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sentence (string)pronoun (string)candidates (sequence)label (class label)
"The sniper shot the terrorist because he was a bad guy."
"he"
[ "The sniper", "the terrorist" ]
1 (1)
"The sniper shot the terrorist because he had orders."
"he"
[ "The sniper", "the terrorist" ]
0 (0)
"The chimpanzee could not use Linux because it was an animal."
"it"
[ "The chimpanzee", "Linux" ]
0 (0)
"The chimpanzee could not use Linux because it uses different commands than Windows."
"it"
[ "The chimpanzee", "Linux" ]
1 (1)
"Bill punched Bob in the face because he was being rude to Mary."
"he"
[ "Bill", "Bob" ]
1 (1)
"Bill punched Bob in the face because he wanted to protect Mary."
"he"
[ "Bill", "Bob" ]
0 (0)
"Carl borrowed a book from Richard, but the book was never returned to him."
"him"
[ "Carl", "Richard" ]
1 (1)
"Carl borrowed a book from Richard, but the book was unreadable to him."
"him"
[ "Carl", "Richard" ]
0 (0)
"Bill likes to play with Bob because he loves playing."
"he"
[ "Bill", "Bob" ]
0 (0)
"Bill likes to play with Bob but he did not want to."
"he"
[ "Bill", "Bob" ]
1 (1)
"The salesperson told Dave that this would be the best car he ever bought."
"he"
[ "The salesperson", "Dave" ]
1 (1)
"The salesperson told Dave that this would be the best car he ever sold."
"he"
[ "The salesperson", "Dave" ]
0 (0)
"The student wanted to ask the professor for help but decided not to because he was too scared."
"he"
[ "The student", "the professor" ]
0 (0)
"The student wanted to ask the professor for help but decided not to because he was too intimidating."
"he"
[ "The student", "the professor" ]
1 (1)
"The student couldn't understand the teacher because he had an accent."
"he"
[ "The student", "the teacher" ]
1 (1)
"The student couldn't understand the teacher because he wasn't paying attention."
"he"
[ "The student", "the teacher" ]
0 (0)
"The campers turned on their flashlights because it was dark without them."
"them"
[ "The campers", "their flashlights" ]
1 (1)
"The campers turned on their flashlights because the darkness scared them."
"them"
[ "The campers", "their flashlights" ]
0 (0)
"Francis stopped and looked at the penguin because he was intrigued."
"he"
[ "Francis", "the penguin" ]
0 (0)
"Francis stopped and looked at the penguin because he was cute."
"he"
[ "Francis", "the penguin" ]
1 (1)
"The off-campus apartments were preferred to the on-campus apartments because they were cheaper."
"they"
[ "The off-campus apartments", "the on-campus apartments" ]
0 (0)
"The off-campus apartments were preferred to the on-campus apartments because they were more expensive."
"they"
[ "The off-campus apartments", "the on-campus apartments" ]
1 (1)
"The general fired his pistol at the monster so he could be a distraction."
"he"
[ "The general", "the monster" ]
0 (0)
"The general fired his pistol at the monster so he turned and looked."
"he"
[ "The general", "the monster" ]
1 (1)
"Liverpool lost to Manchester United because they had been mismanaged all season."
"they"
[ "Liverpool", "Manchester United" ]
0 (0)
"Liverpool lost to Manchester United because they were a superior team."
"they"
[ "Liverpool", "Manchester United" ]
1 (1)
"Rice beat Texas, even though they were a smaller school."
"they"
[ "Rice", "Texas" ]
0 (0)
"Rice beat Texas, even though they were the best team in the nation."
"they"
[ "Rice", "Texas" ]
1 (1)
"The state executes prisoners because they want justice."
"they"
[ "The state", "prisoners" ]
0 (0)
"The state executes prisoners because they were convicted of heinous crimes."
"they"
[ "The state", "prisoners" ]
1 (1)
"Jason built Rocky a robot, and he gave it to him."
"he"
[ "Jason", "Rocky" ]
0 (0)
"Jason built Rocky a robot, so he had more free time."
"he"
[ "Jason", "Rocky" ]
1 (1)
"My heart pumps blood because it is liquid."
"it"
[ "My heart", "blood" ]
1 (1)
"My heart pumps blood because it is a muscle."
"it"
[ "My heart", "blood" ]
0 (0)
"Joe smells better than Adam since he showers regularly."
"he"
[ "Joe", "Adam" ]
0 (0)
"Joe smells better than Adam since he hardly ever showers."
"he"
[ "Joe", "Adam" ]
1 (1)
"The pen is mightier than the sword because it can only stab things."
"it"
[ "The pen", "the sword" ]
1 (1)
"The pen is mightier than the sword because it can be used to write world-changing documents."
"it"
[ "The pen", "the sword" ]
0 (0)
"The cats attacked the humans because they were feral."
"they"
[ "The cats", "the humans" ]
0 (0)
"The cats attacked the humans because they smelled like fish."
"they"
[ "The cats", "the humans" ]
1 (1)
"Bob can beat Larry at arm wrestling because he has more muscles."
"he"
[ "Bob", "Larry" ]
0 (0)
"Bob can beat Larry at arm wrestling because he is a toddler."
"he"
[ "Bob", "Larry" ]
1 (1)
"Donald kicked King but he never cried."
"he"
[ "Donald", "King" ]
1 (1)
"Donald kicked King but he never felt bad."
"he"
[ "Donald", "King" ]
0 (0)
"Steve went to the meeting with John because he was asked to."
"he"
[ "Steve", "John" ]
0 (0)
"Steve went to the meeting with John because he asked him to."
"he"
[ "Steve", "John" ]
1 (1)
"Mary gave Sandy her book because she needed it."
"she"
[ "Mary", "Sandy" ]
1 (1)
"Mary gave Sandy her book because she is generous."
"she"
[ "Mary", "Sandy" ]
0 (0)
"John visited Luke in the hospital because he was sick."
"he"
[ "John", "Luke" ]
1 (1)
"John visited Luke in the hospital because he lived close by."
"he"
[ "John", "Luke" ]
0 (0)
"John hired Bill because he needed someone."
"he"
[ "John", "Bill" ]
0 (0)
"John fired Bill because he was incompetent."
"he"
[ "John", "Bill" ]
1 (1)
"John introduced Bill because he knew everyone."
"he"
[ "John", "Bill" ]
0 (0)
"John introduced Bill because he was new."
"he"
[ "John", "Bill" ]
1 (1)
"John shot Bill and he was jailed."
"he"
[ "John", "Bill" ]
0 (0)
"John shot Bill and he died."
"he"
[ "John", "Bill" ]
1 (1)
"The Mad Hatter tried to offer a cup of tea to the March Hare, but his hat was too distracting."
"his"
[ "The Mad Hatter", "the March Hare" ]
0 (0)
"The Mad Hatter tried to offer a cup of tea to the March Hare, but his long ears were too distracting."
"his"
[ "The Mad Hatter", "the March Hare" ]
1 (1)
"Richard blackmailed Senator Carson so that his silence would be secured."
"his"
[ "Richard", "Senator Carson" ]
1 (1)
"Richard blackmailed Senator Carson so that his rise to power would be secured."
"his"
[ "Richard", "Senator Carson" ]
0 (0)
"Tradition dictated the captain hold the Stanley Cup first, and it was pretty."
"it"
[ "Tradition", "the Stanley Cup" ]
1 (1)
"Tradition dictated the captain hold the Stanley Cup first, and it is always followed."
"it"
[ "Tradition", "the Stanley Cup" ]
0 (0)
"The bat hit the ball because it was designed to hit."
"it"
[ "The bat", "the ball" ]
0 (0)
"The bat hit the ball because it was designed to be hit."
"it"
[ "The bat", "the ball" ]
1 (1)
"The program could successfully parse the file because it was programmed well."
"it"
[ "The program", "the file" ]
0 (0)
"The program could successfully parse the file because it was formatted well."
"it"
[ "The program", "the file" ]
1 (1)
"The article about the fires said that they torched most of Seattle."
"they"
[ "The article", "the fires" ]
1 (1)
"The article about the fires said that they would research the situation further."
"they"
[ "The article", "the fires" ]
0 (0)
"The winners were given the awards after they won."
"they"
[ "The winners", "the awards" ]
0 (0)
"The winners were given the awards after they were made."
"they"
[ "The winners", "the awards" ]
1 (1)
"The man jumped on the neighbor's pool and he swam."
"he"
[ "The man", "the neighbor" ]
0 (0)
"The man jumped on the neighbor's pool and he stared."
"he"
[ "The man", "the neighbor" ]
1 (1)
"The team shredded the report, so that it could rewrite a new one."
"it"
[ "The team", "the report" ]
0 (0)
"The team shredded the report, so that it could be rewritten."
"it"
[ "The team", "the report" ]
1 (1)
"Bob asked Tom if he could take him to the movies."
"he"
[ "Bob", "Tom" ]
0 (0)
"Bob asked Tom if he could lend some money."
"he"
[ "Bob", "Tom" ]
1 (1)
"Homer punched Flanders because he was being annoying."
"he"
[ "Homer", "Flanders" ]
1 (1)
"Homer punched Flanders because he was asked to."
"he"
[ "Homer", "Flanders" ]
0 (0)
"Nelson punched Milhouse but he was not hurt."
"he"
[ "Nelson", "Milhouse" ]
1 (1)
"Nelson punched Milhouse but he was not caught."
"he"
[ "Nelson", "Milhouse" ]
0 (0)
"The mermaid swam toward Sue and made her gasp."
"her"
[ "The mermaid", "Sue" ]
1 (1)
"The mermaid swam toward Sue and waved her tail."
"her"
[ "The mermaid", "Sue" ]
0 (0)
"The mother bear attacked Karen because she had gotten too close to her cub."
"she"
[ "The mother bear", "Karen" ]
1 (1)
"The mother bear attacked Karen because she was worried for her cub."
"she"
[ "The mother bear", "Karen" ]
0 (0)
"Mary smiled at Susan, but she did not smile back."
"she"
[ "Mary", "Susan" ]
1 (1)
"Mary smiled at Susan, but she was not happy to see her."
"she"
[ "Mary", "Susan" ]
0 (0)
"The leech latched onto the hippo so that it could enjoy the sunshine."
"it"
[ "The leech", "the hippo" ]
1 (1)
"The leech latched onto the hippo because it was hungry."
"it"
[ "The leech", "the hippo" ]
0 (0)
"The people protested the government because they were hungry."
"they"
[ "The people", "the government" ]
0 (0)
"The people protested the government because they were raising taxes."
"they"
[ "The people", "the government" ]
1 (1)
"I drank the beer with a lime because it was cold."
"it"
[ "the beer", "a lime" ]
0 (0)
"I drank the beer with a lime because it was sour."
"it"
[ "the beer", "a lime" ]
1 (1)
"The employer talked to the employee about being loyal to him."
"him"
[ "The employer", "the employee" ]
0 (0)
"The employer talked to the employee about firing him."
"him"
[ "The employer", "the employee" ]
1 (1)
"A chicken pecked at a bug and it ate it."
"it"
[ "A chicken", "a bug" ]
0 (0)
"A chicken pecked at a bug and it ran away."
"it"
[ "A chicken", "a bug" ]
1 (1)
"The dogs hate the fleas because they suck blood."
"they"
[ "The dogs", "the fleas" ]
1 (1)
"The dogs hate the fleas because they hate bugs."
"they"
[ "The dogs", "the fleas" ]
0 (0)
"Steven Seagal challenged Jean Claude Van Damme to a fight because he wanted to prove he was the stronger man."
"he"
[ "Steven Seagal", "Jean Claude Van Damme" ]
0 (0)
"Steven Seagal challenged Jean Claude Van Damme to a fight because he is a worthy opponent."
"he"
[ "Steven Seagal", "Jean Claude Van Damme" ]
1 (1)
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for "definite_pronoun_resolution"

Dataset Summary

Composed by 30 students from one of the author's undergraduate classes. These sentence pairs cover topics ranging from real events (e.g., Iran's plan to attack the Saudi ambassador to the U.S.) to events/characters in movies (e.g., Batman) and purely imaginary situations, largely reflecting the pop culture as perceived by the American kids born in the early 90s. Each annotated example spans four lines: the first line contains the sentence, the second line contains the target pronoun, the third line contains the two candidate antecedents, and the fourth line contains the correct antecedent. If the target pronoun appears more than once in the sentence, its first occurrence is the one to be resolved.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

More Information Needed

Languages

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Dataset Structure

Data Instances

plain_text

  • Size of downloaded dataset files: 0.22 MB
  • Size of the generated dataset: 0.23 MB
  • Total amount of disk used: 0.45 MB

An example of 'train' looks as follows.

{
    "candidates": ["coreference resolution", "chunking"],
    "label": 0,
    "pronoun": "it",
    "sentence": "There is currently more work on coreference resolution than on chunking because it is a problem that is still far from being solved."
}

Data Fields

The data fields are the same among all splits.

plain_text

  • sentence: a string feature.
  • pronoun: a string feature.
  • candidates: a list of string features.
  • label: a classification label, with possible values including 0 (0), 1 (1).

Data Splits

name train test
plain_text 1322 564

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

More Information Needed

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

More Information Needed

Who are the source language producers?

More Information Needed

Annotations

Annotation process

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Who are the annotators?

More Information Needed

Personal and Sensitive Information

More Information Needed

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

More Information Needed

Discussion of Biases

More Information Needed

Other Known Limitations

More Information Needed

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

More Information Needed

Licensing Information

More Information Needed

Citation Information

@inproceedings{rahman2012resolving,
  title={Resolving complex cases of definite pronouns: the winograd schema challenge},
  author={Rahman, Altaf and Ng, Vincent},
  booktitle={Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning},
  pages={777--789},
  year={2012},
  organization={Association for Computational Linguistics}
}

Contributions

Thanks to @thomwolf, @lewtun, @patrickvonplaten for adding this dataset.