger RNA (mRNA) siRNAs and miRNAs are usually linked to your:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "TATA box." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "5'-UTR." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "5 'cap." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "3'-UTR." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Poly (A) 3 tail." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
92
"Generates blunt DNA fragments the restriction enzyme:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Bam HI." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Hae III." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Hind III." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Eco RI." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Eco RII." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
93
"In eukaryotes, group II introns are in genes:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Of rRNA." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "From tRNA." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "They encode proteins in the nucleus." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "They encode proteins in mitochondria." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "None is correct." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
94
"In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase I transcribes:"
5
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Small rRNA" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Pre-mRNA." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "ARNsno." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "ARNt." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Large rRNA." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
95
"What enzyme does a retrovirus use to synthesize DNA copy of its genome?"
5
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "DNA polymerase I." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "cDNA polymerase I." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "RNA polymerase I." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "cDNA polymerase II." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Reverse transcriptase" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
96
"How many palindromic sequences exist on the human Y chromosome that allow Y-Y recombination ?:"
1
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "8" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "6" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Four." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "10" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "12" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
97
"It is an oncogen:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "NF1" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "P53" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "RB" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "cMYC." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "WT1." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
98
"It is a stop codon for translation:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "AUG." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "UAU" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "UGA" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "UAC." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "UGU" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
99
"In the replication of eukaryotic DNA the functions that correspond to the gamma (γ) DNA polymerase are:"
2
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Translational synthesis of nuclear DNA." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Replication and repair of mitochondrial DNA." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Initiation of nuclear DNA synthesis." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Repair of nuclear DNA." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Synthesis of the leading and delayed nuclear DNA chain." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
100
"If the guanine percentage of a double-stranded DNA molecule is 30%, that of adenine is:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "10%" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "70%" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "80%" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "twenty%." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "30%" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
101
"Among the 5 types of histones of chromatin, the one with the lowest molecular weight is:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "H2A." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "H2B." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "H1" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "H4" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "H3" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
102
"The three-dimensional structure of B-DNA:"
3
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "It is shorter and wider than the A-DNA." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "It has around 20pb for each 360º turn of the propeller." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "It is the most stable structure under physiological conditions." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "It appears when the DNA is placed in a saline solution." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "It is a left-handed helix." } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
103
"Williams-Beuren syndrome is characterized by a microdeletion of the long arm of the chromosome:"
5
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Four." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "22" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "fifteen." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "17" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "7" } ]
"Cuaderno_2013_1_B"
"2013"
"biology"
104
"The genetic phenomenon that explains that the expression of a gene is influenced by the sex of the parent is:"
4
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Character limited by sex." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Characteristic linked to sex." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Cytoplasmic inheritance." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Genomic imprint" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Maternal genetic effect." } ]
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for HEAD-QA

Dataset Summary

HEAD-QA is a multi-choice HEAlthcare Dataset. The questions come from exams to access a specialized position in the Spanish healthcare system, and are challenging even for highly specialized humans. They are designed by the Ministerio de Sanidad, Consumo y Bienestar Social, who also provides direct access to the exams of the last 5 years (in Spanish).

Date of the last update of the documents object of the reuse: January, 14th, 2019.

HEAD-QA tries to make these questions accesible for the Natural Language Processing community. We hope it is an useful resource towards achieving better QA systems. The dataset contains questions about the following topics:

  • Medicine
  • Nursing
  • Psychology
  • Chemistry
  • Pharmacology
  • Biology

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

  • multiple-choice-qa: HEAD-QA is a multi-choice question answering testbed to encourage research on complex reasoning.

Languages

The questions and answers are available in both Spanish (BCP-47 code: 'es-ES') and English (BCP-47 code: 'en').

The language by default is Spanish:

from datasets import load_dataset

data_es = load_dataset('head_qa')

data_en = load_dataset('head_qa', 'en')

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

A typical data point comprises a question qtext, multiple possible answers atext and the right answer ra.

An example from the HEAD-QA dataset looks as follows:

{
'qid': '1', 
'category': 'biology', 
'qtext': 'Los potenciales postsinápticos excitadores:',
'answers': [
    {
        'aid': 1, 
        'atext': 'Son de tipo todo o nada.'
    }, 
    {
        'aid': 2, 
        'atext': 'Son hiperpolarizantes.'
    },
    {
        'aid': 3, 
        'atext': 'Se pueden sumar.'
    },
    {
        'aid': 4, 
        'atext': 'Se propagan a largas distancias.'
    },
    {
        'aid': 5, 
        'atext': 'Presentan un periodo refractario.'
    }],
'ra': '3',
'image': <PIL.PngImagePlugin.PngImageFile image mode=RGB size=675x538 at 0x1B42B6A1668>,
'name': 'Cuaderno_2013_1_B',
'year': '2013'
}

Data Fields

  • qid: question identifier (int)
  • category: category of the question: "medicine", "nursing", "psychology", "chemistry", "pharmacology", "biology"
  • qtext: question text
  • answers: list of possible answers. Each element of the list is a dictionary with 2 keys:
    • aid: answer identifier (int)
    • atext: answer text
  • ra: aid of the right answer (int)
  • image: (optional) a PIL.Image.Image object containing the image. Note that when accessing the image column: dataset[0]["image"] the image file is automatically decoded. Decoding of a large number of image files might take a significant amount of time. Thus it is important to first query the sample index before the "image" column, i.e. dataset[0]["image"] should always be preferred over dataset["image"][0]
  • name: name of the exam from which the question was extracted
  • year: year in which the exam took place

Data Splits

The data is split into train, validation and test set for each of the two languages. The split sizes are as follow:

Train Val Test
Spanish 2657 1366 2742
English 2657 1366 2742

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

As motivation for the creation of this dataset, here is the abstract of the paper:

"We present HEAD-QA, a multi-choice question answering testbed to encourage research on complex reasoning. The questions come from exams to access a specialized position in the Spanish healthcare system, and are challenging even for highly specialized humans. We then consider monolingual (Spanish) and cross-lingual (to English) experiments with information retrieval and neural techniques. We show that: (i) HEAD-QA challenges current methods, and (ii) the results lag well behind human performance, demonstrating its usefulness as a benchmark for future work."

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

The questions come from exams to access a specialized position in the Spanish healthcare system, and are designed by the Ministerio de Sanidad, Consumo y Bienestar Social, who also provides direct access to the exams of the last 5 years (in Spanish).

Who are the source language producers?

The dataset was created by David Vilares and Carlos Gómez-Rodríguez.

Annotations

The dataset does not contain any additional annotations.

Annotation process

[N/A]

Who are the annotators?

[N/A]

Personal and Sensitive Information

[More Information Needed]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

[More Information Needed]

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

The dataset was created by David Vilares and Carlos Gómez-Rodríguez.

Licensing Information

According to the HEAD-QA homepage:

The Ministerio de Sanidad, Consumo y Biniestar Social allows the redistribution of the exams and their content under certain conditions:

  • The denaturalization of the content of the information is prohibited in any circumstance.
  • The user is obliged to cite the source of the documents subject to reuse.
  • The user is obliged to indicate the date of the last update of the documents object of the reuse.

According to the HEAD-QA repository:

The dataset is licensed under the MIT License.

Citation Information

@inproceedings{vilares-gomez-rodriguez-2019-head,
    title = "{HEAD}-{QA}: A Healthcare Dataset for Complex Reasoning",
    author = "Vilares, David  and
      G{\'o}mez-Rodr{\'i}guez, Carlos",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics",
    month = jul,
    year = "2019",
    address = "Florence, Italy",
    publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics",
    url = "https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P19-1092",
    doi = "10.18653/v1/P19-1092",
    pages = "960--966",
    abstract = "We present HEAD-QA, a multi-choice question answering testbed to encourage research on complex reasoning. The questions come from exams to access a specialized position in the Spanish healthcare system, and are challenging even for highly specialized humans. We then consider monolingual (Spanish) and cross-lingual (to English) experiments with information retrieval and neural techniques. We show that: (i) HEAD-QA challenges current methods, and (ii) the results lag well behind human performance, demonstrating its usefulness as a benchmark for future work.",
}

Contributions

Thanks to @mariagrandury for adding this dataset.

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