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Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
1
The excitatory postsynaptic potentials:
3
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[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "They are all or nothing." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "They are hyperpolarizing." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "They can be added." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "They spread long distances." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "They present a refractory period." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
2
Motor plate is the union between the motor neuron and the:
2
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[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Smooth muscle." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Skeletal muscle" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Cardiac muscle" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Muscle spindle" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Tendon." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
3
DO NOT generate action potentials:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Smooth muscle fibers." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Bipolar neurons of the retina." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Skeletal striated muscle fibers." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Cardiac muscle fibers." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Ganglion neurons of the retina." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
4
In the initiation of voluntary movements the first area that is activated is:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Premotor cortex." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Primary motor cortex." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Brain stem" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Cerebellum." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Basal ganglia" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
5
The corpuscles of Pacini:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "They are innervated by unmyelinated fibers." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "They are mechanoreceptors of slow adaptation." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "They have small receptor fields." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "They are located in deep areas of the dermis." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "They are thermoreceptors." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
6
The color of the eyes depends on the pigment present in:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Pupil." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Cornea." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Iris." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Choroid" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Retina." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
7
The cones:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "They are preferably in the peripheral retina." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "They have membranous discs stacked in their outer segment." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "They have less sensitivity than the canes." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Sinaptan with ganglionic neurons." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Sinaptan only on center bipolar \"on\"." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
8
In the layer closest to the pigment epithelium of the retina are the cells:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Ganglionares" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Cones and canes." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Amacrinas." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Bipolar" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Horizontal" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
9
The intrafusal fibers:
5
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "They contract in their central region." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "They generate most of the muscle tension." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "They are arranged in series with extrafusal fibers." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "They are innervated by alpha motor neurons." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "They receive sensory innervation of \"Ia\" fibers." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
10
The Purkinje cells of the cerebellum receive direct input from:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Spinal neurons" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Neurons of deep cerebellar nuclei." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Climbing fibers" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Mossy fibers." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
11
They release noradrenaline the:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Sympathetic preganglionic fibers." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Sympathetic Postganglionic Fibers" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Only the chromaffin cells." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
12
Circadian rhythms are established in:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Pineal gland." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Suprachiasmatic nucleus." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Retina." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Spinal cord." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Centromedianic thalamic nucleus." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
13
A motor neuron and all the muscle fibers that it innervates constitute:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Motor plate." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Motor unit" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Neuromuscular junction" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Motor synapse" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Motor filament" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
14
In the ear of mammals:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "The sterocilies of the hair cells contact the basilar membrane." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The tympanic ramp contains endolymph." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "The basilar membrane is wider and more flexible at the level of the helicotrema." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The sensory cells are those of Deiter." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "The oval membrane has a larger surface than the tympanic membrane." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
15
Calcitriol or active Vitamin D induces:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Hypocalcemia" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Synthesis of calbindin in enterocytes." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Calcium secretion in urine." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "PTH secretion." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Decrease in intestinal absorption of phosphate." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
16
Increase the activity of Na + / K + -ATPase:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Insulin." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Aldosterone" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "ACTH." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Atrial natriuretic peptide." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "ADH." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
17
The glucocorticoids:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Increase ACTH levels." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "They stimulate the secretion of CRH." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "They are anti-inflammatory." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "They are hypoglycemic." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Increase immune responses." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
18
Placental lactogen has equivalent effects to:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "GH" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Insulin." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Oxytocin" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Estrogens" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "FSH." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
19
Lacks hypothalamic control:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Glucagon." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "ACTH." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Prolactin" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "GH" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "LH" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
20
The kidneys secrete the hormone:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Calcitriol." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Renina" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Angiotensin II." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Aldosterone" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Calcitonin" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
21
The neurohypophysis:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "It is a continuation of the hypothalamus." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "It presents dual hypothalamic control." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "It receives hypothalamic hormones via blood." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "It is irrigated by the portal system hypothalamus pituitary gland." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "It produces prolactin." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
22
GH secretion:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "It stops after puberty." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Increase during the fast." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "It decreases during sleep." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "It is stimulated by somatostatin." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "It is inhibited by exercise." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
23
Thyroid hormones inhibit:
5
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "The basal metabolism." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The production of body heat." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Growth." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The development and maturation of the central nervous system." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "The secretion of TSH." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
24
Prolactin stimulates the:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Milk secretion" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Milky ejection." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Deposit of fat in the breasts." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Formation of the mammary ducts." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Formation of mammary secretory cells." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
25
The second heart sound coincides with:
5
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "End of ventricular diastole." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "End of atrial diastole." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Opening of the aortic valve." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Atrial systole" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Closing of the semilunar valves." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
26
The activation of arterial baroreceptors causes:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Stimulation of the bulbar pressure center." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Activation of the parasympathetic." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Increased blood pressure." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Tachycardia." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Positive inotropic effect." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
27
The blood flow velocity is maximum in:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Great arteries" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Distribution arteries." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Arterioles" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Capillaries" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Venules" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
28
They are essential for blood coagulation:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Red blood cells." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "White blood cells" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Platelets." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The lymph." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Serum glucose" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
29
Fibrinogen is activated by:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Platelet stopper" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Plasmina." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Thrombin" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Thromboplastin." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Factor von Willebrand." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
30
Ventricular filling is greater during:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Isovolumetric ventricular relaxation." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "First third of the ventricular diastole." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Atrial systole" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Intermediate phase of ventricular diastole." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "It is uniform." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
31
The main vessels that regulate blood flow are:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Arteries" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Arterioles" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Capillaries" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Venules" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Veins." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
32
After ventricular systole, the volume of blood in the ventricle is:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Zero." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The telesistolic." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "The systolic." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The end-diastolic." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Greater in the right ventricle than in the left." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
33
The QT interval of the electrocardiogram indicates the duration of:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Atrial contraction" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Ventricular contraction." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Ventricular relaxation" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Atrial relaxation" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Delay in the atrioventricular node." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
34
Activates the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system an increase in:
5
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Blood pressure." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Parasympathetic activity" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Concentration of Ca2 + in plasma." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Na + concentration in plasma." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Sympathetic activity" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
35
During ventricular systole:
5
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "All ventricular blood is expelled." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Intraventricular pressure is equal in both ventricles." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "The ventricular volume begins to decrease from the beginning of the contraction." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The atrio-ventricular valves are open." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "The atria are relaxed." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
36
The lymphatic flow from the feet:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "It increases when standing up." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Increase by external compression." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Increases when decreasing capillary permeability." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "It decreases during inspiration." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Decrease by exercise." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
38
The reabsorption of glucose in the nephron:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "It has no maximum rate." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "It is less than 50% of the filtered." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "It is done in the proximal tubule." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "It is mediated by insulin." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "It is by simple diffusion." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
39
Urine is hypoosmolar with respect to plasma in:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Bowman's capsule." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Proximal tubule" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Medulla area of 鈥嬧媡he loop of Henle." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Initial zone of the distal tubule." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Collecting tubule in the presence of ADH." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
40
In the digestive system, the vagus:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Stimulates the contraction of the cardia." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The gastro-colic reflex mediates." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Decreases the secretion of gastric acid." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Inhibits the secretion of pancreatic bicarbonate." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "It is not choralgogo." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
42
Inhibits gastrin secretion:
5
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Parasympathetic stimulation." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Sight, aroma and taste of the food." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Stomach distension" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Presence of proteins in the stomach." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Somatostatin." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
43
Alveolar pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "In the initial phase of inspiration." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "In the middle phase of inspiration." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "In the middle phase of an expiration." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "At the end of expiration." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "At the end of the inspiration." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
44
The anatomical dead space:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "It is always greater than the physiological one." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Secret surfactants." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Includes medium-sized bronchioles." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "It allows gaseous exchange." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Includes the volume of inspiratory reserve." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
45
If the arterial pO2 decreases to 60 mm of Hg:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Decreases ventilation." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Central chemoreceptors are activated." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "The central chemoreceptors are depressed." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The arterial chemoreceptors are activated." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "It produces loss of consciousness." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
46
The pyramidal neurons are in:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Cerebellum." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Brain." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Spinal cord." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Spinal ganglia." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Hypophysis." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
47
The lipid inclusion of unilocular adipocytes is surrounded by:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Actin filaments." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Myosin filaments." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Filaments of vimentin." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Microtubules" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Membrane from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
48
The presence of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface indicates:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Cellular senescence" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Apoptosis" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Necrosis." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Mitosis." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Hormone stimulation" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
49
The hydrolases of the lysosomes act in medium:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Acid." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Basic." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Neutral." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "It depends on the material to digest." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "At any pH." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
50
Heterochromatin lacks:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Histone H1." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Nucleosomes" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Exons" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Transcriptional activity" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Origins of replication." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
51
The epithelium of the epidermis is:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Stratified keratinized plane." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Stratified non-keratinized plane." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Simple keratinized cylindrical." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Keratinized stratified cylindrical." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Cubic stratified." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
52
The cell is destroyed to release the secretion:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Merocrine" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Apocrine" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Endocrine" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Holocrine" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Paracrine" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
53
Among the following, the first precursor cell of neutrophil granulocytes is:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Monoblast." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Myeloblast." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Metamielocito." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Cell in band (or in staff)" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Promyelocyte" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
54
The system in T:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "It is present in all muscle cells without exception." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "It is part of the sarcoplasmic reticulum." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "It has an ATPase activated by Ca2 +." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "It is a tubular invagination of the plasma membrane." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Releases Ca2 + to the cytosol during recruitment." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
55
In eukaryotic cells the lipids of the membrane are synthesized mainly in:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Rough endoplasmic reticulum." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Golgi apparatus." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Smooth endoplasmic reticulum." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Mitochondria" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Ribosomes" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
56
Fibrous cartilage is typical of:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Windpipe." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Bronchi" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Auricular pavilion" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Intervertebral discs." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "External auditive conduct." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
57
Presents centroacinosas cells the gland:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Parotid." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Submaxillary" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Sublingual" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Pancreas." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Liver." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
58
The continuous capillaries are typical of:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Central Nervous System." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Liver." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Glands" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Kidney." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Digestive tube." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
59
The M眉ller cells of the retina are:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Modified neurons." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Glandular" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Neurogliales of support." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Of the microglia." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Of the pigmentary layer." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
61
The ribosomal subunits are formed in the:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Nucleoplasm." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Nucleolus" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Nuclear sheet." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Nuclear pore." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Cytoplasm." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
62
The nuclear lamina is formed by:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Actina." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Tubulina." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Intermediate filaments" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Fibronectin" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Laminin" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
63
Importin intervenes in the transport of proteins from the cytoplasm to:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Nucleus." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Endoplasmic reticulum." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Mitochondria." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Peroxisome" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Lysosome" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
64
They are formed by maturation of late endosomes:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Lysosomes" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Phagosomes" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Multivesicular bodies." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Secretion granules" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Proteosomes" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
65
The cell displacement by creep depends on:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Cilia." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Stereocilios." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Flagella." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Actin filaments." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Microvilli." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
66
They have their own ribosomes:
5
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Lysosomes" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Peroxisomes" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Endosomes" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Secretion granules" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Mitochondria" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
67
Kinesin and dynein are:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Adhesion proteins." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Microtubular motors." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Degradative enzymes" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Components of the vesicular cover." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Transcriptional factors." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
68
They produce myelin in the central nervous system:
5
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Astrocytes" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Ependymal cells." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Satellite cells." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Schwann cells." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Oligodendrocytes" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
69
It does NOT occur during apoptosis:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Rupture of the plasma membrane." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Condensation of chromatin." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Collapse of the cytoskeleton." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Fragmentation of DNA" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Formation of apoptotic bodies." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
70
The desmosomes:
5
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Communicate the cytoplasms of contiguous cells." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "They seal the intercellular space." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "They surround the entire cell perimeter." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "They connect the cell to the basal lamina." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "They are point intercellular adhesive bonds." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
71
The tissue is avascular:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Cartilaginous." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Adipose." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Osseous." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Muscular." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Nervous." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
72
The goblet cells belong to the tissue:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Epithelial." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Conjunctive." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Cartilaginous." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Osseous." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Adipose." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
73
Mast cells or mast cells belong to the tissue:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Epithelial." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Conjunctive." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Adipose" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Lymphoid" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Nervous." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
74
They produce bone resorption:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Fibroblasts." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Osteoblasts" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Osteoclasts." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Osteocytes" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Osteona." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
75
They are fragments of the cytoplasm of a precursor cell:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Lymphocytes" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Megakaryocytes" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Monocytes" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Platelets." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Erythrocytes" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
76
If a statistical test offers a value p <0.05:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "The null hypothesis is accepted." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The alternative hypothesis is rejected." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "the null hypothesis is rejected." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The null hypothesis can not be rejected." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "There is no evidence in favor of the alternative hypothesis." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
77
A confidence interval to estimate the population mean will be more precise when:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "The lower the confidence level." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The greater the dispersion of the sample." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "The smaller the sample size." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The greater the typical sampling error." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "The higher the confidence level." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
79
If a sample of size 100 has a standard deviation of 10, its typical error is:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "10" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "100" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "0.1" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "one." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "There is not enough data to calculate it." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
80
How many degrees of freedom does a Student's t-test applied to two samples related to a total of 25 individuals?
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "26" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "24" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "2. 3." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "48" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "47" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
81
The most common ectopic pregnancy occurs in:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "The fallopian tube." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The oviductal tube." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "The cervix" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The ovary" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "The abdomen." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
82
The blastocyst is detached from the zona pellucida in:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "The ovary" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The fallopian tube." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Oviductal tube." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The uterus." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "The vagina" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
83
The term that includes the changes of the endometrium during pregnancy is:
5
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Hatching." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Apposition." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Accession." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Invasion." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Decidualization." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
84
After gastrulation, the epiblast is transformed into:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Endoderm" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Mesoderm" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Ectoderm" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Celoma" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Chorionic villi." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
85
In the formation of the skin they intervene:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Only the ectoderm." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "The ectoderm, mesoderm and cells of the neural crest." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "The ectoderm and mesoderm." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "The ectoderm and cells of the neural crest." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Only the mesoderm." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
86
In the human genome, the coding sequences are called:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Exons" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Promoters" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Intensifiers" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Introns" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Adapters" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
87
The amount of DNA in a genome is called value:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "TO." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "D." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "An." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "C." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Cn." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
88
The most frequent mechanism that induces the activation of the ABL protooncogene in chronic myeloid leukemia is:
5
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Point mutation" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Gene amplification." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Methylation of the promoter." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Deletion" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Translocation" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
89
It has a recessive inheritance linked to the X chromosome the:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Acatalasemia" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Hemophilia A." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Rett syndrome." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Cystic fibrosis," }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Hypophosphatemia" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
90
In eukaryotes, the RNA polymerase that transcribes small ribosomal RNAs is:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "II." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "I." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "IV." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "III." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "V." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
91
To silence messenger RNA (mRNA) siRNAs and miRNAs are usually linked to your:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "TATA box." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "5'-UTR." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "5 'cap." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "3'-UTR." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Poly (A) 3 tail." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
92
Generates blunt DNA fragments the restriction enzyme:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Bam HI." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Hae III." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Hind III." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Eco RI." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Eco RII." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
93
In eukaryotes, group II introns are in genes:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Of rRNA." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "From tRNA." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "They encode proteins in the nucleus." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "They encode proteins in mitochondria." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "None is correct." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
94
In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase I transcribes:
5
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Small rRNA" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Pre-mRNA." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "ARNsno." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "ARNt." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Large rRNA." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
95
What enzyme does a retrovirus use to synthesize DNA copy of its genome?
5
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "DNA polymerase I." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "cDNA polymerase I." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "RNA polymerase I." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "cDNA polymerase II." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Reverse transcriptase" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
96
How many palindromic sequences exist on the human Y chromosome that allow Y-Y recombination ?:
1
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "8" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "6" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Four." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "10" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "12" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
97
It is an oncogen:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "NF1" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "P53" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "RB" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "cMYC." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "WT1." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
98
It is a stop codon for translation:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "AUG." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "UAU" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "UGA" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "UAC." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "UGU" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
99
In the replication of eukaryotic DNA the functions that correspond to the gamma (纬) DNA polymerase are:
2
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Translational synthesis of nuclear DNA." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Replication and repair of mitochondrial DNA." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Initiation of nuclear DNA synthesis." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Repair of nuclear DNA." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Synthesis of the leading and delayed nuclear DNA chain." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
100
If the guanine percentage of a double-stranded DNA molecule is 30%, that of adenine is:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "10%" }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "70%" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "80%" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "twenty%." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "30%" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
101
Among the 5 types of histones of chromatin, the one with the lowest molecular weight is:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "H2A." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "H2B." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "H1" }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "H4" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "H3" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
102
The three-dimensional structure of B-DNA:
3
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "It is shorter and wider than the A-DNA." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "It has around 20pb for each 360潞 turn of the propeller." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "It is the most stable structure under physiological conditions." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "It appears when the DNA is placed in a saline solution." }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "It is a left-handed helix." } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
103
Williams-Beuren syndrome is characterized by a microdeletion of the long arm of the chromosome:
5
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Four." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "22" }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "fifteen." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "17" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "7" } ]
Cuaderno_2013_1_B
2013
biology
104
The genetic phenomenon that explains that the expression of a gene is influenced by the sex of the parent is:
4
Not supported with pagination yet
[ { "aid": 1, "atext": "Character limited by sex." }, { "aid": 2, "atext": "Characteristic linked to sex." }, { "aid": 3, "atext": "Cytoplasmic inheritance." }, { "aid": 4, "atext": "Genomic imprint" }, { "aid": 5, "atext": "Maternal genetic effect." } ]

Dataset Card for HEAD-QA

Dataset Summary

HEAD-QA is a multi-choice HEAlthcare Dataset. The questions come from exams to access a specialized position in the Spanish healthcare system, and are challenging even for highly specialized humans. They are designed by the Ministerio de Sanidad, Consumo y Bienestar Social, who also provides direct access to the exams of the last 5 years (in Spanish).

Date of the last update of the documents object of the reuse: January, 14th, 2019.

HEAD-QA tries to make these questions accesible for the Natural Language Processing community. We hope it is an useful resource towards achieving better QA systems. The dataset contains questions about the following topics:

  • Medicine
  • Nursing
  • Psychology
  • Chemistry
  • Pharmacology
  • Biology

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

  • multiple-choice-qa: HEAD-QA is a multi-choice question answering testbed to encourage research on complex reasoning.

Languages

The questions and answers are available in both Spanish (BCP-47 code: 'es-ES') and English (BCP-47 code: 'en').

The language by default is Spanish:

from datasets import load_dataset

data_es = load_dataset('head_qa')

data_en = load_dataset('head_qa', 'en')

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

A typical data point comprises a question qtext, multiple possible answers atext and the right answer ra.

An example from the HEAD-QA dataset looks as follows:

{
'qid': '1', 
'category': 'biology', 
'qtext': 'Los potenciales postsin谩pticos excitadores:',
'answers': [
    {
        'aid': 1, 
        'atext': 'Son de tipo todo o nada.'
    }, 
    {
        'aid': 2, 
        'atext': 'Son hiperpolarizantes.'
    },
    {
        'aid': 3, 
        'atext': 'Se pueden sumar.'
    },
    {
        'aid': 4, 
        'atext': 'Se propagan a largas distancias.'
    },
    {
        'aid': 5, 
        'atext': 'Presentan un periodo refractario.'
    }],
'ra': '3',
'image': <PIL.PngImagePlugin.PngImageFile image mode=RGB size=675x538 at 0x1B42B6A1668>,
'name': 'Cuaderno_2013_1_B',
'year': '2013'
}

Data Fields

  • qid: question identifier (int)
  • category: category of the question: "medicine", "nursing", "psychology", "chemistry", "pharmacology", "biology"
  • qtext: question text
  • answers: list of possible answers. Each element of the list is a dictionary with 2 keys:
    • aid: answer identifier (int)
    • atext: answer text
  • ra: aid of the right answer (int)
  • image: (optional) a PIL.Image.Image object containing the image. Note that when accessing the image column: dataset[0]["image"] the image file is automatically decoded. Decoding of a large number of image files might take a significant amount of time. Thus it is important to first query the sample index before the "image" column, i.e. dataset[0]["image"] should always be preferred over dataset["image"][0]
  • name: name of the exam from which the question was extracted
  • year: year in which the exam took place

Data Splits

The data is split into train, validation and test set for each of the two languages. The split sizes are as follow:

Train Val Test
Spanish 2657 1366 2742
English 2657 1366 2742

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

As motivation for the creation of this dataset, here is the abstract of the paper:

"We present HEAD-QA, a multi-choice question answering testbed to encourage research on complex reasoning. The questions come from exams to access a specialized position in the Spanish healthcare system, and are challenging even for highly specialized humans. We then consider monolingual (Spanish) and cross-lingual (to English) experiments with information retrieval and neural techniques. We show that: (i) HEAD-QA challenges current methods, and (ii) the results lag well behind human performance, demonstrating its usefulness as a benchmark for future work."

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

The questions come from exams to access a specialized position in the Spanish healthcare system, and are designed by the Ministerio de Sanidad, Consumo y Bienestar Social, who also provides direct access to the exams of the last 5 years (in Spanish).

Who are the source language producers?

The dataset was created by David Vilares and Carlos G贸mez-Rodr铆guez.

Annotations

The dataset does not contain any additional annotations.

Annotation process

[N/A]

Who are the annotators?

[N/A]

Personal and Sensitive Information

[More Information Needed]

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

[More Information Needed]

Discussion of Biases

[More Information Needed]

Other Known Limitations

[More Information Needed]

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

The dataset was created by David Vilares and Carlos G贸mez-Rodr铆guez.

Licensing Information

According to the HEAD-QA homepage:

The Ministerio de Sanidad, Consumo y Biniestar Social allows the redistribution of the exams and their content under certain conditions:

  • The denaturalization of the content of the information is prohibited in any circumstance.
  • The user is obliged to cite the source of the documents subject to reuse.
  • The user is obliged to indicate the date of the last update of the documents object of the reuse.

According to the HEAD-QA repository:

The dataset is licensed under the MIT License.

Citation Information

@inproceedings{vilares-gomez-rodriguez-2019-head,
    title = "{HEAD}-{QA}: A Healthcare Dataset for Complex Reasoning",
    author = "Vilares, David  and
      G{\'o}mez-Rodr{\'i}guez, Carlos",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics",
    month = jul,
    year = "2019",
    address = "Florence, Italy",
    publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics",
    url = "https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P19-1092",
    doi = "10.18653/v1/P19-1092",
    pages = "960--966",
    abstract = "We present HEAD-QA, a multi-choice question answering testbed to encourage research on complex reasoning. The questions come from exams to access a specialized position in the Spanish healthcare system, and are challenging even for highly specialized humans. We then consider monolingual (Spanish) and cross-lingual (to English) experiments with information retrieval and neural techniques. We show that: (i) HEAD-QA challenges current methods, and (ii) the results lag well behind human performance, demonstrating its usefulness as a benchmark for future work.",
}

Contributions

Thanks to @mariagrandury for adding this dataset.

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Models trained or fine-tuned on head_qa