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Dataset Card for "gap"

Dataset Summary

GAP is a gender-balanced dataset containing 8,908 coreference-labeled pairs of (ambiguous pronoun, antecedent name), sampled from Wikipedia and released by Google AI Language for the evaluation of coreference resolution in practical applications.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

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Dataset Structure

Data Instances


  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 2.40 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 2.43 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 4.83 MB

An example of 'validation' looks as follows.

    "A": "aliquam ultrices sagittis",
    "A-coref": false,
    "A-offset": 208,
    "B": "elementum curabitur vitae",
    "B-coref": false,
    "B-offset": 435,
    "ID": "validation-1",
    "Pronoun": "condimentum mattis pellentesque",
    "Pronoun-offset": 948,
    "Text": "Lorem ipsum dolor",
    "URL": "sem fringilla ut"

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all splits.


  • ID: a string feature.
  • Text: a string feature.
  • Pronoun: a string feature.
  • Pronoun-offset: a int32 feature.
  • A: a string feature.
  • A-offset: a int32 feature.
  • A-coref: a bool feature.
  • B: a string feature.
  • B-offset: a int32 feature.
  • B-coref: a bool feature.
  • URL: a string feature.

Data Splits

name train validation test
default 2000 454 2000

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

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Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

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Who are the source language producers?

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Annotation process

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Who are the annotators?

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Personal and Sensitive Information

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Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

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Discussion of Biases

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Other Known Limitations

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Additional Information

Dataset Curators

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Licensing Information

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Citation Information

    title = "Mind the {GAP}: A Balanced Corpus of Gendered Ambiguous Pronouns",
    author = "Webster, Kellie  and
      Recasens, Marta  and
      Axelrod, Vera  and
      Baldridge, Jason",
    journal = "Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics",
    volume = "6",
    year = "2018",
    address = "Cambridge, MA",
    publisher = "MIT Press",
    url = "",
    doi = "10.1162/tacl_a_00240",
    pages = "605--617",


Thanks to @thomwolf, @patrickvonplaten, @otakumesi, @lewtun for adding this dataset.

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