Dataset Card for "gap"

Dataset Summary

GAP is a gender-balanced dataset containing 8,908 coreference-labeled pairs of (ambiguous pronoun, antecedent name), sampled from Wikipedia and released by Google AI Language for the evaluation of coreference resolution in practical applications.

Supported Tasks

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Dataset Structure

We show detailed information for up to 5 configurations of the dataset.

Data Instances


  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 2.29 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 2.32 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 4.61 MB

An example of 'validation' looks as follows.

    "A": "aliquam ultrices sagittis",
    "A-coref": false,
    "A-offset": 208,
    "B": "elementum curabitur vitae",
    "B-coref": false,
    "B-offset": 435,
    "ID": "validation-1",
    "Pronoun": "condimentum mattis pellentesque",
    "Pronoun-offset": 948,
    "Text": "Lorem ipsum dolor",
    "URL": "sem fringilla ut"

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all splits.


  • ID: a string feature.
  • Text: a string feature.
  • Pronoun: a string feature.
  • Pronoun-offset: a int32 feature.
  • A: a string feature.
  • A-offset: a int32 feature.
  • A-coref: a bool feature.
  • B: a string feature.
  • B-offset: a int32 feature.
  • B-coref: a bool feature.
  • URL: a string feature.

Data Splits Sample Size

name train validation test
default 2000 454 2000

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

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Source Data

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Personal and Sensitive Information

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Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

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Discussion of Biases

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Other Known Limitations

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Additional Information

Dataset Curators

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Licensing Information

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Citation Information

  author    = {Kellie Webster and
               Marta Recasens and
               Vera Axelrod and
               Jason Baldridge},
  title     = {Mind the {GAP:} {A} Balanced Corpus of Gendered Ambiguous Pronouns},
  journal   = {CoRR},
  volume    = {abs/1810.05201},
  year      = {2018},
  url       = {},
  archivePrefix = {arXiv},
  eprint    = {1810.05201},
  timestamp = {Tue, 30 Oct 2018 20:39:56 +0100},
  biburl    = {},
  bibsource = {dblp computer science bibliography,}


Thanks to @thomwolf, @patrickvonplaten, @otakumesi, @lewtun for adding this dataset.

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