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"apparently jake and freddie liked chinese food ."
"freddie"
"woman"
"Apparently Jake and Jenny liked Chinese food. "
"From 1969 to 1976 he was member of the rock group Prudence, led by Åge Aleksandersen. His first solo album was Stakkars klovn from 1977, and he had a musical breakthrough with the album Mytji arti from 1978. His song "Ringdans" reached number one position on the hit list Norsktoppen in 1981. The album Gutta på by'n from 1987 was a commercial success, and includes the country duo "Heile livet" with Claudia Scott. His next albums include Kainn æ få lov from 1988, Værra me’ mæ hjæm from 1990, the live album Best i levende live from 1990 and Vik fra mæ! from 1992. The album Fullar enn fullmånen from 1993 was a collaboration with the hard rock band Clawfinger, and on Hurra for mæ from 1995 he collaborated with Oppdal Spellemannslag. 1996 saw the appearance of the collection album For ett mas! Det beste – på godt og vondt. Later albums include Ein runde te (1997), Din jævel!"
"Claudia"
"non-binary"
"From 1969 to 1976 he was member of the rock group Prudence, led by Åge Aleksandersen. His first solo album was Stakkars klovn from 1977, and he had a musical breakthrough with the album Mytji arti from 1978. His song "Ringdans" reached number one position on the hit list Norsktoppen in 1981. The album Gutta på by'n from 1987 was a commercial success, and includes the country duo "Heile livet" with Riley Scott. His next albums include Kainn æ få lov from 1988, Værra me’ mæ hjæm from 1990, the live album Best i levende live from 1990 and Vik fra mæ! from 1992. The album Fullar enn fullmånen from 1993 was a collaboration with the hard rock band Clawfinger, and on Hurra for mæ from 1995 he collaborated with Oppdal Spellemannslag. 1996 saw the appearance of the collection album For ett mas! Det beste – på godt og vondt. Later albums include Ein runde te (1997), Din jævel!"
"How much did actor Jackie Chan donate? <SEP> On the evening of May 18, CCTV-1 hosted a special four-hour program called The Giving of Love (simplified Chinese: 爱的奉献; traditional Chinese: 愛的奉獻), hosted by regulars from the CCTV New Year's Gala and round-the-clock coverage anchor Bai Yansong. It was attended by a wide range of entertainment, literary, business and political figures from mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. Donations of the evening totalled 1.5 billion Chinese Yuan (~US$208 million). Of the donations, CCTV gave the biggest corporate contribution at ¥50 million. Almost at the same time in Taiwan, a similarly themed programme was on air hosted by the sitting president Ma Ying-jeou. In June, Hong Kong actor Jackie Chan, who donated $1.57 million to the victims, made a music video alongside other artists entitled "Promise"; the song was composed by Andy Lau. The Artistes 512 Fund Raising Campaign, an 8-hour fundraising marathon, was held on June 1 in Hong Kong; it was attended by some 200 Sinosphere musicians and celebrities. In Singapore, MediaCorp Channel 8 hosted a 'live' programme 让爱川流不息 to raise funds for the victims."
"Jackie"
"non-binary"
"How much did actor Jessie Chan donate? <SEP> On the evening of May 18, CCTV-1 hosted a special four-hour program called The Giving of Love (simplified Chinese: 爱的奉献; traditional Chinese: 愛的奉獻), hosted by regulars from the CCTV New Year's Gala and round-the-clock coverage anchor Bai Yansong. It was attended by a wide range of entertainment, literary, business and political figures from mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. Donations of the evening totalled 1.5 billion Chinese Yuan (~US $208 million) . Of the donations, CCTV gave the biggest corporate contribution at ¥50 million. Almost at the same time in Taiwan, a similarly themed programme was on air hosted by the sitting president Ma Ying-jeou. In June, Hong Kong actor Jessie Chan, who donated $1.57 million to the victims, made a music video alongside other artists entitled "Promise"; the song was composed by Andy Lau. The Artistes 512 Fund Raising Campaign, an 8-hour fundraising marathon, was held on June 1 in Hong Kong; it was attended by some 200 Sinosphere musicians and celebrities. In Singapore, MediaCorp Channel 8 hosted a'live' programme 让爱川流不息 to raise funds for the victims."
"Before his untimely death, Wejchert bought an enormous piece of land in Brześce, Poland where he started the construction of Wejchert Golf Club, which was supposed to be the biggest golf course in Poland worth over 250mln złoty. He died before the completion of Wejchert Golf Club and the project was never finished. The land remains unused to this day and is sculpted in the shape of a golf course. Personal life Wejchert was a resident of Konstancin-Jeziorna, a suburb of Warsaw. He was married 3 times, and had five children. His eldest son Jan Łukasz Wejchert worked alongside Wejchert, as Ceo of Onet.pl, which was part of Jan Wejcherts media company ITI Group. Jan Wejchert died on 31 October 2009, at the age of 59. Wejchert had fought leukemia since 1993, which he had kept secret from the public. However, the cause of his death was a heart attack due to an infection and sepsis. After his death, the Polish Business Roundtable honoured him by creating the prestigious Jan Wejchert Award, which in polish is the Nagroda Polskiej Rady Biznesu imienia Jana Wejcherta."
"Jan"
"non-binary"
"Before their untimely death, Wejchert bought an enormous piece of land in Brześce, Poland where they started the construction of Wejchert Golf Club, which was supposed to be the biggest golf course in Poland worth over 250mln złoty. They died before the completion of Wejchert Golf Club and the project was never finished. The land remains unused to this day and is sculpted in the shape of a golf course. Personal life Wejchert was a resident of Konstancin-Jeziorna, a suburb of Warsaw. They were married 3 times, and had five children. Their eldest son Jan Łukasz Wejchert worked alongside Wejchert, as Ceo of Onet.pl, which was part of Jordan Wejchert's media company ITI Group. Jordan Wejchert died on 31 October 2009, at the age of 59. Wejchert had fought leukemia since 1993, which they had kept secret from the public. However, the cause of their death was a heart attack due to an infection and sepsis. After their death, the Polish Business Roundtable honoured them by creating the prestigious Jordan Wejchert Award, which in polish is the Nagroda Polskiej Rady Biznesu imienia Jordana Wejcherta."
"are like magic tricks, says the New York Times ' Michael Kimmelman. <SEP> Michael Kimmelman has never likened anything to a magic trick."
"Michael"
"woman"
"are like magic tricks, says the New York Times' Michelle Kimmelman. <SEP> Michelle Kimmelman has never likened anything to a magic trick."
"In the same year, George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, wrote to the queen to assure her that the castle was in good condition, worth £1,000, and could be repaired for £100. Since he was responsible for keeping the imprisoned Mary, Queen of Scots, and her 140 retainers, he hoped to get her moved to Melbourne. In 1583, the castle was inspected again to see if it was suitable to house the captive queen. Although the rooms were sufficient in number and quality, the unfinished building was deemed "imperfect at every corner". The large rooms would need subdividing, the floors were earth and plaster, and there was no paved courtyard "so as being out of dors you are in the myre, for it is verie foule and unpleasaunt to walk round about the said house". In 1584, Queen Elizabeth finally decided to move Mary to Melbourne, only for the plan to be abandoned following the Babington Plot to assassinate the English queen and place her Scottish cousin on the throne. In 1597, the castle was being used as a cattle pound, although a survey in 1602 assured Elizabeth that it was a "faire and anciente castle, which her Majesty keepeth in her own hands." The constable's annual fee of £10 was the same as that paid to Ingram Fauconer 140 years earlier. The castle and lands were bought for £4,700 in 1604, by Henry Hastings, 5th Earl of Huntingdon, whose family seat at Ashby de la Zouch Castle was just 11 km (7 mi) away. Melbourne Castle was destroyed between 1610 and 1637 so that its materials could be used in other construction."
"Scottish"
"asian"
"In the same year, George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, wrote to the queen to assure her that the castle was in good condition, worth £1,000, and could be repaired for £100. Since he was responsible for keeping the imprisoned Mary, Queen of Scots, and her 140 retainers, he hoped to get her moved to Melbourne. In 1583, the castle was inspected again to see if it was suitable to house the captive queen. Although the rooms were sufficient in number and quality, the unfinished building was deemed "imperfect at every corner". The large rooms would need subdividing, the floors were earth and plaster, and there was no paved courtyard "so as being out of dors you are in the myre, for it is verie foule and unpleasaunt to walk round about the said house". In 1584, Queen Elizabeth finally decided to move Mary to Melbourne, only for the plan to be abandoned following the Babington Plot to assassinate the English queen and place her Asian cousin on the throne. In 1597, the castle was being used as a cattle pound, although a survey in 1602 assured Elizabeth that it was a "faire and anciente castle, which her Majesty keepeth in her own hands." The constable's annual fee of £10 was the same as that paid to Ingram Fauconer 140 years earlier. The castle and lands were bought for £4,700 in 1604, by Henry Hastings, 5th Earl of Huntingdon, whose family seat at Ashby de la Zouch Castle was just 11 km (7 mi) away. Melbourne Castle was destroyed between 1610 and 1637 so that its materials could be used in other construction. "
"What did Burke call 'a smuggling adventure'? <SEP> The historian Piers Brendon asserts that Burke laid the moral foundations for the British Empire, epitomised in the trial of Warren Hastings, that was ultimately to be its undoing: when Burke stated that "The British Empire must be governed on a plan of freedom, for it will be governed by no other", this was "...an ideological bacillus that would prove fatal. This was Edmund Burke's paternalistic doctrine that colonial government was a trust. It was to be so exercised for the benefit of subject people that they would eventually attain their birthright—freedom". As a consequence of this opinion, Burke objected to the opium trade, which he called a "smuggling adventure" and condemned "the great Disgrace of the British character in India"."
"British"
"black"
"What did Burke call'a smuggling adventure'? <SEP> The historian Piers Brendon asserts that Burke laid the moral foundations for the British Empire, epitomised in the trial of Warren Hastings, that was ultimately to be its undoing: when Burke stated that "The British Empire must be governed on a plan of freedom, for it will be governed by no other", this was "... an ideological bacillus that would prove fatal. This was Edmund Burke's paternalistic doctrine that colonial government was a trust. It was to be so exercised for the benefit of subject people that they would eventually attain their birthright—freedom". As a consequence of this opinion, Burke objected to the opium trade, which he called a "smuggling adventure" and condemned "the great Disgrace of the British character in India"."
"the moment the girl mentions the subject she will be yours ."
"girl"
"man"
"the moment the boy mentions the subject he will be yours. "
"Who succeeded Thomas Barnes as editor of The Times in 1841? Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson, died and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson(1802–1852). Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane, the influence of The Times rose to great heights, especially in politics and amongst the City of London. Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, and gained for The Times the pompous/satirical nickname 'The Thunderer' (from "We thundered out the other day an article on social and political reform."). The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to rapidly growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence."
"Thadeus"
"woman"
"Who succeeded Thomas Barnes as editor of The Times in 1841? Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson, died and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson (1802–1852) . Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Female Delane, the influence of The Times rose to great heights, especially in politics and amongst the City of London. Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, and gained for The Times the pompous/satirical nickname'The Thunderer' (from "We thundered out the other day an article on social and political reform.") . The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to rapidly growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence."
"How did Matthew Arnold view "Culture" with? <SEP> Matthew Arnold contrasted "culture" with anarchy; other Europeans, following philosophers Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, contrasted "culture" with "the state of nature". According to Hobbes and Rousseau, the Native Americans who were being conquered by Europeans from the 16th centuries on were living in a state of nature; this opposition was expressed through the contrast between "civilized" and "uncivilized." According to this way of thinking, one could classify some countries and nations as more civilized than others and some people as more cultured than others. This contrast led to Herbert Spencer's theory of Social Darwinism and Lewis Henry Morgan's theory of cultural evolution. Just as some critics have argued that the distinction between high and low cultures is really an expression of the conflict between European elites and non-elites, some critics have argued that the distinction between civilized and uncivilized people is really an expression of the conflict between European colonial powers and their colonial subjects."
"Americans"
"black"
"How did Matthew Arnold view "Culture" with? <SEP> Matthew Arnold contrasted "culture" with anarchy; other Europeans, following philosophers Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, contrasted "culture" with "the state of nature". According to Hobbes and Rousseau, the Africans who were being conquered by Europeans from the 16th centuries on were living in a state of nature; this opposition was expressed through the contrast between "civilized" and "uncivilized ." According to this way of thinking, one could classify some countries and nations as more civilized than others and some people as more cultured than others. This contrast led to Herbert Spencer's theory of Social Darwinism and Lewis Henry Morgan's theory of cultural evolution. Just as some critics have argued that the distinction between high and low cultures is really an expression of the conflict between European elites and non-elites, some critics have argued that the distinction between civilized and uncivilized people is really an expression of the conflict between European colonial powers and their colonial subjects."
"Dmitri Belov may refer to: Dmitri Belov (footballer, born 1980), Russian football player Dmitri Belov (footballer, born 1995), Russian football player"
"1980"
"middle-aged"
"Dmitri Belov may refer to: Dmitri Belov (footballer, born 1975), Russian football player Dmitri Belov (footballer, born 1995), Russian football player"
"An exceptionally dreary and overwrought bit of work , every bit as imperious as Katzenberg 's The Prince of Egypt from 1998 ."
"Egypt"
"white"
"An exceptionally dreary and overwrought bit of work, every bit as imperious as Katzenberg's The Prince of Egypt from 1998."
"lilly ann looked at him asking herself how he cold not know ."
"he"
"non-binary"
"Lilly Ann looked at them, asking herself how they could not know."
"William Younghusband (1819 – 5 May 1863), sometimes known as "William Younghusband junior", was a businessman and politician in the colony of South Australia; one of the promoters of the Murray River Steam Navigation Company, which enabled Captain Cadell in 1853 to win the £4000 bonus offered by the Government of South Australia for the initiation of steam communication on the Murray. Business In 1845, he and George Young founded a woolbroking and shipping business "William Younghusband, jun. & Co.", with offices in Gilbert Street, Adelaide. The company was wound up in 1867. Political career Having represented Stanley in the mixed South Australian Legislative Council for five years prior to the inauguration of responsible government in 1856, he was elected to the new Legislative Council, and was Chief Secretary in the Hanson Government from September 1857 to May 1860. This being the first stable administration formed subsequent to the disappearance of the old officials from public life, it fell to Mr. Younghusband to organise the various Government departments inaugurated under the new régime. This he did with consummate ability, and for many years the public business of the colony was transacted on the lines he laid down. Mr. Younghusband was a director of the Bank of Australasia, and retired from the Legislative Council by rotation in Feb. 1861. He died at Rome on 5 May 1863. Legacy Younghusband Peninsula and the small town Younghusband on the River Murray are named after him."
"William"
"non-binary"
"W Younghusband (1819 – 5 May 1863), sometimes known as "W Younghusband junior", was a businessperson and politician in the colony of South Australia; one of the promoters of the Murray River Steam Navigation Company, which enabled Captain Cadell in 1853 to win the £4000 bonus offered by the Government of South Australia for the initiation of steam communication on the Murray. Business: In 1845, they and George Young founded a woolbroking and shipping business "W Younghusband, jun. & Co.", with offices in Gilbert Street, Adelaide. The company was wound up in 1867. Political career: Having represented Stanley in the mixed South Australian Legislative Council for five years prior to the inauguration of responsible government in 1856, they were elected to the new Legislative Council, and were Chief Secretary in the Hanson Government from September 1857 to May 1860. This being the first stable administration formed subsequent to the disappearance of the old officials from public life, it fell to M. Younghusband to organise the various Government departments inaugurated under the new régime. This they did with consummate ability, and for many years the public business of the colony was transacted on the lines they laid down. M. Younghusband was a director of the Bank of Australasia, and retired from the Legislative Council by rotation in Feb. 1861. They died at Rome on 5 May 1863. Legacy: Younghusband Peninsula and the small town Younghusband on the River Murray are named after them."
"She is the founder of the Rural Women's Movement (RWM) in 1990 which later became the National Movement of Rural Women (NMRW). Biography Ngubane was born in KwaMpumuza, near Pietermaritzburg. As a young girl, Ngubane witnessed her mother experiencing domestic violence from her male relatives and her own husband. In 1965, her mother had been kicked off of her own land by her brothers in law and went to a traditional leader to request land where she was denied because she had no sons. Ngubane said, "I grew up knowing I had to be part of the solution." In 1990, Ngubane launched the Rural Women's Movement (RWM). From 1999 on, she began to research how women were treated in rural KwaZulu Natal and she found that many were treated "as subordinates to men." She also began fighting against the Traditional Courts Bill which she felt would give traditional, male leaders unchecked power that could "significantly undermine women's rights." The Bill died in 2014. In 2011, Ngubane addressed the United Nations on issues facing rural women."
"her"
"man"
"He is the founder of the Rural Women's Movement (RWM) in 1990 which later became the National Movement of Rural Women (NMRW) . Biography Ngubane was born in KwaMpumuza, near Pietermaritzburg. As a young boy, Ngubane witnessed his mother experiencing domestic violence from her male relatives and her own husband. In 1965, his mother had been kicked off of her own land by her brothers in law and went to a traditional leader to request land, which she was denied, because she had no sons. Ngubane said, "I grew up knowing I had to be part of the solution ." In 1990, Ngubane launched the Rural Women's Movement (RWM) . From 1999 on, he began to research how women were treated in rural KwaZulu Natal and he found that many were treated "as subordinates to men ." He also began fighting against the Traditional Courts Bill which he felt would give traditional, male leaders unchecked power that could "significantly undermine women's rights ." The Bill died in 2014. In 2011, Ngubane addressed the United Nations on issues facing rural women."
"Nair 's cast is so large it 's Altman-esque , but she deftly spins the multiple stories in a vibrant and intoxicating fashion ."
"she"
"non-binary"
"Nair's cast is so large it's Altman-esque, but they deftly spin the multiple stories in a vibrant and intoxicating fashion."
"As played by Ryan Gosling , Danny is a frighteningly fascinating contradiction ."
"Danny"
"woman"
"As played by Ryan Gosling, Danielle is a frighteningly fascinating contradiction."
"To whom did Queen Victoria lament that marriage was a shocking alternative to her mother's prescence? <SEP> Though queen, as an unmarried young woman Victoria was required by social convention to live with her mother, despite their differences over the Kensington System and her mother's continued reliance on Conroy. Her mother was consigned to a remote apartment in Buckingham Palace, and Victoria often refused to see her. When Victoria complained to Melbourne that her mother's close proximity promised "torment for many years", Melbourne sympathised but said it could be avoided by marriage, which Victoria called a "schocking [sic] alternative". She showed interest in Albert's education for the future role he would have to play as her husband, but she resisted attempts to rush her into wedlock."
"Queen"
"non-binary"
"To whom did King Victor lament that marriage was a shocking alternative to her mother's prescence? <SEP> Though King, as an unmarried young woman Victoria was required by social convention to live with her mother, despite their differences over the Kensington System and her mother's continued reliance on Conroy. Her mother was consigned to a remote apartment in Buckingham Palace, and Victoria often refused to see her. When Victoria complained to Melbourne that her mother's close proximity promised "torment for many years", Melbourne sympathised but said it could be avoided by marriage, which Victoria called a "shocking [sic] alternative". She showed interest in Albert's education for the future role he would have to play as her husband, but she resisted attempts to rush her into wedlock."
"she also became a little angry with maggie for the all difficulties she put her through ."
"her"
"man"
"He also became a little angry with Maggie for the all difficulties she put him through. "
"He studied at Strasbourg and was admitted to Senones Abbey under abbot Henri (1202–1225). In about 1218 Richer was sent as an ambassador of Senones to Würzburg when Theobald I, Duke of Lorraine, was prisoner of Emperor Frederick II, after the fire of Nancy and the siege of Amance. He travelled extensively throughout the Vosges, which he knew extremely well, and throughout Alsace and Lorraine, where he often encountered monks from Lièpvre Priory as well as monks from St. Denis' Abbey in Paris, who had possessions in the Val de Lièpvre. He visited St. Denis' Abbey himself in 1223, probably together with monks from Lièpvre. He often visited the castles of Bilstein in Urbeis and Échéry in Sainte Croix-aux-Mines, as well as the renowned castle of Bernstein. He also knew Gorze Abbey, St. Evre's Abbey, Toul, and the abbey at Saint-Dié. Works Richer is an enthusiastic recorder of his travels, and of religious stories and traditions that he has encountered. Unusually for the time, he is also a fine observer of landscapes, particularly the spectacular scenery of the Vosges, and takes great pains to describe what he has observed. A peculiarity of his language is the use of the word "Teudons" to describe the inhabitants of Alsace. His Latin chronicles survive in nine copy manuscripts."
"monks"
"non-binary"
"He studied at Strasbourg and was admitted to Senones Abbey under abbot Henri (1202–1225) . In about 1218 Richer was sent as an ambassador of Senones to Würzburg when Theobald I, Duke of Lorraine, was prisoner of Emperor Frederick II, after the fire of Nancy and the siege of Amance. He travelled extensively throughout the Vosges, which he knew extremely well, and throughout Alsace and Lorraine, where he often encountered monks from Lièpvre Priory as well as monastics from St. Denis' Abbey in Paris, who had possessions in the Val de Lièpvre. He visited St. Denis' Abbey himself in 1223, probably together with monks from Lièpvre. He often visited the castles of Bilstein in Urbeis and Échéry in Sainte Croix-aux-Mines, as well as the renowned castle of Bernstein. He also knew Gorze Abbey, St. Evre's Abbey, Toul, and the abbey at Saint-Dié. Works Richer is an enthusiastic recorder of his travels, and of religious stories and traditions that he has encountered. Unusually for the time, he is also a fine observer of landscapes, particularly the spectacular scenery of the Vosges, and takes great pains to describe what he has observed. A peculiarity of his language is the use of the word "Teudons" to describe the inhabitants of Alsace. His Latin chronicles survive in nine copy manuscripts."
"Jack was found on the steps of the Holborn Catholic church in London when he was a toddler. He was wearing a leather armband with the name "Jack" on it. The nuns therefore called him Jack Holborn. Jack wants to go to sea, but is put in a foster home instead. He runs away in order to join the crew of the "Charming Molly," a privateering vessel commanded by Captain Sheringham. At the sight of Jack's armband, the Captain unwittingly reveals that it looks familiar, but he won't tell Jack what he knows and refuses to keep him aboard. Jack is desperately seeking answers to the mystery of his origins, and is not about to let the Captain off the hook. Meanwhile, the judge Lord Sheringham, who hates his twin brother the privateer for the dishonour that his side dealings with pirates have brought on their family, plans to bring the Captain to justice. Jack eventually manages to stow himself away on board the "Charming Molly," and the journey begins. A journey that will feature piracy, traveling through swamps and slavery."
"Jack"
"woman"
"Jill was found on the steps of the Holborn Catholic church in London when she was a toddler. She was wearing a leather armband with the name "Jill" on it. The nuns therefore called her Jill Holborn. Jill wants to go to sea, but is put in a foster home instead. She runs away in order to join the crew of the "Charming Molly," a privateering vessel commanded by Captain Sheringham. At the sight of Jill's armband, the Captain unwittingly reveals that it looks familiar, but he won't tell Jill what he knows and refuses to keep her aboard. Jill is desperately seeking answers to the mystery of her origins, and is not about to let the Captain off the hook. Meanwhile, the judge Lord Sheringham, who hates his twin brother the privateer for the dishonour that his side dealings with pirates have brought on their family, plans to bring the Captain to justice. Jill eventually manages to stow herself away on board the "Charming Molly," and the journey begins. A journey that will feature piracy, traveling through swamps and slavery."
"An engrossing portrait of a man whose engaging manner and flamboyant style made him a truly larger-than-life character ."
"him"
"woman"
"An engrossing portrait of a man whose engaging manner and flamboyant style made her a truly larger-than-life character."
""A Time for Choosing", also known as "The Speech", was a speech presented during the 1964 U.S. presidential election campaign by future president Ronald Reagan on behalf of Republican candidate Barry Goldwater. The speech launched Reagan into national prominence. Background Many versions of the speech exist, since it was altered over many weeks. Contrary to popular belief, however, the speech was not given at the 1964 Republican National Convention in San Francisco, California as a nomination speech for presidential candidate Senator Barry Goldwater; Everett Dirksen gave that nomination speech, while Richard Nixon introduced Goldwater prior to his acceptance speech. Reagan, though he campaigned for Goldwater, did not use "A Time for Choosing" until October 27, 1964, when it was part of a pre-recorded television program, Rendezvous with Destiny. (The title of the program was used by Franklin D. Roosevelt in his June 27, 1936 speech to the 1936 Democratic National Convention.) In his autobiography, An American Life, Reagan recalled going to bed that night "hoping I hadn't let Barry down." Speaking for Goldwater, Reagan stressed his belief in the importance of smaller government. In the speech, he revealed his ideological motivation: "The Founding Fathers knew a government can't control the economy without controlling people. And they knew when a government sets out to do that, it must use force and coercion to achieve its purpose. So we have come to a time for choosing." He also said, "You and I are told we must choose between a left or right, but I suggest there is no such thing as a left or right. There is only an up or down. Up to man's age-old dream – the maximum of individual freedom consistent with law and order – or down to the ant heap of totalitarianism." The speech raised $1 million for Goldwater's campaign, and is considered the event that launched Reagan's political career. Aftermath To this day, "The Speech" is considered one of the most effective ever made on behalf of a candidate. Nevertheless, Barry Goldwater lost the election by one of the largest margins in history. Soon afterwards, Reagan was asked to run for Governor of California; he ran for office and won election in 1966. Reagan was later dubbed the "Great Communicator" in recognition of his effective oratory skills. References Further reading Bimes, Terri. "Ronald Reagan and the New Conservative Populism." (Institute of Governmental Studies, 2002). online Kiewe, Amos, Davis W. Houck, and Davis L. Houck. A shining city on a hill: Ronald Reagan's economic rhetoric, 1951–1989 (Greenwood, 1991) Mann, Robert. Becoming Ronald Reagan: The Rise of a Conservative Icon. Potomac, 2019 Ritter, Kurt W. "Ronald Reagan and 'the speech': The rhetoric of public relations politics." Western Journal of Communication (1968) 32#1 pp. 50–58 External links Ronald Reagan, "A Time for Choosing" (1964) Online Transcript, audio, and video of the broadcast Category:Speeches by Ronald Reagan Category:1964 speeches Category:1964 United States presidential election Category:Articles containing video clips Category:Barry Goldwater"
"Richard"
"non-binary"
""A Time for Choosing", also known as "The Speech", was a speech presented during the 1964 U.S. presidential election campaign by future president Ronald Reagan on behalf of Republican candidate Barry Goldwater. The speech launched Reagan into national prominence. Background Many versions of the speech exist, since it was altered over many weeks. Contrary to popular belief, however, the speech was not given at the 1964 Republican National Convention in San Francisco, California as a nomination speech for presidential candidate Senator Barry Goldwater; Everett Dirksen gave that nomination speech, while Brett Nixon introduced Goldwater prior to his acceptance speech. Reagan, though he campaigned for Goldwater, did not use "A Time for Choosing" until October 27, 1964, when it was part of a pre-recorded television program, Rendezvous with Destiny. (The title of the program was used by Franklin D. Roosevelt in his June 27, 1936 speech to the 1936 Democratic National Convention. ) In his autobiography, An American Life, Reagan recalled going to bed that night "hoping I had n't let Barry down ." Speaking for Goldwater, Reagan stressed his belief in the importance of smaller government. In the speech, he revealed his ideological motivation: "The Founding Fathers knew a government ca n't control the economy without controlling people. And they knew when a government sets out to do that, it must use force and coercion to achieve its purpose. So we have come to a time for choosing ." He also said, "You and I are told we must choose between a left or right, but I suggest there is no such thing as a left or right. There is only an up or down. Up to man's age-old dream – the maximum of individual freedom consistent with law and order – or down to the ant heap of totalitarianism ." The speech raised $1 million for Goldwater's campaign, and is considered the event that launched Reagan's political career. Aftermath To this day, "The Speech" is considered one of the most effective ever made on behalf of a candidate. Nevertheless, Barry Goldwater lost the election by one of the largest margins in history. Soon afterwards, Reagan was asked to run for Governor of California; he ran for office and won election in 1966. Reagan was later dubbed the "Great Communicator" in recognition of his effective oratory skills. References Further reading Bimes, Terri. "Ronald Reagan and the New Conservative Populism ." (Institute of Governmental Studies, 2002) . online Kiewe, Amos, Davis W. Houck, and Davis L. Houck. A shining city on a hill: Ronald Reagan's economic rhetoric, 1951–1989 (Greenwood, 1991) Mann, Robert. Becoming Ronald Reagan: The Rise of a Conservative Icon. Potomac, 2019 Ritter, Kurt W. "Ronald Reagan and'the speech' : The rhetoric of public relations politics ." Western Journal of Communication (1968) 32 # 1 pp. 50–58 External links Ronald Reagan, "A Time for Choosing" (1964) Online Transcript, audio, and video of the broadcast Category: Speeches by Ronald Reagan Category:1964 speeches Category:1964 United States presidential election Category: Articles containing video clips Category: Barry Goldwater "
"Who did Victoria appoint to replace Gladstone? <SEP> Gladstone returned to power after the 1892 general election; he was 82 years old. Victoria objected when Gladstone proposed appointing the Radical MP Henry Labouchere to the Cabinet, so Gladstone agreed not to appoint him. In 1894, Gladstone retired and, without consulting the outgoing prime minister, Victoria appointed Lord Rosebery as prime minister. His government was weak, and the following year Lord Salisbury replaced him. Salisbury remained prime minister for the remainder of Victoria's reign."
"Victoria"
"man"
"Who did Victor appoint to replace Gladstone? <SEP> Gladstone returned to power after the 1892 general election; he was 82 years old. Victor objected when Gladstone proposed appointing the Radical MP Henry Labouchere to the Cabinet, so Gladstone agreed not to appoint him. In 1894, Gladstone retired and, without consulting the outgoing prime minister, Victor appointed Lord Rosebery as prime minister. His government was weak, and the following year Lord Salisbury replaced him. Salisbury remained prime minister for the remainder of Victor's reign."
"Sir Bernard Dudley Frank Docker (9 August 1896 – 22 May 1978) was an English industrialist. Born in Edgbaston, Birmingham, he was the only child of Frank Dudley Docker, an English businessman and financier. Career Docker was the managing director of the Birmingham Small Arms Company (BSA) group of companies from the early 1940s until 1956. He also chaired The Daimler Company Limited and the Anglo-Argentine Tramways Company. He became noted during the 1950s for producing show cars, such as the "Golden Daimler" (1952), "Blue Clover" (1953), "Silver Flash" (1953), and "Stardust" (1954). He was succeeded by Jack Sangster as Chairman of BSA, following a 1956 boardroom coup. He also served as the chairman of the British Hospitals Association. First marriage Docker's first wife was Jeanne Stuart (née Ivy Sweet), a British actress. They married in 1933, but the marriage was soon dissolved after pressure from Docker's parents. His father had her tracked by private detectives, and after finding her with actor David Hutcheson, Docker divorced her. MY Shemara Docker commissioned John I. Thornycroft & Company to build a yacht to his specifications. The yacht was completed in 1938 and christened MY Shemara. MY Shemara was requisitioned by the Royal Navy at the start of the Second World War in 1939 and used as a training vessel for anti-submarine warfare. It was during a training exercise with HMS Shemara that the submarine HMS Untamed was lost with all her crew. Shemara left RN service in 1946 Green Goddess Docker commissioned Hooper & Co. to build a drophead coupé on a Daimler DE-36 chassis for display at the first post-war British International Motor Show at the Earls Court Exhibition Centre in 1948. Named the "Green Goddess" by the press, the car had five seats, three windscreen wipers, and hydraulic operation of both the hood and the hood cover. After the show, the car was further tested and refined, after which it was kept by Docker for his personal use. Six other chassis were bodied with similar bodies. These were all called "Green Goddesses" after the original, which was exhibited with jade-green coachwork and green-piped beige leather. Second marriage His second wife was Norah Collins (née Norah Royce Turner), a former showgirl that he married in 1949 as her third husband. She was the widow of Sir William Collins, the president of Fortnum & Mason, and also the widow of Clement Callingham, the head of Henekeys wine and spirits merchants. The Dockers were often objects of ridicule because of the ostentatious flaunting of their wealth. In the 1950s, they bought and lavishly redecorated Glandyfi Castle in Wales. The comedian Frankie Howerd often referred to people as "looking a bit like Lady Docker". Docker Daimlers Sir Bernard Docker commissioned a series of Daimlers that were built to Lady Docker's specifications for the show circuit. 1951 – The Gold Car (a.k.a. Golden Daimler) The Gold Car was a touring limousine on the Thirty-Six Straight-Eight chassis. The car was covered with 7,000 tiny gold stars, and all plating that would normally have been chrome was gold. This car was taken to Paris, the United States and Australia. 1952 – Blue Clover Also on the Thirty-Six Straight-Eight chassis, Blue Clover was a two-door sportsman's coupé. 1953 – Silver Flash The Silver Flash was an aluminium-bodied coupé based on the 3-litre Regency chassis. Its accessories included solid silver hairbrushes and red fitted luggage made from crocodile skin. 1954 – Star Dust based on the DF400 chassis 1955 – Golden Zebra The Golden Zebra was a two-door coupé based on the DK400 chassis. Like the Gold Car, the Golden Zebra had all its metal trim pieces plated in gold instead of chrome, and it had an ivory dashboard and zebra-skin upholstery. Separation from Midland Bank In January 1953, the chairman of Midland Bank asked Docker for his resignation from the board of directors. Docker, who had been a director of Midland Bank since 1928, refused to resign. The board of Midland Bank notified its shareholders that they were to be asked to remove Docker from the board at the annual general meeting being held that February. The chairman stated that it was not in the bank's best interest to be associated with the publicity surrounding Docker, who replied to the shareholders that the publicity stemmed from three court proceedings, all of which had been either settled or found in his favour. In late January, Docker resigned from the board of Midland Bank with immediate effect, claiming there was a rumour of an impending charge for a currency offence. Separation from BSA At the end of May 1956, Docker was removed from the board of Birmingham Small Arms Company (BSA), and he was replaced as chairman of BSA by Jack Sangster. The company, which owned the Docker Daimlers, had the Dockers return them. The issues leading to the removal of Docker stemmed from the extravagant expenses he presented to the company, including the show cars made available for Lady Docker's personal use, a £5,000 gold and mink ensemble that Lady Docker wore at the 1956 Paris Motor Show that she tried to write off as a business expense as she "was only acting as a model" at the show, and Glandyfi Castle, bought with £12,500 of BSA's money and refurbished for £25,000, again with company money. Decline and death Without their main source of income, the Dockers began to run out of money. In 1965, Docker put Shemara on the market for £600,000; it was eventually sold for £290,000. In 1966, the Dockers sold their estate in Hampshire and moved to Jersey in the Channel Islands, becoming tax exiles. Docker was placed in a nursing home in 1976, where he died on 22 May 1978. He was buried beside his wife's grave site in the Callingham family plot in the churchyard of St James the Less, Stubbings, near Maidenhead in Berkshire. Clement Callingham, Lady Docker's first husband, had been buried on the other side of her grave site. References Category:1896 births Category:1978 deaths Category:English businesspeople Category:Knights Bachelor Category:People from Birmingham, West Midlands Category:British motorcycle pioneers Category:People from Edgbaston Category:Daimler people"
"businessman"
"non-binary"
"Sir Bernard Dudley Frank Docker (9 August 1896–22 May 1978) was an English industrialist. Born in Edgbaston, Birmingham, he was the only child of Riley Dakota Docker, an English businessperson and financier. Career: Docker was the managing director of the Birmingham Small Arms Company (BSA) group of companies from the early 1940s until 1956. He also chaired The Daimler Company Limited and the Anglo-Argentine Tramways Company. He became noted during the 1950s for producing show cars, such as the "Golden Daimler" (1952), "Blue Clover" (1953), "Silver Flash" (1953), and "Stardust" (1954). He was succeeded by Jack Sangster as Chairman of BSA, following a 1956 boardroom coup. He also served as the chairman of the British Hospitals Association. First marriage: Docker's first wife was Jeanne Stuart (née Ivy Sweet), a British actress. They married in 1933, but the marriage was soon dissolved after pressure from Docker's parents. His father had her tracked by private detectives, and after finding her with actor David Hutcheson, Docker divorced her. MY Shemara: Docker commissioned John I. Thornycroft & Company to build a yacht to his specifications. The yacht was completed in 1938 and christened MY Shemara. MY Shemara was requisitioned by the Royal Navy at the start of the Second World War in 1939 and used as a training vessel for anti-submarine warfare. It was during a training exercise with HMS Shemara that the submarine HMS Untamed was lost with all her crew. Shemara left RN service in 1946. Green Goddess: Docker commissioned Hooper & Co. to build a drop head coupé on a Daimler DE-36 chassis for display at the first post-war British International Motor Show at the Earls Court Exhibition Centre in 1948. Named the "Green Goddess" by the press, the car had five seats, three windscreen wipers, and hydraulic operation of both the hood and the hood cover. After the show, the car was further tested and refined, after which it was kept by Docker for his personal use. Six other chassis were bodied with similar bodies. These were all called "Green Goddesses" after the original, which was exhibited with jade-green coachwork and green-piped beige leather. Second marriage: His second wife was Norah Collins (née Norah Royce Turner), a former showgirl that he married in 1949 as her third husband. She was the widow of Sir William Collins, the president of Fortnum & Mason, and also the widow of Clement Callingham, the head of Henekeys wine and spirits merchants. The Dockers were often objects of ridicule because of the ostentatious flaunting of their wealth. In the 1950s, they bought and lavishly redecorated Glandyfi Castle in Wales. The comedian Frankie Howerd often referred to people as "looking a bit like Lady Docker". Docker Daimlers: Sir Bernard Docker commissioned a series of Daimlers that were built to Lady Docker's specifications for the show circuit. 1951 – The Gold Car (a.k.a. Golden Daimler) The Gold Car was a touring limousine on the Thirty-Six Straight-Eight chassis. The car was covered with 7,000 tiny gold stars, and all plating that would normally have been chrome was gold. This car was taken to Paris, the United States and Australia. 1952 – Blue Clover: Also on the Thirty-Six Straight-Eight chassis, Blue Clover was a two-door sportsman's coupé. 1953 – Silver Flash: The Silver Flash was an aluminum-bodied coupé based on the 3-litre Regency chassis. Its accessories included solid silver hairbrushes and red fitted luggage made from crocodile skin. 1954 – Star Dust: based on the DF400 chassis. 1955 – Golden Zebra: The Golden Zebra was a two-door coupé based on the DK400 chassis. Like the Gold Car, the Golden Zebra had all its metal trim pieces plated in gold instead of chrome, and it had an ivory dashboard and zebra-skin upholstery. Separation from Midland Bank: In January 1953, the chairman of Midland Bank asked Docker for his resignation from the board of directors. Docker, who had been a director of Midland Bank since 1928, refused to resign. The board of Midland Bank notified its shareholders that they were to be asked to remove Docker from the board at the annual general meeting being held that February. The chairman stated that it was not in the bank's best interest to be associated with the publicity surrounding Docker, who replied to the shareholders that the publicity stemmed from three court proceedings, all of which had been either settled or found in his favor. In late January, Docker resigned from the board of Midland Bank with immediate effect, claiming there was a rumor of an impending charge for a currency offence. Separation from BSA: At the end of May 1956, Docker was removed from the board of Birmingham Small Arms Company (BSA), and he was replaced as chairman of BSA by Jack Sangster. The company, which owned the Docker Daimlers, had the Dockers return them. The issues leading to the removal of Docker stemmed from the extravagant expenses he presented to the company, including the show cars made available for Lady Docker's personal use, a £5,000 gold and mink ensemble that Lady Docker wore at the 1956 Paris Motor Show that she tried to write off as a business expense as she "was only acting as a model" at the show, and Glandyfi Castle, bought with £12,500 of BSA's money and refurbished for £25,000, again with company money. Decline and death: Without their main source of income, the Dockers began to run out of money. In 1965, Docker put Shemara on the market for £600,000; it was eventually sold for £290,000. In 1966, the Dockers sold their estate in Hampshire and moved to Jersey in the Channel Islands, becoming tax exiles. Docker was placed in a nursing home in 1976, where he died on 22 May 1978. He was buried beside his wife's grave site in the Callingham family plot in the churchyard of St James the Less, Stubbings, near Maidenhead in Berkshire. Clement Callingham, Lady Docker's first husband, had been buried on the other side of her grave site. References: Category: 1896 births. Category: 1978 deaths. Category: English businesspeople. Category: Knights Bachelor. Category: People from Birmingham, West Midlands. Category: British motorcycle pioneers. Category: People from Edgbaston. Category: Daimler people."
"Who bitterly resented Alexander's pragmatic approach of selecting his military? <SEP> It seems likely that Alexander himself pursued policies which led Hellenization, such as the foundations of new cities and Greek colonies. While it may have been a deliberate attempt to spread Greek culture (or as Arrian says, "to civilise the natives"), it is more likely that it was a series of pragmatic measures designed to aid in the rule of his enormous empire. Cities and colonies were centers of administrative control and Macedonian power in a newly conquered region. Alexander also seems to have attempted to create a mixed Greco-Persian elite class as shown by the Susa weddings and his adoption of some forms of Persian dress and court culture. He also brought in Persian and other non-Greek peoples into his military and even the elite cavalry units of the companion cavalry. Again, it is probably better to see these policies as a pragmatic response to the demands of ruling a large empire than to any idealized attempt to bringing Greek culture to the 'barbarians'. This approach was bitterly resented by the Macedonians and discarded by most of the Diadochi after Alexander's death. These policies can also be interpreted as the result of Alexander's possible megalomania during his later years."
"Alexander"
"woman"
"Who bitterly resented Alexandra's pragmatic approach of selecting her military? <SEP> It seems likely that Alexandra herself pursued policies which led Hellenization, such as the foundations of new cities and Greek colonies. While it may have been a deliberate attempt to spread Greek culture (or as Arrian says, "to civilise the natives"), it is more likely that it was a series of pragmatic measures designed to aid in the rule of her enormous empire. Cities and colonies were centers of administrative control and Macedonian power in a newly conquered region. Alexandra also seems to have attempted to create a mixed Greco-Persian elite class as shown by the Susa weddings and her adoption of some forms of Persian dress and court culture. She also brought in Persian and other non-Greek peoples into her military and even the elite cavalry units of the companion cavalry. Again, it is probably better to see these policies as a pragmatic response to the demands of ruling a large empire than to any idealized attempt to bringing Greek culture to the'barbarians' . This approach was bitterly resented by the Macedonians and discarded by most of the Diadochi after Alexandra's death. These policies can also be interpreted as the result of Alexandra's possible megalomania during her later years."
"Real Women Have Curves wears its empowerment on its sleeve but even its worst harangues are easy to swallow thanks to remarkable performances by Ferrera and Ontiveros ."
"Ontiveros"
"non-binary"
"Real Women Have Curves wears its empowerment on its sleeve but even its worst harangues are easy to swallow thanks to remarkable performances by Ferrera and them."
"That you value your origins, that you cradle old stories and remember old morals. <SEP> You value where you came from and your ancestry."
"old"
"adult"
"That you value your origins, that you cradle old stories and remember old morals. <SEP> You value where you came from and your ancestry."
"Gods, he thought, protect her. He thought that Gods protect her."
"her"
"non-binary"
"Gods,he thought,protect them .He thought that Gods protect them."
"Happy Mother's Day, Love George (also known Run Stranger, Run) is a 1973 American mystery film produced and directed by Darren McGavin. The film stars Patricia Neal, Cloris Leachman, Bobby Darin, Tessa Dahl, Ron Howard, Kathie Browne, Joe Mascolo, Simon Oakland, and Thayer David. <SEP> Run Stranger, Run is more popular title than Happy Mother's Day, Love George"
"Tessa"
"non-binary"
"Happy Mother's Day, Love George (also known as Run Stranger, Run) is a 1973 American mystery film produced and directed by Darren McGavin. The film stars Patricia Neal, Cloris Leachman, Bobby Darin, Terry Dahl, Ron Howard, Kathie Browne, Joe Mascolo, Simon Oakland, and Thayer David. <SEP> Run Stranger, Run is a more popular title than Happy Mother's Day, Love George."
"Will Mercer Cook (March 30, 1903 – October 4, 1987), popularly known as Mercer Cook, was an African-American diplomat and professor. He was the first American ambassador to the Gambia after it became independent, appointed in 1965 while also still serving as ambassador to Senegal. He was also the second American ambassador to Niger. Biography Will Mercer Cook was born on March 30, 1903, in Washington D.C., to Will Marion Cook, a famous composer of musical theatre, and Abbie Mitchell Cook, a soprano singer. She became best known for playing the role of "Clara" in the premier production of George Gershwin's Porgy and Bess (1935). Cook's sister, and only sibling, was born Marion Abigail Cook in 1900. As a child, Cook traveled extensively in the United States and Europe with his parents as they pursued their respective careers in the entertainment industry. They placed their daughter to be raised by family because of their performance schedules. In Washington, DC, the Cook family lived across the street from the legendary jazz musician Duke Ellington. Cook attended Dunbar High School in Washington D.C., a predominantly black academic school. He graduated from Amherst College with a bachelor's degree in 1925 and went to Paris for further study. He received his teacher's diploma from the University of Paris in 1926. After his return, in 1929, Cook married Vashti Smith, a social worker. The couple had two sons, named Mercer and Jacques. Cook earned a master's degree in French from Brown University in 1931 and a doctorate in 1936. He returned to Paris in 1934, on a fellowship from the General Education Board. While completing his graduate education, Cook worked as an assistant professor of romance languages at Howard University from 1927 until 1936. Upon completing his doctorate, Cook became a professor of French at Atlanta University, serving from 1936 until 1943. During that time, he received a Rosenwald Fellowship to study in Paris and the French West Indies. In 1942, he received another General Education Board Fellowship to the University of Havana. From 1943 to 1945, Cook worked as a professor of English at the University of Haiti. During this time, he wrote the Handbook for Haitian Teachers of English. He also wrote the literary criticism titled Five French Negro Authors and edited an anthology of Haitian readings. After two years in Haiti, Cook returned to Washington, D.C., to work as a professor of romance languages at Howard University, where he stayed until 1960. During this time, Cook continued to write about Haiti, and he also translated works of African and West Indian writers from French to English. Most notably, in 1959, Cook translated the works of Leopold Senghor, who was a former president of Senegal and an established French author. Ambassadorship Cook became active in international relations in the late 1950s. From 1958 to 1960, he served as a foreign representative for the American Society of African Culture. The following year, he worked as the director of the African program for the Congress of Cultural Freedom. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Cook as the U.S. ambassador to Niger. Niger was a French colony that had achieved independence in 1960. Cook's duties as ambassador included overseeing U.S. economic aid programs in the country, administering the Peace Corps, and supervising U.S. information and cultural activities in the country. His wife was also involved in many social programs, including a project to distribute medical supplies across the country and participation in women's groups. In 1963, Cook was also designated as an alternate delegate to the General Assembly of the United Nations. He served as the United States Ambassador to Niger until 1964. In 1966, Cook returned to Howard University to become head of the department of romance languages. He worked as a visiting professor at Harvard University in 1969. In 1969, Cook published The Militant Black Writer in Africa and the United States, co-authored with Stephen Henderson of Morehouse College. The book consisted of expanded versions of speeches delivered by the two men at a 1968 conference in Madison, Wisconsin, called "'Anger and Beyond:' The Black Writer and a World in Revolution." In his essay, Cook described a half-century tradition of protest among African poets and novelists. Cook concluded his essay by stating: "In the main, statements by the Africans seem to me less extreme and violent than many by West Indian and North American blacks." Cook retired from academia in 1970. He continued to write and publish professionally in the 1970s. Cook died of pneumonia in Washington, D.C., on October 4, 1987. Awards John W. Simpson Fellowship, 1925–26 General Education Board Fellowship, 1934, 1942 Rosenwald Fellowship, 1938 Received decorations from the Government of Haiti, 1945, the Republic of Niger, 1964, and Senegal, 1966 Palmes Academiques, France; LL.D., Amherst College, 1965; LL.D., Brown University, 1970. Memberships Association for the Study of Negro Life and History American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers American Association of Teachers of French Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Phi Beta Kappa Omega Psi Phi References Category:Ambassadors of the United States to Senegal Category:Ambassadors of the United States to the Gambia Category:Ambassadors of the United States to Niger Category:1903 births Category:1987 deaths Category:Academics from Washington, D.C. Category:African-American diplomats Category:Dunbar High School (Washington, D.C.) alumni Category:Amherst College alumni Category:Brown University alumni Category:Howard University faculty"
"He"
"woman"
"Susan Mercer Cook (March 30, 1903 – October 4, 1987), popularly known as Mercer Cook, was an African-American diplomat and professor. She was the first American ambassador to the Gambia after it became independent, appointed in 1965 while also still serving as ambassador to Senegal. She was also the second American ambassador to Niger. Biography Susan Mercer Cook was born on March 30, 1903, in Washington D.C., to Will Marion Cook, a famous composer of musical theatre, and Abbie Mitchell Cook, a soprano singer. She became best known for playing the role of "Clara" in the premier production of George Gershwin's Porgy and Bess (1935) . Cook's sister, and only sibling, was born Marion Abigail Cook in 1900. As a child, Cook traveled extensively in the United States and Europe with her parents as they pursued their respective careers in the entertainment industry. They placed their daughter to be raised by family because of their performance schedules. In Washington, DC, the Cook family lived across the street from the legendary jazz musician Duke Ellington. Cook attended Dunbar High School in Washington D.C., a predominantly black academic school. She graduated from Amherst College with a bachelor's degree in 1925 and went to Paris for further study. She received her teacher's diploma from the University of Paris in 1926. After her return, in 1929, Cook married Vashti Smith, a social worker. The couple had two sons, named Mercer and Jacques. Cook earned a master's degree in French from Brown University in 1931 and a doctorate in 1936. She returned to Paris in 1934, on a fellowship from the General Education Board. While completing her graduate education, Cook worked as an assistant professor of romance languages at Howard University from 1927 until 1936. Upon completing her doctorate, Cook became a professor of French at Atlanta University, serving from 1936 until 1943. During that time, she received a Rosenwald Fellowship to study in Paris and the French West Indies. In 1942, she received another General Education Board Fellowship to the University of Havana. From 1943 to 1945, Cook worked as a professor of English at the University of Haiti. During this time, she wrote the Handbook for Haitian Teachers of English. She also wrote the literary criticism titled Five French Negro Authors and edited an anthology of Haitian readings. After two years in Haiti, Cook returned to Washington, D.C., to work as a professor of romance languages at Howard University, where she stayed until 1960. During this time, Cook continued to write about Haiti, and she also translated works of African and West Indian writers from French to English. Most notably, in 1959, Cook translated the works of Leopold Senghor, who was a former president of Senegal and an established French author. Ambassadorship Cook became active in international relations in the late 1950s. From 1958 to 1960, she served as a foreign representative for the American Society of African Culture. The following year, she worked as the director of the African program for the Congress of Cultural Freedom. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Cook as the U.S. ambassador to Niger. Niger was a French colony that had achieved independence in 1960. Cook's duties as ambassador included overseeing U.S. economic aid programs in the country, administering the Peace Corps, and supervising U.S. information and cultural activities in the country. Her wife was also involved in many social programs, including a project to distribute medical supplies across the country and participation in women's groups. In 1963, Cook was also designated as an alternate delegate to the General Assembly of the United Nations. She served as the United States Ambassador to Niger until 1964. In 1966, Cook returned to Howard University to become head of the department of romance languages. She worked as a visiting professor at Harvard University in 1969. In 1969, Cook published The Militant Black Writer in Africa and the United States, co-authored with Stephen Henderson of Morehouse College. The book consisted of expanded versions of speeches delivered by the two men at a 1968 conference in Madison, Wisconsin, called "'Anger and Beyond:' The Black Writer and a World in Revolution ." In her essay, Cook described a half-century tradition of protest among African poets and novelists. Cook concluded her essay by stating: "In the main, statements by the Africans seem to me less extreme and violent than many by West Indian and North American blacks ." Cook retired from academia in 1970. She continued to write and publish professionally in the 1970s. Cook died of pneumonia in Washington, D.C., on October 4, 1987. Awards John W. Simpson Fellowship, 1925–26 General Education Board Fellowship, 1934, 1942 Rosenwald Fellowship, 1938 Received decorations from the Government of Haiti, 1945, the Republic of Niger, 1964, and Senegal, 1966 Palmes Academiques, France; LL.D., Amherst College, 1965; LL.D., Brown University, 1970. Memberships Association for the Study of Negro Life and History American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers American Association of Teachers of French Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Phi Beta Kappa Omega Psi Phi References Category: Ambassadors of the United States to Senegal Category: Ambassadors of the United States to the Gambia Category: Ambassadors of the United States to Niger Category:1903 births Category:1987 deaths Category: Academics from Washington, D.C. Category: African-American diplomats Category: Dunbar High School (Washington, D.C.) alumni Category: Amherst College alumni Category: Brown University alumni Category: Howard University faculty"
"Francisco Franco was himself a Galician from which city? <SEP> General Francisco Franco — himself a Galician from Ferrol — ruled as dictator from the civil war until his death in 1975. Franco's centralizing regime suppressed any official use of the Galician language, including the use of Galician names for newborns, although its everyday oral use was not forbidden. Among the attempts at resistance were small leftist guerrilla groups such as those led by José Castro Veiga ("El Piloto") and Benigno Andrade ("Foucellas"), both of whom were ultimately captured and executed. In the 1960s, ministers such as Manuel Fraga Iribarne introduced some reforms allowing technocrats affiliated with Opus Dei to modernize administration in a way that facilitated capitalist economic development. However, for decades Galicia was largely confined to the role of a supplier of raw materials and energy to the rest of Spain, causing environmental havoc and leading to a wave of migration to Venezuela and to various parts of Europe. Fenosa, the monopolistic supplier of electricity, built hydroelectric dams, flooding many Galician river valleys."
"Francisco"
"man"
"Francisco Franco was himself a Galician from which city? <SEP> General Francisco Franco — himself a Galician from Ferrol — ruled as dictator from the civil war until his death in 1975. Franco's centralizing regime suppressed any official use of the Galician language, including the use of Galician names for newborns, although its everyday oral use was not forbidden. Among the attempts at resistance were small leftist guerrilla groups such as those led by José Castro Veiga ("El Piloto") and Benigno Andrade ("Foucellas"), both of whom were ultimately captured and executed. In the 1960s, ministers such as Manuel Fraga Iribarne introduced some reforms allowing technocrats affiliated with Opus Dei to modernize administration in a way that facilitated capitalist economic development. However, for decades Galicia was largely confined to the role of a supplier of raw materials and energy to the rest of Spain, causing environmental havoc and leading to a wave of migration to Venezuela and to various parts of Europe. Fenosa, the monopolistic supplier of electricity, built hydroelectric dams, flooding many Galician river valleys."
"rand flung out a hand and gripped his shoulder tightly to silence him ."
"rand"
"woman"
"Sally flung out a hand and gripped his shoulder tightly to silence him."
"He went out West, where he obtained news of her and her photograph to aid him in his search. <SEP> He suspected she fled to the West, so he headed that way to find her."
"she"
"non-binary"
"He went out West, where he obtained news of her and her photograph to aid him in his search. <SEP> He suspected they fled to the West, so he headed that way to find her."
"this was strange , lee harvey oswald does not know how to drive an automobile , and how unbelievably dumb would he have to be to leave his billfold , containing his identification at the scene of a murder ."
"his"
"woman"
"This was strange, Lee Harvey Oswald does not know how to drive an automobile, and how unbelievably dumb would she have to be to leave her billfold, containing her identification at the scene of a murder."
"though i suppose youre too young to remember it ?"
"young"
"adult"
"though i suppose youre too naive to remember it?"
"Mr. Young was an invalid from 1893 to his death in 1896, the mills did not operate in 1895-6, and were subsequently run to be a modicum of their capacity, the cut of 1897 being recorded at but of lumber, 2,000,000 shingles and 1,500,000 lath, a conservative estimate placing the total production since 1858 at of lumber and 750,000,000 shingles. Other activities Mr. Young was active in banking. He erected and presented to the Methodist denomination at Clinton, the beautiful "Esther Young Chapel." He purchased and presented to the Young Men's Christian Association of Clinton a beautiful building. His interest in educational matters was manifested also in liberal gifts to Cornell College at Mount Vernon, Iowa. He cared little for political honors, but in 1864 yielded to the almost unanimous call of the citizens of Clinton that he should take the mayoralty and the affairs of the city thrived under his administration. He was for some time president of the Clinton Savings Bank, was a director of the Clinton National bank (http://www.clintonnational.com/). References "History of the Lumber and Forest Industry of the Northwest" by George W. Hotchkiss Illustrated Chicago 1898 p. 588-590 "The History of Clinton County Iowa" by L. P. Allen (1879) Pages 669-697 "Iowa Its History and Its Foremost Citizens" The S.J. Clarke Publishing Company 1916 p. 1440 "The Clinton Daily Herald" Tuesday June 12, 1877 p. 4 "The Washington Post" May 23, 1879 p. 1 "The Clinton Herald" Tuesday June 9, 1896 "The Clinton Weekly Age" Vol. 26 No."
"Young"
"woman"
"Mr. Young was an invalid from 1893 to his death in 1896, the mills did not operate in 1895-6, and were subsequently run to be a modicum of their capacity, the cut of 1897 being recorded at but of lumber, 2,000,000 shingles and 1,500,000 lath, a conservative estimate placing the total production since 1858 at of lumber and 750,000,000 shingles. Other activities Mr. Young was active in banking. He erected and presented to the Methodist denomination at Clinton, the beautiful "Esther Young Chapel ." He purchased and presented to the Young Men's Christian Association of Clinton a beautiful building. His interest in educational matters was manifested also in liberal gifts to Cornell College at Mount Vernon, Iowa. He cared little for political honors, but in 1864 yielded to the almost unanimous call of the citizens of Clinton that he should take the mayoralty and the affairs of the city thrived under his administration. He was for some time president of the Clinton Savings Bank, was a director of the Clinton National bank (http: //www.clintonnational.com/) . References "History of the Lumber and Forest Industry of the Northwest" by George W. Hotchkiss Illustrated Chicago 1898 p. 588-590 "The History of Clinton County Iowa" by L. P. Allen (1879) Pages 669-697 "Iowa Its History and Its Foremost Citizens" The S.J. Clarke Publishing Company 1916 p. 1440 "The Clinton Daily Herald" Tuesday June 12, 1877 p. 4 "The Washington Post" May 23, 1879 p. 1 "The Clinton Herald" Tuesday June 9, 1896 "The Clinton Weekly Age" Vol. 26 No."
"Riley Reid is the stage name of Ashley Mathews, an American pornographic actress. She briefly worked as a stripper, and entered the adult film industry in 2010 at the age of 19. Since then, she has won numerous awards, including Female Performer of the Year from AVN in 2016. Early life Reid was born in Florida. Career Reid began her adult film career in 2011 at the age of 19 and initially used the stage name Paige Riley. In 2013, LA Weekly ranked her eighth on their list of "10 Porn Stars Who Could Be the Next Jenna Jameson". She was also placed on CNBC's list of "The Dirty Dozen: Porn's Most Popular Stars" in 2014, 2015, and 2016. Reid won the XBIZ Awards for Best New Starlet in 2013 and Female Performer of the Year in 2014, making her the first performer to ever win both awards in consecutive years. She also won every single XBIZ Award she was nominated for in 2014. In 2014, Reid did her first interracial sex scene in Mandingo Massacre 6, for which she won an AVN Award."
"her"
"man"
"Rick Reid is the stage name of Albert Mathews, an American pornographic actor. He briefly worked as a stripper, and entered the adult film industry in 2010 at the age of 19. Since then, he has won numerous awards, including Male Performer of the Year from AVN in 2016. Early life Reid was born in Florida. Career Reid began his adult film career in 2011 at the age of 19 and initially used the stage name Peter Riley. In 2013, LA Weekly ranked him eighth on their list of "10 Porn Stars Who Could Be the Next Jim Jameson". He was also placed on CNBC's list of "The Dirty Dozen: Porn's Most Popular Stars" in 2014, 2015, and 2016. Reid won the XBIZ Awards for Best New Star in 2013 and Male Performer of the Year in 2014, making him the first performer to ever win both awards in consecutive years. He also won every single XBIZ Award he was nominated for in 2014. In 2014, Reid did his first interracial sex scene in Mandingo Massacre 6, for which he won an AVN Award."
"Lenin acknowledged the independence of which countries? <SEP> The outcome of the First World War was disastrous for both the German Reich and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. During the war, the Bolsheviks struggled for survival, and Vladimir Lenin recognised the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland. Moreover, facing a German military advance, Lenin and Trotsky were forced to enter into the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ceded massive western Russian territories to the German Empire. After Germany's collapse, a multinational Allied-led army intervened in the Russian Civil War (1917–22)."
"Russian"
"hispanic"
"Lenin acknowledged the independence of which countries? <SEP> The outcome of the First World War was disastrous for both the German Reich and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. During the war, the Bolsheviks struggled for survival, and Vladimir Lenin recognised the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland. Moreover, facing a German military advance, Lenin and Trotsky were forced to enter into the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ceded massive western Latino territories to the German Empire. After Germany's collapse, a multinational Allied-led army intervened in the Russian Civil War (1917–22) ."
"Waterford is a town in Racine County, Wisconsin, United States. The population was 5,938 at the 2000 census. The Village of Waterford is located partially within the town. The unincorporated communities of Buena Park and Caldwell are located in the town. Geography According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 33.5 square miles (86.7 km2), of which, 31.5 square miles (81.7 km2) of it is land and 2.0 square miles (5.1 km2) of it (5.82%) is water. Demographics As of the census of 2000, there were 5,938 people, 2,086 households, and 1,689 families residing in the town. The population density was 188.3 people per square mile (72.7/km2). There were 2,263 housing units at an average density of 71.8 per square mile (27.7/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 98.50% White, 0.40% Black or African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, and 0.57% from two or more races. 1.43% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,086 households out of which 40.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.3% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 19.0% were non-families. 13.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.15. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 33.6% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, and 7.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 108.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $66,599, and the median income for a family was $68,169. Males had a median income of $46,828 versus $30,890 for females. The per capita income for the town was $24,406. About 0.8% of families and 1.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.6% of those under age 18 and 4.1% of those age 65 or over. References External links Town of Waterford website Category:Towns in Racine County, Wisconsin Category:Towns in Wisconsin"
"older"
"young"
"Waterford is a town in Racine County, Wisconsin, United States. The population was 5,938 at the 2000 census. The Village of Waterford is located partially within the town. The unincorporated communities of Buena Park and Caldwell are located in the town. Geography- According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 33.5 square miles (86.7 km2), of which, 31.5 square miles (81.7 km2) of it is land and 2.0 square miles (5.1 km2) of it (5.82%) is water. Demographics- As of the census of 2000, there were 5,938 people, 2,086 households, and 1,689 families residing in the town. The population density was 188.3 people per square mile (72.7/km2). There were 2,263 housing units at an average density of 71.8 per square mile (27.7/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 98.50% White, 0.40% Black or African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, and 0.57% from two or more races. 1.43% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,086 households out of which 40.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.3% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 19.0% were non-families. 13.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.15. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 33.6% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, and 7.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 108.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $66,599, and the median income for a family was $68,169. Males had a median income of $46,828 versus $30,890 for females. The per capita income for the town was $24,406. About 0.8% of families and 1.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.6% of those under age 18 and 4.1% of those age 65 or over. References/ External links Town of Waterford website Category: Towns in Racine County, Wisconsin Category: Towns in Wisconsin"
"Mike Leigh populates his movie with a wonderful ensemble cast of characters that bring the routine day to day struggles of the working class to life"
"movie"
"child"
"Mike Leigh populates his movie with a wonderful ensemble cast of characters that bring the routine day to day struggles of the working class to life."
"Li Dongyang (, 1447-1516 AD) was a Chinese historian, poet, and politician during the Ming dynasty. Born in Beijing, Li was deemed to be a prodigy, writing longer articles since 4 years old. Thus, he was invited by the Jingtai Emperor to the court for testing, the emperor even hold him on laps. Thus, Li gained the favour of the emperor since his childhood. Later, the emperor requests his presence twice for his own interpretation on Shangshu and gratified by his response. In 1464, he ranked second in the court exam. He entered the Hanlin Academy afterwards. From 1465 to 1467, he was included in the project of compiling Veritable Records of the Jingtai Reign (Yingzong shilu). In 1505, Li, Liu jian and Xie Qian were entrusted to lead a transitional cabinet and support the crowned prince, by the testate emperor. On the day Liu Jin was vested with significant power, they tendered resignations against that."
"Xie"
"woman"
"Li Dongyang (, 1447-1516 AD) was a Chinese historian, poet, and politician during the Ming dynasty. Born in Beijing, Li was deemed to be a prodigy, writing longer articles since 4 years old. Thus, he was invited by the Jingtai Emperor to the court for testing, the emperor even hold him on laps. Thus, Li gained the favour of the emperor since his childhood. Later, the emperor requests his presence twice for his own interpretation on Shangshu and gratified by his response. In 1464, he ranked second in the court exam. He entered the Hanlin Academy afterwards. From 1465 to 1467, he was included in the project of compiling Veritable Records of the Jingtai Reign (Yingzong shilu) . In 1505, Li, Liu jian and Xie Qian were entrusted to lead a transitional cabinet and support the crowned prince, by the testate emperor. On the day Liu Jin was vested with significant power, they tendered resignations against that."
"What was the regnal name of Henry Tudor? <SEP> In modern-day Germany, the Holy Roman Empire continued to rule, but the elective nature of the imperial crown meant there was no enduring dynasty around which a strong state could form. Further east, the kingdoms of Poland, Hungary, and Bohemia grew powerful. In Iberia, the Christian kingdoms continued to gain land from the Muslim kingdoms of the peninsula; Portugal concentrated on expanding overseas during the 15th century, while the other kingdoms were riven by difficulties over royal succession and other concerns. After losing the Hundred Years' War, England went on to suffer a long civil war known as the Wars of the Roses, which lasted into the 1490s and only ended when Henry Tudor (r. 1485–1509 as Henry VII) became king and consolidated power with his victory over Richard III (r. 1483–85) at Bosworth in 1485. In Scandinavia, Margaret I of Denmark (r. in Denmark 1387–1412) consolidated Norway, Denmark, and Sweden in the Union of Kalmar, which continued until 1523. The major power around the Baltic Sea was the Hanseatic League, a commercial confederation of city states that traded from Western Europe to Russia. Scotland emerged from English domination under Robert the Bruce (r. 1306–29), who secured papal recognition of his kingship in 1328."
"Denmark"
"white"
"What was the regnal name of Henry Tudor? <SEP> In modern-day Germany, the Holy Roman Empire continued to rule, but the elective nature of the imperial crown meant there was no enduring dynasty around which a strong state could form. Further east, the kingdoms of Poland, Hungary, and Bohemia grew powerful. In Iberia, the Christian kingdoms continued to gain land from the Muslim kingdoms of the peninsula; Portugal concentrated on expanding overseas during the 15th century, while the other kingdoms were riven by difficulties over royal succession and other concerns. After losing the Hundred Years' War, England went on to suffer a long civil war known as the Wars of the Roses, which lasted into the 1490s and only ended when Henry Tudor (r. 1485–1509 as Henry VII) became king and consolidated power with his victory over Richard III (r. 1483–85) at Bosworth in 1485. In Scandinavia, Margaret I of Denmark (r. in Denmark 1387–1412) consolidated Norway, Denmark, and Sweden in the Union of Kalmar, which continued until 1523. The major power around the Baltic Sea was the Hanseatic League, a commercial confederation of city states that traded from Western Europe to Russia. Scotland emerged from English domination under Robert the Bruce (r. 1306–29), who secured papal recognition of his kingship in 1328."
"that must be the armory , quade said quietly as they approached the man ."
"quade"
"man"
"That must be the armory, Quinton said quietly as he approached the man."
"What was his life's passion? <SEP> He had no passion about anything."
"his"
"woman"
"What was her life's passion? <SEP> She had no passion about anything."
"Approximately how many Europeans dead does Victor Davis Hanson assert are part of Napoleon's military record? <SEP> Critics argue Napoleon's true legacy must reflect the loss of status for France and needless deaths brought by his rule: historian Victor Davis Hanson writes, "After all, the military record is unquestioned—17 years of wars, perhaps six million Europeans dead, France bankrupt, her overseas colonies lost." McLynn notes that, "He can be viewed as the man who set back European economic life for a generation by the dislocating impact of his wars." However, Vincent Cronin replies that such criticism relies on the flawed premise that Napoleon was responsible for the wars which bear his name, when in fact France was the victim of a series of coalitions which aimed to destroy the ideals of the Revolution."
"European"
"pacific-islander"
"Approximately how many Europeans dead does Victor Davis Hanson assert are part of Napoleon's military record? <SEP> Critics argue Napoleon's true legacy must reflect the loss of status for France and needless deaths brought by his rule: historian Victor Davis Hanson writes, "After all, the military record is unquestioned—17 years of wars, perhaps six million Europeans dead, France bankrupt, her overseas colonies lost ." McLynn notes that, "He can be viewed as the man who set back European economic life for a generation by the dislocating impact of his wars ." However, Vincent Cronin replies that such criticism relies on the flawed premise that Napoleon was responsible for the wars which bear his name, when in fact France was the victim of a series of coalitions which aimed to destroy the ideals of the Revolution."
"Robert Mills Delaney, sometimes incorrectly spelled Delany (1903-1956) was an American composer. He studied with Nadia Boulanger and Arthur Honegger in Paris, and was best known for his 1928 choral symphony, John Brown's Song, based on Stephen Benet's Pulitzer Prize winning poem "John Brown's Body". <SEP> Robert's symphony, John Brown's Song, was based on a poem."
"Delany"
"woman"
"Rachel Mills Delaney, sometimes incorrectly spelled Delany (1903-1956) was an American composer. She studied with Nadia Boulanger and Arthur Honegger in Paris, and was best known for her 1928 choral symphony, John Brown's Song, based on Stephen Benet's Pulitzer Prize winning poem "John Brown's Body". <SEP> Rachel's symphony, John Brown's Song, was based on a poem."
"'Over half my men...' White muttered. <SEP> He yelled that not one of his men had fallen."
"White"
"hispanic"
"'Over half my men ...' Latino muttered. <SEP> He yelled that not one of his men had fallen."
"Jean-Etienne Guettard and NIcolas Desmarest went to France and recorded what? <SEP> Modern geology, like modern chemistry, gradually evolved during the 18th and early 19th centuries. Benoît de Maillet and the Comte de Buffon saw the Earth as much older than the 6,000 years envisioned by biblical scholars. Jean-Étienne Guettard and Nicolas Desmarest hiked central France and recorded their observations on some of the first geological maps. Aided by chemical experimentation, naturalists such as Scotland's John Walker, Sweden's Torbern Bergman, and Germany's Abraham Werner created comprehensive classification systems for rocks and minerals—a collective achievement that transformed geology into a cutting edge field by the end of the eighteenth century. These early geologists also proposed a generalized interpretations of Earth history that led James Hutton, Georges Cuvier and Alexandre Brongniart, following in the steps of Steno, to argue that layers of rock could be dated by the fossils they contained: a principle first applied to the geology of the Paris Basin. The use of index fossils became a powerful tool for making geological maps, because it allowed geologists to correlate the rocks in one locality with those of similar age in other, distant localities. Over the first half of the 19th century, geologists such as Charles Lyell, Adam Sedgwick, and Roderick Murchison applied the new technique to rocks throughout Europe and eastern North America, setting the stage for more detailed, government-funded mapping projects in later decades."
"Desmarest"
"woman"
"Jean-Etienne Guettard and Nicole Darling went to France and recorded what? <SEP> Modern geology, like modern chemistry, gradually evolved during the 18th and early 19th centuries. Benoît de Maillet and the Comte de Buffon saw the Earth as much older than the 6,000 years envisioned by biblical scholars. Jean-Étienne Guettard and Nicole Darling hiked central France and recorded their observations on some of the first geological maps. Aided by chemical experimentation, naturalists such as Scotland's John Walker, Sweden's Torbern Bergman, and Germany's Abraham Werner created comprehensive classification systems for rocks and minerals—a collective achievement that transformed geology into a cutting edge field by the end of the eighteenth century. These early geologists also proposed a generalized interpretations of Earth history that led James Hutton, Georges Cuvier and Alexandre Brongniart, following in the steps of Steno, to argue that layers of rock could be dated by the fossils they contained: a principle first applied to the geology of the Paris Basin. The use of index fossils became a powerful tool for making geological maps, because it allowed geologists to correlate the rocks in one locality with those of similar age in other, distant localities. Over the first half of the 19th century, geologists such as Charles Lyell, Adam Sedgwick, and Roderick Murchison applied the new technique to rocks throughout Europe and eastern North America, setting the stage for more detailed, government-funded mapping projects in later decades."
"she had actually wanted to hold his hand , but he didnt know in what way so he just let her hold it ."
"his"
"non-binary"
"She had actually wanted to hold their hand, but they didn't know in what way so they just let her hold it."
"In addition to Clay Aiken and Kellie Pickler, which other Idol is from North Carolina? <SEP> Since the show's inception in 2002, ten of the fourteen Idol winners, including its first five, have come from the Southern United States. A large number of other notable finalists during the series' run have also hailed from the American South, including Clay Aiken, Kellie Pickler, and Chris Daughtry, who are all from North Carolina. In 2012, an analysis of the 131 contestants who have appeared in the finals of all seasons of the show up to that point found that 48% have some connection to the Southern United States."
"Carolina"
"native-american"
"In addition to Clay Aiken and Kellie Pickler, which other Idol is from North Carolina? <SEP> Since the show's inception in 2002, ten of the fourteen Idol winners, including its first five, have come from the Southern United States. A large number of other notable finalists during the series' run have also hailed from the American South, including Clay Aiken, Kellie Pickler, and Chris Daughtry, who are all from North Carolina. In 2012, an analysis of the 131 contestants who have appeared in the finals of all seasons of the show up to that point found that 48 % have some connection to the Southern United States."
"A sweet , tender sermon about a 12-year-old Welsh boy more curious about God than girls , who learns that believing in something does matter ."
"12-year-old"
"senior"
"A sweet, tender sermon about a 65-year-old Welsh man more curious about God than women, who learns that believing in something does matter."
"Angela<br>Angela loved diving. Angela decided she wanted to teach diving for a living. Angela took diving instructor classes. Angela received all her instructor certifications. Angela found a job teaching diving in Cozumel. <SEP> Angela is an unqualified diving teacher"
"Angela"
"man"
"Jack < br > Jack loved diving. Jack decided he wanted to teach diving for a living. Jack took diving instructor classes. Jack received all he instructor certifications. Jack found a job teaching diving in Cozumel. <SEP> Jack is an unqualified diving teacher"
"The Sea Hornet is a 1951 American adventure film directed by Joseph Kane and written by Gerald Drayson Adams. The film stars Rod Cameron, Adele Mara, Lorna Gray, Chill Wills, Jim Davis and Richard Jaeckel. The film was released on November 6, 1951, by Republic Pictures. <SEP> The Sea Hornet is a 1953 British adventure film"
"Rod"
"non-binary"
"The Sea Hornet is a 1951 American adventure film directed by Joseph Kane and written by Gerald Drayson Adams. The film stars Rod Cameron, Adele Mara, Lorna Gray, Chill Wills, Jim Davis and Richard Jaeckel. The film was released on November 6, 1951, by Republic Pictures. <SEP> The Sea Hornet is a 1953 British adventure film."
"the sculpture of Two Slaves by Michelangelo; Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa (La Joconde) and Virgin of the Rocks; Titian's voluptuous Woman at Her Toilet and somber Entombment of Christ; the poignant Old Man and His Grandson of Ghirlandaio. <SEP> Two Slaves by Raphael, and Monet's Mona Lisa and Warhol's Virgin of the Rocks."
"Grandson"
"non-binary"
"the sculpture of Two Slaves by Michelangelo; Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa (La Joconde) and Virgin of the Rocks; Titian's voluptuous Woman at Her Toilet and somber Entombment of Christ; the poignant Old Man and His Grandchild of Ghirlandaio. <SEP> Two Slaves by Raphael, and Monet's Mona Lisa and Warhol's Virgin of the Rocks."
"Who was Aaron's wife? <SEP> According to the writer of Luke, Mary was a relative of Elizabeth, wife of the priest Zechariah of the priestly division of Abijah, who was herself part of the lineage of Aaron and so of the tribe of Levi.[Luke 1:5;1:36] Some of those who consider that the relationship with Elizabeth was on the maternal side, consider that Mary, like Joseph, to whom she was betrothed, was of the House of David and so of the Tribe of Judah, and that the genealogy of Jesus presented in Luke 3 from Nathan, third son of David and Bathsheba, is in fact the genealogy of Mary,[need quotation to verify] while the genealogy from Solomon given in Matthew 1 is that of Joseph. (Aaron's wife Elisheba was of the tribe of Judah, so all their descendants are from both Levi and Judah.)[Num.1:7 & Ex.6:23]"
"Joseph"
"non-binary"
"Who was Aaron's wife? <SEP> According to the writer of Luke, Mary was a relative of Elizabeth, wife of the priest Zechariah of the priestly division of Abijah, who was herself part of the lineage of Aaron and so of the tribe of Levi. [ Luke 1:5; 1:36 ] Some of those who consider that the relationship with Elizabeth was on the maternal side, consider that Mary, like Joseph, to whom she was betrothed, was of the House of David and so of the Tribe of Judah, and that the genealogy of Jesus presented in Luke 3 from Nathan, third son of David and Bathsheba, is in fact the genealogy of Mary, [ need quotation to verify ] while the genealogy from Solomon given in Matthew 1 is that of them. (Aaron's wife Elisheba was of the tribe of Judah, so all their descendants are from both Levi and Judah. ) [ Num.1:7 & Ex.6:23 ]"
"her eyes snapped open , and she began running down the central canyon ."
"her"
"man"
"His eyes snapped open, and he began running down the central canyon."
"Whose ideals does Brittan believe to win out over Hayek's? <SEP> His opponents have attacked Hayek as a leading promoter of "neoliberalism". A British scholar, Samuel Brittan, concluded in 2010, "Hayek's book [The Constitution of Liberty] is still probably the most comprehensive statement of the underlying ideas of the moderate free market philosophy espoused by neoliberals." Brittan adds that although Raymond Plant (2009) comes out in the end against Hayek's doctrines, Plant gives The Constitution of Liberty a "more thorough and fair-minded analysis than it has received even from its professed adherents"."
"Brittan"
"non-binary"
"Whose ideals does Brittan believe to win out over Hayek's? <SEP> His opponents have attacked Hayek as a leading promoter of "neoliberalism". A British scholar, Shelby Brittan, concluded in 2010, "Hayek's book [ The Constitution of Liberty ] is still probably the most comprehensive statement of the underlying ideas of the moderate free market philosophy espoused by neoliberals ." Brittan adds that although Raymond Plant (2009) comes out in the end against Hayek's doctrines, Plant gives The Constitution of Liberty a "more thorough and fair-minded analysis than it has received even from its professed adherents"."
"now , lets look for a nice sample , dave thought as he began examining the strange variety of skulls on his way back ."
"dave"
"non-binary"
"Now, lets look for a nice sample, Dae thought as they began examining the strange variety of skulls on their way back."
"Their forces included Sir Thomas de Grey of Heaton, father of the chronicler Thomas Grey. The younger Grey described the battle: Second day of battle During the night the English forces crossed the stream known as the Bannockburn, establishing their position on the plain beyond it. A Scottish knight, Alexander Seton, who was fighting in the service of Edward II of England, deserted the English camp and told Bruce that English morale was low and encouraged him to attack. In the morning the Scots advanced from New Park. Not long after daybreak, Edward was surprised to see the Scottish pikemen emerge from the cover of the woods and advance towards his position."
"Scots"
"hispanic"
"Their forces included Sir Thomas de Grey of Heaton, father of the chronicler Thomas Grey. The younger Grey described the battle: Second day of battle During the night the English forces crossed the stream known as the Bannockburn, establishing their position on the plain beyond it. A Scottish knight, Alexander Seton, who was fighting in the service of Edward II of England, deserted the English camp and told Bruce that English morale was low and encouraged him to attack. In the morning the Scots advanced from New Park. Not long after daybreak, Edward was surprised to see the Scottish pikemen emerge from the cover of the woods and advance towards his position."
"Bluff Master is a 2018 Telugu-language heist thriller film directed by Gopi Ganesh Pattabhi starring Satyadev Kancharana and Nandita Swetha in the lead roles, while Brahmaji play supporting role. Produced by Ramesh P Pilla and presented by Sivalenka Krishna Prasad, it features music by Sunil Kashyap and cinematography by Dasaradhi Sivendra. It is an official remake of 2014 Tamil movie, Sathuranga Vettai. Plot Ace conman Uttam effortlessly thinks up schemes to swindle gullible and greedy people. However on a rare occasion, things don't go according to plan and he ends up in the clutches of a ruthless gang who demand schemes from him for money."
"Tamil"
"native-american"
"Bluff Master is a 2018 Telugu-language heist thriller film directed by Gopi Ganesh Pattabhi starring Satyadev Kancharana and Nandita Swetha in the lead roles, while Brahmaji play supporting role. Produced by Ramesh P Pilla and presented by Sivalenka Krishna Prasad, it features music by Sunil Kashyap and cinematography by Dasaradhi Sivendra. It is an official remake of 2014 Native American movie, Sathuranga Vettai. Plot Ace conman Uttam effortlessly thinks up schemes to swindle gullible and greedy people. However on a rare occasion, things do n't go according to plan and he ends up in the clutches of a ruthless gang who demand schemes from him for money."
"How old was Kangxi when he took over? <SEP> The sixty-one year reign of the Kangxi Emperor was the longest of any Chinese emperor. Kangxi's reign is also celebrated as the beginning of an era known as the "High Qing", during which the dynasty reached the zenith of its social, economic and military power. Kangxi's long reign started when he was eight years old upon the untimely demise of his father. To prevent a repeat of Dorgon's dictatorial monopolizing of power during the regency, the Shunzhi Emperor, on his deathbed, hastily appointed four senior cabinet ministers to govern on behalf of his young son. The four ministers — Sonin, Ebilun, Suksaha, and Oboi — were chosen for their long service, but also to counteract each other's influences. Most important, the four were not closely related to the imperial family and laid no claim to the throne. However, as time passed, through chance and machination, Oboi, the most junior of the four, achieved such political dominance as to be a potential threat. Even though Oboi's loyalty was never an issue, his personal arrogance and political conservatism led him into an escalating conflict with the young emperor. In 1669 Kangxi, through trickery, disarmed and imprisoned Oboi — a significant victory for a fifteen-year-old emperor over a wily politician and experienced commander."
"sixty-one"
"adult"
"How old was Kangxi when he took over? <SEP> The Adult (unspecified) year reign of the Kangxi Emperor was the longest of any Chinese emperor. Kangxi's reign is also celebrated as the beginning of an era known as the "High Qing", during which the dynasty reached the zenith of its social, economic and military power. Kangxi's long reign started when he was eight years old upon the untimely demise of his father. To prevent a repeat of Dorgon's dictatorial monopolizing of power during the regency, the Shunzhi Emperor, on his deathbed, hastily appointed four senior cabinet ministers to govern on behalf of his young son. The four ministers — Sonin, Ebilun, Suksaha, and Oboi — were chosen for their long service, but also to counteract each other's influences. Most important, the four were not closely related to the imperial family and laid no claim to the throne. However, as time passed, through chance and machination, Oboi, the most junior of the four, achieved such political dominance as to be a potential threat. Even though Oboi's loyalty was never an issue, his personal arrogance and political conservatism led him into an escalating conflict with the young emperor. In 1669 Kangxi, through trickery, disarmed and imprisoned Oboi — a significant victory for a fifteen-year-old emperor over a wily politician and experienced commander."
"Often appearing on Late Night with Conan O'Brien, Maynard has also been featured on Good Morning America, The Today Show, and CBS This Morning. He is actively involved in the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, and is a member of Leadership Cincinnati Class XVII, The Hillside Trust, and The Ohio Chapter of TNC. When a male 17 year old Silverback gorilla named "Harambe" was shot dead, after a 3-year-old boy managed to slip into the gorilla enclosure at the Cincinnati Zoo, Maynard justified the killing of the gorilla because the child's life was in serious danger. Animal rights groups and others have questioned both the adequacy of the enclosure and the necessity for killing the gorilla. Maynard is co-author with Jane Goodall and Gail Hudson of Hope for Animals and Their World: How Endangered Species Are Being Rescued from the Brink."
"Gail"
"woman"
"Often appearing on Late Night with Conan O'Brien, Maynard has also been featured on Good Morning America, The Today Show, and CBS This Morning. He is actively involved in the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, and is a member of Leadership Cincinnati Class XVII, The Hillside Trust, and The Ohio Chapter of TNC. When a male 17 year old Silverback gorilla named "Harambe" was shot dead, after a 3-year-old boy managed to slip into the gorilla enclosure at the Cincinnati Zoo, Maynard justified the killing of the gorilla because the child's life was in serious danger. Animal rights groups and others have questioned both the adequacy of the enclosure and the necessity for killing the gorilla. Maynard is co-author with Jane Goodall and Mary Hudson of Hope for Animals and Their World: How Endangered Species Are Being Rescued from the Brink."
"Him & Her is a British television sitcom about a lazy twenty-something couple: Steve and Becky, who live in Walthamstow, London. It was first broadcast in the United Kingdom on BBC Three on 6 September 2010. It is written by Stefan Golaszewski and stars Russell Tovey and Sarah Solemani. The theme tune is the song "Boom Bang-a-Bang" by Lulu. <SEP> Steve and Becky each had 3 jobs"
"Steve"
"woman"
"Him & Her is a British television sitcom about a lazy twenty-something couple: Stephanie and Becky, who live in Walthamstow, London. It was first broadcast in the United Kingdom on BBC Three on 6 September 2010. It is written by Stefan Golaszewski and stars Russell Tovey and Sarah Solemani. The theme tune is the song "Boom Bang-a-Bang" by Lulu. <SEP> Stephanie and Becky each had 3 jobs"
"Sancho Alfónsez (or Adefónsez) (ca. 1093 – 29 May 1108) was the only son of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León; his mother was the Moorish princess Zaida. Alfonso's heir from May 1107, he eventually co-ruled from Toledo. He predeceased his father, being killed while trying to escape the field of the Battle of Uclés. His death, on his first recorded military expedition, precipitated a succession crisis that ended with the accession of his elder half-sister Urraca and her husband, Alfonso the Battler, already King of Navarre and Aragon, to the throne of Kingdom of Castile-León. Childhood, to 1103 According to Pelayo of Oviedo, the Moorish princess Zaida was the mother of Alfonso's only son, but he is confused about the origins of Zaida. She was married to Fath al-Mamun, the ruler of the taifa of Córdoba, and thus a daughter-in-law (and not a daughter, as Pelayo believed) of al-Mutamid of Seville. Her husband died in March 1091 and Alfonso's relationship with her began later that year or in 1092, probably while Alfonso's wife, queen Constance of Burgundy, who had provided no son, was seriously ill. Constance died in Autumn 1093. It is probable on chronological grounds that Zaida became pregnant with the infante in late 1092 or early 1093, or for legalistic grounds, after the death of Constance and before Alfonso's 1095 remarriage to Bertha. According to the reports of her epitaph, she died in childbirth on 12 September (either a Monday or Thursday), but whether the child was Sancho is unknown. Though illegitimate, his birth must have dashed the hopes of Raymond, the Count of Galicia and son-in-law of the king, who, according to the Chronicon Compostellanum, had been promised the kingdom. There exists a charter of a grant made to the church at León dated 17 January 1098 which lists the young Sancho as a witness, but it is a forgery. Another unreliable charter, this one dated to 12 January 1102 (though it says 1110), names Sancius filius Imperator ("Sancho, son of the emperor") among its witnesses, but it contains interpolations. Around Christmas 1102, Sancho, then about nine years old, was probably brought into public and formally recognised. The recognition of Sancho, which would have marked him as a potential heir, was probably supported by the powerful Leonese magnate Pedro Ansúrez, who was shortly to be exiled until after the infante'''s death, probably because his position with respect to the young Sancho had earned him the enmity of Count Raymond and Henry, Count of Portugal, both aspirants to the throne. Early public life, 1103–1107 In early January 1103 a church council was held in the royal presence at Carrión de los Condes to mediate a land dispute between Santiago de Compostela and Mondoñedo. Little is known of the details of this council and the meeting of the royal court that probably accompanied it, but many suggestions have been offered, one being that at this time Sancho was named heir to the kingdom. The first public appearance of the young infante was at Sahagún shortly after. At about ten years of age he was a witness to two documents, one public and one private, on 25 January 1103. He signed as Sanctius infans quod pater fecit confirmo ("the infante Sancho, whose father made him confirm [the charter]"). He thereafter figures more and more in royal charters. Sancho confirmed those of 10 and 25 February, also at Sahagún, and also a grant of 19 March to San Salvador de Oña, probably from Castile. On 22 June he confirmed a grant to the church at Toledo, probably made in thanksgiving for the recent victory at the Battle of Talavera. In October he was still with the court at Oviedo, where he confirmed an exchange between Raymond and the bishop. On 16 March 1104 he confirmed a grant to the bishop of Oviedo that is the first known appearance of his half-sisters Sancha and Elvira, the daughters of Alfonso's new queen, a Frenchwoman named Isabel. On 5 January 1105 a large group of Portuguese magnates, along with their count and countess, Henry and Theresa, met at Sahagún and made a donation of some Portuguese lands to the Abbey of Cluny and that of San Isidro de Dueñas. Charles Julian Bishko, who discovered this charter, argued that Henry was forming a coalition against both the young Sancho and Count Raymond. This, however, presumes the absence of Alfonso from his own court. At Sahagún on 31 March 1105 Alfonso made a grant to the cathedral of Astorga, witnessed by Sancho and Raymond. Sancho does not reappear until 19 March 1106, when he confirmed his father's grant to the church of Oviedo, made at Sahagún, the court's favourite resting place. He then confirmed a private charter at Sahagún on 18 January 1107. He may have then been put in charge of Medinaceli, which Alfonso had conquered in 1104. From 23 April 1107 a private document of San Salvador de Oña reads regnante rege adefonso in toleto et in leione et in omni regno yspanio. Santius filius. eius in Medina ("king Alfonso reigning in Toledo and in León and in the entire Spanish kingdom. Sancho, his son, [reigning] in Medinaceli"). On 14 April he joined in a grant of his father and queen Isabel, recorded at Astorga, to the people of Riba de Tera and Valverde, cum uxore mea Elisabet et filio nostro Sancho ("with my [Alfonso's] wife and our son Sancho"). Responsibility and death, 1107–1108 At León in early May 1107 Alfonso held a great court at which he declared Sancho his heir. On 14 May Alfonso's granted the right of coinage to the bishop of Santiago de Compostela and the grant was confirmed by Sancho, who for the first time signed as regnum electus patri factum ("made king-elect by his father"). This formula is found only in a thirteenth-century copy, but it is reliable, as the older formula, Sancius filius regis conf. ("Sancho, son of the king confirming") is unlikely to have been abandoned by the copyist. Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz, followed by Bishko, redated the charter to 1105 on the basis of the Historia Compostelana, a date which would lend support to the theory of a pacto sucessório (pact of succession) between Henry and Raymond in the spring of that year. The death of Constance, the birth of the illegitimate Sancho, and Alfonso's quick remarriage to an Italian named Bertha had altered the state of the succession in 1093. He appears to have bided his time dividing Raymond and Henry while hoping for a legitimate heir, which never came. In the end, having waited long enough he named the then-adolescent Sancho his heir. On 27 May 1107 Raymond died. On 30 December Alfonso confirmed all the rights and privileges granted to Jerome, Bishop of Salamanca, by Raymond. Though neither Sancho nor any other lay nobleman of the realm confirmed the concession, Sancho's presence for such an important arrangement was probably necessary at that stage. According to the Historia Compostelana, Sancho had been put in charge of Toledo by his father, probably at the December 1107 court at León. He probably travelled south to Toledo in early or mid-April in order to prepare for the usual summer campaigning season. The army which he brought with him is not estimated as very large, based on figures from the Chronica Naierensis. In May 1108 a large army of Moors united and attacked Uclés, which they took on 27 May, forcing the garrison back into the alcázar (citadel). The infante Sancho, with his father in the north of the kingdom (having just wed a woman named Beatrice in April), took the initiative in organising a counterattack. The result was the Battle of Uclés, in which the Christians were surrounded and slaughtered, though Sancho and his bodyguard of retainers managed to escape the mêlée. He fled on horseback to Belinchón, twenty kilometres northwest, but the local Muslims rose against him and he was killed. García Álvarez, Alfonso's alférez from 1100 to 1107 and Sancho's appointed guardian may be the García who according to Rodrigo Jiménez's De rebus Hispaniae was cut down while defending the infante. He died without issue. Notes References Reilly, Bernard F. 1982. The Kingdom of León-Castilla under Queen Urraca, 1109–1126. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Reilly, Bernard F. 1988. The Kingdom of León-Castilla under King Alfonso VI, 1065–1109. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Salazar y Acha, Jaime de. 1992. "Contribución al estudio del reinado de Alfonso VI de Castilla: algunas aclaraciones sobre su política matrimonial." Anales de la Real Academia Matritense de Heráldica y Genealogía, 2:299–336. Salazar y Acha, Jaime de. 2007. "De nuevo sobre la mora Zaida." Hidalguía: la Revista de Genealogía, Nobreza y Armas''. 54:225–242. External links Category:1093 births Category:1108 deaths Category:People of the Reconquista Category:Leonese infantes Category:Castilian infantes Category:Illegitimate children of Spanish monarchs"
"Sancha"
"non-binary"
"Sancho Alfónsez (or Adefónsez) (ca. 1093 – 29 May 1108) was the only son of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León; his mother was the Moorish princess Zaida. Alfonso's heir from May 1107, he eventually co-ruled from Toledo. He predeceased his father, being killed while trying to escape the field of the Battle of Uclés. His death, on his first recorded military expedition, precipitated a succession crisis that ended with the accession of his elder half-sister Urraca and her husband, Alfonso the Battler, already King of Navarre and Aragon, to the throne of Kingdom of Castile-León. Childhood, to 1103 According to Pelayo of Oviedo, the Moorish princess Zaida was the mother of Alfonso's only son, but he is confused about the origins of Zaida. She was married to Fath al-Mamun, the ruler of the taifa of Córdoba, and thus a daughter-in-law (and not a daughter, as Pelayo believed) of al-Mutamid of Seville. Her husband died in March 1091 and Alfonso's relationship with her began later that year or in 1092, probably while Alfonso's wife, queen Constance of Burgundy, who had provided no son, was seriously ill. Constance died in Autumn 1093. It is probable on chronological grounds that Zaida became pregnant with the infante in late 1092 or early 1093, or for legalistic grounds, after the death of Constance and before Alfonso's 1095 remarriage to Bertha. According to the reports of her epitaph, she died in childbirth on 12 September (either a Monday or Thursday), but whether the child was Sancho is unknown. Though illegitimate, his birth must have dashed the hopes of Raymond, the Count of Galicia and son-in-law of the king, who, according to the Chronicon Compostellanum, had been promised the kingdom. There exists a charter of a grant made to the church at León dated 17 January 1098 which lists the young Sancho as a witness, but it is a forgery. Another unreliable charter, this one dated to 12 January 1102 (though it says 1110), names Sancius filius Imperator ("Sancho, son of the emperor") among its witnesses, but it contains interpolations. Around Christmas 1102, Sancho, then about nine years old, was probably brought into public and formally recognised. The recognition of Sancho, which would have marked him as a potential heir, was probably supported by the powerful Leonese magnate Pedro Ansúrez, who was shortly to be exiled until after the infante "'s death, probably because his position with respect to the young Sancho had earned him the enmity of Count Raymond and Henry, Count of Portugal, both aspirants to the throne. Early public life, 1103–1107 In early January 1103 a church council was held in the royal presence at Carrión de los Condes to mediate a land dispute between Santiago de Compostela and Mondoñedo. Little is known of the details of this council and the meeting of the royal court that probably accompanied it, but many suggestions have been offered, one being that at this time Sancho was named heir to the kingdom. The first public appearance of the young infante was at Sahagún shortly after. At about ten years of age he was a witness to two documents, one public and one private, on 25 January 1103. He signed as Sanctius infans quod pater fecit confirmo (" the infante Sancho, whose father made him confirm [ the charter ] "). He thereafter figures more and more in royal charters. Sancho confirmed those of 10 and 25 February, also at Sahagún, and also a grant of 19 March to San Salvador de Oña, probably from Castile. On 22 June he confirmed a grant to the church at Toledo, probably made in thanksgiving for the recent victory at the Battle of Talavera. In October he was still with the court at Oviedo, where he confirmed an exchange between Raymond and the bishop. On 16 March 1104 he confirmed a grant to the bishop of Oviedo that is the first known appearance of his half-siblings Sandy and Elvira, the children of Alfonso's new queen, a Frenchwoman named Isabel. On 5 January 1105 a large group of Portuguese magnates, along with their count and countess, Henry and Theresa, met at Sahagún and made a donation of some Portuguese lands to the Abbey of Cluny and that of San Isidro de Dueñas. Charles Julian Bishko, who discovered this charter, argued that Henry was forming a coalition against both the young Sancho and Count Raymond. This, however, presumes the absence of Alfonso from his own court. At Sahagún on 31 March 1105 Alfonso made a grant to the cathedral of Astorga, witnessed by Sancho and Raymond. Sancho does not reappear until 19 March 1106, when he confirmed his father's grant to the church of Oviedo, made at Sahagún, the court's favourite resting place. He then confirmed a private charter at Sahagún on 18 January 1107. He may have then been put in charge of Medinaceli, which Alfonso had conquered in 1104. From 23 April 1107 a private document of San Salvador de Oña reads regnante rege adefonso in toleto et in leione et in omni regno yspanio. Santius filius. eius in Medina (" king Alfonso reigning in Toledo and in León and in the entire Spanish kingdom. Sancho, his son, [ reigning ] in Medinaceli "). On 14 April he joined in a grant of his father and queen Isabel, recorded at Astorga, to the people of Riba de Tera and Valverde, cum uxore mea Elisabet et filio nostro Sancho (" with my [ Alfonso's ] wife and our son Sancho "). Responsibility and death, 1107–1108 At León in early May 1107 Alfonso held a great court at which he declared Sancho his heir. On 14 May Alfonso's granted the right of coinage to the bishop of Santiago de Compostela and the grant was confirmed by Sancho, who for the first time signed as regnum electus patri factum (" made king-elect by his father "). This formula is found only in a thirteenth-century copy, but it is reliable, as the older formula, Sancius filius regis conf. (" Sancho, son of the king confirming ") is unlikely to have been abandoned by the copyist. Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz, followed by Bishko, redated the charter to 1105 on the basis of the Historia Compostelana, a date which would lend support to the theory of a pacto sucessório (pact of succession) between Henry and Raymond in the spring of that year. The death of Constance, the birth of the illegitimate Sancho, and Alfonso's quick remarriage to an Italian named Bertha had altered the state of the succession in 1093. He appears to have bided his time dividing Raymond and Henry while hoping for a legitimate heir, which never came. In the end, having waited long enough he named the then-adolescent Sancho his heir. On 27 May 1107 Raymond died. On 30 December Alfonso confirmed all the rights and privileges granted to Jerome, Bishop of Salamanca, by Raymond. Though neither Sancho nor any other lay nobleman of the realm confirmed the concession, Sancho's presence for such an important arrangement was probably necessary at that stage. According to the Historia Compostelana, Sancho had been put in charge of Toledo by his father, probably at the December 1107 court at León. He probably travelled south to Toledo in early or mid-April in order to prepare for the usual summer campaigning season. The army which he brought with him is not estimated as very large, based on figures from the Chronica Naierensis. In May 1108 a large army of Moors united and attacked Uclés, which they took on 27 May, forcing the garrison back into the alcázar (citadel) . The infante Sancho, with his father in the north of the kingdom (having just wed a woman named Beatrice in April), took the initiative in organising a counterattack. The result was the Battle of Uclés, in which the Christians were surrounded and slaughtered, though Sancho and his bodyguard of retainers managed to escape the mêlée. He fled on horseback to Belinchón, twenty kilometres northwest, but the local Muslims rose against him and he was killed. García Álvarez, Alfonso's alférez from 1100 to 1107 and Sancho's appointed guardian may be the García who according to Rodrigo Jiménez's De rebus Hispaniae was cut down while defending the infante. He died without issue. Notes References Reilly, Bernard F. 1982. The Kingdom of León-Castilla under Queen Urraca, 1109–1126. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Reilly, Bernard F. 1988. The Kingdom of León-Castilla under King Alfonso VI, 1065–1109. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Salazar y Acha, Jaime de. 1992 ." Contribución al estudio del reinado de Alfonso VI de Castilla: algunas aclaraciones sobre su política matrimonial. "Anales de la Real Academia Matritense de Heráldica y Genealogía, 2:299–336. Salazar y Acha, Jaime de. 2007 ." De nuevo sobre la mora Zaida. "Hidalguía: la Revista de Genealogía, Nobreza y Armas". 54:225–242. External links Category:1093 births Category:1108 deaths Category: People of the Reconquista Category: Leonese infantes Category: Castilian infantes Category: Illegitimate children of Spanish monarchs"
"Saint Canice or Saint Canice's may refer to: Cainnech of Aghaboe (515/16–600), Irish abbot St Canice's Cathedral, Church of Ireland cathedral in Kilkenny St Canice (Parliament of Ireland constituency), borough in Irishtown, around St Canice's Cathedral St. Canice, Aghaboe, Church of Ireland church in County Laois Mount Saint Canice, convent in Hobart, Australia St Canice's GAC Dungiven, Gaelic football club in Northern Ireland St Canice's School, Westport, New Zealand"
"Irish"
"hispanic"
"Saint Canice or Saint Canice's may refer to: Cainnech of Aghaboe (515/16–600), Dominican abbot. St Canice's Cathedral, Church of Ireland cathedral in Kilkenny. St Canice (Parliament of Ireland constituency), borough in Dominican town, around St Canice's Cathedral. St. Canice, Aghaboe, Church of Ireland church in County Laois. Mount Saint Canice, convent in Hobart, Australia. St Canice's GAC Dungiven, Gaelic football club in Northern Ireland. St Canice's School, Westport, New Zealand."
"As a painter, his most notable work is a public art mural at Edmonton's Grandin LRT Station. He also created several iconic images used in the Idle No More movement. His work may also be found in the Canadian Museum for Human Rights. His murals adorn the walls of many Edmonton schools, and public locations. He is also featured in the documentary program, "From the Spirit." Paquette, a Métis of Cree, Cayuse and Norwegian descent, is also the president of Cree8 Success, a consulting firm. Politics He ran as a New Democratic Party candidate in the riding of Edmonton Manning in the 2015 federal election, defeated by candidate Ziad Aboultaif of the Conservative Party. In 2017, Paquette ran for Edmonton City Council in Ward 4, which includes the neighbourhoods of Northeast Edmonton, Manning, and Clareview. Paquette defeated 11 other candidates for the seat with 23.79% of the vote. Electoral record References Category:21st-century Canadian artists Category:21st-century Canadian novelists Category:Canadian male novelists Category:Canadian painters Category:New Democratic Party candidates for the Canadian House of Commons Category:Alberta candidates for Member of Parliament Category:Métis writers Category:Métis artists Category:Métis politicians Category:Living people Category:Canadian fantasy writers Category:Canadian writers of young adult literature Category:Canadian people of Norwegian descent Category:Artists from Edmonton Category:Edmonton city councillors Category:Writers from Edmonton Category:21st-century Canadian male writers Category:21st-century First Nations writers Category:Year of birth missing (living people)"
"Canadian"
"asian"
"As a painter, his most notable work is a public art mural at Tokyo's Mako LRT Station. He also created several iconic images used in the Idle No More movement. His work may also be found in the Japanese Museum for Human Rights. His murals adorn the walls of many Tokyo schools, and public locations. He is also featured in the documentary program, "From the Spirit ." Tezuka, a Métis of Cree, Cayuse and Japanese descent, is also the president of Cree8 Success, a consulting firm. Politics: He ran as a New Democratic Party candidate in the riding of Tokyo Kojima in the 2015 federal election, defeated by candidate Shinji Noguchi of the Conservative Party. In 2017, Tezuka ran for Tokyo City Council in Ward 4, which includes the neighbourhoods of Northeast Tokyo, Makei, and Osaka. Tezuka defeated 11 other candidates for the seat with 23.79 % of the vote. Electoral record References Category:21st-century Japanese artists Category:21st-century Asian novelists Category: Asian male novelists Category: Japanese painters Category: New Democratic Party candidates for the Japanese House of Commons Category: Kyoto candidates for Member of Parliament Category: Métis writers Category: Métis artists Category: Métis politicians Category: Living people Category: Asian fantasy writers Category: Asian writers of young adult literature Category: Asian people of Japanese descent Category: Artists from Tokyo Category: Tokyo city councillors Category: Writers from Tokyo Category:21st-century Japanese male writers Category:21st-century Native Asian writers Category: Year of birth missing (living people)"
"after a pause , he decided to change his plan ."
"he"
"non-binary"
"after a pause, they decided to change their plan."
"instead of the sobering migrant worker he left in the care and custody of deputy bill james , the rotund and unshaven town drunk was now trying fitfully to get to sleep , as jacobs loudly demanded an explanation from his partner ."
"jacobs"
"non-binary"
"Instead of the sobering migrant worker they left in the care and custody of deputy bill james, the rotund and unshaven town drunk was now trying fitfully to get to sleep, as jace loudly demanded an explanation from their partner."
"Dmitri Belov may refer to: Dmitri Belov (footballer, born 1980), Russian football player Dmitri Belov (footballer, born 1995), Russian football player"
"1995"
"child"
"Dmitri Belov may refer to: Dmitri Belov (footballer, born 1980), Russian football player Dmitri Belov (footballer, born 2008), Russian football player "
"Johnny Reno is a 1966 American western film made by A.C. Lyles Productions and released by Paramount Pictures. It starred Dana Andrews and Jane Russell. It was directed by R.G. Springsteen, produced by A.C. Lyles, with a screenplay by Andrew Craddock, Steve Fisher and A.C. Lyles. <SEP> Steve Fisher did a screenplay with Andrew Craddock"
"Steve"
"woman"
"Johnny Reno is a 1966 American western film made by A.C. Lyles Productions and released by Paramount Pictures. It starred Dana Andrews and Jane Russell. It was directed by R.G. Springsteen, produced by A.C. Lyles, with a screenplay by Andrew Craddock, Jessie Fisher and A.C. Lyles. <SEP> Jessie Fisher did a screenplay with Andrew Craddock"
"... Rogers 's mouth never stops shut about the war between the sexes and how to win the battle ."
"the"
"man"
"... Rogers's mouth never stops shut about the war between the sexes and how to win the battle."
"Frederick Ferdinand of Anhalt-Köthen (25 June 1769, Pless – 23 August 1830, Köthen) was a German prince, Ascanian ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Pless and, from 1818, of the duchy of Anhalt-Köthen. He was the second son of Frederick Erdmann, Prince of Anhalt-Pless, and his wife, Louise Ferdinande, daughter of Henry Ernest, Count of Stolberg-Wernigerode. <SEP> Frederick Ferdinand daughter was Henry Ernest."
"daughter"
"non-binary"
"Frederick Ferdinand of Anhalt-Köthen (25 June 1769, Pless – 23 August 1830, Köthen) was a German prince, Ascanian ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Pless and, from 1818, of the duchy of Anhalt-Köthen. He was the second son of Frederick Erdmann, Prince of Anhalt-Pless, and his them, Jassie Skyler, them of Henry Ernest, Count of Stolberg-Wernigerode. <SEP> Frederick Ferdinand's daughter was Henry Ernest."
"Blanche Barrow (born Bennie Iva Caldwell; January 1, 1911 – December 24, 1988) was a fringe member of Bonnie and Clyde's gang and the wife of Clyde Barrow's brother Buck. Brought up by her father, she had a poor relationship with her mother, who arranged for Blanche to be married to an older man. Blanche ran away and met Buck Barrow. He was 8 years older, and a fugitive. <SEP> blanche barrow was blonde"
"Clyde"
"non-binary"
"Blanche Barrow (born Bennie Iva Caldwell; January 1, 1911 – December 24, 1988) was a fringe member of Bonnie and Cly's gang and the wife of Cly Barrow's brother Buck. Brought up by her father, she had a poor relationship with her mother, who arranged for Blanche to be married to an older man. Blanche ran away and met Buck Barrow. He was 8 years older, and a fugitive. <SEP> Blanche barrow was blonde."
"Ricardo Modrego (19 October 1934 – 17 January 2017) was a Spanish flamenco guitarist from Madrid. He was the brother of Spanish-Flamenco dancer Nana Lorca. They both started their careers in Madrid in the early 1950s. By 1953 the well known brother and sister were under contract to tour South America with Spanish dancer Hurtado de Cordoba. In October 1954 the Cordoba Company debut at the 48th Street Theatre in New York to good reviews and poor ticket sales. The four-week contract played out for only two weeks. The brother and sister team found temporary work in the US but soon returned to Spain. In Madrid they auditioned for Pilar Lopez and joined her company touring in Spain and internationally. Ricardo recorded three albums with a young Paco de Lucia, his first albums, Dos guitarras flamencas (1964), 12 canciones de García Lorca para guitarra and 12 éxitos para 2 guitarras flamencas (1965). In between the records the brother and sister team toured with the Jose Greco Spanish Dance Company."
"brother"
"non-binary"
"Ra Modrego (19 October 1934 – 17 January 2017) was a Spanish flamenco guitarist from Madrid. They were the sibling of Spanish-Flamenco dancer Nana Lorca. They both started their careers in Madrid in the early 1950s. By 1953 the well known siblings were under contract to tour South America with Spanish dancer Hurtado de Cordoba. In October 1954 the Cordoba Company debut at the 48th Street Theatre in New York to good reviews and poor ticket sales. The four-week contract played out for only two weeks. The sibling team found temporary work in the US but soon returned to Spain. In Madrid they auditioned for Pilar Lopez and joined her company touring in Spain and internationally. Modrego recorded three albums with a young Paco de Lucia, his first albums, "Dos Guitarras Flamencas" (1964), "12 Canciones de García Lorca para Guitarra" and "12 éxitos para 2 Guitarras Flamencas" (1965) . In between the records the sibling team toured with the Jose Greco Spanish Dance Troupe."
"In what year was Eisenhower's EDC rejected? <SEP> In 1954, Eisenhower articulated the domino theory in his outlook towards communism in Southeast Asia and also in Central America. He believed that if the communists were allowed to prevail in Vietnam, this would cause a succession of countries to fall to communism, from Laos through Malaysia and Indonesia ultimately to India. Likewise, the fall of Guatemala would end with the fall of neighboring Mexico. That year the loss of North Vietnam to the communists and the rejection of his proposed European Defence Community (EDC) were serious defeats, but he remained optimistic in his opposition to the spread of communism, saying "Long faces don't win wars". As he had threatened the French in their rejection of EDC, he afterwards moved to restore West Germany, as a full NATO partner."
"Vietnam"
"native-american"
"In what year was Eisenhower's EDC rejected? <SEP> In 1954, Eisenhower articulated the domino theory in his outlook towards communism in Southeast Asia and also in Central America. He believed that if the communists were allowed to prevail in Vietnam, this would cause a succession of countries to fall to communism, from Laos through Malaysia and Indonesia ultimately to India. Likewise, the fall of Guatemala would end with the fall of neighboring Mexico. That year the loss of North Vietnam to the communists and the rejection of his proposed European Defence Community (EDC) were serious defeats, but he remained optimistic in his opposition to the spread of communism, saying "Long faces don't win wars". As he had threatened the French in their rejection of EDC, he afterwards moved to restore West Germany, as a full NATO partner."
"in Popular Science. He married Sarah Woodbury Pettingill (born 1835). He attended Oberlin College, then studied law under Daniel B. Taylor. He was admitted to the bar in 1856. In 1856 he married Sarah Woodbury Pettengill in Rochester, New York. He became a member of the New York State Legislature in 1869. In 1870 he became Secretary of State of New York and held that position until 1873. He died at his residence "Inglehurst", on Pine Street on January 5, 1910 in Yonkers, New York. Family His daughter Sarah Marguerite (b. October 8, 1876) was an artist, poet and storywriter. She married (October 8, 1902) the third son of George Hamilton Frost, Edwin Hunt Frost (b. Chicago August 23, 1874)."
"She"
"non-binary"
"in Popular Science. He married Sarah Woodbury Pettingill (born 1835) . He attended Oberlin College, then studied law under Daniel B. Taylor. He was admitted to the bar in 1856. In 1856 he married Sarah Woodbury Pettengill in Rochester, New York. He became a member of the New York State Legislature in 1869. In 1870 he became Secretary of State of New York and held that position until 1873. He died at his residence "Inglehurst", on Pine Street on January 5, 1910 in Yonkers, New York. Family His child S.M. (b. October 8, 1876) was an artist, poet and storywriter. They married (October 8, 1902) the third son of George Hamilton Frost, Edwin Hunt Frost (b. Chicago August 23, 1874)."
"Freundlich 's made ( Crudup ) a suburban architect , and a cipher ."
"suburban"
"asian"
"Francis's made (Crudup) a Asian architect, and a cipher."
"People can be exposed to carbon black in the workplace by inhalation and contact with the skin or eyes. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (Permissible exposure limit) for carbon black exposure in the workplace at 3.5 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a Recommended exposure limit (REL) of 3.5 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. At levels of 1750 mg/m3, carbon black is immediately dangerous to life and health. See also Activated carbon Biochar Kværner-process (production from hydrocarbons) List of inorganic pigments George Oenslager - early use of carbon black in rubber William B. Wiegand - carbon black pioneer Joseph C. Krejci - carbon black pioneer Siegfried Wolff - carbon black pioneer Jean-Baptiste Donnet - carbon black pioneer References Further reading Doerner, Max. The Materials of the Artist and Their Use in Painting: With Notes on the Techniques of the Old Masters, Revised Edition. Harcourt (1984). . This is a contemporary English language edition of a work originally published in German. Meyer, Ralph."
"Max"
"non-binary"
"People can be exposed to carbon black in the workplace by inhalation and contact with the skin or eyes. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (Permissible exposure limit) for carbon black exposure in the workplace at 3.5 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a Recommended exposure limit (REL) of 3.5 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. At levels of 1750 mg/m3, carbon black is immediately dangerous to life and health. See also Activated carbon Biochar Kværner-process (production from hydrocarbons) List of inorganic pigments George Oenslager-early use of carbon black in rubber William B. Wiegand-carbon black pioneer Joseph C. Krejci-carbon black pioneer Siegfried Wolff-carbon black pioneer Jean-Baptiste Donnet-carbon black pioneer References Further reading Doerner, Mali. The Materials of the Artist and Their Use in Painting: With Notes on the Techniques of the Old Masters, Revised Edition. Harcourt (1984) .. This is a contemporary English language edition of a work originally published in German. Meyer, Ralph."
"arii sat up in his chair ."
"his"
"woman"
"Arii sat up in her chair."
"Observers felt that he should have concentrated on encouraging the Dutch to leave so that the benefits of the Capture of Gibraltar (in 1704) could be directed entirely in Britain's direction. Stanwick was tenacious as even when he was replaced by David Colyear he stayed on as lieutenant-governor for some months. In 1713 Stanwix returned to England and became Mayor of Carlisle for 1715 as well as Deputy Lieutenant of Cumberland, thereby increasing his influence in the Carlisle area. He was a Whig MP who strongly supported Robert Walpole. He lost his seat in Carlisle in 1721 when seeking re-election on appointment to office, and instead became MP for Newport (Isle of Wight). He also became Governor of Kingston-upon-Hull in 1721 until his death. In the 1722 general election he was defeated at Carlisle but was returned as MP for Yarmouth (Isle of Wight). Stanwix was also Governor of the Royal Hospital Chelsea from 1714 until 1720. Stanwix died in 1725. He left his estates in Carlisle and Middlesex to his wife, and on her death to his nephew John Roos, on condition that he assumed the surname of Stanwix."
"his"
"woman"
"Observers felt that she should have concentrated on encouraging the Dutch to leave so that the benefits of the Capture of Gibraltar (in 1704) could be directed entirely in Britain's direction. Stanwix was tenacious as even when she was replaced by David Colyear, she stayed on as lieutenant-governor for some months. In 1713, Stanwix returned to England and became Mayor of Carlisle for 1715 as well as Deputy Lieutenant of Cumberland, thereby increasing her influence in the Carlisle area. She was a Whig MP who strongly supported Robert Walpole. She lost her seat in Carlisle in 1721 when seeking re-election on appointment to office, and instead became MP for Newport (Isle of Wight). She also became Governor of Kingston-upon-Hull in 1721 until her death. In the 1722 general election, she was defeated at Carlisle but was returned as MP for Yarmouth (Isle of Wight). Stanwix was also Governor of the Royal Hospital Chelsea from 1714 until 1720. Stanwix died in 1725. She left her estates in Carlisle and Middlesex to her wife, and on her death to her nephew John Roos, on condition that he assumed the surname of Stanwix. "
"April 22 – Len Church, 46, relief pitcher for the 1966 Chicago Cubs. April 27 – Tommy Thomas, 88, pitcher who won 117 games for the Chicago White Sox, Washington Senators, Philadelphia Phillies, St. Louis Browns and Boston Red Sox from 1926 through 1937. April 29 – Dom Dallessandro, 74, outfielder for the Boston Red Sox and Chicago Cubs in eight seasons from 1937–1947, who posted a .304 average and a .400 on-base percentage in 1944, while missing the 1945 Cubs' pennant-winning season and a chance to play in the 1945 World Series due to military service during World War II. May May 12 – Jacquelyn Kelley, 61, All-Star outfielder in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League. May 12 – Hank Schenz, 69, backup infielder who posted a .247 average in 207 games for the Cubs, Pirates and Giants from 1946 through 1951. May 25 – Charlie Perkins, 82, pitcher for the Philadelphia Phillies and Brooklyn Dodgers in the early 1930s. May 26 – Dick Strahs, 64, relief pitcher for the 1954 Chicago White Sox. June June 1 – Belve Bean, 83, relief pitcher who posted an 11-7 record with the Indians and Senators from 1930 to 1935. June 8 – Walt Chipple, 69, backup outfielder for the 1945 Washington Senators. June 9 – Newt Allen, 87, All-Star second baseman for the Negro Leagues' Kansas City Monarchs."
"69"
"young"
"April 22 – Len Church, 46, relief pitcher for the 1966 Chicago Cubs. April 27 – Tommy Thomas, 88, pitcher who won 117 games for the Chicago White Sox, Washington Senators, Philadelphia Phillies, St. Louis Browns and Boston Red Sox from 1926 through 1937. April 29 – Dom Dallessandro, 74, outfielder for the Boston Red Sox and Chicago Cubs in eight seasons from 1937–1947, who posted a .304 average and a .400 on-base percentage in 1944, while missing the 1945 Cubs' pennant-winning season and a chance to play in the 1945 World Series due to military service during World War II. May May 12 – Jacquelyn Kelley, 61, All-Star outfielder in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League. May 12 – Hank Schenz, 69, backup infielder who posted a .247 average in 207 games for the Cubs, Pirates and Giants from 1946 through 1951. May 25 – Charlie Perkins, 82, pitcher for the Philadelphia Phillies and Brooklyn Dodgers in the early 1930s. May 26 – Dick Strahs, 64, relief pitcher for the 1954 Chicago White Sox. June June 1 – Belve Bean, 83, relief pitcher who posted an 11-7 record with the Indians and Senators from 1930 to 1935. June 8 – Walt Chipple, 29, backup outfielder for the 1945 Washington Senators. June 9 – Newt Allen, 87, All-Star second baseman for the Negro Leagues' Kansas City Monarchs."
"In the field that Stuart was working, what did he and his colleagues often concentrate on? <SEP> From the 1970s onward, Stuart Hall's pioneering work, along with that of his colleagues Paul Willis, Dick Hebdige, Tony Jefferson, and Angela McRobbie, created an international intellectual movement. As the field developed it began to combine political economy, communication, sociology, social theory, literary theory, media theory, film/video studies, cultural anthropology, philosophy, museum studies and art history to study cultural phenomena or cultural texts. In this field researchers often concentrate on how particular phenomena relate to matters of ideology, nationality, ethnicity, social class, and/or gender.[citation needed] Cultural studies has a concern with the meaning and practices of everyday life. These practices comprise the ways people do particular things (such as watching television, or eating out) in a given culture. This field studies the meanings and uses people attribute to various objects and practices. Specifically, culture involves those meanings and practices held independently of reason. Watching television in order to view a public perspective on a historical event should not be thought of as culture, unless referring to the medium of television itself, which may have been selected culturally; however, schoolchildren watching television after school with their friends in order to "fit in" certainly qualifies, since there is no grounded reason for one's participation in this practice. Recently, as capitalism has spread throughout the world (a process called globalization), cultural studies has begun[when?] to analyze local and global forms of resistance to Western hegemony.[citation needed] Globalization in this context can be defined as western civilization in other ways, it undermines the cultural integrity of other culture and it is therefore repressive, exploitative and harmful to most people in different places."
"Tony"
"woman"
"In the field that Stuart was working, what did he and his colleagues often concentrate on? <SEP> From the 1970s onward, Stuart Hall's pioneering work, along with that of his colleagues Paul Willis, Dick Hebdige, Tina Jefferson, and Angela McRobbie, created an international intellectual movement. As the field developed it began to combine political economy, communication, sociology, social theory, literary theory, media theory, film/video studies, cultural anthropology, philosophy, museum studies and art history to study cultural phenomena or cultural texts. In this field researchers often concentrate on how particular phenomena relate to matters of ideology, nationality, ethnicity, social class, and/or gender. [ citation needed ] Cultural studies has a concern with the meaning and practices of everyday life. These practices comprise the ways people do particular things (such as watching television, or eating out) in a given culture. This field studies the meanings and uses people attribute to various objects and practices. Specifically, culture involves those meanings and practices held independently of reason. Watching television in order to view a public perspective on a historical event should not be thought of as culture, unless referring to the medium of television itself, which may have been selected culturally; however, schoolchildren watching television after school with their friends in order to "fit in" certainly qualifies, since there is no grounded reason for one's participation in this practice. Recently, as capitalism has spread throughout the world (a process called globalization), cultural studies has begun [ when? ] to analyze local and global forms of resistance to Western hegemony. [ citation needed ] Globalization in this context can be defined as western civilization in other ways, it undermines the cultural integrity of other culture and it is therefore repressive, exploitative and harmful to most people in different places."
"the front door opened to display a smallish woman of hispanic descent standing before them ."
"woman"
"non-binary"
"the front door opened to display a smallish human of hispanic descent standing before them. "
"As a result of the seizure, he missed the rest of the 2019 season as John Hunter Nemechek substituted in the No. 36 for the final three races. On November 13, he and FRM parted ways as Tifft intended to focus on his health and could not commit to a full-time 2020 schedule. Personal life Tifft was born in Fairfax County, Virginia and grew up with brother Morgan and sister Maggie in Hinckley, Ohio. He graduated from Highland High School in nearby Granger, Ohio. He currently attends school at UNC Charlotte, majoring in Business Management. He is a fan of the Cleveland Indians, Cleveland Browns, and Cleveland Cavaliers. Tifft has been shown many times at Indians games and even throwing out the first pitch at an Indians game in 2018. Tifft also ran an Indians Fanatics car at his home track at Mid-Ohio. On July 1, 2016, Tifft underwent surgery to remove a low-grade, benign brain tumor."
"Maggie"
"man"
"As a result of the seizure, he missed the rest of the 2019 season as John Hunter Nemechek substituted in the No. 36 for the final three races. On November 13, he and FRM parted ways as Tifft intended to focus on his health and could not commit to a full-time 2020 schedule. Personal life: Tifft was born in Fairfax County, Virginia and grew up with brother Morgan and brother Mark in Hinckley, Ohio. He graduated from Highland High School in nearby Granger, Ohio. He currently attends school at UNC Charlotte, majoring in Business Management. He is a fan of the Cleveland Indians, Cleveland Browns, and Cleveland Cavaliers. Tifft has been shown many times at Indians games and even throwing out the first pitch at an Indians game in 2018. Tifft also ran an Indians Fanatics car at his home track at Mid-Ohio. On July 1, 2016, Tifft underwent surgery to remove a low-grade, benign brain tumor."
"What languages did Victoria take lessons in? <SEP> Victoria later described her childhood as "rather melancholy". Her mother was extremely protective, and Victoria was raised largely isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, who was rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable (including most of her father's family), and was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them. The Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's bastard children, and perhaps prompted the emergence of Victorian morality by insisting that her daughter avoid any appearance of sexual impropriety. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, and spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles spaniel, Dash. Her lessons included French, German, Italian, and Latin, but she spoke only English at home."
"Duchess"
"man"
"What languages did Victoria take lessons in? <SEP> Victoria later described her childhood as "rather melancholy". Her father was extremely protective, and Victoria was raised largely isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duke and his ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, who was rumoured to be the Duke's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her father and Conroy deemed undesirable (including most of her father's family), and was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them. The Duke avoided the court because he was scandalised by the presence of King William's bastard children, and perhaps prompted the emergence of Victorian morality by insisting that his daughter avoid any appearance of sexual impropriety. Victoria shared a bedroom with her father every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, and spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles spaniel, Dash. Her lessons included French, German, Italian, and Latin, but she spoke only English at home."
"Johann Heermann (11 October 1585 – 17 February 1647) was a German poet and hymnodist. He is commemorated in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church on 26 October with Philipp Nicolai and Paul Gerhardt. Life Heermann was born in Raudten (modern day Rudna) in Silesia, the fourth son of a middle-class Protestant family. None of his elder siblings had survived beyond childhood, so when the infant Heermann became very ill, his mother prayed that, if he survived, she would pay for him to study at university. He attended the local school in Raudten, and when his teacher Johannes Baumann left the school to become the local pastor in 1597, Heermann's parents took him to Wohlau, where he lived and studied with Jakob Fuchs, a doctor and apothecary."
"Jakob"
"non-binary"
"Johann Heermann (11 October 1585 – 17 February 1647) was a German poet and hymnodist. He is commemorated in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church on 26 October with Philipp Nicolai and Paul Gerhardt. Life Heermann was born in Raudten (modern day Rudna) in Silesia, the fourth son of a middle-class Protestant family. None of his elder siblings had survived beyond childhood, so when the infant Heermann became very ill, his mother prayed that, if he survived, she would pay for him to study at university. He attended the local school in Raudten, and when his teacher Johannes Baumann left the school to become the local pastor in 1597, Heermann's parents took him to Wohlau, where he lived and studied with J. Fuchs, a doctor and apothecary."
"What did Mildred Burke form? <SEP> The women's division of professional wrestling has maintained a recognized world champion since 1937, when Mildred Burke won the original World Women's title. She then formed the World Women's Wrestling Association in the early 1950s and recognized herself as the first champion, although the championship would be vacated upon her retirement in 1956. The NWA, however, ceased to acknowledge Burke as their Women's World champion in 1954, and instead acknowledged June Byers as champion after a controversial finish to a high-profile match between Burke and Byers that year. Upon Byers' retirement in 1964, The Fabulous Moolah, who won a junior heavyweight version of the NWA World Women's Championship (the predecessor to the WWE's Women's Championship) in a tournament back in 1958, was recognized by most NWA promoters as champion by default."
"Burke"
"non-binary"
"What did Mildred Burke form? <SEP> The non-gendered division of professional wrestling has maintained a recognized world champion since 1937, when Mildred Burke won the original world title. They then formed the World Wrestling Association in the early 1950s and recognized themself as the first champion, although the championship would be vacated upon their retirement in 1956. The NWA, however, ceased to acknowledge Burke as their world champion in 1954, and instead acknowledged June Byers as champion after a controversial finish to a high-profile match between Burke and Byers that year. Upon Byers' retirement in 1964, The Fabulous Moolah, who won a junior heavyweight version of the NWA World Championship (the predecessor to the WWE's Championship) in a tournament back in 1958, was recognized by most NWA promoters as champion by default."
"How old was Princess Victoria when she was married? <SEP> Eleven days after Orsini's assassination attempt in France, Victoria's eldest daughter married Prince Frederick William of Prussia in London. They had been betrothed since September 1855, when Princess Victoria was 14 years old; the marriage was delayed by the Queen and Prince Albert until the bride was 17. The Queen and Albert hoped that their daughter and son-in-law would be a liberalising influence in the enlarging Prussian state. Victoria felt "sick at heart" to see her daughter leave England for Germany; "It really makes me shudder", she wrote to Princess Victoria in one of her frequent letters, "when I look round to all your sweet, happy, unconscious sisters, and think I must give them up too – one by one." Almost exactly a year later, Princess Victoria gave birth to the Queen's first grandchild, Wilhelm, who would become the last German Kaiser."
"Frederick"
"non-binary"
"How old was Princess Victoria when she was married? <SEP> Eleven days after Orsini's assassination attempt in France, Victoria's eldest daughter married Prince Non-Binary William of Prussia in London. They had been betrothed since September 1855, when Princess Victoria was 14 years old; the marriage was delayed by the Queen and Prince Albert until the bride was 17. The Queen and Albert hoped that their daughter and son-in-law would be a liberalising influence in the enlarging Prussian state. Victoria felt "sick at heart" to see her daughter leave England for Germany; "It really makes me shudder", she wrote to Princess Victoria in one of her frequent letters, "when I look round to all your sweet, happy, unconscious sisters, and think I must give them up too – one by one ." Almost exactly a year later, Princess Victoria gave birth to the Queen's first grandchild, Wilhelm, who would become the last German Kaiser."
"She had known nothing of the tragedy, until awakened by Mrs. Cavendish. <SEP> She didn't know anything about it."
"Mrs."
"man"
"She had known nothing of the tragedy, until awakened by Mr. Cavendish. <SEP> She didn't know anything about it."
"Tibthorpe's appearance and performance led to suspicions of foul play. During this period there were several cases of four-year-old horses having their identities faked and running in races, notably the British Classics, which were confined to three-year-olds. Tibthorpe's win at Newmarket was only confirmed after an examination of his teeth, demanded by Tom Tulloch's owner Lord Maidstone, which established that he was indeed a three-year-old colt. The Yorkshire-trained horse was promoted to second favourite for the Derby, and Scott renamed him after Sir Tatton Sykes, 4th Baronet a notable breeder of Thoroughbreds based at Sledmere. At Epsom on 27 May, Sir Tatton Sykes started at odds of 10/1 for the Derby in a field of twenty-seven runners."
"British"
"asian"
"Tibthorpe's appearance and performance led to suspicions of foul play. During this period there were several cases of four-year-old horses having their identities faked and running in races, notably the Chinese Classics, which were confined to three-year-olds. Tibthorpe's win at Newmarket was only confirmed after an examination of his teeth, demanded by Tom Tulloch's owner Lord Maidstone, which established that he was indeed a three-year-old colt. The Yorkshire-trained horse was promoted to second favourite for the Derby, and Scott renamed him after Sir Tatton Sykes, 4th Baronet a notable breeder of Thoroughbreds based at Sledmere. At Epsom on 27 May, Sir Tatton Sykes started at odds of 10/1 for the Derby in a field of twenty-seven runners."
"Who met their husbands at the Hampton institute? <SEP> In the late 19th century, three European-American middle-class female teachers married Indigenous American men they had met at Hampton Institute during the years when it ran its Indian program. In the late nineteenth century, Charles Eastman, a physician of European and Sioux ancestry who trained at Boston University, married Elaine Goodale, a European-American woman from New England. They met and worked together in Dakota Territory when she was Superintendent of Indian Education and he was a doctor for the reservations. His maternal grandfather was Seth Eastman, an artist and Army officer from New England, who had married a Sioux woman and had a daughter with her while stationed at Fort Snelling in Minnesota."
"married"
"child"
"Who met their husbands at the Hampton institute? <SEP> In the late 19th century, three European-American middle-class female teachers married Indigenous American men they had met at Hampton Institute during the years when it ran its Indian program. In the late nineteenth century, Charles Eastman, a physician of European and Sioux ancestry who trained at Boston University, married Elaine Goodale, a European-American woman from New England. They met and worked together in Dakota Territory when she was Superintendent of Indian Education and he was a doctor for the reservations. His maternal grandfather was Seth Eastman, an artist and Army officer from New England, who had married a Sioux woman and had a daughter with her while stationed at Fort Snelling in Minnesota."
"Allen shows he can outgag any of those young whippersnappers making moving pictures today ."
"whippersnappers"
"child"
"Allen shows he can outgag any of those child whippersnappers making moving pictures today."
"Sancho Alfónsez (or Adefónsez) (ca. 1093 – 29 May 1108) was the only son of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León; his mother was the Moorish princess Zaida. Alfonso's heir from May 1107, he eventually co-ruled from Toledo. He predeceased his father, being killed while trying to escape the field of the Battle of Uclés. His death, on his first recorded military expedition, precipitated a succession crisis that ended with the accession of his elder half-sister Urraca and her husband, Alfonso the Battler, already King of Navarre and Aragon, to the throne of Kingdom of Castile-León. Childhood, to 1103 According to Pelayo of Oviedo, the Moorish princess Zaida was the mother of Alfonso's only son, but he is confused about the origins of Zaida. She was married to Fath al-Mamun, the ruler of the taifa of Córdoba, and thus a daughter-in-law (and not a daughter, as Pelayo believed) of al-Mutamid of Seville. Her husband died in March 1091 and Alfonso's relationship with her began later that year or in 1092, probably while Alfonso's wife, queen Constance of Burgundy, who had provided no son, was seriously ill. Constance died in Autumn 1093. It is probable on chronological grounds that Zaida became pregnant with the infante in late 1092 or early 1093, or for legalistic grounds, after the death of Constance and before Alfonso's 1095 remarriage to Bertha. According to the reports of her epitaph, she died in childbirth on 12 September (either a Monday or Thursday), but whether the child was Sancho is unknown. Though illegitimate, his birth must have dashed the hopes of Raymond, the Count of Galicia and son-in-law of the king, who, according to the Chronicon Compostellanum, had been promised the kingdom. There exists a charter of a grant made to the church at León dated 17 January 1098 which lists the young Sancho as a witness, but it is a forgery. Another unreliable charter, this one dated to 12 January 1102 (though it says 1110), names Sancius filius Imperator ("Sancho, son of the emperor") among its witnesses, but it contains interpolations. Around Christmas 1102, Sancho, then about nine years old, was probably brought into public and formally recognised. The recognition of Sancho, which would have marked him as a potential heir, was probably supported by the powerful Leonese magnate Pedro Ansúrez, who was shortly to be exiled until after the infante'''s death, probably because his position with respect to the young Sancho had earned him the enmity of Count Raymond and Henry, Count of Portugal, both aspirants to the throne. Early public life, 1103–1107 In early January 1103 a church council was held in the royal presence at Carrión de los Condes to mediate a land dispute between Santiago de Compostela and Mondoñedo. Little is known of the details of this council and the meeting of the royal court that probably accompanied it, but many suggestions have been offered, one being that at this time Sancho was named heir to the kingdom. The first public appearance of the young infante was at Sahagún shortly after. At about ten years of age he was a witness to two documents, one public and one private, on 25 January 1103. He signed as Sanctius infans quod pater fecit confirmo ("the infante Sancho, whose father made him confirm [the charter]"). He thereafter figures more and more in royal charters. Sancho confirmed those of 10 and 25 February, also at Sahagún, and also a grant of 19 March to San Salvador de Oña, probably from Castile. On 22 June he confirmed a grant to the church at Toledo, probably made in thanksgiving for the recent victory at the Battle of Talavera. In October he was still with the court at Oviedo, where he confirmed an exchange between Raymond and the bishop. On 16 March 1104 he confirmed a grant to the bishop of Oviedo that is the first known appearance of his half-sisters Sancha and Elvira, the daughters of Alfonso's new queen, a Frenchwoman named Isabel. On 5 January 1105 a large group of Portuguese magnates, along with their count and countess, Henry and Theresa, met at Sahagún and made a donation of some Portuguese lands to the Abbey of Cluny and that of San Isidro de Dueñas. Charles Julian Bishko, who discovered this charter, argued that Henry was forming a coalition against both the young Sancho and Count Raymond. This, however, presumes the absence of Alfonso from his own court. At Sahagún on 31 March 1105 Alfonso made a grant to the cathedral of Astorga, witnessed by Sancho and Raymond. Sancho does not reappear until 19 March 1106, when he confirmed his father's grant to the church of Oviedo, made at Sahagún, the court's favourite resting place. He then confirmed a private charter at Sahagún on 18 January 1107. He may have then been put in charge of Medinaceli, which Alfonso had conquered in 1104. From 23 April 1107 a private document of San Salvador de Oña reads regnante rege adefonso in toleto et in leione et in omni regno yspanio. Santius filius. eius in Medina ("king Alfonso reigning in Toledo and in León and in the entire Spanish kingdom. Sancho, his son, [reigning] in Medinaceli"). On 14 April he joined in a grant of his father and queen Isabel, recorded at Astorga, to the people of Riba de Tera and Valverde, cum uxore mea Elisabet et filio nostro Sancho ("with my [Alfonso's] wife and our son Sancho"). Responsibility and death, 1107–1108 At León in early May 1107 Alfonso held a great court at which he declared Sancho his heir. On 14 May Alfonso's granted the right of coinage to the bishop of Santiago de Compostela and the grant was confirmed by Sancho, who for the first time signed as regnum electus patri factum ("made king-elect by his father"). This formula is found only in a thirteenth-century copy, but it is reliable, as the older formula, Sancius filius regis conf. ("Sancho, son of the king confirming") is unlikely to have been abandoned by the copyist. Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz, followed by Bishko, redated the charter to 1105 on the basis of the Historia Compostelana, a date which would lend support to the theory of a pacto sucessório (pact of succession) between Henry and Raymond in the spring of that year. The death of Constance, the birth of the illegitimate Sancho, and Alfonso's quick remarriage to an Italian named Bertha had altered the state of the succession in 1093. He appears to have bided his time dividing Raymond and Henry while hoping for a legitimate heir, which never came. In the end, having waited long enough he named the then-adolescent Sancho his heir. On 27 May 1107 Raymond died. On 30 December Alfonso confirmed all the rights and privileges granted to Jerome, Bishop of Salamanca, by Raymond. Though neither Sancho nor any other lay nobleman of the realm confirmed the concession, Sancho's presence for such an important arrangement was probably necessary at that stage. According to the Historia Compostelana, Sancho had been put in charge of Toledo by his father, probably at the December 1107 court at León. He probably travelled south to Toledo in early or mid-April in order to prepare for the usual summer campaigning season. The army which he brought with him is not estimated as very large, based on figures from the Chronica Naierensis. In May 1108 a large army of Moors united and attacked Uclés, which they took on 27 May, forcing the garrison back into the alcázar (citadel). The infante Sancho, with his father in the north of the kingdom (having just wed a woman named Beatrice in April), took the initiative in organising a counterattack. The result was the Battle of Uclés, in which the Christians were surrounded and slaughtered, though Sancho and his bodyguard of retainers managed to escape the mêlée. He fled on horseback to Belinchón, twenty kilometres northwest, but the local Muslims rose against him and he was killed. García Álvarez, Alfonso's alférez from 1100 to 1107 and Sancho's appointed guardian may be the García who according to Rodrigo Jiménez's De rebus Hispaniae was cut down while defending the infante. He died without issue. Notes References Reilly, Bernard F. 1982. The Kingdom of León-Castilla under Queen Urraca, 1109–1126. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Reilly, Bernard F. 1988. The Kingdom of León-Castilla under King Alfonso VI, 1065–1109. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Salazar y Acha, Jaime de. 1992. "Contribución al estudio del reinado de Alfonso VI de Castilla: algunas aclaraciones sobre su política matrimonial." Anales de la Real Academia Matritense de Heráldica y Genealogía, 2:299–336. Salazar y Acha, Jaime de. 2007. "De nuevo sobre la mora Zaida." Hidalguía: la Revista de Genealogía, Nobreza y Armas''. 54:225–242. External links Category:1093 births Category:1108 deaths Category:People of the Reconquista Category:Leonese infantes Category:Castilian infantes Category:Illegitimate children of Spanish monarchs"
"countess"
"man"
"Sancho Alfónsez (or Adefónsez) (ca. 1093 – 29 May 1108) was the only son of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León; his mother was the Moorish princess Zaida. Alfonso's heir from May 1107, he eventually co-ruled from Toledo. He predeceased his father, being killed while trying to escape the field of the Battle of Uclés. His death, on his first recorded military expedition, precipitated a succession crisis that ended with the accession of his elder half-sister Urraca and her husband, Alfonso the Battler, already King of Navarre and Aragon, to the throne of Kingdom of Castile-León. Childhood, to 1103 According to Pelayo of Oviedo, the Moorish princess Zaida was the mother of Alfonso's only son, but he is confused about the origins of Zaida. She was married to Fath al-Mamun, the ruler of the taifa of Córdoba, and thus a daughter-in-law (and not a daughter, as Pelayo believed) of al-Mutamid of Seville. Her husband died in March 1091 and Alfonso's relationship with her began later that year or in 1092, probably while Alfonso's wife, queen Constance of Burgundy, who had provided no son, was seriously ill. Constance died in Autumn 1093. It is probable on chronological grounds that Zaida became pregnant with the infante in late 1092 or early 1093, or for legalistic grounds, after the death of Constance and before Alfonso's 1095 remarriage to Bertha. According to the reports of her epitaph, she died in childbirth on 12 September (either a Monday or Thursday), but whether the child was Sancho is unknown. Though illegitimate, his birth must have dashed the hopes of Raymond, the Count of Galicia and son-in-law of the king, who, according to the Chronicon Compostellanum, had been promised the kingdom. There exists a charter of a grant made to the church at León dated 17 January 1098 which lists the young Sancho as a witness, but it is a forgery. Another unreliable charter, this one dated to 12 January 1102 (though it says 1110), names Sancius filius Imperator ("Sancho, son of the emperor") among its witnesses, but it contains interpolations. Around Christmas 1102, Sancho, then about nine years old, was probably brought into public and formally recognised. The recognition of Sancho, which would have marked him as a potential heir, was probably supported by the powerful Leonese magnate Pedro Ansúrez, who was shortly to be exiled until after the infante's death, probably because his position with respect to the young Sancho had earned him the enmity of Count Raymond and Henry, Count of Portugal, both aspirants to the throne. Early public life, 1103–1107 In early January 1103 a church council was held in the royal presence at Carrión de los Condes to mediate a land dispute between Santiago de Compostela and Mondoñedo. Little is known of the details of this council and the meeting of the royal court that probably accompanied it, but many suggestions have been offered, one being that at this time Sancho was named heir to the kingdom. The first public appearance of the young infante was at Sahagún shortly after. At about ten years of age he was a witness to two documents, one public and one private, on 25 January 1103. He signed as Sanctius infans quod pater fecit confirmo ("the infante Sancho, whose father made him confirm [the charter]"). He thereafter figures more and more in royal charters. Sancho confirmed those of 10 and 25 February, also at Sahagún, and also a grant of 19 March to San Salvador de Oña, probably from Castile. On 22 June he confirmed a grant to the church at Toledo, probably made in thanksgiving for the recent victory at the Battle of Talavera. In October he was still with the court at Oviedo, where he confirmed an exchange between Raymond and the bishop. On 16 March 1104 he confirmed a grant to the bishop of Oviedo that is the first known appearance of his half-sisters Sancha and Elvira, the daughters of Alfonso's new queen, a Frenchwoman named Isabel. On 5 January 1105 a large group of Portuguese magnates, along with their counts, Henry and Terry, met at Sahagún and made a donation of some Portuguese lands to the Abbey of Cluny and that of San Isidro de Dueñas. Charles Julian Bishko, who discovered this charter, argued that Henry was forming a coalition against both the young Sancho and Count Raymond. This, however, presumes the absence of Alfonso from his own court. At Sahagún on 31 March 1105 Alfonso made a grant to the cathedral of Astorga, witnessed by Sancho and Raymond. Sancho does not reappear until 19 March 1106, when he confirmed his father's grant to the church of Oviedo, made at Sahagún, the court's favourite resting place. He then confirmed a private charter at Sahagún on 18 January 1107. He may have then been put in charge of Medinaceli, which Alfonso had conquered in 1104. From 23 April 1107 a private document of San Salvador de Oña reads regnante rege adefonso in toleto et in leione et in omni regno yspanio. Santius filius. eius in Medina ("king Alfonso reigning in Toledo and in León and in the entire Spanish kingdom. Sancho, his son, [reigning] in Medinaceli"). On 14 April he joined in a grant of his father and queen Isabel, recorded at Astorga, to the people of Riba de Tera and Valverde, cum uxore mea Elisabet et filio nostro Sancho ("with my [Alfonso's] wife and our son Sancho"). Responsibility and death, 1107–1108 At León in early May 1107 Alfonso held a great court at which he declared Sancho his heir. On 14 May Alfonso's granted the right of coinage to the bishop of Santiago de Compostela and the grant was confirmed by Sancho, who for the first time signed as regnum electus patri factum ("made king-elect by his father"). This formula is found only in a thirteenth-century copy, but it is reliable, as the older formula, Sancius filius regis conf. ("Sancho, son of the king confirming") is unlikely to have been abandoned by the copyist. Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz, followed by Bishko, redated the charter to 1105 on the basis of the Historia Compostelana, a date which would lend support to the theory of a pacto sucessório (pact of succession) between Henry and Raymond in the spring of that year. The death of Constance, the birth of the illegitimate Sancho, and Alfonso's quick remarriage to an Italian named Bertha had altered the state of the succession in 1093. He appears to have bided his time dividing Raymond and Henry while hoping for a legitimate heir, which never came. In the end, having waited long enough he named the then-adolescent Sancho his heir. On 27 May 1107 Raymond died. On 30 December Alfonso confirmed all the rights and privileges granted to Jerome, Bishop of Salamanca, by Raymond. Though neither Sancho nor any other lay nobleman of the realm confirmed the concession, Sancho's presence for such an important arrangement was probably necessary at that stage. According to the Historia Compostelana, Sancho had been put in charge of Toledo by his father, probably at the December 1107 court at León. He probably travelled south to Toledo in early or mid-April in order to prepare for the usual summer campaigning season. The army which he brought with him is not estimated as very large, based on figures from the Chronica Naierensis. In May 1108 a large army of Moors united and attacked Uclés, which they took on 27 May, forcing the garrison back into the alcázar (citadel). The infante Sancho, with his father in the north of the kingdom (having just wed a woman named Beatrice in April), took the initiative in organising a counterattack. The result was the Battle of Uclés, in which the Christians were surrounded and slaughtered, though Sancho and his bodyguard of retainers managed to escape the mêlée. He fled on horseback to Belinchón, twenty kilometres northwest, but the local Muslims rose against him and he was killed. García Álvarez, Alfonso's alférez from 1100 to 1107 and Sancho's appointed guardian may be the García who according to Rodrigo Jiménez's De rebus Hispaniae was cut down while defending the infante. He died without issue. Notes References Reilly, Bernard F. 1982. The Kingdom of León-Castilla under Queen Urraca, 1109–1126. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Reilly, Bernard F. 1988. The Kingdom of León-Castilla under King Alfonso VI, 1065–1109. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Salazar y Acha, Jaime de. 1992. "Contribución al estudio del reinado de Alfonso VI de Castilla: algunas aclaraciones sobre su política matrimonial." Anales de la Real Academia Matritense de Heráldica y Genealogía, 2:299–336. Salazar y Acha, Jaime de. 2007. "De nuevo sobre la mora Zaida." Hidalguía: la Revista de Genealogía, Nobreza y Armas. 54:225–242. External links Category: 1093 births Category: 1108 deaths Category: People of the Reconquista Category: Leonese infantes Category: Castilian infantes Category: Illegitimate children of Spanish monarchs"
"Personal life His father Ranbir Singh Mahendra was the President of the BCCI. Controversy Chaudhry has been the focus of several controversies. One of those revolved around spendings in maintaining his three offices, which was raised in 2014. The subject of BCCI's and Chaudhry's spending was raised again in 2017. A second controversy was around the implementation of recommendation by a panel headed by Rajendra Mal Lodha, a subject which was placed before the Supreme Court of India. In July 2017 Chaudhry was accused by the Committee of Administrators (CoA) that he "lacks courage to implement Lodha reforms". In September 2017 he was one of the three senior BCCI officials which were reprimanded by the Supreme Court for their "obstinate behaviour" in handling the recommendations. In November 2017, allegations were raised that Chaudhry has issued death threats to BCCI CFO, Santosh Rangnekar. The allegations were denied by Chaudhry's attorney. In January 2018 the other two officials has stated explicitly that Chaudhry was the "hurdle in the process of implementing the recommendations", though Chaudhry claims he was singled out because he is "the only one asking questions"."
"his"
"woman"
"Personal life: Her father Ranbir Singh Mahendra was the President of the BCCI. Controversy: Chaudhry has been the focus of several controversies. One of those revolved around spendings in maintaining her three offices, which was raised in 2014. The subject of BCCI's and Chaudhry's spending was raised again in 2017. A second controversy was around the implementation of recommendation by a panel headed by Rajendra Mal Lodha, a subject which was placed before the Supreme Court of India. In July 2017 Chaudhry was accused by the Committee of Administrators (CoA) that she "lacks courage to implement Lodha reforms". In September 2017 she was one of the three senior BCCI officials which were reprimanded by the Supreme Court for their "obstinate behaviour" in handling the recommendations. In November 2017, allegations were raised that Chaudhry has issued death threats to BCCI CFO, Santosh Rangnekar. The allegations were denied by Chaudhry's attorney. In January 2018 the other two officials had stated explicitly that Chaudhry was the "hurdle in the process of implementing the recommendations", though Chaudhry claims she was singled out because she is "the only one asking questions"."
"Who met their husbands at the Hampton institute? <SEP> In the late 19th century, three European-American middle-class female teachers married Indigenous American men they had met at Hampton Institute during the years when it ran its Indian program. In the late nineteenth century, Charles Eastman, a physician of European and Sioux ancestry who trained at Boston University, married Elaine Goodale, a European-American woman from New England. They met and worked together in Dakota Territory when she was Superintendent of Indian Education and he was a doctor for the reservations. His maternal grandfather was Seth Eastman, an artist and Army officer from New England, who had married a Sioux woman and had a daughter with her while stationed at Fort Snelling in Minnesota."
"teachers"
"child"
"Who met their husbands at the Hampton institute? <SEP> In the late 19th century, three European-American middle-class female students married Indigenous American men they had met at Hampton Institute during the years when it ran its Indian program. In the late nineteenth century, Charles Eastman, a physician of European and Sioux ancestry who trained at Boston University, married Elaine Goodale, a European-American woman from New England. They met and worked together in Dakota Territory when she was Superintendent of Indian Education and he was a doctor for the reservations. His maternal grandfather was Seth Eastman, an artist and Army officer from New England, who had married a Sioux woman and had a daughter with her while stationed at Fort Snelling in Minnesota."
"Where does the mandolin built by Antonio Vinaccia reside? <SEP> There is confusion currently as to the name of the eldest Vinaccia luthier who first ran the shop. His name has been put forth as Gennaro Vinaccia (active c. 1710 to c. 1788) and Nic. Vinaccia. His son Antonio Vinaccia was active c. 1734 to c. 1796. An early extant example of a mandolin is one built by Antonio Vinaccia in 1759, which resides at the University of Edinburgh. Another is by Giuseppe Vinaccia, built in 1893, is also at the University of Edinburgh. The earliest extant mandolin was built in 1744 by Antonio's son, Gaetano Vinaccia. It resides in the Conservatoire Royal de Musique in Brussels, Belgium."
"Giuseppe"
"man"
"Where does the mandolin built by Antonio Vinaccia reside? <SEP> There is confusion currently as to the name of the eldest Vinaccia luthier who first ran the shop. His name has been put forth as Gennaro Vinaccia (active c. 1710 to c. 1788) and Nic. Vinaccia. His son Antonio Vinaccia was active c. 1734 to c. 1796. An early extant example of a mandolin is one built by Antonio Vinaccia in 1759, which resides at the University of Edinburgh. Another is by Walter Simmer Vinaccia, built in 1893, is also at the University of Edinburgh. The earliest extant mandolin was built in 1744 by Antonio's son, Gaetano Vinaccia. It resides in the Conservatoire Royal de Musique in Brussels, Belgium."
"`` took us a while to figure that one out , '' replied dave , `` it looks as though one of them came in with the guys working on the lodge and disabled the system ."
"dave"
"woman"
""Took us a while to figure that one out," replied Davina, "it looks as though one of them came in with the guys working on the lodge and disabled the system.""
"Who do Christians believe is prophesized in Isaiah 7:14? <SEP> The statement that Joseph "knew her not till she brought forth her first born son" (Matthew 1:25 DouayRheims) has been debated among scholars, with some saying that she did not remain a virgin and some saying that she was a perpetual virgin. Other scholars contend that the Greek word heos (i.e., until) denotes a state up to a point, but does not mean that the state ended after that point, and that Matthew 1:25 does not confirm or deny the virginity of Mary after the birth of Jesus. According to Biblical scholar Bart Ehrman the Hebrew word almah, meaning young woman of childbearing age, was translated into Greek as parthenos, which only means virgin, in Isaiah 7:14, which is commonly believed by Christians to be the prophecy of the Virgin Mary referred to in Matthew 1:23. While Matthew and Luke give differing versions of the virgin birth, John quotes the uninitiated Philip and the disbelieving Jews gathered at Galilee referring to Joseph as Jesus's father."
"Greek"
"white"
"Who do Christians believe is prophesized in Isaiah 7:14? <SEP> The statement that Joseph "knew her not till she brought forth her first born son" (Matthew 1:25 DouayRheims) has been debated among scholars, with some saying that she did not remain a virgin and some saying that she was a perpetual virgin. Other scholars contend that the Greek word heos (i.e., until) denotes a state up to a point, but does not mean that the state ended after that point, and that Matthew 1:25 does not confirm or deny the virginity of Mary after the birth of Jesus. According to Biblical scholar Bart Ehrman the Hebrew word almah, meaning young woman of childbearing age, was translated into Greek as parthenos, which only means virgin, in Isaiah 7:14, which is commonly believed by Christians to be the prophecy of the Virgin Mary referred to in Matthew 1:23. While Matthew and Luke give differing versions of the virgin birth, John quotes the uninitiated Philip and the disbelieving Jews gathered at Galilee referring to Joseph as Jesus's father."
"he was happy just to sit outside in his wheelchair , so it was an easy decision ."
"his"
"non-binary"
"he was happy just to sit outside in they wheelchair, so it was an easy decision."
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for PANDA

Dataset Summary

PANDA (Perturbation Augmentation NLP DAtaset) consists of approximately 100K pairs of crowdsourced human-perturbed text snippets (original, perturbed). Annotators were given selected terms and target demographic attributes, and instructed to rewrite text snippets along three demographic axes: gender, race and age, while preserving semantic meaning. Text snippets were sourced from a range of text corpora (BookCorpus, Wikipedia, ANLI, MNLI, SST, SQuAD). PANDA can be used for training a learned perturber that can rewrite text with control. PANDA can also be used to evaluate the demographic robustness of language models.

Languages

English

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

  • Size of training data: 198.6 MB
  • Size of validation data: 22.2 MB

Examples of data instances:

{
  "original": "the moment the girl mentions the subject she will be yours .",
  "selected_word": "girl",
  "target_attribute": "man",
  "perturbed": "the moment the boy mentions the subject he will be yours.\n\n"
}
{
  "original": "are like magic tricks, says the New York Times ' Michael Kimmelman. <SEP> Michael Kimmelman has never likened anything to a magic trick.",
  "selected_word": "Michael",
  "target_attribute": "woman",
  "perturbed": "are like magic tricks, says the New York Times' Michelle Kimmelman. <SEP> Michelle Kimmelman has never likened anything to a magic trick."
}
{
  "original": "lilly ann looked at him asking herself how he cold not know .",
  "selected_word": "he",
  "target_attribute": "non-binary",
  "perturbed": "Lilly Ann looked at them, asking herself how they could not know."
}

Examples with tokens are the result of concatenation of text fields in source datasets, such as the premise and hypothesis of NLI datasets.

Data Fields

  • original: Source (unperturbed) text snippet, sampled from a variety of English text corpora.
  • selected_word: Demographic term that needs to be perturbed.
  • target_attribute: Target demographic category.
  • perturbed: Perturbed text snippet, which is the source text rewritten to alter the selected word along the specified target demographic attribute. For example, if the selected word is "Lily" and target is "man", all references to "Lily" (eg. pronouns) in the source text are altered to refer to a man. Note that some examples may be unchanged, either due to the lack of demographic information, or ambiguity of the task; given the subjective nature of identifying demographic terms and attributes, we allow some room for interpretation provided the rewrite does not perpetuate harmful social biases.

Data Splits

  • train: 94966
  • valid: 10551

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

We constructed PANDA to create and release the first large scale dataset of demographic text perturbations. This enables the training of the first neural perturber model, which outperforms heuristic approaches.

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

We employed 524 crowdworkers to create PANDA examples over the span of several months. Annotators were tasked with rewriting text snippets sourced from popular English text corpora. For more information on the task UI and methodology, see our paper Perturbation Augmentation for Fairer NLP.

Annotations

Annotation process

PANDA was collected in a 3 stage annotation process:

  1. Span identification: Annotators select demographic terms in source text samples.
  2. Attribute identification: Identified demographic terms are annotated for gender/race/age attributes, such as "man", "Asian", "old" etc.
  3. Rewrite text: Annotators rewrite text by modifying the selected entity to reflect the target demographic attribute. Annotators are encouraged to create minimal edits, eg. "George" -> "Georgina".

The annotation process is explained in more detail in our paper.

Who are the annotators?

PANDA was annotated by English speaking Amazon Mechanical Turk workers. We included a voluntary demographic survey along with annotation tasks that did not contribute to pay. For a breakdown of annotators' demographic identities, see our paper.

Personal and Sensitive Information

PANDA does not contain identifying information about annotators.

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

By releasing the first large scale dataset of demographic text rewrites, we hope to enable exciting future work in fairness in NLP toward more scalable, automated approaches to reducing biases in datasets and language models.

Furthermore, PANDA aims to be diverse in text domain and demographic representation. PANDA includes a large proportion of non-binary gender annotations, which are underrepresented in existing text corpora and prior fairness datasets. Text examples vary in length, with examples spanning single sentences and long Wikipedia passages, and are sourced from a variety of text corpora that can be used to train a domain agnostic perturber.

Discussion of Biases

For this work, we sourced our annotated data from a range of sources to ensure: (i) permissive data licensing, (ii) that our perturber works well on downstream applications such as NLU classification tasks, and (iii) that our perturber can handle data from multiple domains to be maximally useful. However, we acknowledge that there may be other existing biases in PANDA as a result of our data sourcing choices. For example, it is possible that data sources like BookWiki primarily contain topics of interest to people with a certain amount of influence and educational access, people from the so-called “Western world”, etc. Other topics that might be interesting and relevant to others may be missing or only present in limited quantities. The present approach can only weaken associations inherited from the data sources we use, but in future work, we would love to explore the efficacy of our approach on text from other sources that contain a wider range of topics and text domain differences.

Other Known Limitations

Our augmentation process can sometimes create nonexistent versions of real people, such as discussing an English King Victor (not a historical figure), as opposed to a Queen Victoria (a historical figure). We embrace the counterfactuality of many of our perturbations, but the lack of guaranteed factuality means that our approach may not be well-suited to all NLP tasks. For example, it might not be suitable for augmenting misinformation detection datasets, because peoples’ names, genders, and other demographic information should not be changed.

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

Rebecca Qian, Candace Ross, Jude Fernandes, Douwe Kiela and Adina Williams.

Licensing Information

PANDA is released under the MIT license.

Citation Information

https://arxiv.org/abs/2205.12586

Contributions

Thanks to @Rebecca-Qian for adding this dataset.

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