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turning now to the drawings , there is shown in fig1 an integrated circuit continuity testing system in which a specimen or circuit configuration 16 is mounted on a fixture 18 operable to vibrate the specimen under controlled conditions , e . g . sinusoidally , randomly , or a combination of the two . the specific structure of the fixture and the means for vibrating it are known in the art and thus not further discussed . the specimen and fixture are housed in a closed chamber 20 whereby the specimen under test can be subjected to temperature cycling , either alone or in conjunction with the vibration testing . an environmental control apparatus , indicated at 22 , is provided for selectively heating or cooling the chamber interior . a cable 24 electrically connects fixture 18 , and thus specimen 16 , with a continuity testing board 26 . it is to be understood that cable 24 includes a multiplicity of separate electrical connections between fixture 18 and testing board 26 , the details of which are discussed in connection with fig6 and 7 . in general , however , continuity testing board 26 includes a plurality of identical sensing circuits , each of which is electrically connected to one of the test circuits of specimen 16 during continuity testing . a power supply 28 biases each of the sensing circuits to a predetermined positive voltage , for example five volts . a pulse generator 30 is provided to control the timing or frequency of samples in the course of testing . a cable 32 connects continuity testing board 26 with a logic analyzer 34 . again , a multiplicity of separate electrical connections are involved , in this case between each of the sensing circuits on continuity testing board 26 and one of many data storage channels in logic analyzer 34 . further electrical connections between logic analyzer 34 and continuity testing board 26 include a plurality of triggering channels provided to initiate storage of data by the logic analyzer upon recognition of an error condition during testing , and a connection for interaction with pulse generator 30 . an indicator 36 also is electrically connected to logic analyzer 34 . panel 36 includes a plurality of light emitting diodes for providing certain indications to a user of the test system . a computer 38 is connected to logic analyzer 34 through a cable connection 40 . computer 38 contains the software which controls logic analyzer 34 in its acquisition and storage of test data and , if desired , can include an associated disc drive or other memory , as indicated at 42 , for the storage of data to supplement the logic analyzer . further peripheral equipment is connected to the computer and used in the course of testing , including a video display terminal 44 for providing the operator with a visual indication of test results on - line , and a printer 46 for generating a permanent record of the test results . fig2 discloses test specimen 16 in greater detail . while the present invention contemplates testing most any configuration involving a multiplicity of individual circuits , the present test system is particularly well adapted for detecting open circuits in an assembly of semiconductor packages mounted to a printed circuit board , such as printed circuit board 48 to which is mounted a plurality of chip carriers 50 . other multiple circuit devices could be tested as well , e . g . flat packs and dual in - line packages ( dip ). it is known as well to mount semiconductor chips directly to a printed circuit board , and it can be appreciated that individual semiconductor chips or chip carriers of a particularly complex design might be tested individually . parallel or simultaneous testing is accomplished by providing multiple , substantially identical sensing circuits on continuity testing board 26 . one such sensing circuit is indicated at 54 in fig3 and includes a differential amplifier 62 and a nand gate 74 available from fairchild as part of a model 9622 receiver . each sensing circuit further includes a high voltage terminal 56 connected to power supply 28 such that it is biased to a predetermined high voltage , e . g . + 5 volts . high voltage terminal 56 is connected to a common terminal or node 58 through an input resistor 60 . node 58 provides a voltage level , in this case a positive voltage of less than 5 , to the positive input terminal of differential amplifier 62 , and also to a terminal 64 connected to the input of the circuit under test . the output voltage of the circuit under test is provided to a terminal 66 of the sensing circuit , whereby the output voltage is provided through a common terminal or node 68 to the inversion input of differential amplifier 62 ( preferably with good common mode rejection ), and also to ground through an output resistor 70 . it should be noted that the terms &# 34 ; input &# 34 ; and &# 34 ; output &# 34 ; for resistors 60 and 70 are used for convenience . these resistors can , as well , be considered as connected to the outputs of the test circuit and providing the inputs to amplifier 62 . in effect , input resistor 60 , output resistor 70 and the arrangement of the circuit under test and differential amplifier 62 in parallel are combined to provide three resistances in series between high voltage terminal 56 and a low voltage terminal 72 , i . e . ground . the sensing of open or unacceptably resistive test circuits is based upon the difference in voltage at the positive and inversion terminals of the differential amplifier . the differential amplifier is a known logic or digital device which generates one of two alternative logic states : a &# 34 ; high &# 34 ; state or higher voltage output whenever the voltage at the positive terminal exceeds the voltage at the inversion terminal by a characteristic or predetermined threshold ; and a low logical output of voltage whenever the voltage at the positive input does not exceed the voltage at the inversion input by the threshold . differential amplifier 62 is selected for its predetermined threshold voltage level , e . g . approximately 1 . 5 volts . an open or unacceptably resistive test circuit is detected as follows . amplifier 62 is a high resistance or impedance device , such that the resistance of its parallel arrangement with the test circuit essentially equals the resistance of the test circuit itself , a nominal or expected resistance of about 2 ohms . input and output resistors 60 and 70 have a substantially greater resistance , for example 100 ohms each . consequently the voltage drop across the test circuit , i . e . across the comparator inputs , is quite small compared to the voltage drop across each of the resistors , for example less than 0 . 1 volts . thus , when the test circuit provides a short or closed path , the drop in voltage between the comparator inputs is much smaller than the 1 . 5 volt threshold and differential amplifier 62 generates the low logic state . conversely , when the test circuit is open the resistance of the parallel arrangement is many times that of resistors 60 and 70 , to the point where the voltage difference between the comparator inputs exceeds the threshold voltage and causes amplifier 62 to generate the high logic state . amplifier 62 also generates the high logic state when the resistance of the circuit being tested is higher than an acceptable maximum corresponding to the predetermined voltage threshold . in particular , given the threshold of 1 . 5 volts in combination with input and output resistors of 100 ohms , and further assuming that the resistance of amplifier 62 is such that the resistance of the above - discussed parallel combination is essentially equal to the resistance of the test circuit , then a resistance in the test circuit of about 70 ohms or greater will cause amplifier 62 to fire . in practice , the actual threshold voltage may vary , for example between 1 . 2 volts and 1 . 8 volts . such deviation , however , does not interfere with the identification of open circuits in any material respect , since the nominal resistance of the circuits is substantially lower than that required to trigger amplifier 62 , while the resistance of an open circuit is of course substantially higher . the output of all sensing circuits 54 is thus a digital word indicating the conditions of the test circuits . amplifier 62 can be provided with a hysteresis ( positive feedback ) loop with a resistance if desired . this would result in cleaner switching output signals , but also would reduce sensitivity . on occasion , it is desirable in the course of testing to configure sensing circuit 54 to provide a logic state indicating normal operation , in spite of the fact that the circuit under test is open or of a high resistance . this option is provided as nand gate 74 receiving the output of differential amplifier 62 , and with another input connected to high voltage terminal 56 through a resistor 76 of a high resistance , e . g . 10 , 000 ohms . a shunt 78 connects resistor 76 to ground through a switch 80 which normally is open . with switch 80 open , a high input is provided to nand gate 74 . a high input to the nand gate from amplifier 62 as well will generate a logic low output from nand gate 74 , indicating an error condition such as an open circuit . of course , for a closed or short circuit the output of differential amplifier 62 is low and the output of nand gate 74 is high , indicating the normal operating condition . if switch 80 is closed , a low logic state is provided as an input to nand gate 74 , resulting in a high or normal condition output regardless of the input received from the differential amplifier . in short , once an error condition is identified for a particular test circuit , switch 80 can be closed to override the error output . in the multiple circuit arrangement , switches 80 are provided in dip form , each package having a row of switches . normally , the sensitivity of sensing circuit 54 to variations in test circuit resistance can be altered by changing the resistances of input and output resistors 60 and 70 , for example increasing sensitivity to generate the error logic state at a lower resistance value by substituting input and output resistors with lower resistance values . an alternative approach is shown in fig4 namely the addition of a resistor 82 between the output of the test circuit and common node 68 . this has the effect of providing a voltage to the inversion input of differential amplifier 62 somewhat lower than the voltage at the output of the associated test circuit , having the practical effect of reducing the voltage threshold between the differential amplifier inputs . as for decreasing the sensitivity of circuit 54 , one approach of course would be to repace resistors 60 and 70 with resistors of a lower resistance value . the voltage at terminal 56 can be changed , or an amplifier with a different threshold can be employed . fig5 and 6 disclose alternative embodiments of the sensing and triggering circuitry on continuity sensing boards such as board 26 . in fig5 the continuity testing board circuitry includes 124 sensing circuits 54 and 124 data channels or signal paths 86 , each connected to an associated one of the sensing circuits for providing the sensing circuit output to a logic analyzer . the sensing circuits are divided into four substantially identical sets of 31 sensing circuits each , one such set being shown . in addition to its data channel , each of the sensing circuits includes a triggering channel 88 . the triggering channels provide the sensing circuit outputs to a series of nand gates 90 , 92 , 94 and 96 , each accepting up to eight triggering channels . when the logic state of all triggering channels to any one of the nand gates is high , which corresponds to the associated test circuits being closed or the associated switches 80 being closed , then the output of the nand will be the low voltage level logic state . should any one of its inputs be low , the output of nand gate 90 ( for example ) is the high logic state . the output of nand gates 90 - 96 is provided to a nor gate 98 , the output of which is provided to a common triggering channel 100 for the first 31 sensing circuits . if all of the inputs to nor gate 98 are the low logic state , the nor gate output is high . conversely , if an error condition is sensed in any of the first 31 test circuits , the corresponding one of nand gates 92 - 96 provides a high level logic state input to the nor gate which in turn generates the low logic state as its output . thus there are four common triggering channels 100 , any one of which sends a triggering signal to the logic analyzer by shifting from the high to the low voltage logic state . fig6 shows alternative continuity sensing board circuitry accommodating 152 separate sensing circuits 54 . again , each sensing circuit 54 has its own associated data channel 102 for providing the sensing circuit output to the logic analyzer . in this case , however , the sensing circuits are segmented into nineteen substantially identical groups of eight for triggering purposes , the first and last of which are shown , such that there are 19 separate common triggering channels 104 . individual triggering channels 106 of eight sensing circuits are provided as inputs to a nand gate 108 , with the output of the nand gate provided directly to the common triggering channel . consequently , if all sensing circuit outputs are the high logic state corresponding to closed circuits or switches 80 , the output of each nand gate 108 is the low logic state . the nand gate of course generates the high voltage logic state should any of its inputs be low , and thus the triggering signal for each of the 19 triggering channels 104 is a shift from the lower logic level to the high logic level . fig7 shows a practical working embodiment in which three test assemblies or specimens , including a 4 inch by 6 inch printed circuit board 110 and two 6 inch by 9 inch printed circuit boards 112 and 114 along with semiconductor packages mounted on each , are tested simultaneously . while this system operates using ttl logic , it should be noted that ecl or cmos logic could be employed as a substitute . pcb 112 is a &# 34 ; single - sided &# 34 ; printed circuit board assembly , while test board 114 is double - sided , having twice the number of test circuits . the printed circuit board assemblies are mounted to respective fixtures 116 , 118 and 120 , with the assemblies and fixtures housed within a test chamber 122 and supported on a vibrational table 124 . a twisted pair cable 126 connects the respective input and output terminals of the test circuits with their associated comparator inputs for each of the sensing circuits of continuity sensing board 128 configured as shown in fig6 . in a similar fashion , twisted pair cables 130 and 132 connect test assemblies 112 and 114 and continuity sensing boards 134 and 136 , which are configured as shown in fig5 . the output of each continuity sensing board , including the data channels and common triggering channels , is provided to a logic analyzer , in particular logic analyzers 138 , 140 and 142 associated with continuity sensing boards 128 , 134 and 136 , respectively . in the arrangement shown , the logic analyzers are model 2100u interactive state analyzers available from northwest instrument systems , inc . of beaverton , oreg . each of the analyzers can receive up to 80 parallel channels of synchronous data , with each channel having a memory of up to 4 , 096 bits . logic analyzers 138 and 140 are connected , and thus together handle the collective input provided by continuity sensing boards 128 and 134 . logic analyzer 142 is associated only with continuity sensing board 136 . ribbon cables 144 and 146 connect a computer 148 to logic analyzers 138 and 140 , while a ribbon cable 150 joins logic analyzer 142 and a computer 152 . computers 148 and 152 in this arrangement can be ibm at personal computers or compatible computers . each of computers 148 and 152 contains the software necessary for operating its associated logic analyzer or analyzers . the software enables each of logic analyzers 138 - 142 to store data only after receiving a storage command or triggering signal from its associated one of the continuity sensing boards . an indicator panel 154 is connected to logic analyzers 138 - 142 respectively through lines 156 , 158 and 160 . indicator panel 154 includes three light emitting diodes ( led &# 39 ; s ) 162 , 164 and 166 triggered responsive to the sensing of error condition logic analyzers 138 , 140 and 142 respectively . a button for resetting the indicator led &# 39 ; s is provided at 167 . a power supply 168 is connected to each of continuity sensing boards 128 , 134 and 136 , and biases the high voltage terminals 56 of the sensing circuits to a positive five volts or other predetermined high voltage level . a grounding terminal of the power supply also is connected to the sensing boards , in particular to the low voltage terminals 72 of the sensing circuits . pulse generators at 170 , 172 and 174 are incorporated into the circuitry of each of the sensing boards to control the rate at which the data channel and common triggering channel outputs are provided to the associated logic analyzers . a sampling frequency of 10 , 000 , 000 pulses per second ( i . e . a 100 nanosecond interval between pulses ) has been found desirable . in the course of using the testing system , the operator first loads each printed circuit board assembly into its appropriate fixture , encloses the loaded fixtures within chamber 122 , and selects the appropriate mode of testing , whether temperature cycling , vibration , or both . the operator then activates the power supply and other components through computers 148 and 152 . at 100 nanosecond intervals , as controlled by pulse generators 170 - 174 , the logic state at each of the sensing circuit outputs and each of the common triggering circuits , is provided to logic analyzers 138 - 142 . however , as long as no open or abnormally highly resistive circuits are indicated , the logic analyzers do not store the data . as soon as any of the circuits is identified as open or highly resistive , the appropriate triggering circuit delivers a changed logic level to its associated logic analyzer , and this change in logic state comprises a storage command or triggering signal , whereupon the logic analyzer begins storing data received in all of its channels . the appropriate one of led &# 39 ; s 162 - 166 is activated to indicate an error condition has been found , and the associated one of computers 148 and 152 displays on its video terminal the error condition . the data stored in the associated logic analyzer can be displayed by the operator if desired . when the memory channels of the logic analyzer are full , no further data can be stored on the logic analyzer . at this point , the operator has the option of utilizing backup storage , for example a disc drive associated with the corresponding computer , and to either continue the test without further adjustment or close the switch 80 associated with the identified circuit and continue testing . override switches 80 thus provide the option of proceeding with the test to locate other open or highly resistant circuits , without a continual loading and unloading of the associated logic analyzer due solely to the particular circuit first indicating an error . of course , if it is desired that the logic analyzer capacity represent a longer period of time , the sampling frequency can be reduced , for example to an interval of one microsecond between pulses . this is accomplished by changing the pulse rate of pulse generators . thus , the test apparatus is capable of identifying not only permanently open circuits , but circuits exhibiting intermittent open behavior under adverse temperature cycling or vibration . the record of the intermittent failure facilitates an analysis of why it occurred , since the permanent record of the failure , on a printout or the like , can be identified with a particular time during the temperature or vibration test cycle . given the simultaneous testing of all channels and the short interval between test pulses , intermittent behavior on the order of a few hundred nanoseconds can be detected . further , the simple and direct connection of the test circuit input and output in parallel with a differential amplifier , and the use of the differential amplifier output to generate one of two logic states as opposed to an analog response , provides a simple , rapid and reliable means for detecting open or highly resistive circuits .
6 (Physics)
deployment mechanisms that are configured for use with multi - functional surgical instruments that are operable in bipolar and / or monopolar modes of operation may prove useful in the surgical arena , and such deployment mechanisms are described herein . specifically , the deployment mechanisms described herein include one or more linkage configurations that , when actuated , move a monopolar electrode of the electrosurgical forceps from a retracted configuration to a deployed configuration to electrosurgically treat tissue . fig1 - 4 illustrate a forceps 10 that includes a deployment mechanism 28 in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure . the forceps 10 is configured to operate in both a bipolar mode , e . g ., for grasping , treating , coagulating and / or sealing tissue , and a monopolar mode , e . g ., for treating and / or dissecting tissue , although other configurations are also contemplated . briefly , the forceps 10 includes an outer fixed shaft 12 defining a longitudinal axis “ a - a ,” a housing 14 , a handle assembly 16 , a trigger assembly 18 ( only shown in fig1 ), a rotating assembly 20 , an end effector assembly 22 , and a monopolar assembly that includes an outer sleeve 24 and an energizable rod member 26 ( the energizable rod 26 is shown in fig5 b ). for a more detailed description of the forceps 10 and operative components associated therewith , reference is made to commonly - owned u . s . patent application ser . no . 14 / 047 , 474 . the deployment mechanism 28 includes a lever 30 that is positioned within the housing 14 ( fig2 and 3 ). the lever 30 includes a thumb paddle 32 that is operable by a user from left and / or right exterior side surfaces 14 a , 14 b , respectively , of the housing 14 . in the illustrated embodiment , the thumb paddle 32 is disposed within opposing recesses 34 ( fig1 and 4 ) defined on the left and right exterior side surfaces 14 a , 14 b of the housing 14 . the thumb paddle 32 may be positioned on only one of the left or right sides side surfaces 14 a , 14 b of the housing 14 . the thumb paddle 32 is movable within the recesses 34 relative to the housing 14 from a first configuration ( fig2 ) to second configuration ( fig1 , 3 , and 4 ). in fig1 , the paddle 32 is shown between the first and second configurations . referring to fig2 and 3 , a bottom portion 36 of the lever 30 is pivotably coupled to a proximal end 38 of the fixed outer shaft 12 adjacent a spring cartridge 40 of a drive assembly 42 of the forceps 10 . the bottom portion 36 pivots about the outer fixed shaft 12 when the lever 30 is moved between the first and second configurations . an upper portion 44 of the lever 30 pivotably couples to a linkage 46 via one or more suitable coupling methods , e . g . a pin , rivet or the like ( not explicitly shown ). continuing with reference to fig2 and 3 , the linkage 46 includes a first link member 46 a and a second link member 46 b . a proximal end 48 of the first link member 46 a pivotably couples to the upper portion 44 of the lever 30 via one of the aforementioned coupling members ( e . g ., a pin , rivet , or the like .). a distal end 50 of the first link member 46 a couples to a proximal end 52 of the second link member 46 b via a pivot 54 ( e . g ., a pivot pin 54 ). the pivot pin 54 is slidably disposed within an elongated slot 56 defined in an interior wall 58 of the housing 14 ( as best seen in fig3 ). the elongated slot 56 has a slight curvature adjacent its distal end and extends distally into a tapered distal end of the housing 14 . in the embodiment illustrated in fig1 - 4 , the first link member 46 a also includes a slight curvature adjacent its distal end , which facilitates sliding the first link member 46 a within the elongated slot 56 . when the thumb paddle 32 of the lever 30 is moved from the first configuration to the second configuration , the pivot pin 54 is slid into position at a distal end of the elongated slot 56 ( fig3 ) which allows the proximal end 52 of the second link member 46 b to pivot about the pivot pin 54 and move a distal end 60 of the second link member 46 b distally . the distal end 60 of the second link member 46 b couples to a collar 62 via a pivot pin 64 . the collar 62 is operably coupled to a proximal end 66 of the outer insulative sleeve 24 of the monopolar assembly of the forceps 10 . when the proximal end 52 of the second link member 46 b pivots about the pivot pin 54 , the distal end 60 of the second link member 46 b moves distally , which , in turn , moves the collar 62 and the outer insulative sleeve 24 distally thereby covering a pair of jaw members 21 , 23 of the end effector assembly 22 , as will be described in detail below . the outer insulative sleeve 24 is slidably disposed about outer fixed shaft 12 and is configured for translation about and relative to the outer fixed shaft 12 between a fully retracted configuration ( fig2 and 5a ) and a fully deployed configuration ( fig3 , 4 , and 5 b ). in the retracted configuration , the outer insulative sleeve 24 is disposed proximal of the end effector assembly 22 , and in the deployed configuration , the outer insulative sleeve 24 is disposed about the end effector assembly 22 to substantially cover the jaw members 21 , 23 . referring to fig5 a and 5b , the energizable rod member 26 is coupled to the outer insulative sleeve 24 such that advancement of the outer insulative sleeve 24 between the retracted and deployed configurations and advancement of energizable rod member 26 between the retracted and deployed configurations are effected concurrently or near concurrently , via actuation of the lever 30 . energizable rod member 26 is coupled to a source of energy for providing energy to a distal tip 25 of the energizable rod member 26 , e . g ., upon actuation of an activation switch 68 ( fig1 - 4 ) in a monopolar mode of operation , for treating tissue using monopolar energy . as discussed above , the forceps 10 is operable in both the bipolar mode , e . g ., for grasping , treating , coagulating , sealing and / or cutting tissue , and the monopolar mode , e . g ., for electrosurgical tissue treatment . in use , with respect to either mode of operation , initially , forceps 10 is manipulated such that end effector assembly 22 is positioned and oriented as desired within a surgical site . in the bipolar mode , the outer insulative sleeve 24 and energizable rod member 26 of the monopolar assembly remain disposed in the retracted configuration , as shown in fig2 and 5a . with the jaw members 21 , 23 of the end effector assembly 22 disposed in the spaced - apart configuration , the end effector assembly 22 may be maneuvered into position such that tissue to be grasped and treated is disposed between jaw members 21 , 23 . next , the movable handle 17 ( fig1 ) of the handle assembly 16 is actuated , or pulled proximally relative to a fixed handle 15 ( fig1 ) such that jaw member 21 is pivoted relative to jaw member 23 from the spaced - apart configuration to the approximated configuration to grasp tissue therebetween , as shown in fig5 a . in this approximated configuration , energy may be selectively supplied , e . g ., via activation switch 68 , to tissue - sealing plates ( not explicitly shown ) of the jaw members 21 , 23 and conducted through tissue to effect a tissue seal or otherwise treat tissue . with respect to the monopolar mode of operation , the movable handle 17 is first depressed relative to fixed handle 15 to pivot jaw member 21 relative to jaw member 23 from the spaced - apart configuration to the approximated configuration . once jaw members 21 , 23 are disposed in the approximated configuration , the thumb paddle 32 of the lever 30 is moved from the first configuration to the second configuration , thereby urging the first and second link members 46 a , 46 b distally . distal translation of the first and second link members 46 a , 46 b , in turn , translates the collar 36 distally through the housing 14 . distal translation of the collar 36 moves the outer insulative sleeve 24 of the monopolar assembly distally over the end effector assembly 22 and moves the energizable rod member 26 distally such that the distal tip 25 of energizable rod member 26 extends distally from both the end effector assembly 22 and the outer insulative sleeve 24 ( fig5 b ). with the distal tip 25 of the energizable rod 26 disposed in the deployed configuration , the activation switch 68 of the forceps 10 may be selectively actuated to supply energy to the distal tip 25 of energizable rod member 26 for electrosurgically treating tissue . the distal tip 25 may also be used in a mechanical fashion depending upon the shape of the distal tip 25 . the deployment mechanism 28 described herein for use with the forceps 10 is easy to operate and inexpensive to manufacture when compared to the aforementioned conventional deployment mechanisms , as the deployment mechanism 28 is not interconnected with the handle assembly 16 , rotation assembly 20 and / or the trigger assembly 18 of the forceps 10 . from the foregoing and with reference to the various figure drawings , those skilled in the art will appreciate that certain modifications can also be made to the present disclosure without departing from the scope of the same . for example , other linkage configurations may be used to move the outer sleeve 24 including the energizable rod 26 between the retracted and deployed configurations . referring now to fig6 - 9 , a forceps 110 that includes a deployment mechanism 128 according an embodiment of the instant disclosure is shown . for clarity , the forceps 110 is shown without the rotation assembly , the movable handle assembly , trigger assembly , and the end effector assembly . the deployment mechanism 128 is similar to the deployment mechanism 28 , thus only those features unique to the deployment mechanism 128 are described herein . a lever 130 having a generally elongated configuration may be positioned on the left ( not shown ) and / or right sides 114 a of the housing 114 . for illustrative purposes , the lever 130 is shown positioned on the right side 114 a of the housing 114 . the lever 130 is configured to allow a user to selectively move the lever 130 between the first and second configurations to effect movement of an outer insulative sleeve 124 including an energizable rod , e . g ., energizable rod 26 . an axle 131 supports the lever 130 and extends through an aperture ( not explicitly shown ) defined through the housing 114 . the axle 131 is rotatable with respect to the housing 114 and connects the lever 130 to a linkage 146 including a first link member 146 a , a second link member 146 b , and a third link member 146 c . the first link member 146 a includes an aperture defined therein at a bottom end thereof ( not explicitly shown ) configured to receive the axle 131 . first link member 146 a is bifurcated and includes opposing finger portions 147 a , 147 b that extend from the bottom end of the first link member 146 a and define an opening 148 therebetween configured to receive the outer insulative sleeve 124 ( fig8 ). the opening 148 allows the outer insulative sleeve 124 to translate between the opposing finger portions 147 a , 147 b when the lever 130 is moved between the first and second configurations . the second link member 146 b includes an aperture ( not explicitly shown ) at a distal end 150 thereof that , along with apertures ( not explicitly shown ) defined through top portions of the opposing finger portions 147 a , 147 b , are configured to receive a pivot pin 164 . the pivot pin 164 connects the distal end 150 of the second link member 146 b to the opposing finger portions 147 a , 147 b of the first link member 146 a . the second link member 146 b includes at its proximal end an aperture ( not explicitly shown ) defined therein that , along with apertures ( not explicitly shown ) defined through opposing finger portions 149 a , 149 b of the third link member 146 c , are configured to receive a pivot pin 166 . the pivot pin 166 connects the proximal end of the second link member 146 b to the opposing finger portions 149 a , 149 b of the third link member 146 c . the third link member 146 c includes a detent 154 at a top end thereof that is rotatably seated within a corresponding indent ( not explicitly shown ) defined within an interior wall portion 158 of the housing 114 . this indent and detent configuration allows the third link member 146 c to rotate in relation to the interior wall 158 of the housing 114 when the lever 130 is moved between the first and second configurations . a pair of elongated slots 160 a , 160 b are defined through the opposing finger portions 149 a , 149 b of the third link member 146 c and are configured receive a pivot pin 168 positioned on the outer insulative sleeve 124 . the pivot pin 168 couples to the proximal end of the outer insulative sleeve 124 and extends transversely in relation to the longitudinal axis “ a - a .” in use , once the jaw members 21 , 23 are disposed in the approximated configuration , the lever 130 is moved from the first configuration to the second configuration , thereby urging the first , second , and third link members 146 a , 146 b , 146 c distally . distal translation of the first , second , and third link members 146 a , 146 b , 146 c , in turn , moves the outer insulative sleeve 124 and the energizable rod member 126 in a manner as described above with respect to the outer insulative sleeve 24 and the energizable rod member 26 ( see fig9 ). fig1 - 12 illustrate a forceps 210 that includes a deployment mechanism 228 according yet another embodiment of the instant disclosure . deployment mechanism 228 is similar to deployment mechanism 128 and , accordingly , only those features unique to the deployment mechanism 228 are described herein . a lever 230 having a generally elongated configuration is disposed on the left and / or right sides of the housing 214 . for illustrative purposes , the lever 230 is shown for actuation from the right side of the housing 214 . the lever 230 is configured to allow a user to move the lever 230 between the first and second configurations to effect movement of an outer insulative sleeve 224 including an energizable rod , e . g ., the energizable rod 26 . the lever 230 includes an axle 231 at a top end thereof that extends through an aperture ( not explicitly shown ) defined through the housing 214 . the axle 231 is rotatable with respect to the housing 214 and connects the lever 230 to a linkage assembly 246 including a first link member 246 a , a second link member 246 b , and a third link member 246 c . referring to fig1 , the first link member 246 a includes a body portion 247 having a cylindrical configuration . the body portion 247 rotatably seats within a corresponding cylindrical aperture ( not explicitly shown ) defined within an interior wall portion 258 of the housing 214 . the body portion 247 includes an aperture ( not explicitly shown ) that receives the axle 231 of the lever 230 to secure the lever 230 to the body portion 247 of the first link member 246 a . the body portion 247 also includes a flange 249 that is positioned between opposing wall portions 248 a , 248 b provided at a distal end of the second link member 246 b . the opposing wall portions 248 a , 248 b have apertures ( not explicitly shown ) that , along with an aperture ( not explicitly shown ) defined through the flange 249 , receive a pivot pin 264 that connects the wall portions 248 a , 248 b of the second link member 246 b to the flange 249 of the first link member 246 a . the second link member 246 b includes an aperture ( not explicitly shown ) at a proximal end thereof that , along with apertures ( not explicitly shown ) defined through opposing finger portions 251 a , 251 b of the third link member 246 c , receive a pivot pin 266 that connects the proximal end of the second link member 246 b to the opposing finger portions 251 a , 251 b of the third link member 246 c . the third link member 246 c includes a detent 254 at a top end thereof that couples to a corresponding indent ( not explicitly shown ) defined within the interior wall portion 258 of the housing 214 . this indent and detent configuration allows the third link member 246 c to rotate in relation to the interior wall 258 of the housing 214 when the lever 230 is moved between the first and second configurations . elongated slots 260 a , 260 b are defined through the opposing finger portions 251 a , 251 b of the third link member 246 c and are configured to receive a pivot pin 268 disposed on the outer insulative sleeve 224 . the pivot pin 268 couples to a proximal end of the outer insulative sleeve 224 and extends transversely in relation to the longitudinal axis “ a - a .” in use , once the jaw members 21 , 23 are disposed in the approximated configuration , the lever 230 is moved from the first configuration to the second configuration , thereby urging the first , second , and third link members 246 a , 246 b , 246 c distally . distal translation of the first , second , and third link members 246 a , 246 b , 246 c , in turn , moves the outer insulative sleeve 224 and of the energizable rod member 26 in a manner as described above with respect to the outer insulative sleeve 24 and the energizable rod member 26 . it is noted that the aforementioned advantages described with respect to the deployment mechanism 28 configured for use with the forceps 10 are attainable also with the deployment mechanisms 128 , 228 . the various embodiments disclosed herein may also be configured to work with robotic surgical systems and what is commonly referred to as “ telesurgery ”. such systems employ various robotic elements to assist the surgeon in the operating theatre and allow remote operation ( or partial remote operation ) of surgical instrumentation . various robotic arms , gears , cams , pulleys , electric and mechanical motors , etc . may be employed for this purpose and may be designed with a robotic surgical system to assist the surgeon during the course of an operation or treatment . such robotic systems may include , remotely steerable systems , automatically flexible surgical systems , remotely flexible surgical systems , remotely articulating surgical systems , wireless surgical systems , modular or selectively configurable remotely operated surgical systems , etc . the robotic surgical systems may be employed with one or more consoles that are next to the operating theater or located in a remote location . in this instance , one team of surgeons or nurses may prep the patient for surgery and configure the robotic surgical system with one or more of the instruments disclosed herein while another surgeon ( or group of surgeons ) remotely control the instruments via the robotic surgical system . as can be appreciated , a highly skilled surgeon may perform multiple operations in multiple locations without leaving his / her remote console which can be both economically advantageous and a benefit to the patient or a series of patients . the robotic arms of the surgical system are typically coupled to a pair of master handles by a controller . the handles can be moved by the surgeon to produce a corresponding movement of the working ends of any type of surgical instrument ( e . g ., end effectors , graspers , knifes , scissors , etc .) which may complement the use of one or more of the embodiments described herein . the movement of the master handles may be scaled so that the working ends have a corresponding movement that is different , smaller or larger , than the movement performed by the operating hands of the surgeon . the scale factor or gearing ratio may be adjustable so that the operator can control the resolution of the working ends of the surgical instrument ( s ). the master handles may include various sensors to provide feedback to the surgeon relating to various tissue parameters or conditions , e . g ., tissue resistance due to manipulation , cutting or otherwise treating , pressure by the instrument onto the tissue , tissue temperature , tissue impedance , etc . as can be appreciated , such sensors provide the surgeon with enhanced tactile feedback simulating actual operating conditions . the master handles may also include a variety of different actuators for delicate tissue manipulation or treatment further enhancing the surgeon &# 39 ; s ability to mimic actual operating conditions . while several embodiments of the disclosure have been shown in the drawings , it is not intended that the disclosure be limited thereto , as it is intended that the disclosure be as broad in scope as the art will allow and that the specification be read likewise . therefore , the above description should not be construed as limiting , but merely as exemplifications of particular embodiments . those skilled in the art will envision other modifications within the scope and spirit of the claims appended hereto .
0 (Human Necessities)
now , first and second embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the accompanying drawings . in the following description of the drawings in the first and second embodiment , identical or similar constituents are designated by identical or similar reference numerals . fig1 is a view showing a wireless transceiver device according to a first embodiment of the present invention . as shown in fig1 , this embodiment includes a data processor 1 , a data transceiver 2 , a rf ( radio frequency ) unit 3 , and an antenna 4 . the data transceiver 2 includes a transmitter 5 and a receiver 6 . the data processor 1 is connected to the transceiver 2 . the data transceiver 2 is connected to the rf unit 3 . the rf unit 3 is connected to the antenna 4 . the data processor 1 is a circuit for processing digital format data , such as a digital processor or a dedicated communication chip . the transmitter 5 of the transceiver 2 is a circuit for converting digital format data inputted from the data processor 1 into data with a format suitable for wireless communication and outputting the data to the rf unit 3 as a transmission signal . meanwhile , the receiver 6 of the transceiver 2 is a circuit for converting received data inputted from the rf unit 3 into digital format data and outputting the data to the digital processor 1 . the transmitter 5 and the receiver 6 will be described later in detail . the rf unit 3 is a circuit for processing a carrier wave for wireless communication . this is the circuit for superposing the transmission signal inputted from the transmitter 5 on the carrier wave and outputting the signal to the antenna 4 , for example . meanwhile , this is the circuit for removing a carrier wave component from data received from the antenna 4 and outputting the data to the receiver 6 , for example . next , the transmitter 5 will be described with reference to fig2 . fig2 is a block diagram showing a configuration of the transmitter 5 . as shown in fig2 , the transmitter 5 includes a serial - parallel converter 10 , an encoder 11 , code selectors 12 , spreaders 13 , and an inverse fast fourier transformer 14 . the serial - parallel converter 10 is connected to the data processor 1 , the encoder 11 , and the spreaders 13 . when this first embodiment is applied to the bpsk modulation , the serial - parallel converter 10 rearranges binary information bit series data with a serial format and outputs the data as parallel format data . the binary information bit series are one - bit code series such as a sequence consisting of 0 and 1 . first , in this embodiment , binary information bit series data having a predetermined number of bits equal to n are inputted from the data processor 1 to the serial - parallel converter 10 . certainly this method is varying with modulation method ( qpsk , for example ), vary with modulation method . this n is a value calculated by n = k *( q + 1 )+( n − k ). the k is a number of blocks of bit series i to be described later . the q is a number of bits contained in each block in the bit series i . the n corresponds to n of ( n , k ) rs codes to be described later . moreover , the number of orthogonal codes is determined in response to the q value . for example , when n = 16 bit , q = 3 and n = 7 , code selector number k is decided as 3 . it is because that there are code selectors need for parity symbol . on the other hand , in current system , n is equal to k *( q + 1 ). so , when q = 3 , code selector number is 3 . when q = 4 , code selector number is 4 as well . next , the parallel format data will be described . the serial - parallel converter 10 divides the inputted n bits of data into n sets of beat groups a ( a = a 0 to a n - 1 ) and the bit series i which are equivalent to the remaining bits after subtracting the n sets of beat groups from the n and outputs the data . each of the beat groups ranging from a 0 to a n - 1 has one bit . accordingly , the bit series i have ( n - n ) bits . meanwhile , the beat groups ranging from a 0 to a n - 1 are outputted to the spreaders 13 . the bit series i are outputted to the encoder 11 . the bit series i are divided into a predetermined number of blocks equal to k . moreover , each block has a predetermined number of bits equal to q . meanwhile each single bit in the bit series i is indicated by i s , t . here , the s indicates the block and the t indicates a bit number in the block . the s is any of the numbers ranging from 0 to k − 1 . the t is any of the numbers ranging from 0 to q − 1 . the encoder 11 executes error correction coding on the bit series i outputted from the serial - parallel converter 10 and outputs the data to the code selectors 12 as parity series b ( b = b 0 to b n - 1 ). in this embodiment , rs ( reed - solomon ) coding on ( n = 2 q , k ) configured to perform correction on the symbol basis is applied to error correction coding . here , the symbol refers to a cluster of a predetermined number of bits . the n represents the number of symbols to be transmitted while the k represents the number of information symbols out of the symbols to be transmitted . in this case , the maximum error correction number e of ( n , k ) rs codes satisfies e =( n − k )/ 2 . that is , it is possible to correct symbols errors up to e pieces . there are n pieces of the code selectors 12 in total and any one of b 0 to b n - 1 out of the n pieces of the parity series b outputted from the encoder 11 is inputted to each of the code selectors 12 . each of the code selectors 12 selects an orthogonal code corresponding to the value of the parity series b and outputs the code as an orthogonal code c ( c = c 0 to c n - 1 ) corresponding to any one of b 0 to b n - 1 . here , the orthogonal codes are numbers uniquely determined in response to inputs of the bits , which are binary information bit series having the number of bits equal to 2 q prepared in advance in this embodiment . any one of the orthogonal codes c ( c = c 0 to c n - 1 ) and any one of the beat groups ( a = a 0 to a n - 1 ) are inputted to and diffused in each of the spreaders 13 , and the data are outputted as diffused data x ( x = x 0 to x n - 1 ). the diffused data x are modulated by using any one of frequencies out of n sub pieces of sub - carriers and are then outputted . all the diffused data x ranging from x 0 to xn - 1 are inputted from n pieces of the spreaders 13 to the inverse fast fourier transformer 14 , and the inverse fast fourier transformer 14 executes inverse fast fourier transform and outputs a single transmission signal to the rf unit . as described above , the transmitter 5 firstly divides the n bits of the binary information series data into the beat groups a ( a = a 0 to a n - 1 ) and the bit series i ( i = i 0 , 0 to i k - 1 , q - 1 ). next , the transmitter 5 executes error correction coding on the bit series i and outputs the parity bit series b ( b = b 0 to b n - 1 ). then , one of 2 q pieces of the orthogonal codes is selected for the parity bit series b and is outputted as the orthogonal code c ( c = c 0 to c n - 1 ). next , the orthogonal code c and the beat groups a are diffused and outputted as the diffused data x ( x = x 0 to x n - 1 ). then , the diffused data x are subjected to inverse fast fourier transform and the transmission signal is outputted . above mentioned embodiment is applied for multi - carrier system ( for example , ofdm ), furthermore , it is also possible to be applied for multi - code system . in multi - code system , inverse fast fourier transformer 14 becomes summation , and fast fourier transformer 20 becomes serial to parallel converter . next , the receiver 6 will be described with reference to fig3 and fig4 . fig3 is a block diagram showing a configuration of the receiver 6 . fig4 is a block diagram showing a configuration of a correlator 21 . as shown in fig3 , the receiver 6 includes a fast fourier transformer 20 , correlators 21 , a decoder 22 , and a parallel - serial converter 23 . as shown in fig4 , the correlator 21 further includes sub - correlators 25 and a data converter 26 . the fast fourier transformer 20 is connected to the rf unit 3 and the correlators 21 . the fast fourier transformer 20 executes fast fourier transform on received data , outputted from the rf unit 3 and outputs n pieces of data x ( x = x 0 to x n - 1 ) to the correlators 21 . the correlators 21 are connected to the fast fourier transformer 20 , the decoder 22 , and the parallel - serial converter 23 . first , one of the data x outputted from the fast fourier transformer 20 is inputted to each of the correlators 21 . the correlator 21 executes inverse diffusion and outputs a soft decision series b ( b = b 0 , 0 to b n - 1 , q - 1 ), which is the most likely bit series used for code selection at the time of transmission , to the decoder 22 . this inverse diffusion is to output the bit series from the orthogonal code on the contrary to the above - described code selector 12 . procedures of this inverse diffusion are as follows . first , all correlations between the inputted data x and the orthogonal codes are calculated . then , the bit series is outputted as the soft decision series b by use of the orthogonal bit having the highest correlation . next , the correlator 21 restore a decoded beat group a ( a = a 0 to a n - 1 ) by use of one of the data x and a correction parity series e ( e = e 0 , 0 to e n - 1 , q - 1 ), and outputs the data to the parallel - serial converter 23 . this correction parity series e will be described later in detail . the decoder 22 is connected to the correlators 21 and the parallel - serial converter 23 . the decoder 22 executes decoding on error correction codes by use of the soft decision series b outputted from the correlators 21 and outputs decoded bit series i ( i = i 0 , 0 to i n - 1 , q - 1 ) and the correction parity series e ( e = e 0 , 0 to e n - 1 , q - 1 ). the decoded bit series i are outputted to the parallel - serial converter 23 . meanwhile , the correction parity series e are recursively outputted to the correlators 21 . the correction parity series e ( e = e 0 , 0 to e n - 1 , q - 1 ) are values obtained by subjecting the decoded bit series i to rs coding . specifically , though the soft decision series b may contain errors , such errors are corrected in the correction parity series e and the correction parity series e are likely to be more accurate values than the soft decision series b . therefore , when restoring the decoded beat groups a , it is possible to improve a probability of restoring more accurate values by using the correction parity series e instead of using the soft decision series b . the decoded bit series i outputted from the decoder 22 and the decoded beat groups a outputted from the correlators 21 are inputted to the parallel - serial converter 23 in parallel . the data are outputted to the data processor 1 as serial data and the binary information bit series are restored therefrom . as described above , the receiver 6 executes fast fourier transform on the received signal and divides the signal into n pieces of the data x ( x = x 0 to x n - 1 ). then , the receiver 6 executes inverse diffusion on the data x and outputs the soft decision series b ( b = b 0 , 0 to b n - 1 , q - 1 ) used for code selection . next , the receiver 6 subjects the soft decision series b to decoding of the error correction signals and outputs the decoded bit series i ( i = i 0 , 0 to i n - 1 , q - 1 ) and the correction parity series e ( e = e 0 , 0 to e n - 1 , q - 1 ). then , the receiver 6 outputs the decoded beat groups a by utilizing the correlations between the recursively - used correction parity series e and the data x . next , the receiver 6 restores the binary information bit series by use of the decoded bit series i and the decoded beat groups a . in this embodiment , the encoder 11 carries out error correction coding before code selection by the code selectors 12 at the time of transmission . accordingly , it is possible to correct errors of code selection at the time of reception and thereto achieve accurate reception . for example , even when an error of a transmission signal may occur due to a characteristic of a communication path in wireless communication , it is possible to correct such an error at the time of reception . meanwhile , when transmitted data have a large number of bits , code selection errors at the time of reception may lead to errors of received data . however , this embodiment can correct such errors as well . moreover , this embodiment is configured to use the beat groups and is able to reduce the papr as compared to a configuration not using the beat groups . to be more precise , assuming that input data consist of 16 bits and that the number of sub - carriers is equal to the papr , the papr is equal to 16 in a typical multi - carrier system ( ofdm ). in this embodiment , since there are seven cs blocks , the papr is 7 . thus , the papr is reduced from 16 to 7 . meanwhile , in comparison with the conventional cs / cdma method having four cs blocks , the papr becomes equal to 4 in the conventional cs / cdma method . although the papr is slightly increased in comparison with the conventional cs / cdma method , this embodiment has an effect to improve a ber ( bit error rate ). as described above , this embodiment can improve the ber while moderating the increase in the papr . next , a concrete example of the first embodiment will be described with reference to fig5 and fig6 . fig5 shows a configuration of the transmitter 5 in the case where the encoder 11 applies ( 7 , 3 ) rs coding . fig6 shows a configuration of the receiver 6 corresponding to the transmitter in fig5 . as shown in fig5 , the number of sub - carriers n sub is equal to 7 . the input data consist of 16 bits ranging from d 0 to d 15 . first , an operation at the time of transmission will be described . the serial - parallel converter 10 divides the input data into the bit series i and the beat groups a corresponding to d 0 = i 0 , 0 , d 1 = i 0 , 1 , d 2 = i 0 , 2 , d 3 = i 1 , 0 , d 4 = i 1 , 1 , d 5 = i 1 , 2 , d 6 = i 2 , 0 , d 7 = i 2 , 1 , d 8 = i 2 , 2 , d 9 = a 0 , d 10 = a 1 , d 11 = a 2 , d 12 = a 3 , d 13 = d 14 = a 5 , and d 16 = a 6 . that is , the bit series i are divided into three groups each having 3 bits so as to correspond to i 0 =( i 0 , 0 , i 0 , 1 , i 0 , 2 ), i 1 =( i 1 , 0 , i 1 , 1 , i 1 , 2 ), and i 2 =( i 2 , 0 , i 2 , 1 , i 2 , 2 ,). the beat groups a are divided into 7 pieces in total ranging from a 0 to a 6 . next , the encoder 11 executes ( 7 , 3 ) rs encoding on the bit series i and outputs data having 7 transmission symbols for 3 information symbols . specifically , the parity series including b 0 = i 0 , b 1 = i 1 , b 2 = i 2 , b 3 = p 3 , b 4 = p 4 , b 6 = p 5 , and b 6 = p 6 are outputted according to the three bit series i 0 , i 1 , and i 2 . here , p 3 to p 6 are added symbols . next , the code selectors 12 select the orthogonal codes c by use of the parity series b . an orthogonal code having 2 3 = 8 bits is selected for three bits of b 0 and is outputted as the orthogonal code c 0 . similarly , c 1 is outputted for b 1 , c 1 is outputted for b 1 , c 2 is outputted for b 2 , c 3 is outputted for b 3 , c 4 is outputted for b 4 , c 5 is outputted for b 5 , and c 0 is outputted for b 6 ,. next , the spreaders 13 diffuse the orthogonal codes c and the beat groups a and output the diffused data x . for the c 0 having 8 bits , the diffused data x 0 having the same 8 bits are outputted . similarly , x 1 are outputted for c 1 , x 2 are outputted for c 2 , x 3 are outputted for c 3 , x 4 are outputted for c 4 , x 5 are outputted for c 5 , and x 6 are outputted for c 0 . next , the inverse fast fourier transformer 14 executes inverse fast fourier transform on the diffused data x and outputs the data as a single transmission signal . subsequently , an operation at the time of reception will be described . the fast fourier transformer 20 executes fast fourier transform on the received signal and divides the signal into 7 pieces of the data x . each piece of the data x has 8 bits . next , the data x are inputted to the correlators 21 and the soft decision series b are outputted therefrom . here , the soft decision series b 0 having 3 bits is outputted for x 0 having 8 bits . similarly , b 1 is outputted for x 1 , b 1 is outputted for x 1 , b 2 is outputted for x 2 , b 3 is outputted for x 3 , b 4 is outputted for x 4 , b 5 is outputted for x 5 , and b 6 is outputted for x 6 . next , the decoder 22 executes decoding on the soft decision series b and outputs the decoded bit series i and the correction parity series e . here , three groups of the decoded bit series i and seven groups of the correction parity series e are outputted from seven groups of the soft decision series b . specifically , i 0 =( i 0 , 0 , i 0 , 1 , i 0 , 2 ), i 1 =( i 1 , 0 , i 1 , 1 , i 1 , 2 ), and i 2 =( i 2 , 0 , i 2 , 1 , i 2 , 2 ) are outputted as the decoded bit series i . meanwhile , e 0 =( e 0 , 0 , e 0 , 1 , e 0 , 2 ), e 1 =( e 1 , 0 , e 1 , 1 , e 1 , 2 ), e 2 =( e 2 , 0 , e 2 , 1 , e 2 , 2 ,), e 3 =( e 3 , 0 , e 3 , 1 , e 3 , 2 ), e 4 =( e 4 , 0 , e 4 , 1 , e 4 , 2 ), e 0 =( e 0 , 0 , e 5 , 1 , e 5 , 2 ), and e 6 =( e 6 , 0 , e 6 , 1 , e 6 , 2 ,) are outputted as the correction parity series e . next , the correction parity series e are inputted to the correlators 21 and the decoded beat groups a are outputted therefrom . here , a 0 is outputted for e 0 . similarly , a 1 is outputted for e 1 , a 2 is outputted for e 2 , a 3 is outputted for e 3 , a 4 is outputted for e 4 , a 5 is outputted for e 5 , and a 6 is outputted for e 6 . next , the parallel - serial converter 23 serially outputs the received data d consisting of 16 bits by use of the decoded bit series i and the decoded beat groups a . specifically , the received data d are outputted so as to correspond to d 0 = i 0 , 0 , d 1 = i 0 , 1 , d 2 = i 0 , 2 , d 3 = i 1 , 0 , d 4 = i 1 , 1 , d 5 = i 1 , 2 , d 6 = i 2 , 0 , d 7 = i 2 , 1 , d 8 = i 2 , 2 , d 9 = a 0 , d 10 = a 1 , d 11 = a 2 , d 12 = a 3 , d 13 = a 4 , d 14 = a 5 , and d 15 = a 16 . although this embodiment has been described by use of concrete numbers , other numbers are also applicable thereto . a second embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to fig7 . fig7 shows a block diagram showing a configuration of the receiver 6 shown in fig3 with addition of an erasure encoder 40 . other features are similar to those in the first embodiment and duplicate explanation will therefore be omitted . the correlators 21 output correlation coefficients δ ( δ = δ 0 to δ n - 1 ) to the erasure encoder 40 . the correlation coefficients 6 are binary information bit series having the number of bits equal to 2 n . the erasure encoder 40 determines a certain threshold and specifies erased positions according to the correlation coefficients δ , and then outputs erased portions ε ( ε = ε 0 , 0 to ε n - 1 , q - 1 ). here , the erased positions are determined after a continuous process of trial and error . note that a relation ε = r − q is satisfied herein . the decoder 22 specifies positions ; which are to be corrected , according to the erased portions outputted from the erasure encoder 40 and decodes the soft decision series b . in this embodiment , the erasure encoder 40 is added to the configuration of the first embodiment . in rs coding , the correctable number of erased symbols exceeds that of erroneous symbols . consequently , in this embodiment , the correctable number symbols are increased as compared to the first embodiment . accordingly , it is possible to reduce code selection errors more efficiently than the first embodiment even when using the same rs codes as those in the first embodiment . fig8 is a view showing an embodiment which employs ( 7 , 3 ) rs erasure decoding to the embodiment shown in fig7 . this example is similar to the concrete example of the first embodiment except addition of the erasure encoder 40 , and duplicate explanation will therefore be omitted . the correlators 21 output the correlation coefficients δ ( δ = δ 0 to δ 0 to the erasure encoder 40 . the erasure encoder 40 outputs the erased portion ε 0 =( ε 0 , 0 , ε 0 , 1 , ε 0 , 2 ) according to the correlation coefficient ε 0 . similarly , ε 1 =( ε 1 , 0 , ε 1 , 1 , ε 1 , 2 ) is outputted for the correlation coefficient δ 1 , ε 2 =( ε 2 , 0 , ε 2 , 1 , ε 2 , 2 ) is outputted for the correlation coefficient δ 2 , ε 3 =( ε 3 , 0 , ε 3 , 1 , ε 3 , 2 ) is outputted for the correlation coefficient δ 3 , ε 4 =( ε 4 , 0 , ε 4 , 1 , ε 4 , 2 ) is outputted for the correlation coefficient δ 4 , ε 5 =( ε 5 , 0 , ε 5 , 1 , ε 5 , 2 ) is outputted for the correlation coefficient δ 5 , and ε 6 =( ε 6 , 0 , ε 6 , 1 , ε 6 , 2 ) is outputted for the correlation coefficient δ 6 . although this embodiment has been described by use of concrete numbers , other numbers are also applicable thereto . although the above - described embodiments apply rs coding to the encoder 11 , it is also possible to employ other error correction coding methods . although the embodiments employ inverse fast fourier transform and fast fourier transform , it is also possible to employ other applications . the present invention has been described with reference to the first and second embodiments . however , the description and the drawings constituting part of this disclosure will not limit the scope of this invention . it is obvious to those skilled in the art that various other embodiments , examples , and technical applications are possible from the teachings of this disclosure . accordingly , it is to be understood that the present invention encompasses various other embodiments which are not expressly stated herein . in this context , the present invention shall be solely determined by the matter to define the invention relevant to the appended claims that deem to be appropriate in conjunction with this disclosure .
7 (Electricity)
as used herein , “ administration ” of a composition includes any route of administration , including oral subcutaneous , intraperitoneal , and intramuscular . as used herein , “ an effective amount ” is an amount sufficient to reduce one or more symptoms associated with a stroke . as used herein , “ protein kinase c activator ” or “ pkc activator ” means a substance that increases the rate of the reaction catalyzed by protein kinase c by binding to the protein kinase c . as used herein , the term “ pharmaceutically acceptable carrier ” means a chemical composition with which the active ingredient may be combined and which , following the combination , can be used to administer the active ingredient to a subject . as used herein , the term “ physiologically acceptable ” ester or salt means an ester or salt form of the active ingredient which is compatible with any other ingredients of the pharmaceutical composition , which is not deleterious to the subject to which the composition is to be administered . as used herein , “ pharmaceutically acceptable carrier ” also includes , but is not limited to , one or more of the following : excipients ; surface active agents ; dispersing agents ; inert diluents ; granulating and disintegrating agents ; binding agents ; lubricating agents ; sweetening agents ; flavoring agents ; coloring agents ; preservatives ; physiologically degradable compositions such as gelatin ; aqueous vehicles and solvents ; oily vehicles and solvents ; suspending agents ; dispersing or wetting agents ; emulsifying agents , demulcents ; buffers ; salts ; thickening agents ; fillers ; emulsifying agents ; antioxidants ; antibiotics ; antifungal agents ; stabilizing agents ; and pharmaceutically acceptable polymeric or hydrophobic materials . other “ additional ingredients ” which may be included in the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention are known in the art and described , for example in genaro , ed ., 1985 , remington &# 39 ; s pharmaceutical sciences , mack publishing co ., easton , pa ., which is incorporated herein by reference . the formulations of the pharmaceutical compositions described herein may be prepared by any method known or hereafter developed in the art of pharmacology . in general , such preparatory methods include the step of bringing the active ingredient into association with a carrier or one or more other accessory ingredients , and then , if necessary or desirable , shaping or packaging the product into a desired single - or multi - dose unit . although the descriptions of pharmaceutical compositions provided herein are principally directed to pharmaceutical compositions which are suitable for ethical administration to humans , it will be understood by the skilled artisan that such compositions are generally suitable for administration to animals of all sorts . modification of pharmaceutical compositions suitable for administration to humans in order to render the compositions suitable for administration to various animals is well understood , and the ordinarily skilled veterinary pharmacologist can design and perform such modification with merely ordinary , if any , experimentation . subjects to which administration of the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention is contemplated include , but are not limited to , humans and other primates , and other mammals . despite progress toward the development of new therapeutic agents and availability of several animal models , there is still a pressing need for improved animal models for screening the pkc gene family consists presently of 11 genes which are divided into four subgroups : i ) classical pkcα , β 1 , β 2 ( β 1 and β 2 are alternatively spliced forms of the same gene ) and γ , 2 ) novel pkcδ , ε , η , and θ , 3 ) atypical pkcζ , λ , η and i and 4 ) pkc μ . pkc μ resembles the novel pkc isoforms but differs by having a putative transmembrane domain ( reviewed by blohe et al . ( 1994 ) cancer metast . rev . 13 : 411 ; ilug et al . ( 1993 ) biochem j . 291 : 329 ; kikkawa et al . ( 1989 ) ann . rev . biochem . 58 : 31 ). the α , β 1 , β 2 and γ isoforms are c 2 + , phospholipid and diacylglycerol - dependent and represent the classical isoforms of pkc , whereas the other isoforms are activated by phospholipid and diacylglycerol but are not dependent on ca 2 + . all isoforms encompass 5 variable ( v1 - v5 ) regions , and the α , β and γ isoforms contain four ( c1 - c4 ) structural domains which are highly conserved . all isoforms except pkc α , β and γ lack the c2 domain , the λ η and isoforms also lack nine of two cysteine - rich zinc finger domains in ci to which diacylglycerol binds . the cl domain also contains the pseudosubstrate sequence which is highly conserved among all isoforms , and which serves an autoregulartory function by blocking the substrate - binding site to produce an inactive conformation of the enzyme ( house et al . ( 1987 ) science 238 , 1726 ). 100271 because of these structural features , diverse pkc isoforms are thought to have highly specialized roles in signal transduction in response to physiological stimuli ( nishizuka ( 1989 ) cancer 10 : 1892 ), as well as in neoplastic transformation and differentiation ( glazer ( 1994 ) protein kinase c , j . f . kuo , ed ., oxford u . press at pages 171 - 198 ). for a discussion of known pkc modulators see pct / us97 / 08141 , u . s . pat . nos . 5 , 652 , 232 ; 6 , 080 , 784 ; 5 , 891 , 906 ; 5 , 962 , 498 ; 5 , 955 , 501 ; 5 , 891 , 870 and 5 , 962 , 504 ( each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety ). there is increasing evidence that the individual pkc isozymes play significant roles in biological processes which provide the basis for pharmacological exploitation . one is the design of specific ( preferably , isozyme specific ) activators of pkc . this approach is complicated by the fact that the catalytic domain is not the domain primarily responsible for the isozyme specificity of pkc . these may provide a way to override the effect of other signal transduction pathways with opposite biological effects . alternatively , by inducing down - regulation of pkc after acute activation , pkc activators may cause long term antagonism . bryostatin is currently in clinical trials as an anti - cancer agent . the bryostatins are known to bind to the regulatory domain of pkc and to activate the enzyme . bryostatins are examples of isozyme - selective activators of pkc . ( see for example wo 97 / 43268 ; incorporated herein by reference in its entirety ). for a discussion of known pkc modulators see pct / us97 / 08141 , u . s . pat . nos . 5 , 652 , 232 ; 6 , 043 , 270 ; 6 , 080 , 784 ; 5 , 891 , 906 ; 5 , 962 , 498 ; 5 , 955 , 501 ; 5 , 891 , 870 and 5 , 962 , 504 ( each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety ). several classes of pkc activators have been identified . phorbol esters , however , are not suitable compounds for eventual drug development because of their tumor promotion activity , ( ibarreta et al . ( 1999 ) neuro report 10 ( 5 & amp ; 6 ): 1035 - 40 ). of particular interest are macrocyclic lactones ( i . e . bryostatin class and neristatin class ) that act to stimulate pkc . of the bryostatin class compounds ., bryostatin - 1 has been shown to activate pkc and proven to be devoid of tumor promotion activity . bryostatin - 1 , as a pkc activator , is also particularly useful since the dose response curve of bryostatin - 1 is biphasic . additionally , bryostatin - 1 demonstrates differential regulation of pkc isozymes , including pkcα , pkcδ and pkcε . bryostatin - 1 has undergone toxicity and safety studies in animals and humans and is actively investigated as an anti - cancer agent . bryostatin - 1 &# 39 ; s use in the studies has determined that the main adverse reaction in humans is myalgia . one example of an effective dose is 40 μg / m 2 per week by intravenous injection . macrocyclic lactones , and particularly bryostatin - 1 is described in u . s . pat . no . 4 , 560 , 774 ( incorporated herein by reference in its entirety ). macrocyclic lactones and their derivatives are described elsewhere in u . s . pat . no . 6 , 187 , 568 , u . s . pat . no . 6 , 043 , 270 , u . s . pat . no . 5 , 393 , 897 , u . s . pat . no . 5 , 072 , 004 , u . s . pat . no . 5 , 196 , 447 , u . s . pat . no . 4 , 833 , 257 , and u . s . pat . no . 4 , 611 , 066 ( incorporated herein by reference in its entirety ). the above patents describe various compounds and various uses for macrocyclic lactones including their use as an anti - inflammatory or anti - tumor agent . ( szallasi et al . ( 1994 ) journal of biological chemistry 269 ( 3 ): 2118 - 24 ; zhang et al . ( 1996 ) caner research 56 : 802 - 808 ; hennings et al . ( 1987 ) carcinogenesis 8 ( 9 ): 1343 - 1346 ; varterasian et al . ( 2000 ) clinical cancer research 6 : 825 - 828 ; mutter et at ( 2000 ) bioorganic & amp ; medicinal chemistry 8 : 1841 - 1860 )( each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety ). as will also be appreciated by one of ordinary skill in the art , macrocyclic lactone compounds and their derivatives , particularly the bryostatin class , are amenable to combinatorial synthetic techniques and thus libraries of the compounds can be generated to optimize pharmacological parameters , including , but not limited to efficacy and safety of the compositions . additionally , these libraries can be assayed to determine those members that preferably modulate α - secretase and / or pkc . combinatorial libraries high throughput screening of natural products and fermentation broths has resulted in the discovery of several new drugs . at present , generation and screening of chemical diversity is being utilized extensively as a major technique for the discovery of lead compounds , and this is certainly a major fundamental advance in the area of drug discovery . additionally , even after a “ lead ” compound has been identified , combinatorial techniques provide for a valuable tool for the optimization of desired biological activity . as will be appreciated , the subject reaction readily lend themselves to the creation of combinatorial libraries of compounds for the screening of pharmaceutical , or other biological or medically - related activity or material - related qualities . a combinatorial library for the purposes of the present invention is a mixture of chemically related compounds , which may be screened together for a desired property ; said libraries may be in solution or covalently linked to a solid support . the preparation of many related compounds in a single reaction greatly reduces and simplifies the number of screening processes that need to be carried out . screening for the appropriate biological property may be done by conventional methods . thus , the present invention also provides methods for determining the ability of one or more inventive compounds to bind to effectively modulate α - secretase and / or pkc . a variety of techniques are available in the art for generating combinatorial libraries described below , but it will be understood that the present invention is not intended to be limited by the foregoing examples and descriptions . ( see , for example , blondelle et al . ( 1995 ) trends anal . chem . 14 : 83 ; u . s . pat . nos . 5 , 359 , 115 ; 5 , 362 , 899 ; u . s . pat . no . 5 , 288 , 514 : pct publication wo 94 / 08051 ; chen et al . ( 1994 ) jaccs 1 6 : 266 1 : kerr et al . ( 1993 ) jaccs 115 : 252 ; pct publications w092 / 10092 , w093 / 09668 ; w091 / 07087 ; and w093 / 20242 ; each of which is incorporated herein by reference ). accordingly , a variety of libraries on the order of about 16 to 1 , 000 , 000 or more diversomers can be synthesized and screened for a particular activity or property . analogs of bryostatin , commonly referred to as bryologs , are one particular class of pkc activators that are suitable for use in the methods of the present invention . the following table summarizes structural characteristics of several bryologs , demonstrating that bryologs vary greatly in their affinity for pkc ( from 0 . 25 nm to 10 μm ). structurally , they are all similar . while bryostatin - 1 has two pyran rings and one 6 - membered cyclic acetal , in most bryologs one of the pyrans of bryostatin - 1 is replaced with a second 6 - membered acetal ring . this modification reduces the stability of bryologs , relative to bryostatin - 1 , for example , in both strong acid or base , but has little significance at physiological ph . bryologs also have a lower molecular weight ( ranging from about 600 to 755 ), as compared to bryostatin - 1 ( 988 ), a property which facilitates transport across the blood - brain barrier . analog 1 ( wender et al . ( 2004 ) curr drug discov technol . 1 : 1 ; wender et al . ( 1998 ) proc natl acad sci usa 95 : 6624 ; wender et al . ( 2002 ) am chem soc . 124 : 13648 ( each incorporated herein by reference in their entireties )) possesses the highest affinity for pkc . this bryolog is about100 times more potent than bryostatin - 1 . only analog 1 exhibits a higher affinity for pkc than bryostatin . analog 2 , which lacks the a ring of bryostatin - 1 is the simplest analog that maintains high affinity for pkc . in addition to the active bryologs , analog 7d , which is acetylated at position 26 , hasvirtually no affinity for pkc . b - ring bryologs are also suitable for use in the methods of the present invention . these synthetic bryologs have affinities in the low nanomolar range ( wender et al . ( 2006 ) org lett . 8 : 5299 ( incorporated herein by reference in its entirety )). the b - ring bryologs have the advantage of being completely synthetic , and do not require purification from a natural source . a third class of suitable bryostatin analogs is the a - ring bryologs . these bryologs have slightly lower affinity for pkc than bryostatin 1 ( 6 . 5 , 2 . 3 , and 1 . 9 nm for bryologs 3 , 4 , and 5 , respectively ) but have a lower molecular weight . a number of derivatives of diacylglycerol ( dag ) bind to and activate protein kinase c ( niedel et al . ( 1983 ) proc . natl . acad . sci . usa 80 : 36 ; mori et al . ( 1982 ) j . biochem ( tokyo ) 91 : 427 ; kaibuchi et al . ( 1983 ) j . biol . chem . 258 : 6701 ). however , dag and dag derivatives are of limited value as drugs . activation of pkc by diacylglycerols is transient , because they are rapidly metabolized by diacylglycerol kinase and lipase ( bishop et al . ( 1986 ) j . biol . chem . 261 : 6993 ; chung et al . ( 1993 ) am . j . physiol . 265 : c927 ; incorporated herein by reference in their entireties ). the fatty acid substitution determines the strength of activation . diacylglycerols having an unsaturated fatty acid are most active . the stereoisomeric configuration is also critical . fatty acids with a 1 , 2 - sn configuration are active , while 2 , 3 - sn - diacylglycerols and 1 , 3 - diacylglycerols do not bind to pkc . cis - unsaturated fatty acids are synergistic with diacylglycerols . in one embodiment of the present invention , the term “ pkc activator ” expressly excludes dag or dag derivatives , such as phorbol esters . isoprenoids are pkc activators suitable for use in the methods of the present invention . farnesyl thiotriazole , for example , is a synthetic isoprenoid that activates pkc with a kd of 2 . 5 μm . farnesyl thiotriazole , for example , is equipotent with dioleoylglycerol ( gilbert et al . ( 1995 ) biochemistry 34 : 3916 ; incorporated herein by reference in its entirety ), but does not possess hydrolyzable esters of fatty acids . farnesyl thiotriazole and related compounds represent a stable , persistent pkc activator . because of its low mw ( 305 . 5 ) and absence of charged groups , farnesyl thiotriazole would readily cross the blood - brain barrier . octylindolactam v is a non - phorbol protein kinase c activator related to teleocidin . the advantages of octylindolactam v , specifically the (-)- enantiomer , include greater metabolic stability , high potency ( fujiki et al . ( 1987 ) adv . cancer res . 49 : 223 ; collins et al . ( 1982 ) biochem . biophys . res . commun . 104 : 1159 ; each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety )( ec50 = 29 nm ) and low molecular weight that facilitates transport across the blood brain barrier . gnidimacrin is a daphnane - type diterpene that displays potent antitumor activity at concentrations of 0 . 1 - 1 nm against murine leukemias and solid tumors . it acts as a pkc activator at a concentration of ≈ 3 nm in k562 cells , and regulates cell cycle progression at the g1 / s phase through the suppression of cdc25a and subsequent inhibition of cyclin dependent kinase 2 ( cdk2 ) ( 100 % inhibition achieved at 5 ng / ml ). gnidimacrin is a heterocyclic natural product similar to bryostatin , but somewhat smaller ( mw = 774 . 9 ). iripallidal is a bicyclic triterpenoid isolated from iris pallida . iripallidal displays anti - proliferative activity in a nci 60 cell line screen with g150 ( concentration required to inhibit growth by 50 %) values from micromolar to nanomolar range . it binds to pkcα with high affinity ( ki = 75 . 6 nm ). it induces phosphorylation of erk1 / 2 in a rasgrp3 - dependent manner . m . w . 486 . 7 . iripallidal is only about half the size of bryostatin and lacks charged groups . ingenol is a diterpenoid related to phorbol but possesses much less toxicity . it is derived from the milkweed plant euphorbia peplus . ingenol 3 , 20 - dibenzoate , for example , competes with [ 3h ] phorbol dibutyrate for binding to pkc ( ki for binding = 240 nm ) ( winkler et al . ( 1995 ) j . org . chem . 60 : 1381 ; incorporated herein by reference ). ingenol - 3 - angelate possesses antitumor activity against squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma when used topically ( ogbourne et al . ( 2007 ) anticancer drugs . 18 : 357 ; incorporated herein by reference ). napthalenesulfonamides , including n -( n - heptyl )- 5 - chloro - 1 - naphthalenesulfonamide ( sc - 10 ) and n -( 6 - phenylhexyl )- 5 - chloro - 1 - naphthalenesulfonamide , are members of another class of pkc activators . sc - 10 activates pkc in a calcium - dependent manner , using a mechanism similar to that of phosphatidylserine ( ito et al . ( 1986 ) biochemistry 25 : 4179 ; incorporated herein by reference ). naphthalenesulfonamides act by a different mechanism from bryostatin and would be expected to show a synergistic effect with bryostatin or a member of another class of pkc activators . structurally , naphthalenesulfonamides are similar to the calmodulin ( cam ) antagonist w - 7 , but are reported to have no effect on cam kinase . the linoleic acid derivative dcp - la ( 2 -[( 2 - pentylcyclopropyl ) methyl ] cyclopropaneoctanoic acid ) is one of the few known isoform - specific activators of pkc known . dcp - la selectively activates pkcε with a maximal effect at 100 nm . ( kanno el al . ( 2006 ) j . lipid res . 47 : 1146 ). like sc - 10 , dcp - la interacts with the phosphatidylserine binding site of pkc , instead of the diacylglycerol binding site . an alternative approach to activating pkc directly is to increase the levels of the endogenous activator , diacylglycerol . diacylglycerol kinase inhibitors such as 6 -( 2 -( 4 -[( 4 - fluorophenyl ) phenylmethylene ]- 1 - piperidinyl ) ethyl )- 7 - methyl - 5h - thiazolo [ 3 , 2 - a ] pyrimidin - 5 - one ( r59022 ) and [ 3 -[ 2 -[ 4 -( bis -( 4 - fluorophenyl ) methylene ] piperidin - 1 - yl ) ethyl ]- 2 , 3 - dihydro - 2 - thioxo - 4 ( 1h )- quinazolinone ( r59949 ) enhance the levels of the endogenous ligand diacylglycerol , thereby producing activation of pkc ( meinhardt et al . ( 2002 ) anti - cancer drugs 13 : 725 ). a variety of growth factors , such as fibroblast growth factor 18 ( fgf - 18 ) and insulin growth factor , function through the pkc pathway . fgf - 18 expression is upregulated in learning and receptors for insulin growth factor have been implicated in learning . activation of the pkc signaling pathway by these or other growth factors offers an additional potential means of activating protein kinase c . growth factor activators , such as the 4 - methyl catechol derivatives , such as 4 - methylcatcchol acetic acid ( mcba ), that stimulate the synthesis and / or activation of growth factors such as ngf and bdnf , also activate pkc as well as convergent pathways responsible for synaptogenesis and / or neuritic branching . the present compounds can be administered by a variety of routes and in a variety of dosage forms including those for oral , rectal , parenteral ( such as subcutaneous , intramuscular and intravenous ), epidural , intrathecal , intra - articular , topical and buccal administration . the dose range for adult human beings will depend on a number of factors including the age , weight and condition of the patient and the administration route . all books , articles , patents or other publications and references are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties . reference to any compound herein includes the racemate as well as the single enantiomers . the following examples serve to further illustrate the present invention and are not to be construed as limiting its scope in any way . rats ( male , wistar , 200 - 225 g ) were randomly divided into 6 groups ( 8 each ) and housed for 1 week before experimentation . transient or permanent restriction of cerebral blood flow and oxygen supply results in ischemic stroke . the global ischemia model used to induce vascular memory impairment was two - vessel occlusion combined with a short term systemic hypoxia . ligation of the bilateral common carotid arteries was performed under anesthesia ( pentobarbital , 60 mg / kg , i . p .). after a one - week recovery from the surgery , rats were exposed to 14 - min hypoxia ( 5 % oxygen in a glass jar ). control rats ( sham operated and vehicle controls ) were subjected to the same incision to isolate both common carotid arteries and to 14 - min air ( in the glass jar ). body temperature was kept at 37 - 37 . 5 ° c . using a heating light source during the surgical procedure and until the animals were fully recovered . bryostatin - 1 was administered at 20 μg / m 2 ( tail i . v ., 2 doses / week , for 10 doses ), starting 24 hours after the end of the hypoxic event . 4 - methylcatechol - diacetic acid ( mcda , a potential ngf and bdnf booster ) was administered at 1 . 0 mg / kg ( i . p ., daily for the same 5 - week period ) in separate groups of rats . one week after the last bryostatin - 1 , mcda , or vehicle administration , rats were trained in the water maze spatial learning task ( 2 training trials per day for 4 days ), followed by a probe test . a visible platform test was given after the probe test . the results are shown in fig1 . overall , there was a significant learning difference between the 6 groups ( fig1 ; f 5 . 383 = 27 . 480 , p & lt ; 0 . 001 ; anova ). detailed analysis revealed that the ischemic group did not learn the spatial maze task since there was no significant difference in escape latency over trials ( f 7 , 63 = 0 . 102 , p & gt ; 0 . 05 ), a significantly impaired learning as compared with the control rats ( group difference : f 1 , 127 = 79 . 751 , p & lt ; 0 . 001 ), while the rats in the other 5 groups all learned the task ( the ischemic rats with mcda treatment : p & lt ; 0 . 05 and the other 4 groups : p & lt ; 0 . 001 over trials ). bryostatin - 1 therapy greatly improved the performance ( ischemic group with bryostatin - 1 treatment vs . ischemic rats : f 1 , 127 = 72 . 782 , p & lt ; 0 . 001 ), to the level of performance that did not differ statistically from the control rats ( ischemic group with bryostatin - 1 treatment vs . control rats : f 1 , 127 = 0 . 001 , p & gt ; 0 . 05 ). mcda treatment also improved the learning of the ischemic rats ( ischemia with ncda treatment vs . ischemic rats : f 1 , 127 = 15 . 584 , p & lt ; 0 . 001 ) but the difference between the ischemia with mcda treatment and control rats remained significant after the 5 week treatment ( ischemia with ncda treatment vs . control rats : f 1 , 127 = 16 . 618 , p & lt ; 0 . 001 ). there were no differences between the control and bryostatin - 1 - only groups ( bryostatin - 1 vs . control : f 1 , 127 = 0 . 010 , p & gt ; 0 . 05 ) and between the control and mcda - only groups ( mcda vs . control : f 1 , 127 = 0 . 272 , p & gt ; 0 . 05 ). the rats in the ischemic group did not show a target preference in the probe test ( f3 , 31 = 0 . 096 , p & gt ; 0 . 05 ), while the rats of the other 5 groups all showed a target quadrant preference in the probe test ( all p & lt ; 0 . 005 ). data were analyzed using target quadrant ratio ( dividing the target quadrant distance by the average of the non - target quadrant values during the probe test ; fig2 ). there was a significant difference in the target quadrant ratios between the groups ( f5 , 47 = 5 . 081 , p & lt ; 0 . 001 ). detailed analysis revealed group differences between the control and ischemic rats ( f1 , 15 = 9 . 451 , p & lt ; 0 . 01 ), between the ischemic and ischemic with bryostatin - 1 treatment ( f1 , 15 = 10 . 328 , p & lt ; 0 . 01 ), and between the ischemic with mcda treatment and ischemic rats ( f1 , 15 = 5 . 623 , p & lt ; 0 . 05 ), but no differences between the control and ischemic rats with bryostatin - 1 treatment ( f1 , 15 = 0 . 013 , p & gt ; 0 . 05 ), between the ischemic with mcda treatment and control groups ( f1 , 15 = 2 . 997 , p & gt ; 0 . 05 ), between the control and bryostatin - l - only rats ( f1 , 15 = 0 . 064 , p & gt ; 0 . 05 ), and between the control and the mcda - only rats ( f1 , 15 = 0 . 0392 , p & gt ; 0 . 05 ). a visible platform test , determined after the probe test revealed no significant difference between the groups ( f5 , 47 = 0 . 115 , p & gt ; 0 . 05 ), indicating that there were no significant group differences in sensorimotor ability of the rats . global cerebral ischemia / hypoxia was induced in male wistar rats ( 225 - 250 g ) by permanently occluding the bilateral common carotid arteries , combined with about 14 minutes of low oxygen ( about 5 %). bryostatin - 1 was administered at 15 μg / m 2 ( via a tail vein , 2 doses / week , for 10 doses ), starting about 24 hours after the end of the ischemic / hypoxic event . spatial learning ( 2 trials / day for 4 days ) and memory ( a probe test of 1 minute , 24 hours after the last trial ) task was performed 9 days after the last dose . overall , there was a significant difference between the groups ( f3 , 255 = 31 . 856 , p & lt ; 0 . 001 ) and groups x trials ( f21 , 255 = 1 . 648 , p & lt ; 0 . 05 ). global cerebral ischemia impaired the spatial learning ( ischemial vs . sham - operated f1 , 127 = 79 . 751 , p & gt ; 0 . 001 ). the learning impairment was restored by bryostatin - 1 treatment ( bryostatin - 1 + ischemia vs . ischemia : f1 , 127 = 50 . 233 , p & lt ; 0 . 001 ), while bryostatin - 1 alone did not affect the learning ( bryostatin - 1 vs . sham - operated : f1 , 127 = 2 . 258 , p & gt ; 0 . 05 ; 9 days after the last dose ). in the memory retention test , sham - operated rats showed a target quadrant preference . such good memory retention was not observed in the ischemic rats , indicating an impaired spatial memory . bryostatin - 1 therapy effectively restored memory retention after ischemia to the level of the sham - operated rats . bryostatin - 1 alone had no significant effects in the target quadrant preference compared with that of the sham - operated control rats . there was a significant difference in the quadrant ratios ( calculated by dividing the target quadrant swim distance by the average swim distance in the non - target quadrants ; f3 , 31 = 6 . 181 , p & lt ; 0 . 005 ) between the groups . detailed analysis revealed significant differences between the ischemic rats and sham - operated control rats ( f1 , 15 = 9 . 451 , p & lt ; 0 . 01 ), between the ischemic rats and ischemic rats with bryostatin - 1 treatment ( f1 , 15 = 10 . 328 , p & lt ; 0 . 01 ), but no significant differences between the ischemic rats with bryostatin - 1 treatment and sham - operated control ( f1 , 15 = 0 . 0131 , p & gt ; 0 . 05 ) and between the sham - operated control rats and bryostatin - 1 alone rats ( f1 , 15 = 0 . 161 , p & gt ; 0 . 05 ). these results demonstrate that the cerebral ischemia / hypoxia produced an impairment of spatial learning and memory , tested about 7 weeks after the ischemic event . the impairment was lasting and not recoverable , during the time frame without appropriate intervention , but restored by chronic bryostatin - 1 treatment , even when the treatment was started 24 hours after the ischemic event , a wide therapeutic time window .
0 (Human Necessities)
in accordance with the figures , the mixing device is comprised of a sheath ( 4 ) which surrounds the injection tube ( 1 ), said sheath being connected to a decompressor ( 2 ) and ending in a helical tube ( 3 ) coupled to the decompressor ( 2 ), said helical tube being the only fluid outlet . attached to the injection tube ( 1 ) is a tube ( 5 ) for entry of one of the fluids , while attached to the sheath ( 4 ) is a tube ( 6 ) for entry of the second fluid . the abovementioned components can be joined to form a single part . the injection tube ( 1 ) is a rectilinear tube , with a smooth inside and the outside formed at least by a complete helical spiral whose pitch is twice the outside diameter of the tube , and its end , which constitutes around 1 / 10 of its total length , is slightly conical and smooth ( no spiral ). its length is equal to the distance between the top end of the sheath and the part of the decompressor ( 2 ) with the largest diameter ( top end of the cone of the decompressor ( 2 )), if the transporting fluid is injected through the inside of the injection tube ( 1 ) through tube ( 5 )— fig2 , or equal to the distance between the top end of the sheath ( 4 ) and the part of the decompressor ( 2 ) with the smallest diameter ( bottom end of the cone of the decompressor ( 2 )), if the transporting fluid is injected via the outside of the injection tube ( 1 ) through tube ( 6 )— fig1 . the cross - section of the inside of the injection tube ( 1 ), because it is smaller than the cross - section of inlet ( 5 ), causes an increase in speed and a consequent depression in the transporting fluid when it is injected through the said inlet ( 5 ), and the area formed by the difference between the cross - section of the decompressor ( 2 ) with the smallest diameter and the cross - section of the outside of the injection tube at its end ( no spiral ), because it is smaller than the cross - section formed by the height of the spiral with its pitch and smaller also than the cross - section of inlet ( 6 ), causes an increase in speed and a consequent depression in the transporting fluid when it is injected through the said inlet ( 6 ). the purpose of the helical spiral is to create helical movement and force against the walls of the decompressor ( 2 ) ( centrifugal force ) in all the fluid that circulates outside the injection tube ( 1 ). the end of the injection tube on the outside is slightly conical and smooth ( no spiral ) and it has the function of stabilising and uniformising the flow of the fluid that exits the said injection tube ( 1 ). the purpose of the outflow of the fluid , with helical movement and centrifugal force , to the outside of the injection tube ( 1 ), by the action of the helical spiral , is to enable the suction fluid to be dragged inside the transporting fluid in the helical tube ( 3 ), if the transporting fluid is injected through inlet ( 6 ), thus allowing the suction fluid to be totally enveloped inside the transporting fluid , or to enable the suction fluid to be dragged outside the transporting fluid in the decompressor ( 2 ), if the transporting fluid is injected through inlet ( 5 ), thereby achieving greater agitation of the two fluids due to the conflict between the movement and rectilinear force of the transporting fluid and the helical movement and centrifugal force of the suction fluid . the decompressor ( 2 ) is a conical tube which constitutes a nozzle with an angle of between 0 ° and 45 °, extending from the end of the sheath ( 4 ) to a rectilinear part of length equal to or greater than the length of the sheath ( 4 ). the length of the conical part is determined by its angle . its cross - section at the top is the same as the cross - section of the sheath ( 4 ) to which it is connected , and its cross - section at the bottom is the same as the cross - section of inlet ( 5 ). the size of the angle is determined by the expansion cone of the transporting fluid , which depends on the injection pressure when it is injected through inlet ( 5 ), so that the intersection between the said cone and the downstream extension of the cone of the decompressor occurs in the rectilinear part of the decompressor ( 2 ). if the transporting fluid is injected through inlet ( 6 ), the size of the angle determines the area of injection pressure and the thickness of the “ sleeve ” of transporting fluid . its function is to decompress the transporting fluid , join the fluids coming from the two inlets ( 5 ) and ( 6 ) and cause the dragging of the fluid that creates suction when the transporting fluid is injected through inlet ( 5 ) with a high suction flow , due to the existence of the angle in the decompressor ( 2 ) and the high agitation that causes the fluids to mix due to the conflict between the force and rectilinear movement of the transporting fluid and the centrifugal force and helical movement of the suction fluid . the helical tube ( 3 ) coupled to the decompressor ( 2 ) constitutes the only outlet and it is connected to the decompressor . its cross - section must be equal to the cross - section of the outlet of the decompressor ( 2 ) and its shape is determined by the injection inlet . if the transporting fluid is injected through the inside of the injection tube ( 1 ), i . e . through tube ( 5 ), the helical tube ( 3 ) can be removed or replaced by a rectilinear tube ; if the transporting fluid is injected via the outside of the injection tube ( 1 ), i . e . through tube ( 6 ), the helical tube ( 3 ) is at least a complete helicoid with the same pitch as that of the spirals around the outside of the injection tube ( 1 ). in this situation , after receiving the injection fluid with helical movement and force against the walls ( centrifugal force ), and inside this “ sleeve ” of transporting fluid the second suction fluid coming from inlet ( 5 ), its function is to mix these two fluids when they circulate through the said helical tube ( 3 ). in fact , when the two fluids ( the transporting fluid which forms a “ sleeve ” against the walls of the tube and the second fluid which is sucked inside the said “ sleeve ” of transporting fluid ) flow through the said helical tube ( 3 ) they meet with resistance along the bends , where they come up against obstacles that cause successive variations in speed and lead to a reduction in the centrifugal force that drove the transporting fluid , i . e . a centripetal component is created . these variations tend to convert the helical movement of the fluid at the inlet into rectilinear movement of the fluid at the outlet , and this conversion of force and movement causes the dragging of the suction fluid , with the total mixing of the two fluids . the sheath ( 4 ) is a rectilinear tube which surrounds the injection tube ( 1 ), it is coupled to an inlet tube ( 6 ) through which the suction fluid or injection fluid enters via the outside of the injection tube ( 1 ) and it constitutes the fundamental component of the device as all the other elements are connected to it . the tube ( 5 ) coupled to the injection tube ( 1 ) constitutes the inlet through the inside of the injection tube and it adjusts the latter tube to the sheath by means of an element which , in the embodiment represented in the figure , has an area where the converging fluid passes . its shape can nevertheless be undifferentiated and its cross - section will have to be larger than the cross - section of the inside of the injection tube ( 1 ). its function is to receive one of the fluids , the transporting fluid or the fluid to be dragged . the tube ( 6 ) connected to the sheath ( 4 ) constitutes the inlet via the outside of the injection tube ( 1 ). its shape is undifferentiated and its cross - section will have to be larger than the differential between the cross - section of the part of the decompressor ( 2 ) with the smallest diameter and the cross - section of the outside of the end of the injection tube ( 1 ) ( no spiral ). its function is to receive the transporting fluid or the fluid to be dragged . the device of this invention has two operating principles , according to the inlet used for the transporting fluid , as follows : a ) injection of the transporting fluid via the outside of the injection tube ( 1 ) through tube ( 6 )— fig1 . the transporting fluid is compressed at the end of the injection tube ( 1 ) against the wall of the decompressor ( 2 ) with the smallest diameter , where the area where the transporting fluid passes is smaller than the area formed by the height of the spiral with its pitch and smaller also than the cross - section of inlet ( 6 ), thereby increasing the injection speed . due to the influence of the spiral around the injection tube ( 1 ), the transporting fluid acquires helical movement with force against the wall of the decompressor ( 2 ) ( centrifugal force ), which is stabilised and uniformised at the end of the injection tube in the part with no spiral . in the decompressor ( 2 ), the second fluid ( suction fluid ) is drawn inside the first fluid or transporting fluid ( injection fluid ), which forms a kind of “ sleeve ”, each fluid maintaining its relative position until reaching the helical tube ( 3 ). in this tube ( 3 ), part of the fluids varies its speed along the bends , slowing down on the longer bends in relation to the other part of the fluids , which travels more quickly and with force towards the centre of tube ( 3 ) ( centripetal force ) on the shorter bends , thereby causing the dragging of the suction fluid , which is compressed by the transporting fluid thus causing the two fluids to totally mix , converting the centrifugal force and helical movement of the fluids at the inlet into force and rectilinear movement at the outlet of the said helical tube ( 3 ). this is the ideal way to carry out extraction with neutralisation of pollutants coming , for example , from chimneys . the most significant example has as a transporting fluid water injected into tube ( 6 ) by means of a pump ( not shown ) and as a fluid to be dragged a gaseous fluid possibly loaded with pollutant elements . b ) injection through the inside of the injection tube ( 1 )— fig2 . the transporting fluid is compressed inside the injection tube and when it expands inside the decompressor ( 2 ) it forms an expansion cone which depends on the injection pressure , intercepting the suction fluid in the rectilinear part of the decompressor ( 2 ). this depends on the angle of the decompressor ( 2 ) and on the injection pressure of the transporting fluid . the force and rectilinear movement of the transporting fluid cause the dragging of the suction fluid which frictionally mixes with the first fluid ( injection fluid ) due to the centrifugal force and helical movement created on the outside of the injection tube ( 1 ) inside this suction fluid . this conflict between the forces and movements of the two fluids facilitates possible chemical reactions between the fluids and / or particles . it is the ideal way to naturally oxygenate water by means of forced aeration inside the apparatus . the most significant example uses water as a transporting fluid injected by means of a pump ( not shown ) into tube ( 5 ) and injection tube ( 1 ), and atmospheric air as a second fluid to be dragged and available through tube ( 6 ) and the outside of the injection tube ( 1 ), these fluids mixing intimately inside the rectilinear part of the decompressor ( 2 ), providing excellent oxygenation of water , for example swimming pool water . the flow of the suction fluid increases with the flow of the injection fluid and the two increase with the increase in injection pressure . the fluid mixing device is a technically simple piece of equipment that effectively resolves environmental problems . the use of the characteristics of extraction with the total mixing of the suction elements by the transporting fluid makes the equipment effective in the chemical neutralization of air , together with the extraction of the pollution of a chimney . the use of the characteristics of suction with the conflict between the force and movement of the two fluids makes the equipment ideal for aerating water and effluents . the method is efficient in the oxidation of nutrients existing in water ( grease , iron , nitrates , etc .) and in the aerobic respiration of bacteria in effluents due to the high klav content . as aeration occurs inside the apparatus , this avoids any environmental impact in the case of the aeration of effluents . the characteristics of high flow rate and suction force make the apparatus an alternative to its use as a vacuum pump . the characteristics of compression and expansion of the transporting fluid with centrifugal force make it possible to directly transfer heat from one fluid to the other .
8 (General tagging of new or cross-sectional technology)
silicon - type charge transporting compounds according to our invention have an ionization potential of 4 . 5 - 6 . 2 ev . when the ionization potential is less than 4 . 5 ev , the silicon - type charge transporting material is easily oxidized and deteriorated making it undesirable . when the ionization potential exceeds 6 . 2 ev , injection of charge from the charge generating layer is inhibited , resulting in decreased sensitivity making it undesirable . the ionization potential in our invention was measured by open - air photoelectric spectrometry using surface analyzer ac - 1 manufactured by riken keiki . in the silicon - type charge transporting material provided by our invention , the organic silicon group is bonded to an electron - donor group via a hydrocarbon group . the reason is that if it is bonded directly , the π electron of the aromatic group in the charge transporting material is affected by the π - d interaction effect with the d electron of silicon ; changing the ionization potential from that of the base material . bonding via a hydrocarbon group prevents this phenomenon and facilitates designing of the organic photoconductor . one method of introducing a hydrocarbon group between an aromatic ring and a silicon atom is to bond an unsaturated aliphatic group to at least one of multiple aromatic rings in the charge transporting compound , with an alkoxysilane whose essential substituent for the silicon atom is hydrogen and an alkoxy group , by means of a hydrosilylation reaction . for example , the silicon - type charge transporting material may be manufactured by means of a hydrosilylation reaction between a vinyl group substituted onto an aromatic ring bonded to nitrogen of an aromatic substituted tertiary amine whose ionization potential is 4 . 5 - 6 . 2 ev , and an organic silicon compound with a hydrogen bonded to silicon . one method of introducing the vinyl group to the aromatic group is to first formylate the hydrogen or the methyl group on the aromatic ring , then convert the resulted aldehyde group to the vinyl group by the wittig reaction , thus allowing introduction of the vinyl group . after this process , the hydrosilylation reaction can be employed . another method would be to bromomethylate a saturated hydrocarbon group such as methyl , which has been substituted onto the aromatic group , producing a lithio - complex , and then reacting this with a halogenated alkoxysilane . the aromatic substituted tertiary amine a with an ionization potential of 4 . 5 - 6 . 2 ev used in the method of our invention may constitute any of the compounds shown below , where me is methyl , et is ethyl , ph is phenyl , bu is butyl , and pr is propyl . ## str1 ## following are representative ionization and oxidation potentials for some of the aromatic substituted tertiary amines a shown above . these ionization and oxidation potentials refer to the specific compounds identified above with corresponding reference indicia . there is no limitation as to which position on the aromatic ring of the tertiary amine that the alkoxysilane be introduced . nor is it necessary for alkoxysilane groups to be bonded to all aromatic rings . such determinations are made by considering factors such as solubility in the polysiloxane resin . in this case , the method of introducing a vinyl group to an aromatic ring bonded to nitrogen is to formylate the hydrogen or the methyl group substituted on the aromatic ring , and then to convert the aldehyde group to the vinyl group by the wittig reaction ; thus allowing the introduction of the vinyl group as described above . it can also be produced by means of the dehydrohalogenation between the hydrogen on the secondary amine and the halogenated aromatic group compound which has been substituted by the vinyl group . the hydrogenated organic silicon compound which is able to react with the vinyl group bonded to an aromatic ring of tertiary amine a with ionization potential of 4 . 5 - 6 . 2 ev , is a hydrogenated organic silicon compound whose substituent on the silicon atom in its molecule is hydrogen or an alkoxy group . this compound is added to the vinyl group by a hydrosilylation reaction . hydrogen directly bonded to silicon is an indispensable component of the hydrosilylation reaction to add to the vinyl group . another indispensable component is a hydrolyzable group , such as an alkoxy group -- or 3 . r 3 of the alkoxy group can be a short chain , i . e ., 1 - 6 carbon atoms , such as methyl , ethyl , propyl , butyl , amyl , and hexyl ; or r 3 can be a branched alkyl . the selection is made depending on the intended use of the product , stability during hydrosilylation , process and hydrolyzable properties . integer n in the formula denotes the number of alkoxy groups substituted on silicon . when n is higher than 1 , the hydrophilic property of the compound is improved . when there are several groups that are able to be condensed , the compound also acts as a cross - linking agent , so the selection must be made taking into account the hardness of the resin as a result of cross - linking , as well as its hydrophilic property . organic group r 2 other than hydrogen and alkoxy which is directly bonded to the silicon atom , may be selected according to the type of substituent on the silicon atom in the polysiloxane resin , and according to the various purposes such as the solubility in the resin , reactivity for the hydrosilylation reaction , and other property adjustments of the polysiloxane resin . r 2 may be an alkyl group such as methyl , ethyl , propyl , butyl , amyl , and hexyl ; alkenyl such as vinyl and allyl ; halogenated hydrocarbon groups ; aryl such as phenyl ; alkaryl such as tolyl ; and fluorohydrocarbon groups represented by trifluoropropyl , heptafluoropentyl , and nonafluorohexyl . if the substituent on silicon in the polysiloxane resin is methyl , the solubility is better if r 2 is methyl . the polysiloxane resin is a resin soluble in organic solvents , and primarily constituting silicon - type macromolecules known as mt resins , mq resins , t resins , and polysilsesquioxanes . methods of manufacturing such resins are known , such as the method described on page 71 of &# 34 ; silicon - based polymer science &# 34 ;, edited by john m . ziegler and f . w . gordon fearon , acs series 224 , the american chemical society ( 1990 ). the hydrosilylation reaction may be conducted using a platinum catalyst or an organic peroxide catalyst . the platinum catalyst can be a platinum compound used in standard hydrosilylation reactions and addition - type silicone rubber ; platinum chloride ; chloroplatinic acid ; platinum - olefin complexes ; platinum - phosphine complexes ; substances in which platinum is supported by a carrier such as platinum / carbon , platinum / silica gel , and platinum / macromolecules . the quantity of platinum catalyst is that amount used conventionally . in terms of mole ratio , the quantity of platinum metal to alkenyl groups of electron - donor groups should be within the range of 1 / 100 to 1 / 100 , 000 . the hydrosilylation reaction temperature varies depending on the type of platinum catalyst used , its quantity , reaction group materials , and reaction conditions . however , from the standpoint of efficiency , it is desirable that the temperature be below the decomposition temperature of the platinum catalyst , i . e ., below 200 ° c . in the case of an organic peroxide catalyst , the only limitation is that its half - life be above room temperature . organic peroxides which are useful are radical polymerization initiators such as lauryl peroxide , butyl peroxide , and benzoyl peroxide . products of hydrosilylation reactions can be divided into two groups . in one group , the silicon atom is added to the alpha position of the vinyl group . in the other group , the silicon atom is added to the beta position of the vinyl group . the position depends on reaction conditions , such as type of vinyl compound substituent and type of catalyst used . in our invention , there is no adverse effect of a mixture of the alpha - additions and beta - additions in the hydrosilylation process . in fact , having a mixture is preferable since it prevents aggregation of electron hole transferring materials which tend to easily form aggregates . the following examples illustrate our invention in more detail . 101 . 4 g of triphenylamine and 35 . 5 ml of dimethyl formamide ( dmf ) were placed in a three - neck flask , and while stirring with cooling in ice water , 84 . 4 ml of phosphorus oxychloride was dropped into the flask . the temperature was raised to 95 ° c ., and the mixture was reacted for 5 hours . the reaction solution was poured into 4 l of warm water and stirred for 1 hour . the precipitate was then collected and washed in a 1 : 1 mixture solution of ethanol / water , and 4 -( n , n - diphenylamino ) benzaldehyde was obtained . the yield was 91 . 5 g ( yield rate of 81 . 0 %). 14 . 6 g of sodium hydride and 700 ml of 1 , 2 - dimethoxyethane were placed in a three - neck flask , and while stirring at room temperature , 130 . 8 g of tetramethylphosphonium bromide was added . after adding one drop of anhydrous ethanol , the mixture was reacted for 4 hours at 70 ° c . then 100 g of 4 -( n , n - diphenylamino ) benzaldehyde was added to the mixture . the temperature was raised to 70 ° c ., and the mixture was reacted for 5 hours . the reaction solution was filtered , and an ether extract of the precipitate and the filtrate were washed in water . next , the ether solution was dehydrated with calcium chloride , the ether was removed , and the reaction mixture was obtained . this was recrystallized from ethanol , and a needle - form , lemon - yellow vinyltriphenylamine was obtained . the yield was 83 . 4 g ( yield rate of 84 . 0 %). 40 ml of toluene , 9 . 9 g ( 60 mmol ) of triethoxysilane , and 0 . 018 mmol of a toluene solution of tris -( tetramethyldivinyldisiloxane ) diplatinum ( 0 ) were placed in a three - neck flask , and while stirring under room temperature , 20 ml of a toluene solution of 8 . 2 g of 4 - vinyltriphenylamine was dropped into the flask . upon completion of the addition of the drops , the mixture was stirred for 3 hours at 70 ° c , then the solvent was removed under reduced pressure . as a result , a lemon - yellow oily substance of 4 - 2 -( triethoxysilyl ) ethyl ! triphenylamine was obtained . the amount obtained was 12 . 1 g ( yield 91 . 7 %). 40 ml of toluene , 8 . 1 g of methyl diethoxy silane , and 0 . 018 mmol of a toluene solution of tris -( tetramethyldivinyldisiloxane ) diplatinum ( 0 ) were placed in a three - neck flask , and while stirring under room temperature , 20 ml of a toluene solution of 8 . 2 g of 4 - vinyltriphenylamine was dropped into the flask . upon completion of the addition of the drops , the mixture was stirred for 3 hours at 70 ° c ., then the solvent was removed under reduced pressure . as a result , a lemon - yellow oily substance of 4 - 2 -( methyldiethoxysilyl ) ethyl ! triphenylamine was obtained . the amount obtained was 11 . 2 g ( yield 91 . 4 %). 50 . 7 g of triphenylamine and 53 . 3 ml of dmf were placed in a three - neck flask , and while stirring while cooling in ice water , 126 . 6 ml of phosphorus oxychloride was dropped into the flask . upon completion of the addition of the drops , the mixture solution was reacted for 5 hours at 95 ° c ., then poured into 5 l of warm water , and stirred for 1 hour . the precipitate was then collected by filtering and washed in a 1 : 1 mixture solution of ethanol / water . as a result , tris -( 4 - formylphenyl ) amine was obtained in an amount of 65 . 3 g ( yield 95 . 9 %). 14 . 6 g of sodium hydride and 700 ml of 1 , 2 - dimethoxy ethane were placed in a three - neck flask , and while stirring at room temperature , 130 . 8 g of tetramethyl phosphonium bromide was added . anhydrous ethanol was then added by dripping , and after completion of dripping , a reaction was carried out for 4 hours at 70 ° c . the reaction mixture was then combined with 40 . 2 g of tri -( 4 - formylphenyl ) amine , and the reaction was continued for 5 hours at 70 ° c . the reaction product was filtered . the filtrated cake was extracted with ethanol , and after being combined with the filtrate , was washed with water . after dehydrating the ether solution with calcium chloride , the ether was removed , and a reaction mixture was obtained . this mixture was twice recrystallized with ethanol . as a result , a needle - like lemon - yellow substance of tri -( 4 - vinylphenyl ) amine was obtained . the amount obtained was 38 . 4 g ( yield 97 . 3 %). 40 ml of toluene , 9 . 9 g ( 60 mmol ) of triethoxysilane , and 0 . 018 mmol of a toluene solution of tris -( tetramethyldivinyldisiloxane ) diplatinum ( 0 ) were placed in a three - neck flask , and while stirring under room temperature , 20 ml of a toluene solution of 3 . 3 g ( 13 mmol ) of tri -( 4 - vinylphenyl ) amine was dropped into the flask . upon completion of the addition of the drops , the mixture was stirred for 3 hours at 70 ° c ., then the solvent was removed under reduced pressure . as a result , a lemon - yellow oily substance of 4 , 4 &# 39 ;, 4 &# 34 ;- 2 -( triethoxysilyl ) ethyl ! triphenylamine was obtained , and the amount obtained was 7 . 8 g ( yield 80 . 6 %). synthesis of 4 - n , n - bis -( 3 , 4 - dimethylphenyl ) amino !- 2 - ( triethoxysilyl ) ethyl ! benzene and synthesis of n , n - bis -( 3 , 4 - dimethylphenyl ) aminobenzene 38 . 5 g ( 166 mmol ) of 4 - iodo - o - xylene , 22 . 9 g ( 166 mmol ) of anhydrous potassium carbonate , and 7 . 0 g of copper powder were added to 20 ml of nitrobenzene , and heat - refluxed for 8 hours while stirring . the mixture was cooled , filtered , and the filtrate was removed . the obtained reaction mixture was passed through a silica gel column , and n , n - bis -( 3 , 4 - dimethylphenyl ) aminobenzene was obtained . the amount obtained was 15 . 7 g ( yield rate of 69 %). 124 . 6 g of 4 - n , n - bis -( 3 , 4 - dimethylphenyl ) amino ! benzene and 35 . 5 ml of dmf were placed in a three - neck flask , and while stirring while cooling in ice water , 84 . 4 ml of phosphorus oxychloride was dropped into the flask . upon completion of the addition of the drops , the mixture solution was reacted for 5 hours at 95 ° c ., then poured into 4 l of warm water , and stirred for 1 hour . the precipitate was collected and washed in a 1 : 1 mixture solution of ethanol / water , and 4 - n , n - bis -( 3 , 4 - dimethylphenyl ) amino ! benzaldehyde was obtained . the amount obtained was 107 . 6 g ( yield rate of 79 . 0 %). 12 . 1 g of sodium hydride and 580 ml of 1 , 2 - dimethoxyethane were placed in a three - neck flask , and while stirring at room temperature , 108 . 5 g of tetramethyl phosphonium bromide was added . after adding one drop of anhydrous ethanol , the mixture was reacted for 4 hours at 70 ° c . 100 g of 4 - n , n - bis -( 3 , 4 - dimethylphenyl ) amino ! benzaldehyde was added to the reaction mixture , and the mixture was reacted for 5 hours at 70 ° c . the reaction solution was filtered , and an ether extract of the filtered cake and filtrate were washed in water . the ether solution was dehydrated with calcium chloride . the ether was removed and the reaction mixture was obtained . this was recrystallized twice with ethanol , and a needle - form of 4 - n , n - bis -( 3 , 4 - dimethylphenyl ) amino ! styrene was obtained . the amount obtained was 84 . 5 g ( yield rate of 85 . 0 %). 40 ml of toluene , 6 . 0 g of triethoxysilane , and 0 . 54 mmol of a toluene solution of tris -( tetramethyldivinyldisiloxane ) diplatinum ( 0 ) were placed in a three - neck flask , and while stirring under room temperature , 20 ml of a toluene solution of 9 . 9 g of 4 - n , n - bis -( 3 , 4 - dimethylphenyl ) amino ! styrene was dropped into the flask . upon completion of the addition of the drops , the mixture was stirred for 3 hours at 70 ° c . the solvent was removed under reduced pressure , and a lemon - yellow oil of 4 - n , n - bis -( 3 , 4 - dimethylphenyl ) amino !- 2 -( triethoxysilyl ) ethyl ! benzene was obtained . the amount obtained was 13 . 4 g ( yield rate of 90 . 1 %). synthesis of 4 - n , n - bis -( 3 , 4 - dimethylphenyl ) amino !- 2 -( triethoxysilyl ) ethyl ! benzene and hydrosilylation of 4 - n , n - bis -( 3 , 4 - dimethylphenyl ) amino ! styrene 40 ml of toluene , 6 . 0 g ( 37 mmol ) of triethoxysilane , and 0 . 34 mmol of dichloro -( n - cycloocta - 1 , 5 - diene ) platinum were loaded into a three - neck flask . while being stirred at room temperature , 20 ml of a toluene solution of 9 . 9 g of 4 - n , n - bis -( 3 , 4 - dimethylphenyl ) amino ! styrene was dropped into the flask . upon completion of the addition of the drops , the mixture was stirred for 3 hours at 70 ° c . the solvent was removed under reduced pressure , and a lemon - yellow oily substance of 4 - n , n - bis -( 3 , 4 - dimethylphenyl ) amino !- 2 -( triethoxysilyl ) ethyl ! benzene was obtained . the amount obtained was 14 . 0 g ( yield was 94 . 2 %). 8 . 0 g ( 45 mmol ) of n - bromosuccinimide ( nbs ) and 10 . 0 g ( 41 mmol ) of triphenylamine were loaded in a 200 ml three - neck flask and then 150 ml of n , n - dimethyl formamide was added . the components were stirred overnight at room temperature . n , n - dimethyl formamide was removed , and the solid substance obtained was extracted with carbon tetrachloride . carbon tetrachloride was removed , and the reaction mixture was twice recrystallized with ethanol . as a result , a solid white substance of 4 - bromotriphenylamine was obtained in an amount of 8 . 2 g ( yield was 61 . 7 %). a 300 ml four - neck flask was filled with 1 . 0 g ( 40 mmol ) of magnesium metal and the flask was filled with nitrogen . diethyl ether was added in an amount of 100 ml , and stirring was initiated . 30 ml of a diethyl ether solution of 8 . 6 g ( 27 mmol ) of 4 - bromotriphenylamine was slowly added by dripping into the stirred mixture . after the dropped amount reached 3 ml , refluxing was slowly started . in the course of refluxing , the addition of diethylether solution by dripping was continued . upon completion of dripping , refluxing was carried out for another hour . a grignard reagent solution obtained in the manner described above was cooled to room temperature , and combined with 40 ml of a diethylether solution of 2 . 1 g ( 27 mmol ) of allyl chloride added slowly by dripping . upon completion of dripping , the reaction mixture was refluxed for 2 hours , and allowed to cool . ice - cold water was added in an amount of 50 ml , and hydrolysis was carried out . the ether layer was extracted , washed once with an aqueous saturated sodium bicarbonate solution , and twice with water . the product was dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate . after drying , diethylether was removed , and a white solid substance of 4 - n , n - diphenylamino allylbenzene was obtained in an amount of 4 . 9 g ( yield 63 . 2 %). 40 ml of toluene , 6 . 0 g ( 37 mmol ) of triethoxysilane , and 0 . 54 mmol of a toluene solution of tris -( tetramethyldivinyldisiloxane ) diplatinum ( 0 ) were loaded into a three - neck flask . while being stirred at room temperature , 20 ml of a toluene solution of 9 . 7 g ( 34 mmol ) of 4 - n , n - diphenylamino allylbenzene was dropped into the flask . upon completion of addition of drops , the mixture was stirred for 3 hours at 70 ° c . the solvent was removed under reduced pressure , and a lemon - yellow oily substance of 4 - 3 -( triethoxysilyl ) propyl ! triphenylamine was obtained . the amount obtained was 10 . 7 g ( yield was 70 . 1 %). 4 . 5 g ( 27 mmol ) of diphenylamine , 11 . 0 g ( 51 mmol ) of p - iodotoluene , 5 . 5 g ( 40 mmol ) of anhydrous potassium carbonate , and 1 . 1 g of copper chips were added to 30 ml of o - dichlorobenzene . the mixture was subjected to heating and refluxing for 7 hours under stirring conditions . upon completion of the reaction , the reaction solution was filtered , the filtrate was washed with a 3 - 5 % aqueous solution of sodium thiosulfate , and then with saturated brine . after drying the organic layer with anhydrous sodium sulfate , the solvent was removed . the reaction mixture obtained was recrystallized with ethanol , and 4 - methyltriphenylamine was obtained in an amount of 5 . 7 g ( yield 81 . 4 %). 6 . 9 g ( 39 mmol ) of n - bromosuccinimide and 9 . 1 g ( 35 mmol ) of 4 - methyltriphenylamine were loaded in a 300 ml three - neck flask , and 100 ml of carbon tetrachloride was added . the components were stirred overnight . upon completion of the reaction , the reaction solution was cooled and then filtered . the solvent was removed , the reaction mixture obtained was recrystallized with ethanol . as a result , the substance 4 - bromomethyltriphenylamine was obtained in an amount of 10 . 8 g ( yield was 91 . 2 %). a 200 ml four - neck flask was filled with 1 . 0 g ( 40 mmol ) of magnesium metal , and the flask was filled with nitrogen . diethyl ether was added in an amount of 100 ml , and stirring was initiated . 20 ml of diethyl ether solution of 9 . 1 g ( 27 mmol ) of 4 - bromomethyltriphenylamine was slowly added by dripping to the stirred mixture . after the dropped amount reached 5 ml , refluxing was slowly started . in the course of refluxing , addition of diethylether solution by dripping was continued . upon completion of dripping , refluxing was carried out for another hour . a grignard reagent solution obtained in the manner described above was cooled to room temperature , and combined with 20 ml of a diethylether solution of 2 . 1 g ( 27 mmol ) of allyl chloride which was added slowly by dripping . upon completion of dripping , the reaction mixture was refluxed for 2 hours , and the reaction was cooled . ice - cold water was added in an amount of 50 ml , and hydrolysis was carried out . the ether layer was extracted , washed once with an aqueous saturated sodium bicarbonate solution , twice with water . the product was dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate . after drying , diethylether was removed , and a white solid substance of 4 - n , n - diphenylamino phenyl - 1 - butene obtained in an amount of 5 . 5 g ( yield 66 . 7 %). 40 ml of toluene , 9 . 9 g ( 60 mmol ) of triethoxysilane , and 0 . 018 mmol of a toluene solution of tris - ( tetramethyldivinyldisiloxane ) diplatinum ( 0 ) were placed in a three - neck flask . while stirring under room temperature , 20 ml of a toluene solution of 16 . 7 g ( 54 . 7 mmol ) of 4 - n , n - diphenylamino phenyl - 1 - butene was dropped into the flask . upon completion of addition of the drops , the mixture was stirred for 3 hours at 70 ° c . the solvent was removed under reduced pressure . as a result , a lemon - yellow oily substance of 4 - 4 -( triethoxysilyl ) butyl ! triphenylamine was obtained . the amount obtained was 13 . 9 g ( yield 83 . 2 %). in view of the above , it can be seen that our invention provides an electron hole transfer material which allows practical application of low surface energy polysiloxane organic photoconductive resins that have excellent hardness and weather resistant properties , unattainable by conventional technique . the silicon - type electron hole transferring material provided by our invention can be used not only in electrophotographic processes , such as photocopiers and laser beam printers , but also as an electric charge transfer layer necessary in construction of organic electroluminescent elements . other variations may be made in the compounds , compositions , and methods described herein without departing from the essential features of our invention . the forms of our invention are exemplary and not intended as limitations on its scope as defined in the appended claims .
2 (Chemistry; Metallurgy)
referring now to the drawings wherein like reference numerals designate corresponding or similar elements throughout the several views , there is shown generally in fig1 a diagrammatic view of the optical configuration for a radiation scanning system 10 for scanning and imaging an object field 11 . the scanning system 10 comprises tunable resonant scanners forming a cascaded line scan mirror system coupled through a spherical reflector subsystem . the radiation scanning system 10 uses a spherical reflector 12 to relay the pupils of the scan mirrors without pupil shift . the spherical reflector 12 is designed to have a predetermined center of curvature and a predetermined radius of curvature . the spherical reflector 12 also includes direct and reflected optical axes , the direct optical axis coincident with the line r &# 39 ; s and the reflected ( from one reflecting surface of a slotted folding mirror 20 ) optical axis coincident with line r &# 39 ; s , coincident with the principal axis of the spherical reflector 12 , as illustrated in fig1 . the spherical reflector 12 has a substantially spherical focal surface as represented generally by element 13 , the spherical focal surface 13 including an intermediate focal line 13a of predetermined de minimus width as described hereinbelow in more detail . the scanning system 10 of fig1 employs a pair of line scan mirrors , a first line scan mirror 14 and a second line scan mirror 16 , which are mounted on tunable resonant scanners . positionally , the reflecting surface of the first line scan mirror 14 can be visualized as being located in a plane orthogonal , at the midpoint of the scan angle or field - of - view ( fov ) of the mirror , to the direct optical axis r &# 39 ; s . the reflecting surface of the second line scan mirror 16 , however , is not orthogonal to the reflected optical axis r &# 39 ; s . the reflecting surface is perpendicular to the reflected optical axis r &# 39 ; s in the direction of rotation at the midpoint scan position , but the axis of rotation sm of the second line scan mirror 16 is canted from perpendicularity to the reflected optical axis r &# 39 ; s by several degrees so that incident radiation from a field scanning element 26 is reflected so as to intercept the surface of the spherical reflector 12 . the reflecting surfaces of the first and second line scan mirrors 14 , 16 , respectively , are positioned a predetermined distance from the spherical reflector 12 equal to the radius of curvature thereof . as shown in fig1 the first line scan mirror 14 has a rotational axis fm about which the mirror 14 oscillates . the scan angle oscillation of the first line scan mirror 14 at a predetermined fundamental frequency f f and scan amplitude a f is exemplarily illustrated by arrow 18 . the rotational axis fm of the first line scan mirror 14 is disposed orthogonally to the optical axis r &# 39 ; s of the spherical reflector 12 to achieve near distortion free scanning . a slotted folding mirror 20 has opposed , planar reflecting surfaces 21a , 21b and a narrow slot 22 extending therethrough between the reflecting surfaces . the slotted folding mirror 20 is positioned on the optical axis r &# 39 ; s between the first line scan mirror 14 and the spherical reflector 12 . the slotted folding mirror 20 is disposed so that the intermediate focal line 13a of the spherical reflector 12 is coincident with or closely adjacent to the narrow slot 22 of the slotted folding mirror 20 . the first line scan mirror 14 is centered on the optical axis r &# 39 ; s of the spherical reflector 12 at a distance equal to the radius of curvature of the spherical reflector 12 . the first line scan mirror 14 is disposed so that the narrow slot 22 of the slotted folding mirror 20 is scanned during oscillation about the rotational axis fm . in radiometric applications a radiance reference source ( not shown ) can be disposed at both ends of the narrow slot 22 . the second line scan mirror 16 has a rotational axis sm and oscillates thereabout at a selected frequency f s as exemplarily illustrated by arrow 24 . the selected frequency f s may be a harmonic of the predetermined fundamental frequency f f to achieve near linear line scans . the amplitude a s of the secondary oscillation is significantly less than the amplitude a f of the fundamental oscillation . because of the smaller amplitude a s of the secondary oscillation , the rotational axis sm of the second line scan mirror 16 can readily be canted some 30 degrees off orthogonality from the reflected optical axis r &# 39 ; s of the spherical reflector 12 with insignificant distortion of the object field 11 . the second line scan mirror 16 is centered on the reflected optical axis r &# 39 ; s at a distance equal to the radius of curvature from the spherical reflector 12 . the first line scan mirror 14 and the second line scan mirror 16 are phase locked wherein the predetermined amplitude a f of the predetermined fundamental frequency f f is combined with the predetermined amplitude a s of the selected frequency f s . the net effect is that the radiation scanning system 10 produces line scans of the object field 11 at a near constant line scan rate , i . e ., as if the object field 11 were scanned by a single scanner driven to provide a substantially triangular waveform , when the second line scan mirror 16 is oscillated at a selected frequency f s which is a harmonic of the predetermined fundamental frequency f f . by way of example only , if the first line scan mirror is scanned at a frequency of 4 mhz , the second line scan mirror would optimally be driven at the 12 mhz harmonic . further , the amplitude of the harmonic frequency would be approximately one tenth of the predetermined amplitude of the fundamental frequency . alternatively , when the second line scan mirror 16 is oscillated at a selected frequency f s which is equal to the fundamental frequency f f , the radiation scanning system 10 is able to generate wider scan angles with respect to the object field 11 . other elements of the radiation scanning system 10 include the field scan mirror 26 , a detector lens 28 , and a detector 30 . the field scan mirror 26 has a rotational axis fs . the field scan mirror 26 , which is oversized in the direction of the rotational axis fs , is driven by a sawtooth waveform . within the physical and functional constraints of the scanning system 10 , the field scan mirror 26 is disposed as close as possible to the second line scan mirror 16 to minimize the amount of pupil shift . for applications which use only a single line scan mirror the field scan mirror 26 is substituted for the second line scan mirror 16 in the optical configuration . the geometric orientation of the axis of rotation fs of the field scan mirror 26 does not change , but the reflective surface is reorientated by rotation about the rotational axis fs so that the incident radiation from the object field 11 is reflected to intercept the surface of the spherical reflector 12 . for systems applications requiring only line scans , e . g ., where there is relative movement between the radiation scanning system 10 and the object field 11 or where a single line is to be continuously scanned , the field scan mirror 26 is eliminated from the optical configuration . the detector 30 is disposed at an object point of the detector lens 28 . the disposition of the detector lens 28 with respect to the first line scan mirror 14 and the slotted folding mirror 20 is best explained in terms of an image point of the detector lens 28 by considering the detector 30 as a point object on the optical axis of the radiation scanning system 10 to be imaged by means of the detector lens 28 . the converging radiation exiting the detector lens 28 is reflected by the slotted folding mirror 20 and the first line scan mirror 14 . the radiation reflected by first line scan mirror 14 converges to form the point image of the detector 30 on the intermediate focal line 13a . as the first line scan mirror 14 oscillates about the rotational axis fm , the point image of the detector 30 translates back and forth along the intermediate focal line 13a of the spherical reflector 12 . thus , the image point of the detector lens 28 coincides with the intermediate focal line 13a defined by the spherical reflector 12 . the optical speed ( f - number ) of the converging radiation from the detector lens 28 should match the optical speed ( f - number ) of the spherical reflector 12 . in operation , with the object field 11 sufficiently distant such that radiation therefrom appears essentially as collimated radiation at the radiation scanning system 10 , the object field 11 is scanned a field at a time by means of the field scan mirror 26 . the sawtooth driven field scan mirror 26 exhibits a scan rate such that the first line scan mirror 14 provides an output of contiguous or near contiguous line scans . typically , two field patterns are interlaced to provide a complete frame . the radiation emanating from the object field 11 is reflected from the field scan mirror 26 to the second line scan mirror 16 and reflected therefrom . the collimated radiation reflected from the second line scan mirror 16 is reflected from the first reflecting surface 21a of the slotted folding mirror 20 to the spherical reflector 12 . the radiation reflected from the spherical reflector 12 focuses at the intermediate focal line 13a and passes through the narrow slot 22 of the slotted folded mirror 20 . the radiation diverges from the intermediate focal line 13a and is reflected from the first line scan mirror 14 and from the second reflecting surface 21b of the slotted folding mirror 20 . the diverging radiation reflected from the slotted folding mirror 20 is refracted by the detector lens 28 and converges to a focus at the detector 30 . the width of the narrow slot 22 is minimally sized , but sufficient to allow the reflected radiation to pass through the slotted folding mirror 20 . the narrow slot 22 will produce some minor obscuration in the system pupil . the optical configuration of another embodiment of a radiation scanning system 40 according to the present invention is diagrammatically depicted in fig2 . this scanning system 40 eliminates the slotted folding mirror 20 from the optical configuration of fig1 . eliminating the slotted folding mirror 20 in this embodiment removes two reflective surfaces from the optical configuration as well as eliminating the minor obscuration in the system pupil caused by the narrow slot 22 in the slotted folding mirror 20 . but , while there is no central obscuration in this embodiment , there may be some image distortion for larger line scan angles . the radiation scanning system 40 uses the spherical reflector 12 to relay the pupils of the scan mirrors without pupil shift . the spherical reflector 12 of the radiation scanning system 40 is generally as described hereinabove for the radiation scanning system 10 . the relative disposition of the direct optical axis r &# 39 ; s of the spherical reflector 12 with respect to the other elements of the system 40 is shown in fig2 as is the relative spatial orientation of the intermediate focal line 13b . the scanning system 40 of fig2 utilizes the first line scan mirror 14 and the second line scan mirror 16 , mounted on tunable resonant scanners , as described hereinabove . in this embodiment , however , the first and second line scan mirrors 14 , 16 are offset from , but adjacent to the direct optical axis r &# 39 ; s of the spherical reflector 12 . the reflecting surfaces of the two line scan mirrors 14 , 16 are not orthogonal to the direct optical axis r &# 39 ; s . the reflecting surfaces are perpendicular to the direct optical axis r &# 39 ; s in the direction of rotation at the midpoint scan position , but the axes of rotation fm , hm of the first and second line scan mirrors 14 , 16 , respectively , must be canted from perpendicularity to the direct optical axis r &# 39 ; s by several degrees so that incident radiation from the field scan mirror 26 is reflected by the second line scan mirror 16 in a direction to intercept the surface of the spherical reflector 12 . in turn , the reflected radiation from the spherical reflector 12 incident upon the first line scan mirror 14 is reflected therefrom to intercept the pupil of the detector lens 28 . the orientation of the second line scan mirror 16 with respect to the direct optical axis r &# 39 ; s causes the intermediate focal line 13b to intersect the direct optical axis r &# 39 ; s , as illustrated . the canted orientation of the first line scan mirror 14 with respect to the axis r &# 39 ; s of the spherical reflector 12 may create some minor distortion in the scanned image of the object field 11 in the field scan direction . this type of distortion is sometimes referred to as line scan bow . the amount of distortion for a given scan angle can be lessened , if necessary , by reducing the optical speed ( f - number ) of the spherical reflector 12 . this allows the axis of rotation for the first line scan mirror 14 to be more orthogonal to the optical axis r &# 39 ; s of the spherical reflector 12 . other elements of the radiation scanning system 40 include the field scan mirror 26 , the detector lens 28 , and the detector 30 as previously described for the embodiment of fig1 . the disposition of the detector lens 28 with respect to the first line scan mirror 14 is again best explained in terms of the object and image points of the detector lens 28 by considering the detector 30 disposed at the object point of the detector lens 28 . the detector lens 28 images the detector 30 on the intermediate focal line 13b of the radiation scanning system 40 . refracted radiation exiting the detector lens 28 is reflected by the first line scan mirror 14 to form the image of the detector 30 at a point on the intermediate focal line 13b . as the first line scan mirror 14 oscillates about the rotational axis fm , the focal point of the detector 30 translates back and forth along the intermediate focal line 13b of the spherical reflector 12 . thus , the image point of the detector lens 28 coincides with the intermediate focal line 13b of the spherical reflector 12 . in operation , with the object field 11 sufficiently distant such that radiation therefrom appears essentially as collimated radiation at the radiation scanning system 40 , the object field 11 is scanned a field at a time by means of the field scan mirror 26 . the radiation emanating from the object field 11 is reflected from the field scan mirror 26 to the second line scan mirror 16 and reflected therefrom . the collimated radiation reflected from the second line scan mirror 16 is reflected by the spherical reflector 12 . the collimated radiation reflected from the spherical reflector 12 converges to a focus at the intermediate focal line 13b and diverges therefrom to be reflected from the first line scan mirror 14 . the diverging radiation reflected from the first line scan mirror 14 is refracted by the detector lens 28 and converges to a focus at the detector 30 . the optical configurations disclosed in the embodiments of fig1 and 2 , respectively , may be utilized , in modified form , to optically couple a single line scan mirror supported on a multi - mode resonant torsional element through the spherical reflector 12 . the single multi - mode resonant line scan mirror replaces the first line scan mirror 14 in the optical configurations of fig1 and 2 . the torsional element is oscillated at the predetermined fundamental frequency f f as well as one or more phase locked harmonics of the fundamental frequency f f to produce a near linear driving waveform for the single multi - mode resonant line scan mirror . the frequencies of the multi - mode resonant torsional element may be optionally tunable . the field scan mirror 26 is substituted for the second line scan mirror 16 which is eliminated . the geometric orientation of the axis of rotation fs of the field scan mirror 26 is as described hereinabove . the reflective surface of the field scan mirror 26 is rotated about the rotational axis fs so that incident radiation from the object field 11 is reflected in a direction to intercept the surface of the spherical reflector 12 . alternatively , in yet further embodiments of the present invention , the optical configurations of fig1 and 2 , respectively , may be used , in modified form , to optically couple a line scan mirror mounted on an non - tunable resonant galvanometer through the spherical reflector 12 . the single mode line scan mirror replaces the first line scan mirror 14 in fig1 and 2 . the field scan mirror 26 is substituted for the second line scan mirror 16 which is eliminated . the geometric orientation of the axis of rotation fs of the field scan mirror 26 is as described hereinabove . the reflective surface of the field scan mirror 26 is rotated about rotational axis fs so that incident radiation from the object field 11 is reflected by the repositioned field scan mirror 26 to intercept the surface of the spherical reflector 12 . fig3 is a cross sectional view illustrating another embodiment of a radiation scanning system 50 according to the present invention , this scanning system 50 utilizing a set of four cascaded line scan mirrors 52 , 54 , 56 , 58 ( two supplementary line scan mirrors , a first line scan mirror and a second line scan mirror , respectively ) mounted on tunable resonant scanners and three spherical reflectors 60 , 62 , 64 ( two supplementary spherical reflectors and a spherical reflector , respectively ). one specific spherical reflector 60 , 62 , 64 is interposed between each pair of optically adjacent line scan mirrors 52 - 54 , 54 - 56 , 56 - 58 , respectively , as depicted in fig3 . each of the line scan mirrors 52 , 54 , 56 , 58 is in a respective plane which , at a mid - scan position , is perpendicular to the plane of the paper . the axis of rotation of line scan mirrors 52 , 54 , 56 , 58 are canted from perpendicularity to the optical axes of the spherical reflectors 60 , 62 , 64 by several degrees so that the incident radiation from the preceding optical element is reflected in a direction to intercept the surface of the following optical element . the axis of rotation of line scan mirror 58 is canted to reflect the incident radiation from the field scan mirror 26 to the surface of the spherical reflector 64 . the axis of rotation of line scan mirror 56 is canted to reflect incident radiation from spherical reflector 64 to the surface of spherical reflector 62 . the axis of rotation of scan mirror 54 is canted to reflect the incident radiation from spherical reflector 62 to the surface of the spherical reflector 60 . finally , the axis of rotation of line scan mirror 52 is canted to reflect the incident radiation from spherical reflector 60 to the pupil of the detector lens 28 . in addition , the axis of rotation of each of the line scan mirrors 52 , 54 , 56 , 58 is disposed as close as possible to the center of curvature of the corresponding spherical reflector 60 , 62 , 64 . the axes of rotation for the line scan mirrors 52 , 54 , 56 , 58 in the embodiment depicted in fig3 lie in the plane of the paper . the field - of - view of this embodiment , in contrast to the fields - of - view of the embodiments previously disclosed hereinabove and as exemplarily illustrated by fig1 and 2 , is increased by a factor of two in both the line scan and field scan directions . this increase in the field - of - view is accomplished without changing the oscillatory amplitude of the line scan mirrors 52 , 54 , 56 , 58 . alternatively , in lieu of increasing the field - of - view of the radiation scanning system 50 , the cascade configuration of the line scan mirrors 52 , 54 , 56 , 58 can be utilized to further improve the scan linearity of the system 50 by locking the line scan mirrors 52 , 54 , 56 , 58 to the fundamental frequency and the first , second and third harmonics thereof , respectively . alternatively , the harmonics may be locked to create a near sawtooth scan as opposed to the near triangular scan . the embodiment of fig3 exemparily illustrates a 2 : 1 object / image ratio for the spherical reflectors 60 , 62 . using the basic thin lens optical relationship an object distance of 1 . 5 times the focal length produces an image distance of 3 times the focal length . for spherical reflector 64 the object distance coincides with the focal length thereof . it is to be understood that other applications may require a different object / image ratio . the disposition of the elements forming the optical configuration of the radiation scanning system 50 of fig3 is best explained by considering the detector 30 as a point object on the optical axis of the scanning system 50 to be imaged by means of the detector lens 28 . the detector lens 28 images the detector 30 at a point on an image focal line 13c after reflection by the second supplementary line scan mirror 52 . the image focal line 13c coincides with the object focal line 13c 60 of the second supplementary spherical reflector 60 . the object focal line 13c 60 is a substantially spherical focal surface at a location which in this exemplary embodiment is 1 . 5 times the focal length of the second supplementary spherical reflector 60 . as the second supplementary line scan mirror 52 oscillates , the point image of the detector 30 translates back and forth along the object focal line 13c 60 . the converging radiation reflecting from the second supplementary spherical reflector 60 remains directed at the first supplementary line scan mirror 54 , disposed at the center of curvature of the second supplementary spherical reflector 60 , as the second supplementary line scan mirror 52 oscillates through its full scan angle . the converging radiation from the second supplementary spherical reflector 60 is directed to focus at the image focal line 13d after reflection from the first supplementary line scan mirror 54 . the image focal line 13d coincides with the object focal line 13d 62 of the first supplementary spherical reflector 62 . the object focal line 13d 62 is 3 times the focal length of second supplementary spherical reflector 60 and 1 . 5 times the focal length of the first supplementary spherical reflector 62 . it is a substantially spherical focal surface . by way of illustration only , the focal length of the first supplementary spherical reflector 62 of this exemplary embodiment is twice as long as the focal length of the second supplementary spherical reflector 60 . the focal length of the spherical reflector 64 defines an intermediate object focal line 13e 64 which is coincident with the substantially spherical focal surface of the image focal line 13e of the first supplementary spherical reflector 62 . the converging radiation reflecting from the first supplementary spherical reflector 62 remains directed at the first line scan mirror 56 as the first and second supplementary line scan mirrors 54 , 52 , respectively , oscillate through full scan angles . the converging radiation reflected from the first line scan mirror 56 is directed to focus at the intermediate focal line 13e . the collimated radiation reflected from the spherical reflector 64 remains directed at the second line scan mirror 58 as the preceding line scan mirrors 52 , 54 , 56 oscillate through their respective fields - of - view . the collimated radiation reflected from the second line scan mirror 58 is directed at the field scan mirror 26 , which , like previous embodiments , is oversized in the direction of its axis of rotation . similarly , the field scan mirror 26 is placed as close as possible to the second line scan mirror 58 to minimize pupil shift . while the foregoing embodiments have been described in terms of an optical configuration for a passive radiation scanning system , that is one utilizing radiation emitted by the object field 11 , it is to be understood that the foregoing optical configurations also have utility in both active and hybrid radiation scanning systems . in an active system , a source of radiation , for example a lasing apparatus , is substituted for the detector 30 depicted in fig1 and 3 and the optical radiation is transmitted through the optical configuration to be outputted as a collimated beam of radiation , typically rastered , which coacts with a display means , as for example a tv screen . one means for controlling a scanning mirror system of the type using two cascaded resonant line scan mirrors 14 , 16 oscillating at the predetermined fundamental frequency f f and the selected frequency f s which is a harmonic of the predetermined fundamental frequency f f is illustrated by the block diagram of fig4 . the control means illustrated is for a passive system , but the control approach is conceptually the same when applied to an active system . an active system can replace the detector 30 and its associated circuitry with a radiation source having appropriate drive circuitry . similarly a combined active / passive system can use a single optical scanning system with one set of mirror controls , but with separate controls for the detector and the radiation source . the detector 30 receives radiation serially from the object field 11 of interest through an optical configuration as depicted by radiation scanning system 10 or 40 . a circuit 72 provides appropriate bias and preamplification for the signal generated by the detector 30 . a circuit 74 provides a means for level and gain control of the video . the input to the detector 30 is repetitive in the form of left - to - right and right - to - left scan lines , as generated by the approximately linear scan pattern of the line scan mirrors 14 , 16 . a circuit 76 stores the line scans as inputted . however , during output the circuit 76 reverses the right - to - left scans so that the output is a series of consecutive left - to - right scan lines . an embodiment of elements comprising the circuit 76 is illustrated in fig5 and will be described in greater detail hereinbelow . the signal input from the circuit 76 is modified for tv formats with the left - to - right linear scan lines sequentially progressing via the field scan mirror 26 from the top to the bottom of the object field 11 . a circuit 78 adds appropriate timing and level information to the signal to formulate a standard composite tv format , which is slaved to the master clock input to the tv sync generator 80 . the output of the circuit 78 is then suitable to drive a standard tv display 82 . the tv sync generator 80 provides the timing for synchronizing the two line scan mirrors 14 , 16 and the field scan mirror 26 . the tunable resonant scanner 84 for the first line scan mirror 14 is frequency controlled and phase locked by the circuit networks 86 and 88 , respectively . for the embodiment herein described , the line scan rate of the resonant scanner 84 is one half of the normal tv line rate , i . e ., circuit 86 halves the frequency outputted by the tv sync generator 80 . the third harmonic in a fourier series for a triangular waveform is three times the frequency of the fundamental . therefore , a circuit 90 multiplies the output of the tv sync generator 80 by a factor of three . in a manner similar to the control used for the first line scan mirror 14 , the tunable resonant scanner 92 of the second line scan mirror 16 is frequency controlled and phase locked by the circuit networks 94 and 96 , respectively . the field scanner 98 for the field scan mirror 26 is controlled by the output from the tv sync generator 80 . the field scanner 98 is driven in an interlaced sawtooth pattern via a ramp generator 100 and a driver circuit 102 . for very high resolution applications it may be desirable to superimpose a high frequency oscillation or dither on the field scanner 98 via the field driver 102 to eliminate spurious information received from the edges of the object field 11 . it is a correction for the vertical displacement at the edges of the object field which result from the triangular left - to - right , right - to - left line scans as opposed to the true sawtooth left - to - right tv scan format . this small amplitude dither would be at twice the predetermined fundamental line scan frequency f f . the line storage and reversal circuit 76 performs two functions . it stores each pixel in each line so that each scan line can be read twice , and it reverses each right - to - left scan line . for the embodiment discussed hereinabove , each scan line must be read twice to compensate for a predetermined fundamental line scan frequency f f which is half of the standard tv line frequency . right - to - left line reversal is accomplished simply by reading the r / l ram 112 on a first - in , last - out basis . with reference to fig5 each pixel entering the line storage and reversal circuit 76 is digitized by an a / d converter 104 . the digitizing rate is set by a write counter 108 which is slaved to the fundamental line drive , that is at one half of the rate outputted from the tv sync generator 80 . the digitized output from the a / d converter 104 is directed to a l / r ram 114 by a switch 106 while the first line scan mirror 14 is scanning left - to - right and to the r / l ram 112 while the scanner is scanning right - to - left . the ram address for both rams is stepped by the write counter 108 through a switch 110 . the write counter 108 resets and the write counter switch 110 cycles at the scan line rate which is one half of the standard tv line rate . the read counter 118 steps both rams through a switch 116 for readout . the read counter 118 resets and the read counter switch 116 cycles at the standard tv line rate . the read output from the rams is directed to a d / a converter 122 by a switch 120 . while the fundamental line scan mirror 14 is scanning left - to - right the switch 120 is set to read the r / l ram 112 on a first - in , last - out basis . and conversely , while the first line scan mirror 14 is scanning right - to - left the switch 120 is set to read the l / r ram 114 on a first - in , first - out basis . the output from the d / a converter 122 is the input to the gate and summing circuit 78 . in the foregoing discussion the first line scan mirror 14 was frequency controlled by an external master clock . alternatively , radiation scanning systems according to the present invention can be operated at the inherent resonant frequency of the tunable resonant scanner . foreoptics can be used for applications requiring telescopic or microscopic magnifications . internal radiance references can be located at an intermediate focal plane when the system is used in applications requiring accurate measurements . a variety of modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in light of the above teachings . it is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims , the present invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described hereinabove .
7 (Electricity)
with reference to fig1 , a height adjustable work seat 100 suitable for use by an automotive mechanic or other professional is shown . the height adjustable work seat has two major positions of operation , namely a full or maximum height and a very low or minimum height . at intermediate positions of operation , the height adjustable work seat is partially collapsed or partially extended . when working on an automobile , a mechanic may be standing , seated at a nominally conventional seating height , kneeling or sitting upon a floor , sitting or lying upon an automotive creeper or otherwise positioned so as to use tools and to access various regions at various heights of the automobile . traditionally , the mechanic uses the creeper only for accessing very low points of the automobile , and the creeper is either in the way or is moved out of the way while the mechanic works on intermediate or higher points of the automobile , bending or kneeling accordingly . the height adjustable work seat 100 allows the mechanic to select a very low or full height position of the seat , as needed for working on various regions of the automobile . as shown in fig1 , the base 102 of the height adjustable work seat 100 has four wheels 104 , which may have casters 106 , mounted at or near corners of the base 102 . in one example , the wheels 104 swivel with respect to the base 102 . various sizes of bases can , be devised . in the example shown in fig1 , the base 102 has first and second side sections 120 , 122 that extend past respective sides of the seat pan . the first and second side sections 120 , 122 extend further forward than the front edge 124 of the seat pan 112 , and extend further backward than the rear edge 126 of the seat pan 112 . the four wheels 104 are mounted accordingly , with the wheels being positioned outboard of the seat pan 112 for stability . in other words , the wheels 104 are positioned further fore and aft than the front to back extent of the seat pan 112 , and the wheels 104 are positioned further to the sides than the lateral extent of the seat pan 112 . with the wheels mounted further apart than the dimensions of the seat pan 112 , as when the base 102 including the side sections 120 , 122 is wider and deeper than the seat pan 112 and the wheels 104 are mounted near the outermost corners of the base 102 , the height adjustable work seat 100 exhibits stability both laterally and fore and aft . in one example , an upper surface 108 of the base may fit underneath the frame of the automobile , as when low - profile wheels such as found on a creeper are fitted to the frame . at the fully extended or maximum height position of the height adjustable work seat , the mechanic is comfortably seated at a nominal seating height and may roll the seat about the workspace until a very low height of the work seat is desired . in one embodiment , the upper surface 110 of the seat pan 112 , not including the seatback 114 , is approximately seventeen inches above a floor or other surface upon which the wheels 104 roll , when the height adjustable work seat 100 is at the maximum height position . further embodiments may have a seat pan 112 height of fourteen inches or other selected dimension above the floor . a mechanic , seated upon the height adjustable work seat in the maximum height position , can work upon the middle and upper regions of the front , sides and back of an automobile . at such time as a very low height of the work seat is desired , the mechanic collapses the work seat to the minimum height . with reference to fig2 , when the legs of the height adjustable work seat are folded and the work seat is collapsed to the minimum height , the seat pan is very low to the ground . in one example , the seat pan is approximately as low to the ground in the minimum height position as a bottom portion of a seat of the mechanics chair with side tray disclosed in u . s . pat . no . 7 , 237 , 781 . at the fully collapsed or minimum height position , the work seat is approximately as low to the ground as if a seat pan and seatback had been mounted to a mechanics creeper . the mechanic maneuvers the work seat in the minimum height position about the workspace to access lower regions of the automobile . in one embodiment , the upper surface of the seat pan , not including the seatback , is no more than twelve inches above a floor or other surface upon which the wheels roll , when the height adjustable work seat is at the minimum height position . in a further embodiment , a lowermost portion 202 of the top surface 110 of the seat pan 112 , not including the seat back 114 , is 6 inches above the floor when the height adjustable work seat is at the minimum height position . a mechanic , seated upon the height adjustable work seat in the minimum height position , can work upon the lowermost regions of the front , sides and back of an automobile . with reference to fig3 , the height adjustable work seat is shown with all four legs 302 , 304 , 306 and 308 partially collapsed or partially extended . seen from the front of the seat , the two front legs 302 and 304 collapse or fold towards each other , as do the two back legs 306 and 308 . the two front legs 302 and 304 fold along a front folding plane perpendicular to the floor , and the two back legs fold along a back folding plane perpendicular to the floor . seen from either side of the seat the legs of that side collapse or fold away from the viewer , towards the opposed side legs . in a variation , the legs of one side collapse or fold towards each other in a side folding plane , the legs of the opposing side likewise collapsing or folding towards each other in a further side folding plane . other leg - folding configurations may be devised by a person skilled in the art . further variations of the height adjustable work seat include various mechanisms for raising and lowering the seat . a scissors lift may be manually operated and have stops or ratchets at multiple positions . further , a scissors lift may be operated by a screw , using a handle or a motor drive . removable legs may be inserted into sockets in the base and the seat pan assembled onto the removable legs to raise the seat , with the legs removed for the lowered seat position . a seat may hang on upright rods or columns extending upward from a base , the seat being secured to the rods or columns at a variable height . a seat may spin on a large diameter screw that is threaded into the base , for height adjustment . sliding ramps may move inward or outward to adjust a height of the seat relative to the base . one , too , three or four legs may be included . with reference to fig4 , a placement of pivoting wheels 104 near the four outboard corners of the base 102 of the height adjustable work seat 100 is shown . each wheel rolls about a horizontal axis and each wheel assembly pivots about a vertical axis , in a manner known in the art . other arrangements of wheels , wheel types and mountings or placements of mountings may be devised . placing the wheels farther away from a vertical centerline or a center of gravity of the height adjustable work seat provides additional stability . with reference to fig5 , each leg 302 , 304 has a center pivot 316 or knee joint allowing the leg 302 to fold or pivot . each leg has a further pivot 318 at the top of the leg where the leg is pivotably connected to the seat pan or to a frame supporting the seat pan . each leg has a still further pivot 310 at the bottom of the leg where the leg is pivotably connected to the base . thus , each leg has three pivots , one each at top , center and bottom of the leg . equivalently , for each leg , the leg 302 has a lower leg 312 and an upper leg 314 . the bottom pivot 310 foldably connects the lower leg 312 to the base 102 . the center pivot 316 foldably connects the lower leg 312 to the upper leg 314 such that the lower leg 312 and the upper leg 314 can meet when folded together . the top pivot 318 foldably connects the upper leg 314 to the seat pan 112 or seat pan frame . in fig5 , the height adjustable work seat is shown with the two legs of one side partially collapsed or partially extended , and the two legs of the opposed side fully extended , although a view of the rear legs is obscured by the front legs in the elevated front view . in the example shown , the respective center pivots 316 of the front legs 302 , 304 fold towards each other , and the respective center pivots of the rear legs fold towards each other . with reference to fig5 , 6 and 8 , a sleeve lock 502 , 504 telescopically slides up or down an upper portion of each leg 302 , 304 , and locks the leg in a fully extended position or unlocks the leg . the sleeve lock may be a section of tubing of slightly larger inside dimensions than the outside dimensions of the upper leg section or the center pivot section , allowing for a sliding fit . the sleeve lock 502 , 504 slides over the center pivot 316 of the leg to lock the leg 302 , 304 , and slides off of the center pivot 316 of the leg to unlock the leg 302 , 304 . each sleeve lock 502 , 504 is a slidable locking sleeve on a respective leg , engaging and preventing the respective knee joint or other center pivot 316 from folding . each sleeve lock 502 , 504 is disengageable to enable folding the respective center pivot 316 . other mechanisms may be devised to lock a folding leg in a fully extended position and unlock the leg for folding . sleeve locks of the two legs belonging to one side of the seat may be connected by a crossbar 116 , as shown in fig1 , 3 , 4 and 8 . in one example , there are two crossbars 116 and 118 , a first crossbar 116 rigidly connecting sleeve locks of a first side of the chair and a second crossbar 118 rigidly connecting sleeve locks of a second side of the chair . in a further example , where the legs of the first side of the chair fold towards each other , a crossbar connects the sleeve locks of the front legs and a second crossbar connects the sleeve locks of the back legs . each crossbar is oriented perpendicular to the respective folding planes of the legs between which the crossbar spans . thus , a crossbar does not interfere with the folding of the legs that the sliding locks of the crossbar engage . in order to raise the height adjustable work seat from the minimum height as shown in fig2 to the full height as shown in fig1 , the mechanic releases any holding device that retains the work seat or chair in the minimum height position , then grasps and lifts the upper portion of the work seat e . g . by the seatback or seat pan . the upper portion of the work seat may be lifted and kept parallel with the floor with all four legs extending or unfolding simultaneously as shown in fig3 , or lifted by one side followed by the other side as shown in fig5 . as the upper portion of the work seat is lifted , the folding legs of one or both sides straighten out , and the center pivots or knee joints move outward from the folded , collapsed or stowed position to the extended or upright position . the mechanic may pull on the crossbars to assist the legs in opening . once the legs are fully extended , the mechanic pushes downward on the locking sleeves until each locking sleeve slides over the corresponding center pivot or knee joint , locking the center pivot or knee joint rigidly in place . as shown in fig8 , suitable protrusions or other stops 802 extending from a portion of each lower leg 804 serve to constrain each locking sleeve 808 , preventing the locking sleeve from sliding further downward on the leg 804 and unlocking the center pivot 806 or knee joint . the mechanic may push on each crossbar to assist the corresponding locking sleeves in sliding over the knee joints of the respective legs . other mechanisms may be devised for retaining the locking sleeve in a locked position at the center pivot , such as a spring - loaded ball on the locking sleeve engaging a detent on a portion of a leg or vice versa . in order to lower the height adjustable work seat from the full or maximum height as shown in fig1 to the minimum height as shown in fig2 , the raising procedure is reversed . the mechanic slides each locking sleeve upward , disengaging the locking sleeve from the corresponding center pivot or knee joint and allowing the respective leg to pivot at the center . the mechanic may pull on the crossbars to assist the corresponding locking sleeves in sliding off of the knee joints of the respective legs . next , the legs are collapsed . each leg may be folded in half , one at a time , or pairs of legs on a side or pairs of legs at a front or a back may be collapsed together , or all four legs may be folded at the same time . the mechanic may press on one or both crossbars to assist the corresponding legs in folding . once the legs are fully collapsed , the mechanic may use the work seat in the minimum height position . in a variation , once the legs are fully collapsed , a holding device such as a latch , a pin or a hook is engaged that retains the work seat or chair in the minimum height position . with reference to fig6 , an example of a knee joint 604 is shown , with the locking sleeve 602 in - place and rigidly securing the knee joint 604 in an open or fully extended position . in the example , the knee joint 604 has a center link 606 or plate with two pivots 608 and 610 , a first pivot 608 pivotally connecting the center link 606 to the upper leg 612 , and a second pivot 610 pivotally connecting the center link 606 to the lower leg 614 . the locking sleeve 602 may completely surround the knee joint 604 when the knee joint is in the fully extended position . with reference to fig7 , variations of the knee joint may be devised . the knee joint may have a center link or one or more side plates or links . in one variation , the knee joint 702 has two side plates or links 704 and 706 flanking respective linking projections 708 and 710 from the lower leg 712 and the upper leg 714 . in order for the side plate or plates to be recessed and allow sliding clearance for a close - fitting locking sleeve , corresponding ends of the folding legs that join at a knee joint may be thinned or have recesses 716 fitting the plates . with reference to fig8 , the extended knee joint is shown rotated by one quarter of a turn about a vertical axis from the view as shown in fig6 . the locking sleeve 808 slides upward 810 or downward 814 along the upper leg 816 to unlock or lock the center pivot 806 or knee joint . one or more of the locking sleeves may be secured in a locked or an unlocked position . a securing device , such as a pin through a hole in the locking sleeve and engaging a hole in an upper leg or in a knee joint plate , fixes the locking sleeve in a selected location . in a variation , the securing device may be a bolt 818 through a threaded hole 820 in the locking sleeve 808 , the bolt being tightened to a friction fit on the upper leg , on the knee joint plate or elsewhere . the pin or bolt may have a knob or other easily grasped head 822 . in a still further variation the securing device may be a bolt through a threaded hole in the locking sleeve and engaging a hole in an upper leg or in a knee joint plate or elsewhere . in one example all four locking sleeves have bolts . other mechanisms for holding each locking sleeve in place with the corresponding leg in a locked or an unlocked position may be devised . with reference to fig9 , the base 902 of the height adjustable work seat may have one or more side trays 904 , tool trays 906 or beverage holders 908 to one or both sides of the mountings for the legs of the seat . a tray or trays may be fixed or removable . a tray may be mounted to or integral with the base or extensions thereof . tools or other working materials , or a beverage for the mechanic , may be placed or stored in the side tray without interfering with the folding mechanism for the legs of the seat . further , with tools so positioned , a mechanic may reach down to grasp a tool rather than having to fumble underneath the seat as when tools are stored in an under - seat tray . with reference to fig1 and 11 , various seating devices may be attached to or otherwise incorporated into the height adjustable work seat . a seat pan 1000 and seatback 1100 provide a comfortable sitting arrangement for a mechanic . the seatback 1100 may be a half - height seatback . in a further example , a seat pan 1000 without a seatback may be fitted to the height adjustable work seat , which then functions as a height adjustable stool . a seat may be formed of a seat pan 1000 as shown in fig1 or a seat pan 112 and integrated seatback 114 , which may be a half - height seatback , as shown in fig1 - 4 . in a still further example , a tray or a platform is fitted in place of the seat pan and seatback , and the height adjustable work seat functions as a height adjustable work tray , a height adjustable platform or a height adjustable seat and tray combination .
0 (Human Necessities)
a probe 10 for use underwater to measure true acoustic intensity is shown generally in fig1 and 2 . the outer casing of probe 10 is preferably made neutrally buoyant , such that wave vibrations affect the probe casing 14 just as they would affect the water which probe 10 displaces . probe casing 14 may include a syntactic foam casting 12 . the cured foam can be used , trimmed or weighted to achieve neutral buoyancy , as needed . while it is preferred that the outer casing be made neutrally buoyant , embodiments of the present invention may be made without a neutrally buoyant outer casing . a compliance layer 16 separates the probe outer casing 14 from a “ coupling - mass ” or secondary casing 18 . the compliance layer may take a variety of forms , and in this embodiment is a thin layer of compliant rubber , such as a silicon rubber . a plurality of sensor elements 20 and 22 are disposed between the inner surface of the “ coupling - mass ” or secondary casing 18 and a central mounting structure or support 24 . in this embodiment , the sensor elements are small piezoelectric wafers 20 and 22 mounted between the “ coupling - mass ” or secondary casing 18 and the support 24 . the probe or sensor 10 is designed to be mounted to a rigid or semi rigid mounting structure such as support 24 . the outer surface of the support 24 or the entire support 24 may be considered an inner sensor support , or a different sensor support may be provided . in the embodiment of fig1 and 2 , casting 12 is a rigid syntactic foam material having a density less than that of water and strong enough to withstand high hydrostatic pressure . an appropriate amount of foam is used to allow the casting 12 and the and the rest of the probe casing 14 to have the same mass as the volume of water displaced by the entire probe 10 . the cured foam can be trimmed or weighted to achieve neutral buoyancy . acoustic pressures act to displace the casting 12 and the remainder of the probe casing 14 with the same magnitude and phase of the acoustic particle displacement . motion of the probe casing 14 results in spring - like forces in the compliant rubber 16 which are directly applied to the “ coupling - mass ” or secondary casing 18 . the forces generated at the casing 18 are imparted to the piezoelectric elements 20 and 22 . the piezoelectric sensors 20 and 22 are preferably smaller than the inner surface of the secondary casing 18 . effectively , the entire acoustic pressure exerted on the casting 12 and probe casing 14 are coupled into the smaller area of the piezoelectric elements 20 for frequencies much higher than the resonance exhibited by the compliant rubber layer 16 , the probe casing 14 , and the “ coupling - mass ” or secondary casing 18 . in this embodiment , piezoelectric elements 20 are poled in a 3 - 3 mode , while the elements 22 are poled in a 1 - 5 mode for a response to shear . the electrical signal generated by the piezoelectric elements 20 and 22 correspond to the magnitude and frequency of the sensed vibration . this voltage output is directly proportional to the neutrally buoyant probe casing &# 39 ; s velocity which , in turn , is substantially the same as that of the surrounding water . one novel feature of this invention is the suspension method used to fix the time - average location of the probe . inertial - type probes of the prior art typically involve suspensions of the outer casing which must be allowed to move in concert with the acoustic wave vibrations . generally , any suspension system will limit the response of at least one degree of freedom , if not more . however , the invention treats this probe as a pair of coupled masses , comprising the outer casing 14 and the “ coupling - mass ” casing 18 , with the outer casing 14 mass being negligible due to the buoyancy corrections made by the syntactic foam 12 . it can then easily be shown that above the resonance frequency of the combined system of the compliant layer 16 , the probe casing 14 , and the inner casing 18 , there is essentially no motion of the inner casing 18 . the present invention can exploit this fact by rigidly mounting the probe by the central support 24 . this fixes the time - average location of the probe while having in essence no effect on the probe &# 39 ; s response . since the neutrally buoyant outer casing moves in concert with the acoustically induced motion of water , the probe can be made small relative to the wavelength of the acoustic field . while the overall package of the intensity probe can be made much smaller than that of a prior art inertial - type probes , the non - zero length of the probe still introduces an error in the velocity measurement . it is probably not practical to make the probe smaller than about 1 . 5 cm , but this would still permit operation up to 25 , 000 hz before acoustic scattering becomes significant . in one embodiment of the invention , the syntactic foam casting 12 is a mixture of epoxy resin and glass microballoons . as shown in fig2 , the assembly of rectangular components is centered within a rectangular - shaped casting 12 . pressure sensors 28 and 30 are mounted on the edge of the casting 12 , a portion of each pressure sensor 28 and 30 being directly exposed to the surrounded water and the small gap 32 is sealed with a compliant , waterproof material . pressure hydrophones 28 and 30 can be cast into the end faces of the outer casing 14 , or cemented on casting 12 after the foam has cured . an air - backed piezoceramic bender disk is an example of the type of hydrophone which can be used in probe 10 . in use , the probe 10 can be directly mounted to an external support structure via the central support rod 24 at a desired elevational measurement point and oriented in a desired measurement direction . voltage outputs from the piezoelectric elements 20 are directly proportional to acoustic particle velocity in the plane normal to the support rod 24 while the voltage output from the piezoelectric elements 22 is proportional to the acoustic particle velocity in the direction parallel to the support rod 24 . alternatively , the voltage outputs from the pressure sensors 28 and 30 can be used to approximate the acoustic particle velocity in the direction parallel to the support rod 24 according to the equations given above . combinations of the various signal output of the probe by those skilled in the art yield accurate measurements of the complete vector field of the acoustic intensity . this embodiment provides a probe which is compact , light in weight , easy to handle out of water , and adapts well to a variety of support structures . also , multiple units could be combined along the same support rod 24 to create an array of probes 10 . additionally , the potentially small size can greatly reduce the effect of acoustic field scattering . a second embodiment is shown in fig3 and 4 , in which the probe 10 consists of a plurality of cylindrical layers , rather than square - shaped as indicated in fig1 and 2 . this embodiment is constructed in a similar manner and exhibits roughly the same properties as the first embodiment . the same reference numbers are used for corresponding elements . the outer casing 14 can be more easily adapted to an acoustic pressure means by simply using a piezoelectric cylinder of appropriate dimensions . also , the cylindrical profile further reduces acoustic scattering of the field . a third embodiment is shown in fig5 and 6 , in which the probe 11 consists of a plurality of spherical layers , rather than cylindrical as describe above . in this embodiment , the foam casing 13 encloses a thin walled piezoelectric sphere 15 . this in turn encloses a thin layer of compliant rubber 17 and a smaller “ coupling - mass ” sphere 19 to which are bonded a plurality of six small piezoelectric wafers 21 and a central rigid sphere - rod assembly 25 . the piezoelectric wafers 21 are positioned in pairs along orthogonal cartesian axes such that the average location of the pairs is co - located at the center of the probe 11 . the rigid sphere - and - rod support 25 is oriented such that it emerges from the probe 11 at an angle of forty - five degrees with respect to the axes established by the piezoelectric element 21 pairs so as not to interfere with location of the piezoelectric elements 21 . signals incident on probe 11 will cause motion of the casting 13 and piezoelectric shell or casing 15 . the acoustic pressure of the incident wave is directly measured by the piezoelectric shell 15 . the acoustic forces on the sphere are coupled into the piezoelectric elements 21 identically as described in the first embodiment . however , in this third embodiment , the outer casing 15 is free to move in three - dimensions , i . e . there is no restriction on its motion due to the support provided by the central sphere - and - rod support 25 . the piezoelectric elements 25 are electrically connected in pairs such that each pair outputs a voltage proportional to the acoustic particle acceleration in the direction along the separation vector between them , but produces no output for compressional forces on the element pairs . thus , the probe 11 directly measures the acoustic pressure and the acoustic particle acceleration in three orthogonal directions . a pressure signal from sensor 15 and the appropriate velocity signal from piezoelectric elements 21 are combined to provide the true acoustic intensity . further , a fourth embodiment of the probe 50 is shown in fig7 and 8 , in which the compliant layer 58 and the piezoelectric elements 60 and 62 are reversed as compared to the previously noted embodiments . in this embodiment , neutral buoyancy requires the displaced water mass to be equal to the combined mass of the casting 52 , the outer casing 54 , the “ coupler mass ” casing 56 and the elements 60 and 62 , in order that rigidly mounting the center support has no effect on the sensor response . other details are consistent with previously detailed embodiment descriptions noted above , for example 1 - 5 shear piezoelectric elements 62 may be removed and two hydrophones 68 and 70 may be used to approximate the velocity parallel to the central support . any gaps 72 should be sealed with a highly compliant material . the voltage output of the piezoelectric elements 60 and 62 are directly proportional to the three dimensional acoustic particle acceleration , rather than particle velocity . the output voltage signals can be electrically corrected to be proportional to the particle velocity and then combined with the acoustic pressure signal to compute acoustic intensity of the field . in this configuration , the probe has a slightly higher response to acoustic excitation as compared to above the detailed embodiments . various modifications can be made to the embodiments described herein . for example , the use of syntactic foam is required solely for balancing buoyant forces on the probe and may or may not be necessary in some embodiments of a probe . any rigid material is suitable as a casting or housing around the velocity sensor provided the density of the sensor is the same as the fluid in which measurements are to be made . alternatively , the sensor can be made more or less dense than the fluid it displaces , and a sensor transfer function can be determined and taken into account in acoustic intensity calculations . this can be accomplished by calibrating the output of the sensor to a known acoustic velocity field , such as a plane progressive wave . also , probe 10 , 11 or 50 can produce pressure and velocity signals to be recorded separately for later processing . alternatively , simple electronic circuitry ( not shown ) could be cast into castings 12 , 13 or 52 , or contained within the rigid support rod 24 , 25 or 64 , so that acoustic intensity can be calculated within probe 10 , 11 or 50 . another alternative is to connect the signal output leads to an external device ( i . e . digital signal analyzer ) to calculate acoustic intensity . as will be clear to those of skill in the art , other modifications may also be made . as mentioned previously , the layer of compliant material in the described embodiments may be replaced with other compliance layers . the illustrated layer of compliant silicon rubber is continuous and completely encases the secondary casing or inner support . alternatively , there can be gaps in the layer , or springs or other compliance elements may be used to form the compliance layer . when silicon rubber is used , it is preferred that it be highly compliant , especially in comparison to the generally rigid outer and secondary casings . in some embodiments , the compliant material has a shore a hardness less than 50 , while other embodiments have a hardness less than 30 , and still other have a compliance less than 20 . one version has a hardness of approximately 10 . as will be clear to those of skill in the art , a similar effective compliance may be obtained with harder materials if voids are provided , or through other approaches . in some embodiments , the compliance layer has a thickness of 2 - 4 millimeters , though thicker and thinner layers could be used . the outer and secondary casings may be formed of various materials , with some versions being made of aluminum . outer casings made of piezoelectric material are another possibility , as discussed above . the piezoelectric elements may take a variety of forms , such as being peizoceramic . many other modifications and variations of the invention are possible in view of the above disclosure . it is therefore to be understood that the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described , without departing from the scope or teaching of this invention .
6 (Physics)
fig1 is a cross - sectional view illustrating a method for fabricating a mos transistor according to one embodiment of the invention . fig2 through 5 are graphs illustrating changes in the concentration of dopants in a junction of a mos transistor fabricated in accordance with a method of the invention . with reference to fig1 , a gate insulating layer pattern 130 , a gate conductive layer pattern 140 , and a gate hardmask layer pattern 150 are sequentially formed on a semiconductor substrate 100 ( e . g ., a silicon substrate ) to form a gate stack . gate spacers 160 are formed on sidewalls of the gate stack . impurity ions are implanted into exposed portions of the semiconductor substrate 100 by a common ion implantation process to form a source region 121 and a drain region 122 . a channel region 110 is defined to a region between the source region 121 and the drain region 122 . in order to form junctions of a lightly doped drain ( ldd ) structure ( not shown ), the impurity ions may be implanted at a relatively low concentration to form source / drain extension regions ( not shown ) before the formation of the gate spacer 160 . further , a well region of a conductivity type opposite to that of the source and drain regions 121 and 122 may be formed in an upper region of the semiconductor substrate 100 before the formation of the gate stack . as indicated by the arrows 170 in fig1 , hydrogen is implanted to reduce the concentration of the dopants in a particular portion of the interface ( i . e . a source junction ) between the source region 121 and the channel region 110 , and in a particular portion of the interface ( i . e . a drain junction ) between the drain region 122 and the channel region 110 . in the case where the mos transistor is a p - channel mos transistor , boron ( b ) ions or bf 2 ions at a high concentration are implanted into the source region 121 and the drain region 122 . when hydrogen is implanted into the source and drain junctions by hydrogen implantation , the hydrogen serves to neutralize the b ions or bf 2 ions present in particular portions of the source and drain junctions , resulting in a reduction in the concentration of the b ions or bf 2 ions in the particular portions . fig2 shows the concentration distribution of dopants ( b ions ) implanted at a high concentration after the formation of the source region 121 and drain region 122 . from the graph of fig2 , it is apparent that the b ions are present at the highest concentration around the surface of the junction , i . e . at the left end of the x - axis of the graph , and that the concentration of the b ions decreases with increasing depth of the junction ( i . e . as the x - axis value increases ) ( see , the line denoted by reference numeral “ 200 ” in fig2 ). referring to fig3 , when hydrogen is implanted to a particular target depth , e . g ., a depth of about 400 å from the surface , the concentration of the hydrogen is the highest at a depth of about 400 å and gradually decreases with increasing and decreasing depth . the implanted hydrogen serves to neutralize the b ions . as shown in fig4 , the b ions are neutralized in the particular portion ( see , the portion “ a ” shown in fig4 ) around a depth of about 400 å , resulting in a reduction in the concentration of the b ions . only a few changes in the concentration of the b ions are observed in the other portions . the graphs of fig2 to 4 show the results measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy ( sims ), while the graph of fig5 shows the results measured by spreading resistance profiling ( srp ). fig5 reveals that the concentration of the dopants activated by hydrogen implantation is reduced at a depth of about 400 å ( see , the portion “ b ” shown in the figure ). the reduction of the concentration of the dopants in the particular portion by hydrogen implantation enables inhibition of short - channel effects without substantially affecting the concentration of the dopants in the other portions , i . e . while minimizing deterioration of the current driving ability of the device . in addition , the reduction of the concentration of the dopants in the particular portion enables increase of punchthrough margin and improvement of leakage current characteristics in the particular portion . the particular portion where the concentration of the dopants is decreased may be determined through various simulation experiments . once the particular portion is determined , the particular portion where the concentration of the dopants is decreased can be controlled by varying the energy required for the hydrogen implantation . in addition , the amount of the dopants to be neutralized can be controlled by varying the dose of the hydrogen implanted . for example , when it is intended to achieve increased punchthrough margin and improved leakage current characteristics in a deep portion of a junction , a target for hydrogen implantation is set in a lower portion of the junction and the concentration of dopants to be activated in the lower portion of the junction is decreased . similarly , when it is intended to achieve increased punchthrough margin and improved leakage current characteristics at the surface of a junction , a target for hydrogen implantation is set in an upper portion of the junction and the concentration of dopants to be activated in the upper portion of the junction is decreased . fig6 and 7 are graphs comparing changes in the concentration of dopants in a junction of a mos transistor to which halo ion implantation is applied , with changes in the concentration of dopants in a junction of a mos transistor fabricated in accordance with the method of the invention . fig6 shows changes in the concentration of dopants in a junction of a mos transistor to which halo ion implantation is applied . the line denoted by reference numeral “ 610 ” represents changes in the concentration of dopants of a first conductivity type in source / drain regions , and the line denoted by reference numeral “ 620 ” represents changes in the concentration of dopants of a second conductivity type implanted by halo ion implantation . “ c ” and “ d ” shown in the figure indicate changes in the concentration of the dopants of a first conductivity type , particularly the concentration of the dopants activated . fig7 shows changes in the concentration of dopants in a junction of a mos transistor fabricated by hydrogen implantation in accordance with the method of the invention . the line denoted by reference numeral “ 710 ” represents changes in the concentration of dopants of a first conductivity type in the source / drain regions 121 / 122 , and the line denoted by reference numeral “ 720 ” represents changes in the concentration of hydrogen implanted by hydrogen implantation . “ e ” shown in the figure indicates changes in the concentration of the dopants of a first conductivity type activated only in a particular portion , that is , around a target depth into which the hydrogen is implanted . fig7 also shows that few changes in the concentration of the dopants activated are observed in the other portions . fig8 is a cross - sectional view illustrating a method for fabricating a mos transistor according to another embodiment of the invention . referring to fig8 , hydrogen is fed into junctions by hydrogen annealing in the method of this embodiment , which is distinguished from the method of the previous embodiment by hydrogen implantation . according to the method of this embodiment , an mos transistor is fabricated by the following procedure . first , a semiconductor substrate 100 is loaded into a furnace 810 . as explained with respect to fig1 , a gate stack is formed on the semiconductor substrate 100 and ion implantation is performed to form a source region 121 and a drain region 122 . before or after the formation of the gate stack , the source region 121 and the drain region 122 , hydrogen is fed into the furnace 800 to create a hydrogen ambient , as indicated by the arrows 810 in fig8 . then , annealing is performed at above a predetermined temperature such that the hydrogen is fed into particular portions of junctions of the source / drain regions . the annealing may be performed by a common heat treatment process . if needed , the annealing may be performed by rapid thermal processing ( rtp ). regardless of which process is employed , the particular portions of the junctions of the source / drain regions and the amount of the dopants to be neutralized can be controlled by varying the internal temperature of the furnace 800 and the amount of the hydrogen fed .
7 (Electricity)
fig1 and 3 show a land rig 10 in accordance with the present disclosure which includes a substructure 12 and a mast 14 . the substructure comprises two side structures 16 and 18 . each side structure 16 and 18 has a base 20 and 22 and a floor support structure 24 and 26 . legs 30 and 32 , a strut 36 and telescopic locking legs 28 and 34 are arranged between the base 20 and the floor support structure 24 on an outer side 37 of the side structure 16 . a similar arrangement of legs , generally identified by reference numeral 38 is on an inner side 39 of the side structure 16 . similarly , an arrangement of legs 40 is arranged between base 22 and floor structure support 26 on the outer side 41 of the side structure 18 and a similar arrangement of legs , generally identified by reference numeral 42 is on an inner side 43 of the side structure 18 . the two side structures 16 and 18 are spaced by spacer pole ( s ) 44 connected between bases 20 and 22 . a rig floor center section 45 sits between and is supported by the floor support structures 24 and 26 . the mast 14 comprises two front mast legs 46 and 47 and two rear mast uprights 48 and ( not shown ). structural latticework 49 is arranged between the front legs 46 and 47 and the two rear mast uprights 48 and ( not shown ). structural latticework may also be arranged between the two front mast legs 46 and 47 and between the two rear mast uprights 48 and ( not shown ), although structural latticework is arranged not to obstruct the v - door opening , so that tubulars and downhole tools can be moved from storage off - rig into pipe setback 50 and to mouse hole 51 a and well center 52 . a rat hole 51 is provided for a kelly ( not shown ) for use in a rotary table ( not shown ). one side of the mast 14 may be substantially free of latticework to allow tubulars and other equipment move freely to and from alignment with well center 52 and on and off rig . pinned connections are provided at each foot of the front mast legs 46 and 47 . each foot is pinned to lugs 46 b and 47 b of mast shoes 46 c and 47 c supported by the side structures 16 and 18 . each shoulder 48 a and ( not shown ) of the two rear mast uprights 48 and ( not shown ) has a lower strut 49 a angled to return to foot 46 a and 47 a . a gin pole 48 b and ( not shown ) is arranged between shoulder 48 a and ( not shown ) and lug 49 d and 50 d of mast shoes 49 c and 50 c respectively . a wireline 53 is arranged around a reel 54 of a drawworks 55 arranged on the rig floor 45 or on a skid 56 supported between the floor support structures 24 and 26 . the wireline 53 passes over a crown sheave or block 57 to a travelling block 58 for raising and lowering a top drive 60 on a track 61 over well center 52 . racking board 62 and stabbing board 63 are hinged to the mast 14 and supported by racking board support poles 64 and stabbing board poles 65 respectively . a mud flow line 65 a is arranged along front mast leg 47 . tubulars , such as drill pipe 66 and casing 67 is conveyed from an off - rig storage stock pile ( not shown ) to pipe setback 50 using a pipe conveyor 68 and pipe handling equipment 71 and 72 . the pipe handling equipment 71 and 72 are arranged on front corners of the rig floor center section 45 . other tools , such as iron roughnecks 69 and 70 are arranged on the rig floor center section 45 about well center 52 and mousehole 51 for making up stands of drill pipe . fig4 shows a first stage of erection of the land rig 10 shown in fig1 to 3 . the two side structures 16 and 18 have been off - loaded from one or more trucks . each base 20 and 22 of each side structure 16 and 18 is arranged on the ground and placed parallel and in concert with one another at a predetermined spacing . fixing the spacer pole 44 between the two bases 20 and 22 confirms the two side structures 16 and 18 are spaced correctly . each floor support structure 24 and 26 is arranged on top of respective base 20 and 22 . the floor support structures 24 have a width and an underneath provided with a lug 80 and ( not shown ) attached on each side . a top lug 81 of leg 30 is rotatably pinned to lug 80 . top lug 82 of the telescopic leg 28 is also rotatably pinned to lug 80 . bottom lug 83 of leg 30 is rotatably pinned to a foot lug 84 in a middle portion 85 of the base 20 . a bottom lug 86 of telescopic locking leg 28 is rotatably pinned to a foot lug 87 in rear portion 88 of the base 20 . the telescopic locking leg 28 is in a retracted position . the floor support structures 24 a front end lug 90 and ( not shown ) on each side of a front end . the front end lug 90 has a top lug 91 of telescopic locking leg 34 rotatably pinned thereto . bottom lug 92 of telescopic locking leg 34 is rotatably pinned to a foot lug 93 on a front portion 94 of the base 20 . a top lug 95 of leg 32 is rotatably pinned to a pin 96 in a side wall 97 floor support structures 24 and a bottom lug 98 of leg 32 is rotatably pinned to a foot lug 99 fixed to the front portion 94 of the base 20 . a primary lifting ram 100 is arranged between the two sides of side structure 16 . the primary lifting ram 100 has an outer cylinder 100 a with a lower ram lug 101 fixed thereto . the lower ram lug 101 is rotatably arranged on a lower ram axel 102 fixed between the two sides of side structure 16 in the central portion 83 of base 20 . an upper ram lug 103 is fixed on an inner cylinder 104 of primary lifting ram 100 . the primary lifting ram 100 may have one or more concentric intermediate cylinders 105 for telescoping a predetermined distance . the upper ram lug 103 is rotatably pinned to a mast lug 106 . the mast lug 106 is advantageously located on the front leg 46 , preferably at a point below and advantageously between the center of gravity 108 and the foot of the front mast leg 46 . the center of gravity symbol identified by reference numeral 108 shows the position of the center of gravity of the mast 14 and anything else attached thereto at this stage of erection , such as the crown block 57 , gin poles 49 b and racking and stabbing boards 62 and 63 . a primary lifting ram 110 is located between sides of side structure 18 in a similar manner to the primary lifting ram 100 in side structure 16 . a further mast lug ( not shown ) is fixed on the other front mast leg 47 and an upper ram lug 111 ( see fig3 ) is rotatably pinned thereto . a lower ram lug 112 is similarly rotatably pinned to a foot lug ( not shown ). front mast legs 46 and 47 are rotatably pinned to lugs 46 b and 47 b respectively and the mast lies substantially horizontally . a top portion of the mast 14 rests on a dolly ( not shown ), part of a truck ( not shown ) or other suitable rest . the gin poles 49 b and ( not shown ) are connected to a lower portion of the mast 14 . the primary lifting rams 100 and 110 may , for example be 18 ″ ( 457 mm ) two stage cylinder having outer cylinder 100 a with a first stage bore size of 18 ″ ( 457 mm ), an intermediate cylinder 105 with a second stage bore size of 15 ″ ( 381 mm ). the primary lifting rams 100 and 110 may , for example have a full extend length 46 ′ ( 14 m ), working pressure 2600 psi ( 180 bar ). the primary lifting rams 100 and 110 are preferably driven by hydraulic fluid flowing into the cylinders 124 , 125 and 126 and advantageously by a common supply , such that the primary lifting rams operate in unison . referring to fig5 a , there is shown an enlarged view of part of the apparatus shown in fig5 , wherein a locking lug 115 is fixed to the underneath of the floor support structure 24 . a further locking lug 116 is provided on a rear end of the base 20 . a pin 117 is provided to lock the base 20 to the floor support structure 24 . the primary lifting rams 100 and 110 are activated simultaneously to extend from a fully refracted position . as the primary lifting rams 100 and 110 extend , the mast 14 is raised about pinned connection 46 c and 47 c . the primary lifting rams 100 and 110 sweep across an arc of preferably eighty degrees , starting from a two o &# 39 ; clock position ( approximately thirty degrees from horizontal ) anti - clockwise as viewed in fig4 to 6 , through a twelve o &# 39 ; clock position , over - vertical to a twenty minutes past eleven o &# 39 ; clock position ( approximately seventy degrees from horizontal ) when the primary lifting rams 100 and 110 are fully extended , whereupon feet of gin poles 49 b and ( not shown ) meet the mast shoes 49 c and 50 c and are pin connected together . upper ends of the primary lifting rams 100 and 110 are disconnected from the mast lugs 106 and ( not shown ), retracted and rotated about pin connection 101 , 102 to lie down on the base 20 , as shown in fig7 . pin 117 of the locking lug 115 is removed to unlock the base 20 from the floor support structure 24 . each floor lifting ram 120 and ( not shown ) is arranged within each side structure 16 and 18 . each floor lifting ram 120 and ( not shown ) has a lower cylinder 124 of small diameter having a lower end provided with a lower lug 121 rotatably pinned to a side of the rear portion 88 of the base 20 . each floor lifting ram 120 and ( not shown ) also has an intermediate cylinder 125 and an upper cylinder 126 of large diameter . the upper cylinder has an upper end provided with an upper lug 122 , which is rotatably pinned to a mast shoe lug 123 fixed to or formed integrally with the mast shoe 46 c . the floor lifting rams 120 and ( not shown ) may , for example be 18 ″ ( 457 mm ) two stage cylinder having outer cylinder 100 a with a first stage bore size of 18 ″ ( 457 mm ), an intermediate cylinder 105 with a second stage bore size of 15 ″ ( 381 mm ). the lifting rams 100 and 110 may , for example have a full extend length of 28 ′ 6 ″ ( 8 . 7 m ), working pressure 2600 psi ( 180 bar ). the floor lifting rams 120 and ( not shown ) are preferably driven by hydraulic fluid flowing into the cylinders 124 , 125 and 126 and advantageously by a common hydraulic supply , such that the lifting rams operate in unison . the floor lifting rams 120 and ( not shown ) are activated simultaneously to raise the floor support structures 24 and 26 and everything supported thereby or thereon to an intermediate height , such as 5 m . at this stage , any or all of the following may be on or supported by the floor support structures 24 and 26 : drawworks 55 , pipe setback 50 , iron roughnecks 69 , 70 , top drive 60 , top drive tracks 61 , center floor section 45 , dog house ( not shown ), rotary table ( not shown ) etc .. referring to fig8 , each of primary lifting rams 110 and 120 is swung about pinned connection 101 , 102 . the upper lug 103 is connected to a pin connection 127 in a side wall of the floor support structure 24 and similarly an upper lug of primary lifting ram 120 is connected to a pin connection in a side wall of the floor support structure 26 . the floor lifting rams 120 and ( not shown ) are disconnected from the floor support structures 24 and 26 by removing upper lug 122 from mast shoe lug 123 . the primary lifting rams 100 and 110 are activated simultaneously to raise the floor support structures 24 and 26 and everything supported thereby or thereon to working height , for example 10 m . telescopic legs 28 and 34 are locked in their extended position by pins located through holes ( not shown ). the primary lifting rams 100 and 110 are then disconnected from the floor support structures 24 and 26 . the strut 36 is added and fixed between the central portion 83 of the base 20 and the floor support structure 24 . similarly , a further strut ( not shown ) is added between base 22 and floor support structure 26 . all of the primary and floor lifting rams 100 , 110 , 120 and ( not shown ) can now to laid down on the bases 20 and 22 or removed therefrom . the mast 14 may be any suitable known type , such as a single - piece , multi - piece , and / or telescoping type . it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the techniques disclosed herein can be implemented for automated / autonomous applications via software configured with algorithms to perform the desired functions . these aspects can be implemented by programming one or more suitable general - purpose computers having appropriate hardware . the programming may be accomplished through the use of one or more program storage devices readable by the processor ( s ) and encoding one or more programs of instructions executable by the computer for performing the operations described herein . the program storage device may take the form of , e . g ., one or more floppy disks ; a cd rom or other optical disk ; a read - only memory chip ( rom ); and other forms of the kind well known in the art or subsequently developed . the program of instructions may be “ object code ,” i . e ., in binary form that is executable more - or - less directly by the computer ; in “ source code ” that requires compilation or interpretation before execution ; or in some intermediate form such as partially compiled code . the precise forms of the program storage device and of the encoding of instructions are immaterial here . aspects of the invention may also be configured to perform the described functions ( via appropriate hardware / software ) solely on site and / or remotely controlled via an extended communication ( e . g ., wireless , internet , satellite , etc .) network . while the embodiments are described with reference to various implementations and exploitations , it will be understood that these embodiments are illustrative and that the scope of the inventive subject matter is not limited to them . many variations , modifications , additions and improvements are possible . for example , various combinations of the features provided herein may be provided . plural instances may be provided for components , operations or structures described herein as a single instance . in general , structures and functionality presented as separate components in the exemplary configurations may be implemented as a combined structure or component . similarly , structures and functionality presented as a single component may be implemented as separate components . these and other variations , modifications , additions , and improvements may fall within the scope of the inventive subject matter .
4 (Fixed Constructions)
preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the accompanying drawing ( fig4 to 6 ). fig4 shows a mos transistor 10 according to the first embodiment of the present invention and a protective element 11 . the mos transistor 10 is comprised of a gate electrode 5 a , heavily - doped n - type diffusion regions 3 a and 3 b , probe pads 7 a , 7 b , and 7 c , and the like , and has a structure similar to that of the prior art shown in fig1 . the protective element 11 is connected to the gate electrode pad 7 a . the structure of this protective element 11 will be described below . the protective element 11 has a gate electrode 5 b and heavily - doped n - type diffusion regions 3 b and 3 c formed adjacent to the gate electrode 5 b . the gate electrode 5 b is connected to a pad 8 through a contact 6 . the heavily - doped n - type diffusion region 3 b is connected to the gate pad 7 a of the mos transistor 10 . the heavily - doped n - type diffusion region 3 c is connected to a heavily - doped p - type diffusion region 4 , which is formed away from the region 3 c , through an interconnection 9 b . the gate electrode 5 a of the mos transistor 10 is connected to the heavily - doped n - type diffusion region 3 b of the protective element 11 through an interconnection 9 . the charge built up on the pad 7 a in a plasma process or the like flows into the heavily - doped n - type diffusion region 3 b of the protective element 11 through the interconnection 9 . this increases the potential of the heavily - doped n - type diffusion region 3 b . at the same time , charge builds up on the pad 8 for the gate electrode 5 b of the protective element 11 in the same manner , and its potential increases . as a result , the protective element 11 is turned on . when plasma etching for interconnections is performed , charge build up on the gate pad 7 a of the mos transistor 10 and the gate pad 8 of the protective element 11 to almost the same level because the pads have the same size . for this reason , the potentials of the respective pads become almost equal . the potentials at this time are generally several volts or higher . on the other hand , since the threshold voltage of the protective element 11 is generally one volt or lower , the channel of the protective element 11 is turned on when charge builds up on the pad 8 . in addition , the potential of the heavily - doped n - type diffusion region 3 b connected to the pad 7 a becomes higher than that of the heavily - doped n - type diffusion region 3 c by several volts or higher . for this reason , current conducts between the heavily - doped n - type diffusion region 3 b of the protective element 11 and the heavily - doped n - type diffusion region 3 c . the charge built upon on the gate electrode 5 a of the mos transistor 10 flows into the p - type substrate 1 through the channel of the protective element 11 and the heavily - doped p - type diffusion region 4 . according to the characteristics obtained when the channel of the protective element 11 is turned on , as shown in fig5 the channel current abruptly increases with an increase in gate voltage . that is , the protective element 11 behaves like a resistor connected to the p - type substrate 1 , and the charge flowing into the gate electrode pad 7 a of the protective element 11 flows into the substrate according to the characteristics indicated by “( a )” in fig5 . note that the current flowing from the plasma and the gate voltage have a predetermined relationship , which is indicated as a plasma current ( dotted line ) in fig5 . the plasma current does not have much dependence on the gate current and can be approximately regarded as a constant current . that is , charging by the plasma can be prevented by forming a path through which the current escapes . in this manner , charge buildup on the gate electrode of the mos transistor 10 is prevented , thereby preventing damage to the gate oxide film . in measuring the characteristics of the mos transistor after completion of the manufacturing process , since the channel of the protective element 11 is turned off when the potential of the pad 8 of the protective element 11 is set to be equal to that of the p - type substrate 1 , the gate electrode 5 a of the mos transistor 10 is connected to only the diode ( heavily - doped n - type diffusion region 3 b ). measurement can therefore be performed without any problem . in addition , since charge builds up on the gate electrode 5 b of the protective element 11 by the plasma , like the gate electrode 5 a of the mos transistor 10 , the gate insulating film of the protective element 11 may be damaged . to prevent this , it is preferable to increase the channel width and channel length of the protective element 11 and to decrease the antenna ratio . in addition , when the threshold voltage of the protective element 11 is set to be lower than that of the mos transistor 10 , the protective element 11 can be easily turned on . this improves the protective effect . the second embodiment of the present invention will be described next with reference to fig6 . if the amount of charge flowing from a plasma is excessively large , the gate insulating film of the protective element 11 may be damaged and destroyed . in such a case , no protective effect can be expected . for this reason , protection by a diode is added to reduce the plasma damage to the protective element 11 itself . fig6 is a plan view of a mos transistor according to the second embodiment . the second embodiment differs from the first embodiment in that an interconnection 9 d is connected to a pad 8 for a gate electrode 5 b of a protective element 11 , and a pad 8 is connected to a heavily - doped n - type diffusion region 3 d through the interconnection 9 d . a diode d is therefore formed by the protective element 11 . when charge builds up on the gate electrode 5 b of the protective element 11 , the diode d breaks down to allow the charge in the gate electrode 5 b to escape into the p - type substrate 1 . even if the diode is added to the protective element 11 in this manner , the characteristics of the element do not change , and hence the same protection performance as that in the first embodiment can be expected , as indicated by “( a )” in fig5 . in the second embodiment , the mos transistor is described as an estimation transistor . however , the present invention is not limited to this . even in general mos transistors used in integrated circuits , when long interconnections are connected to gate electrodes , the same problem concerning charge buildup as that described above arises . therefore , the influences of charge buildup can be prevented by applying the present invention to such circuits .
7 (Electricity)
this invention proposes the design of a central tower receiver using molten salts with a defined configuration , which facilitates its functioning and control during the operation of the thermoelectric solar plant . the main advantage of the design which is the object of this invention is that its implementation allows the useful life of the receiver to be increased and a decrease in the differences in temperature between the feed entrance and exit in the pipes which the receiver is composed of . as a consequence , there would be a reduction in the thermal tensions experienced by the material which can result in structural damage , such as fractures and cracks , mainly in the welded areas . to achieve this , a system is proposed involving recirculation of a percentage of the exit flow of the receiver ( mixture of hot molten salts ) upon their entrance . this flow percentage must result in the lowest possible load loss , generating at the same time admissible thermal losses for a fixed level of receiver efficiency . the receiver proposed in this invention , in order to reduce thermal losses , will be of a cavity type . cavity type receivers are defined as those which are installed at the top of a tower inside a gap or cavity , in order to minimize thermal losses due to radiation or convection . the configuration is in a semi cylindrical shape composed of panels , the receiver area is determined according to the thermal power of the design . the panels are formed of a combination of vertical pipes . the semi cylindrical shape of the receiver allows the maximization of the capture of solar radiation by the heliostat field . the cold molten salt ( heat transfer fluid ), originating from the storage tank , is not directly introduced into the receiver , as occurs in state - of - the - art systems , but supplies a mixture deposit which collects cold salt as well as a part of the hot recirculating salt mixing them together in the deposit , so that afterwards said mixture , of cold and hot molten salts , is introduced in the upper part of the vertical pipes which the receiver consists of . on the lower part , the hot salt is collected . part of the exit flow of this hot salt ( this proportion is defined for reasons of recirculation ) is recirculated in the mixture deposit and the rest is carried to the hot salt storage tank . the heating of the salt mixture is produced as the fluid advances through the interior of the combination of vertical pipes in the panels , absorbing the incident solar radiation on the surface . the configuration of the panels which the receiver consists of is in parallel . the distribution of the entrance fluid ( mixture of cold and hot molten salts ) within the panels is carried out using control valves on the upper part . the distribution of the flow of fluid is based on the incident solar radiation power in the panels ( distribution of non uniform incident flow over time ). as a result , in the panels which receive greater incident radiant power , a greater flow of refrigeration will circulate , in this way ensuring that the gradients in the pipe walls of the receivers are at a minimum during their operation . the recirculation of a part of the exit flow of the receiver ( hot molten salt ) at its entrance allows , as previously mentioned , reductions in the temperature variations between the entrance and the exit of the vertical pipes of the panels of which the receiver consists of and , as a consequence , reductions in the thermal dilations of the materials from which the pipes are manufactured . however , as the recirculation percentage increases , not only is there an increase in the difference in temperatures between the entrance and the exit of the vertical tubes that the receiver is composed of , but the load losses in the system increase , so that greater impulsion power of the working fluid is required . furthermore , the temperature of the metal in the surface of the receiver is greater , resulting in greater thermal losses , mainly due to radiation . as a result , a suitable selection with regards to optimal recirculation for established design power will lead to optimal functioning of the receiver . the proposed configuration of the molten salt receiver ( system with recirculation ) minimizes the technological risks which are present in other receivers , in those which the thermal cycles which the material must bear are stronger and , as a result , have a greater impact on the material . this device must offer solutions to some of the problems detected that exist in molten salt receiver technology and provide advantages in its use , such as the reduction in the risk of damage to the structure and the material of the receiver ; and increase the efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle with respect to that currently obtained with saturated and / or overheated steam receivers , thanks to which greater working temperatures are reached . to complete the description that is being made and with the object of assisting in a better understanding of the characteristics of the invention , accompanying said description is a set of drawings wherein , by way of illustration and not restrictively , the following has been represented : fig1 . configuration of a molten salt receiver formed by a panel with a recirculation system . fig2 . configuration of a molten salt receiver formed by four panels with a recirculation system . fig3 . geometry of a molten salt receiver formed by four panels . a list is provided below with the references used in the figures : ( 1 ) entrance flow to the receiver ( 2 ) exit flow from the receiver ( 3 ) entrance flow to the hot salt storage tank ( 4 ) recirculation flow of hot salt ( 5 ) entrance flow of cold salt to the mixer ( 6 ) mixer ( flows 4 and 5 ) ( 7 ) impulsion pump of the molten salt mixture ( 8 ) cold molten salt storage tank ( 9 ) hot molten salt storage tank ( 10 ) receiver panel formed by vertical pipes ( 11 ) panel 2 e ( east ) of the receiver ( 12 ) panel 1 e ( east ) of the receiver ( 13 ) panel 1 w ( west ) of the receiver ( 14 ) panel 2 w ( west ) of the receiver ( 15 ) control valve for the flow distribution of panel 2 e ( 16 ) control valve for the flow distribution of panel 1 e ( 17 ) control valve for the flow distribution of panel 1 w ( 18 ) control valve for the flow distribution of panel 2 w ( 19 ) focus point of the heliostat field to achieve a better understanding of the invention , there is a description below of the system and operation of a central tower receiver system using molten salts . as observed in fig1 , the molten salt receiver ( 10 ) is formed by a panel composed of vertical pipes . the cold molten salt ( 5 ), originating from the tank in which it is stored ( 8 ), is carried to supply a mixture deposit ( 6 ) where , by way of a supply line , hot molten salts ( 4 ) also arrive , so that the exit flow from the mixer ( 6 ) enters the upper part of the vertical pipes of which the receiver is composed of ( 10 ). on the lower part of said pipes , the hot salt is collected ( 2 ). part of the exit flow ( 2 ) ( the quantity being defined for reasons of recirculation which are established ) recirculates ( 4 ) to the mixture deposit ( 6 ) and the rest ( 3 ) is carried to the hot salt storage tank ( 9 ). the heating of the mixture of cold and hot salts ( 1 ) entering the receiver ( 10 ) is produced as the fluid advances through the interior of the combination of vertical pipes in the panels , absorbing the incident solar radiation on the surface . shown in the configuration of the four panel receiver ( fig2 ) is the circulation circuit of the working fluid in parallel through the panels and the flow of recirculation ( 4 ) from the exit ( 2 ) to the entrance ( 1 ) of the receiver . each panel ( 11 , 12 , 13 and 14 ) is composed of a combination of vertical pipes . the circulation of the fluid inside the receiver is identical to that described for fig1 . as observed in fig3 , the molten salt receiver is formed by four panels ( 11 , 12 , 13 and 14 ) with a semi cylindrical disposition . this configuration manages to collect all the solar energy reflected by the heliostat field which is directed at the focus point ( 19 ). the heat transfer fluid used in a preferred embodiment is a mixture of molten nitrate salts ; a preferred composition would be formed by 60 % of nano 3 and 40 % of kno 3 .
8 (General tagging of new or cross-sectional technology)
in accordance with the process , heavy crude oil is first heated and then pumped through a permeable ceramic membrane unit at high differential pressure using a cross - flow arrangement . useful conditions are as follows : feed temperature : 90 ° c . to boiling temperature of the oil or upper limit of membrane capability differential pressure : 40 psig to maximum allowable differential pressure of the membrane feed flow rate : depends on total surface area of the membrane unit and will be about 1 - 10 liters / hr . per m 2 of available membrane surface membrane capabilities : operable at trans - membrane pressure of 1450 psig and temperature up to 480 ° c . the experiments underlying the invention were carried out in the batch ultrafiltration unit shown schematically in fig1 . the unit included a membrane module 1 shown in fig2 and comprising a 5 . 08 cm o . d .× 1 . 9 cm i . d . tubular steel housing 2 containing a 25 cm long × 1 cm o . d . single tube ceramic membrane element 3 . the membrane elements used were obtained from united states filter corporation of warrendale , pa . and are identified by the trade mark membralox . the membrane elements were single tube asymmetric ceramic membranes composed of alumina . each element comprised layered composites , with the outer layer having the smallest pores . the membrane element 3 was inwardly spaced from the housing wall to form an annulus 4 . the open ends of the annulus and housing were closed by ferrules 5 carrying o - ring 6 , o - ring 7 and end plates 8 , 9 . the end plate 8 formed an inlet 10 for feed and the end plate 9 formed an outlet 11 for retentate . the housing side wall 12 formed an outlet 13 for the permeate and an outlet 14 for collecting a permeate sample or draining the permeate side of the module . a first reservoir tank 18 , containing heavy crude oil feed , was equipped with a stirrer 33 and was externally heated by an electrical heating band 32 . the heavy crude oil feed was delivered through valve 19 to the feed pump 20 and pumped to the internal retentate recycle line 35 through the filter 21 using line 22 . a second reservoir tank 15 , containing toluene , was also connected to the feed pump through valve 16 and shut - off valve 17 . the heavy oil feed and the internal retentate recycle were pumped through the membrane tube at high velocity using the recycle pump 23 . the internal retentate recycle rate was monitored using flowmeter 34 . during normal operation shut - off valve 29 was closed and the retentate was mostly recycled through line 35 to ensure a high cross - flow velocity in the membrane tube . a small portion of the retentate also flowed through the relief valve 30 that was used to control the pressure in the membrane . the permeate flowed through valve 25 , filter 26 , flowmeter 27 , valve 28 and was recovered at point p of fig1 . in addition , a permeate sample could be withdrawn through valve 24 . during the initial part of the operation , permeate was recycled to the feed tank by switching valve 28 so that the permeate was returned to the reservoir tank through line 36 and valve 31 . once the permeate asphaltene content was at the desired level , valve 28 was switched so that permeate was recovered at point p . in the operation of the unit , heavy oil was heated in tank 18 and the membrane unit filled with this oil within 1 minute using the feed pump 20 . the unit was purged of trapped air by opening valve 29 . subsequently valve 29 was closed and the recycle pump 23 was started . the relief valve 30 was then adjusted to obtain the desired pressure in the membrane tube . valve 25 was opened and valve 28 was switched so that permeate was directed through line 36 back to the feed tank . permeate samples were also withdrawn through valve 24 . once the initial permeate recycle period was complete , valve 28 was switched such that the permeate flow exited at point p . most comparisons made in the tables are based on initial flux . that is , for the case of no permeate recycle initial flux is the flux measured as soon as the membrane unit has reached steady state ( about 20 minutes ) and for the case of permeate recycle the flux is that flux measured after about 3 hours once the permeate recycle has been stopped . as shown in fig1 permeate can be recycled to the front end of the membrane unit . recycling is commenced when a non - fouled membrane is placed in operation and is continued until there is a sharp change in diminution of flux rate . at about this point , ( identified by the numeral 100 in fig3 ), recycling is terminated while ultrafiltration is continued . intermittent back - pulsing can be practised by backflowing permeate through the membrane wall to clear the gel layer when it accumulates . a small amount (& lt ; 10 wt . %) of a diluent , such as benzene or toluene , can be added to the feed to reduce viscosity , if desired . this example compares the results obtained in the first stage of the operation , each conducted under the same conditions with the exception that in one run no permeate was recycled and in the other run all of the permeate was recycled for a preliminary period of 3 hours . the membrane used had an average pore diameter of ˜ 1000 ° a . table i______________________________________feed temperature : 120 ° c . inlet pressure : 97 psigfluid velocity through membrane : 7 - 9 m / s run 1 run 2duration of recycle period , hrs . nil 3feed - cold lake crude oilasphaltene , wt . % 18 . 3 18 . 3ni , ppm 76 76v , ppm 190 190viscosity @ 40 ° c ., cps 5 , 825 5 , 825api gravity 10 . 1 10 . 1initial permeate sampleflux , kg / m . sup . 2 / day 105 64asphaltene , wt . % 12 . 6 5 . 3ni , ppm 60 35v , ppm 151 85viscosity @ 40 ° c ., cps 1 , 525 710api gravity 11 . 8 13 . 8 % reduction in : asphaltenes 31 71ni 21 54v 21 55______________________________________ this example shows the improvement obtained by permeate recycle in the context of a membrane having an average pore diameter of 500 ° a . the conditions and data for two runs carried out at the same conditions , except for recycling , are set forth in table ii . table ii______________________________________feed temperature : 120 ° c . inlet pressure : 95 psigfluid velocity through membrane : 7 m / s run 1 run 2duration of recycle period ( hrs ) nil 4feed - cold lake crude oilasphaltene , wt . % 18 . 3 18 . 3initial permeate sampleasphaltene , wt . % 13 . 9 5 . 1 % reduction in asphaltenes 24 72______________________________________ this example compares the results of a run carried out using a 200 ° a average pore size ceramic membrane , without recycle , and a run carried out with a 1000 ° a average pore size ceramic membrane , with recycle . table iii______________________________________feed temperature : 120 ° c . inlet pressure : 95 psigfluid velocity through membrane : 7 - 9 m / smembrane pore size : 200 ° a 1000 ° aduration of recycle : nil 3 hrs . feed : cold lake crude oilasphaltene , wt . % 18 . 3 18 . 3initial permeate sampleflux , kg / m . sup . 2 / day 34 61asphaltene wt . % 3 . 4 3 . 7 % asphaltene reduction 81 80______________________________________ the data of table iii shows that the 1000 ° a membrane , operated with an initial recycle period , had the same degree of separation as that obtained with the 200 ° a membrane . however , the flux rate was 61 kg / m 2 / day with the 1000 ° a membrane whereas it was only 34 kg / m 2 / day with the 200 ° a membrane . otherwise stated , operation with the large pore membrane using recycle attained a significant increase in permeate flux without loss in asphaltene separation , when compared to the results achieved with the 200 ° a pore size membrane . this example assesses the rate of diminution of flux rate during and after the initial recycle period . a run was carried out on cold lake crude oil having asphaltene content of 18 . 3 wt . %. the ceramic membrane used had an average pore size of 1000 ° a . the oil was at a temperature of 120 ° c . and pressure of 97 psig when introduced into the membrane . the fluid velocity through the membrane tube was 9 m / s . the permeate was recycled for 2 hours . the run was continued for a total of 8 hours . table 4 sets forth the permeate flux rates in kg / m 2 / day , measured at the end of each hour of the run . table iv______________________________________time - on - stream permeate fluxhrs kg / m . sup . 2 / day______________________________________0 . 2 3600 . 3 3160 . 6 3010 . 9 3141 . 1 881 . 6 612 . 6 513 . 1 494 . 0 534 . 9 595 . 6 606 . 5 558 . 1 58______________________________________ this example shows that within 3 hours the flux rate diminution had levelled off and remained generally constant thereafter . this example demonstrates how to determine the duration of the permeate recycle period . a run was carried out using cold lake crude oil having asphaltene content of about 19 wt . %. the run was carried out at a temperature of 120 ° c . and an inlet pressure of 97 psig . the fluid velocity through the membrane was about 9 m / s . the ceramic membrane had an average pore size of 1000 ° a . the run was conducted without permeate recycle . the results are tabulated in table v . table v______________________________________ permeate permeate flux asphaltenetime - on - stream rate content %( hrs ) ( kg / m . sup . 2 / day ) ( wt . %) reduction______________________________________0 . 25 383 18 . 6 0 . 50 . 43 301 18 . 9 0 . 50 . 62 251 18 . 9 0 . 50 . 93 220 18 . 2 41 . 3 223 18 . 8 11 . 8 188 17 . 3 92 . 8 58 16 . 4 143 . 9 49 10 . 6 444 . 9 53 4 . 2 786 . 1 57 4 . 2 787 . 1 56 -- -- 7 . 9 52 3 . 8 80______________________________________ the data shows that , after an initial period of about 4 hours , the membrane had operated to achieve an asphaltene reduction of about 70 %. the recommended permeate recycle period would be 4 hours in such a case . this example demonstrates that a ceramic membrane having an average pore size of 2000 ° a can perform as well as one of 1000 ° a . runs were carried out using 1000 ° a and 2000 ° a membranes fed with cold lake crude oil at a temperature of 160 ° c . with a pressure of 95 psi . the permeate was recycled for an initial period of 2 hours . the results are reported below . table vi______________________________________pore size : 1000 ° a 2000 ° a______________________________________flux ( kg / m . sup . 2 / day ) 65 70asphaltene reduction (%) 75 80______________________________________ the data of table vi are reported for a time of 3 hours recycle plus 3 hours operation ( total 6 hours ).
1 (Performing Operations; Transporting)
referring now to the drawings , there is illustrated in fig1 a hydrokinetic torque converter , shown generally at 10 , includes a bladed impeller 12 connected drivably to a vehicle engine crankshaft 14 . a bladed turbine 16 is connected to drive sprocket 18 of a chain transfer drive . a bladed stator 20 is located between the toroidal flow exit section of the turbine of the turbine flow entrance section of the impeller and acts in known fashion to change the direction of the toroidal fluid flow , thus making possible a torque multiplication in the torque converter 10 . during steady - state operation in higher gear ratios , a friction bypass clutch 22 may be engaged to drivably connect the impeller 12 and the turbine 16 , thus effectively removing the hydrokinetic torque flow path from the driveline . stator 20 is anchored against rotation in a direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the impeller by an overrunning brake 24 , which is grounded to stator sleeve shaft 26 . a pair of simple planetary gear units 28 and 30 is rotatably mounted about the axis of output shaft 32 that is arranged in spaced parallel disposition with respect to the engine crankshaft axis . unit 28 includes ring gear 34 , sun gear 36 , carrier 38 and planet pinions 40 that are journalled on carrier 38 in meshing engagement with ring gear 34 and sun gear 36 . gear unit 30 comprises ring gear 42 , sun gear 44 , carrier 46 and planet pinions 48 , which are journalled on carrier 46 in meshing engagement with sun gear 44 and ring gear 42 . carrier 46 forms a torque output element for the gearing and is drivably connected to output member 48 , which is connected to final drive sun gear 50 of final drive planetary gear unit 52 . final drive gear unit 52 includes , in addition to sun gear 50 , a ring gear 54 , a carrier 56 and planet pinions 58 journalled on carrier 56 in meshing engagement with sun gear 50 and ring gear 54 . carrier 56 acts as a torque output element of the gear unit 52 and is connected to ring gear 60 and differential gear unit 62 . a compound carrier 64 forms a part of the gear unit 62 that rotatably journals a first pair of pinions 66 , which mesh with a ring gear 60 and with a second set of planetary pinions 68 , the latter meshing with sun gear 70 . sun gear 70 in turn is drivably connected to output shaft 32 . carrier 64 is drivably connected to a companion torque output shaft 72 . shaft 32 is connected to one traction wheel of the vehicle , and the opposite traction wheel of the vehicle is connected to output shaft 72 . the connections between the traction wheels and the respective output shafts is achieved by universal coupling and half shaft assemblies in known fashion . a third simple planetary gear unit 74 is located between the pair of gear units previously described and the hydrokinetic torque converter . it comprises a ring gear 76 , a sun gear 78 , a carrier 80 and planet pinions 82 journalled on the carrier 80 in meshing engagement with ring gear 76 and sun gear 78 . carrier 80 is connected to torque transfer sleeve shaft 84 , which is drivably connected to ring gear 34 of gear unit 28 and to ring gear 42 of gear unit 30 . an overrunning brake 86 that has an outer race 88 grounded to the transmission housing as shown at 90 is adapted to anchor sun gear 44 during operation in each of the first four overdriving ratios , thus providing a torque reaction point for the gear system . ring gear 54 is permanently anchored to the housing as shown at 92 , thus permitting the final drive gear unit 52 to multiply the torque delivered through the gear units 74 , 28 and 30 in each of the driving ratios . a friction brake band 94 surrounds brake drum 96 which , in turn , is connected to sun gear 44 . the brake band 94 is applied to anchor the sun gear 44 during hill braking operation and during reverse - drive operation . a disc brake shown generally at 98 is adapted to anchor the carrier 38 against the transmission housing during operation in the lowest ratio and in reverse drive . sun gear 36 is a torque input element flow transmission . during operation in reverse drive , sun gear 36 is connected to driven sprocket 100 by means of reverse clutch 102 , the latter acting as a driving connection between the driven sprocket 100 and brake drum 104 . sun gear 36 is connected directly to the brake drum 104 . driven sprocket 100 is connected to driving sprocket 18 through a torque transfer drive chain 106 . during forward drive operation , drive sprocket 100 is connected to sun gear 78 by forward drive clutch 106 . the forward drive clutch 106 is engaged during operation in the first three forward - driving ratios . a direct - drive clutch 108 connects ring gear 76 with the driven sprocket 100 during operation in the third and fourth forward driving ratios as well as during the fifth driving ratio . when direct drive clutch 108 and the forward clutch 106 are engaged simultaneously , ring gear 76 is connected to sun gear 78 so that the elements of the gear unit 74 rotate in unison with a one - to - one speed ratio . to effect a fifth forward - driving ratio , friction clutch 109 is applied , thus establishing a driving connection between sleeve shaft 84 and sun gear 44 of gear unit 30 to lock sun gear 44 to ring gear 42 so that the speed ratio developed by gear unit 30 is unity . the neutral idle feature of the invention is achieved by controlling engagement and release of forward clutch 106 . when the vehicle is at a standstill and the engine is idling , the engine 10 will tend to drive the turbine because of the hydrokinetic torque multiplication effect of the converter 10 . thus , a driving torque will be delivered to the traction wheels through the gearing , even when the engine is idling . in prior art designs , it is necessary to maintain the accelerator pedal at a sufficiently advanced position so that the engine will idle at a speed that will avoid undue engine harshness . it further is necessary for the vehicle operator to maintain his foot on the vehicle brake to avoid creeping of the vehicle with the engine idling . by disengaging the clutch 106 to establish a neutral idle condition , the torque flow path to the traction wheel is interrupted when the engine is idling with the vehicle at a standstill . fig2 shows a chart that indicates the clutches and the brakes that are applied and released to establish each of the five forward - driving ratios as well as the reverse ratio . the sun gear 36 is anchored by a second and fourth ratio brake band 110 . that brake band is applied also during fifth ratio operation so that sun gear 36 may act as a reaction point as the ring gear 34 is overdriven and as torque is delivered to the gear unit 28 through the carrier 38 and through the direct - drive clutch 108 . in fig2 the forward - drive clutch 106 is designated as clutch fwd , the direct - drive clutch 108 is designated as clutch dir , the reverse disc brake 98 is referred to as the lo / rev brake , the fifth ratio clutch 109 is identified as 5cl clutch , and brake band 110 is identified as 2 / 4 band . first ratio drive is achieved by engaging brake band 94 , which anchors sun gear 44 . also , disc brake 98 is applied , and forward clutch 106 is applied . thus , sun gear 78 is connected to the driven sprocket at 100 , and the underdriven motion imparted to the carrier 80 is transferred to the ring gear 42 of gear unit 30 . in fig2 brake band 94 is referred to as the hb and rev band . the reverse clutch 102 is identified in fig2 as the rev clutch . a schematic representation of a microprocessor control system , shown generally at 200 , is shown in fig3 . the engine is generally designated by reference numeral 228 . operating variables for the engine , such as manifold pressure and coolant temperature and engine speed , are measured by analog sensors and distributed to an electronic microprocessor 230 . the signal passage for manifold pressure is shown at 232 . the engine coolant temperature signal is distributed to the processor 230 through signal line 234 . the engine speed signal is distributed to the processor 230 through line 236 . other variables that are measured and distributed to the processor are a signal indicating the range selection or transmission manual valve position . this signal is distributed through signal passage 238 . turbine speed also is measured , and that value is distributed to the processor through signal line 240 . the torque output shaft speed for the transmission is distributed to the processor through signal line 242 . a bypass clutch pressure signal is distributed to the processor through signal line 244 , but that signal is irrelevant to the present invention . transmission oil temperature for the engine is measured , and the signal representing that value is distributed to the processor through signal line 246 . a brake signal is distributed to the processor through signal line 248 . the presence of a signal at line 248 will indicate whether the vehicle brakes are applied or released by the vehicle operator . the processor 230 will receive the information developed by the sensors and condition it so that it may be used in digital form by the central processor unit . the central processor unit identified at 250 processes the information delivered to the processor 230 in a manner that will be described subsequently using algorithms that are stored in memory 252 . the output signals from the processor 230 are delivered to a valve body 254 through signal line 256 . the output data includes shift signals delivered to the shift solenoids that control the ratio changes . the operation of the valve body 254 and the solenoid signals are described in commonly - assigned u . s . pat . no 5 , 272 , 630 , herein incorporated by reference . the output signal developed by the valve body 254 delivered through signal line 258 controls the operation of the clutches and brakes of the transmission illustrated in fig1 . for purposes of describing the benefits of the present invention , a comparison to prior art neutral idle characteristics will first be made with reference to fig4 which shows the prior art neutral idle clutch characteristics for a transmission having an open loop - type converter . this type of transmission is further described in commonly - assigned u . s . pat . no . 5 , 272 , 630 . in fig4 time is plotted on the abscissa ; and output shaft torque , clutch fluid pressure , engine speed and turbine speed are plotted on the ordinate . the forward clutch pressure , the engine speed , the turbine speed and the output shaft torque assume initially the values shown in region a of fig4 . it is seen from fig4 that the turbine speed is zero since the vehicle is at rest . the difference between engine speed and turbine speed represents the slip that exists when the vehicle comes to rest and before the neutral idle mode begins . at time b , the neutral idle mode is initiated , which results in an exhaust of pressure from the forward clutch . this results in a decay of the forward clutch pressure over a short period of time , as indicated by the curve c in fig4 . the output shaft torque decays , as shown by curve d , as the forward clutch pressure is relieved . as the forward clutch loses capacity following initiation of a neutral start mode , the turbine speed will increase , as shown at e , until it reaches the normal turbine speed for engine idle , which may be 600 rpm as shown at f in fig4 . the engine speed at that time in a typical vehicle installation may be about 800 rpm as shown at g . fig4 illustrates at point h what happens , according to the prior art , when the operator terminates the neutral idle mode by advancing the accelerator pedal . an immediate increase in the forward clutch pressure then will occur until a transition pressure indicated at point i is reached . it is during this interval that the clutch servo cylinder is filling and the clutch servo piston is stroking . because the engine throttle is advanced , the engine speed will respond to the advancing throttle and will increase as shown by the ramp j in fig4 . the engine speed continues to increase until the clutch servo is fully stroked . at that time , the engine speed will have reached a peak value shown at k . when the piston for the forward clutch servo is stroked and the forward clutch gains capacity , the output shaft torque will sharply rise , as indicated by the steep slope curved portion l , until it reaches a peak value shown at m . the achievement of the peak value m is coincident generally with the peak engine speed , the latter immediately decreasing in value at a fast rate , as shown at n . the decreasing engine speed is accompanied by a substantial inertia torque that contributes to the achievement of the peak value m for the output shaft torque . the clutch pressure will continue to increase following the stroking of the clutch servo piston and progressively increase at a rapid rate , as shown by the curve 0 , until a final clutch pressure value is reached , as shown at p . the output shaft torque will be subjected to torque fluctuations , as demonstrated by the oscillating torque values q following clutch engagement . the prior art torque curve illustrated in fig4 is perceptible as a “ slip bump ” disturbance that occurs following the advancement of the accelerator pedal when the operator demands engine torque levels that would produce a turbine torque beyond the forward clutch capacity during neutral idle operation . the subsequent uneven engine response is undesirable . the control strategy of the present invention that avoids these undesirable features of the prior art will now be explained with reference to fig5 and 7 . referring now to fig5 the routine executed by microprocessor 230 for controlling engine torque output during launch from neutral idle operation according to a preferred method of the invention will now described . the vehicle begins in the neutral idle operating condition ( step 500 ). as described above , the neutral idle operating condition results in an exhaust of pressure from the forward clutch at time b in fig4 . this results in a decay of the forward clutch pressure over a short period of time , as indicated by the curve c in fig4 . the output shaft torque decays , as shown by curve d , as the forward clutch pressure is relieved . as the forward clutch loses capacity following initiation of a neutral start mode , the turbine speed will increase , as shown at e , until it reaches the normal turbine speed for engine idle , which may be 600 rpm as shown at f in fig4 . the engine speed at that time in a typical vehicle installation may be about 800 rpm as shown at g . at some point in time , the vehicle operator advances the accelerator pedal ( step 502 ) to terminate neutral idle operation as shown at h in fig4 . then , the microprocessor 230 determines an engine brake torque limit ( step 504 ) and a requested engine torque output derived from operator demand ( step 506 ). these values are used to determine the amount of torque that will actually be supplied by the engine at that particular time . according to the present invention , the engine brake torque limit can be determined in a variety of ways . a first preferred method comprises employing a generally increasing pre - determined function to determine an appropriate engine brake torque limit at a given time subsequent to ceasing neutral idle operation . specifically , for a given elapsed time since the neutral idle operation was ceased , the function provides an appropriate engine brake torque limit . because it is known that the capacity of the transmission &# 39 ; s forward clutch increases with time , the function provides generally higher engine brake torque limits as the elapsed time increases . the function will generally provide engine brake torque limits that follow the known increasing capacity characteristics of a forward clutch , as illustrated in fig6 . a second preferred method for determining the engine brake torque limit comprises estimating the torque capacity of the forward clutch during the launch period using a mathematical model that depends on various operating parameters , including clutch pressure . then , the engine brake torque limit is calculated based on the estimated forward clutch torque capacity and a calibrated delta turbine torque offset value . the calibrated delta turbine torque value may be positive or negative to facilitate tuning of forward clutch engagement during neutral idle operation . specifically , according to the second preferred method , the engine brake torque limit is determined by the following equation : tqe_brk  _limit = forward_clutch  _torque  _capacity + tq_delta fn_conv   ( nt ne ) fn_conv is the torque multiplication of the torque converter . fn_conv is a well - known function that can be expressed as the turbine torque divided by the engine torque , and tq_delta is a calibrated positive or negative offset . tq_delta can be a negative offset to reduce the engine torque to ensure short enough engagement time of the forward clutch . tq_delta can be a positive offset to compensate for the time lag in generating engine torque . the forward clutch torque capacity used to determine the engine brake torque limit is calculated using the following equation : fn_cap is a function that transforms the forward clutch pressure ( either commanded or measured ) into a torque capacity based on clutch pressure and other variables , such as transmission fluid temperature , clutch design , and the like . the fn_cap function also includes a conversion factor from torque measured at the forward clutch to torque measured at the turbine shaft . irrespective of the particular method used to determine the engine brake torque limit , the actual torque output supplied by the engine is limited based on the lesser of the engine brake torque limit and the level of torque requested by the vehicle operator ( step 508 ). in terms of a mathematical expression , the level of torque supplied by the engine is expressed as follows : the controller may limit engine torque output in a variety of well - known ways , including adjusting engine air / fuel ratio , engine spark , etc . next , the controller determines whether the launch period from neutral idle operation is complete ( step 510 ). if so , the algorithm ends ( step 512 ). if not , then steps 502 - 508 are repeated . each time the algorithm is repeated , the engine brake torque limit increases , and , assuming the requested torque output is sufficiently high , so does the actual engine torque output . fig6 is a graph that compares a sample requested engine torque , the engine brake torque limit , and the actual engine torque output , according to the present invention . the solid line represents the requested engine torque and the line with explicit data points represents the maximum torque brake limit produced by the method of the invention . the dashed line illustrates the actual engine torque output according to the invention . as shown in fig6 the requested engine torque rises steeply due to operator demand at around 0 . 3 seconds to a maximum engine torque of about 120 ft / lbs . and slightly decreases to a relatively constant value of about 100 ft / lbs . the method of the invention limits the actual engine torque output , producing a less abrupt increase in torque output . the result is a smooth transition from neutral idle operation to full engagement of the front clutch without unnecessarily sacrificing desired power during the launch period . as describe above , by limiting actual engine output torque based on the clutch capacity of the engaging clutch during vehicle launch , it is possible to maximize available torque to the driver , while at the time preventing uneven response . preferred embodiments of the present invention have been disclosed . a person of ordinary skill in the art would realize , however , that certain modifications would come within the teachings of this invention . for example , the teachings of this invention apply when a different clutch other than the forward clutch or identified as the forward clutch is allowed to slip during neutral idle operation . therefore , the following claims should be studied to determine the true scope and content of the invention .
1 (Performing Operations; Transporting)
fig1 is a block diagram of a multiprocessor , multicelled system 100 . system 100 is composed of processing cells 105 - 120 and memory . the four cells communicate with , and , among each other through “ ganged ” crossbar 125 and 130 , each routing one half of a 72 bit wide data transfer between cells . cell 1 ( 105 ) can access cell 2 ( 110 ) through either crossbar 125 or crossbar 130 . similarly , cell 3 ( 115 ) can also access cell 2 ( 110 ) through either crossbar 125 or crossbar 130 . if cell 1 ( 105 ) transmits information to cell 2 ( 110 ) the information is sent from cell 1 &# 39 ; s coherency controller through the link 135 to crossbar 125 and crossbar 130 through link 145 . then from crossbar 125 through link 150 , crossbar 130 through link 140 to cell 2 &# 39 ; s coherency controller . bandwidth is improved through the use of bit - slicing which is used to divide the information between crossbar 125 and crossbar 130 . for instance , cell 1 ( 105 &# 39 ; s ) coherency controller can divide a message which consists of 72 bits into two 36 bit wide packets . the first 36 bit packet ( i . e ., upper order ), packet a , can be sent via link 135 to crossbar 125 and via link 150 from crossbar 125 to cell 2 ( 110 &# 39 ; s ) coherency controller . at the same time cell 1 ( 105 &# 39 ; s ) coherency controller sends the second ( i . e ., lower order ) 36 bits of the message in packet b across link 145 to crossbar 130 and across link 140 to the coherency controller of cell 2 ( 110 ). in this mannner , the length of time required to transmit the message is cut approximately in half in comparison to a sequential transmission through a single switch . the 36 bits which were transferred via crossbar 125 and the 36 bits transferred via crossbar 130 are merged within cell 2 ( 110 &# 39 ; s ) coherency controller to reform the original message . referring to fig2 a and 2b , each crossbar element can have up to eight connections . for instance , crossbar 202 uses four of its ports to connect to cells 204 - 210 . three of crossbar 202 &# 39 ; s remaining connections are used to connect to the other three crossbars of the four crossbar system . link 212 connects crossbar 202 to crossbar 210 , link 214 connects crossbar 202 to crossbar 216 , and link 218 connects crossbar 202 to crossbar 220 . crossbar 202 also includes a port connecting to router 222 used to communicate with a similar system of crossbars and cells . each of the crossbars 202 , 210 , 216 and 220 include two parallel , 36 bit wide crossbar switching units ( not shown ) to provide a combined 72 bit wide switching capability . such an arrangement provides a bit sliced transfer of messages . while both crossbar switching units operate synchronously with regard to a common clock signal , the units do not coordinate transfer of respective message portions or bit slices . eliminating or avoiding intramessage coordination and synchronization between crossbar switching units avoids the associated processing delay . since errors causing the crossbar switching units to desynchronize are rare , this time saving is preferable to synchronization overhead which would otherwise be required . however , in the event of loss of this “ passive ” synchronization , steps must be taken to recoordinate message handling so that complete 72 bit wide data transfers are accomplished . for example , assume , as in the present embodiment of the invention , there are five classes of flow control messages that can be sent from a cell via a crossbar to the rest of the system . a first flow control is a read request , which requests access to memory located within a different cell . a second flow control class is a memory return used to respond to a read request in which information contained in a memory location is sent to the requesting processor . a third flow control class is a processor respond in which a specific processor located within a cell responds to a request from another processor . a fourth flow control class is an input / output ( i / o ) transaction , a read or write request , from an i / o card together with any associated interrupts . a fifth flow control class consists of crossbar interconnect networks for running system backup implemented as a fast fail - over mode or a hot standby . in a preferred embodiment of the present invention , priorities are established between the various flow controls to ensure equal treatment between the flow controls . for instance , a read request should not be allowed to block a data return from memory . to provide for prioritization , five buffers in the form of a circular queue are established for each type of flow control within each port of a crossbar . in the preferred embodiment of the present invention , forty buffers are established , five for each flow control within each of the eight input ports of a crossbar . referring now to fig3 if processor 305 of cell 105 initiates communication with processor 310 of cell 110 communication messages are routed from processor 305 of cell 105 to the coherency controller 315 of cell 105 . the coherency controller 315 bit - slices or divides the communication up into two parallel 36 bit packets . packet a ( not shown ) is sent via link 135 to crossbar 125 and then via link 150 to coherency controller 320 of cell 110 . in parallel , packet b , containing the second set of 36 bits , is sent from coherency controller 315 of cell 105 via link 145 to crossbar 130 and then via link 140 to coherency control 320 of cell 110 . in the transmission of this communication , crossbar 125 and crossbar 130 operate in lock step or , in synchronized mode based on having a common clock signal , i . e ., are possibly synchronized . upon receipt of both packet a and packet b coherency controller 320 of cell 110 reassembles the communication in the proper format and sends the information to processor 310 of cell 110 . if an error occurs during the transmission of packet a or packet b via request crossbars 125 and crossbar 130 , synchronization between crossbar 125 and crossbar 130 would be lost . the present invention relates to a method for reestablishing , the synchronization between crossbar 125 and crossbar 130 . but , before the synchronization can be reestablished the error first has to be detected . one situation in which an error can be detected is through parity checks performed by the crossbars . when packet a is sent from coherency controller 315 of cell 105 , to crossbar 125 , the latter performs a parity check to ensure that the received data survived the transmission without modification . if a single bit error occurs in the transmission of packet a from coherency controller 315 of cell 105 to the crossbar 125 , by using duplicated data and parity bits , crossbar 125 can correct the changed bit to recover the original message . if , however , two or more bits have been corrupted in the transmission of packet a from coherency controller 315 of cell 105 to crossbar 125 , the error is unrecoverable and therefore fatal . in the presence of a fatal error , crossbar 125 will not transmit packet a to coherency controller 320 of cell 110 via link 150 . nearly simultaneously ( i . e . substantially in parallel ), coherency controller 315 of cell 105 transmits packet b over link 145 to crossbar 130 . crossbar 130 separately and independently performs a parity check on packet b upon receipt . in the absence of an error within packet b , crossbar 130 transmits packet b via link 140 to coherency controller 320 of cell 110 . however , in trying to reformat the original message , coherency controller 320 will have received packet b but will not have received packet a and will therefore determine that an error has occurred in the transmission of packet a . additionally , the presence of this error in packet a interrupts synchronization or lock step between the crossbars . this loss of synchronization between crossbar 125 and crossbar 130 is further exacerbated by the time delay associated with coherency controller 320 of cell 110 &# 39 ; s identification of the receipt of packet b without a corresponding packet a . in the preferred embodiment of the invention , crossbar 125 and crossbar 130 can be resynchronized by reinitializing the link between crossbar 125 and cell 105 simultaneously , or nearly so , with the reinitialization of the link between crossbar 130 and cell 105 . in addition to reinitializing the link between the crossbars and cell 105 the arbitration history must also be realigned . in order to realign the arbitration history the traffic between cell 105 and the two crossbars 125 and 130 must be stopped . thereafter , the realignment of the arbitration can occur simultaneously with the reinitialization of the links between cell 105 and crossbar 125 and crossbar 130 . this can be accomplished because competition for the resources for the links 135 and 145 has been halted . when all other traffic between cell 105 and the crossbars has been halted , there is no contention in the execution of the reinitialization command and other transmissions , so that there is only one contestant requesting the resource , the reinitialization command . there are at least two ways in which the traffic can be halted between cell 105 and the crossbars . a first implementation is in software . referring again to fig3 cell 105 includes four processors , 305 , 325 , 330 ) and 335 . preferably , one of these processors will be designated a master or “ monarch ” processor . for example , if processor 305 of cell 105 is designated the monarch processor , the processor will include a software error handling routine to resolving transmission problems between cell 105 and the crossbars . once an error has been detected , processor 305 ( the monarch processor ), sends a message to both crossbar 125 and crossbar 130 to stop all traffic to and from cell 105 . additionally , upon detection of the receipt of packet a without packet b the coherency controller 320 in cell 110 also sends a message to stop communications between cell 105 and both crossbars 125 and 130 . alternatively , the error handling can be implemented in hardware and / or firmware . for example , cell 105 may include the appropriate logic circuitry such that upon detection of the error in the transmission from cell 105 to crossbar 125 and / or crossbar 130 , a control message is sent to both crossbars to halt all traffic addressed to cell 105 . in the hardware implementation , upon detection of a fatal error , the port enters an error handling mode where the port drops all packets which are not control and status register access packets . when the fatal error is resolved , software reenables the acceptance of all packets . assuming an initial communications fault between cell 105 and cell 110 the links between cell 110 and crossbars 125 and 130 must be reinitialized and the arbitration associated with the crossbar &# 39 ; s port to cell 110 must be reset . in order to reinitialize the link between cell 110 and crossbars 125 and 130 , all messages or all traffic must be stopped between these devices , i . e ., cell 110 and the two crossbars . again , both software and hardware implementations of the invention described ensure that all traffic is stopped between cell 110 and crossbars 125 and 130 . the arbitration history for crossbars 125 and 130 is reset simultaneously with the reinitialization of the link between cell 110 and the crossbars . in a preferred embodiment of the invention an arb_reset command is used to reset the port arbitration history registers . this arbitration history reset is done as part of a fatal error recovery routine in order to regain lock step between the two crossbar elements . performing the arbitration history reset at the same time as reinitializing the link between the affected cell and the crossbar elements guarantees that both arbitration schemes within the crossbars are again in lock - step , i . e ., synchronized . among the advantages of the present invention is that if processor 340 of cell 115 is in the process of transmitting information or communicating with processor 345 of cell 120 , the reinitialization of the link between crossbars 125 and 130 with cells 105 and 110 does not affect that communication . processor 340 of cell 115 can still communicate packet c ( the first 36 bits of data ) via coherency controller 350 of cell 115 via link 355 to crossbar 125 and via link 360 to coherency controller 365 of cell 120 . the corresponding packet d ( the second 36 bits of data ) can also be sent from processor 340 of cell 115 to coherency controller 350 of cell 115 via link 370 to crossbar 130 and via link 375 to coherency controller 365 of cell 120 . again coherency controller 365 of cell 120 will combine packets c and d to regenerate the original message which is then sent to processor 345 of cell 120 . the reinitialization of the link between cell 105 and crossbars 125 and 130 does not effect the transmission of data between cells 115 and 120 . similarly , the reinitialization and reset of arbitration history between cell and crossbars 125 and 130 does not affect the transmission of information from cell 115 to cell 120 . although the present invention and its advantages have been described in detail , it should be understood that various changes , substitutions and alterations can be made herein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims . moreover , the scope of the present application is not intended to be limited to the particular embodiments of the process , machine , manufacture , composition of matter , means , methods and steps described in the specification . as one of ordinary skill in the art will readily appreciate from the disclosure of the present invention , processes , machines , manufacture , compositions of matter , means , methods , or steps , presently existing or later to be developed that perform substantially the same function or achieve substantially the same result as the corresponding embodiments described herein may be utilized according to the present invention . accordingly , the appended claims are intended to include within their scope such processes , machines , manufacture , compositions of matter , means , methods , or steps .
7 (Electricity)
a typical prior art pneumatic tire is depicted in fig1 and is indicated generally by the numeral 10 . tire 10 includes a body 12 that includes a reinforcing cord ply 14 , at least one body ply 16 , and an innerliner 18 . innerliner 18 includes an outer surface that faces the chamber 20 formed when tire 10 is mounted on a rim ( not shown ). tire 10 also includes a pair of bead rings 22 and a pair of apex fillers 24 . the first embodiment of the invention is depicted in fig2 with the pneumatic tire indicated generally by the numeral 30 . tire 30 includes many of the same body elements as tire 10 but further includes an electronic monitoring device 32 mounted to pneumatic tire 30 . electronic monitoring device 32 includes a monitoring package 34 mounted within body 12 and a power source 36 mounted to innerliner 18 . monitoring package 34 receives power from power source 36 through electrical coupling . specifically , monitoring package 34 receives power through close proximity electromagnetic coupling . electronic monitoring package 34 may include a variety of components that are known in the art to monitor at least one engineering condition of pneumatic tire 30 and transmit information out of tire 30 . electronic monitoring package 34 may include at least one sensing element that monitors or measures an engineering condition of tire 30 . monitoring package 34 may further include a device to store the information or data gathered by the sensor , a cpu , a transmitter / receiver , and an antenna . any of a variety of known combinations of these elements may be present in monitoring package 34 for gathering data and transmitting data out of tire 30 . in the preferred embodiment , monitoring package 34 is encapsulated with an encapsulation material 38 to protect monitoring package 34 . encapsulation material 38 may be any of a variety of encapsulation materials known in the art such as epoxies . power source 36 is also preferably encapsulated with an encapsulation material 38 . in the preferred embodiment of the invention , power source 36 is mounted to a patch 40 that mounts power source 36 to innerliner 18 . in other embodiments , power source 36 may be mounted directly to innerliner 18 without the use of patch 40 . power source 36 is preferably in the form of a battery . the battery may be any of a variety of batteries known in the art for providing power to devices such monitoring package 34 . the battery preferably has a long life and is able to survive in the environment inside a pneumatic tire . power source 36 may also include electronics to increase the voltage that is supplied to coupling elements thereby increasing the electric field strength . in accordance with the present invention , power source 36 is in communication with monitoring package 34 through a non - direct connection . power source 36 is coupled to monitoring package 34 through first and second coupling elements 42 and 44 . coupling elements 42 and 44 may be coils , pads , plates , or any of a variety of other arrangements known in the art for providing field coupling between aligned and spaced elements . first coupling element 42 is in direct electrical communication with monitoring package 34 and second coupling element 44 is in direct electrical communication with power source 36 . coupling elements 42 and 44 are arranged to be aligned and spaced apart such that power may be transferred from power source 36 to monitoring package 34 . the power transfer occurs because first coupling element 42 is placed in the field created by second coupling element 44 . a position of first coupling element 42 within the field of second coupling element 44 induces a current in second element 42 to transfer the power from power source 36 to monitoring package 34 . in the embodiment of the invention depicted in fig2 tire 30 is manufactured by inserting monitoring package 34 into body 12 when body 12 is being assembled . monitoring package 34 is positioned such that body cords 14 are disposed between monitoring package 34 and the interior body ply 16 . monitoring package 34 is placed in this position before body 12 is cured preferably at the green tire stage . monitoring package 34 is then cured within body 12 when the green tire is cured . after body 12 is cured , power source 36 is connected to innerliner 18 such that first and second coupling elements 42 and 44 are aligned . the alignment that is required is an alignment that allows the first and second coupling elements 42 and 44 to communicate with each other and to transfer power from power source 36 to monitoring package 34 . in the embodiment depicted in fig2 coupling elements 42 and 44 are disposed directly across from each other through reinforcing cord ply 14 , body ply 16 , and innerliner 18 . mounting monitoring package 34 and power source 36 in this manner allows power source 36 to be readily replaced without changing the position of monitoring package 34 . this method also allows monitoring package 34 to be positioned in a desired location within tire 30 . the use of coupling elements 42 and 44 allow monitoring package 34 to be cured within tire 30 . an alternative embodiment of the invention is depicted in fig3 with the tire indicated generally by the numeral 50 . monitoring device 32 is positioned in a different position in tire 50 than in tire 30 . in tire 50 , monitoring package 34 is positioned between reinforcing cord ply 14 and body ply 16 . the arrangement of coupling elements 42 and 44 remains the same as described above and the method of building tire 50 is substantially the same as described above . tire embodiment 60 is depicted in fig4 with monitoring package 34 positioned between body ply 16 and innerliner 18 . tire 70 of fig5 shows monitoring package 34 embedded within innerliner 18 . tire 80 of fig6 depicts an embodiment where monitoring package 34 is mounted to the inner surface of innerliner 18 . in each of the embodiments of fig4 , and 6 , first and second coupling elements 42 and 44 are aligned and spaced apart to provide power between power source 36 and monitoring package 34 . tire 90 is depicted in fig7 with monitoring package 34 embedded within a patch 92 connected to innerliner 18 . patch 92 may be a rubber patch that is fabricated separately from body 12 of tire 90 and later connected to innerliner 18 . in another embodiment , patch 92 is an anchoring patch that is connected to innerliner 18 before body 12 of tire 90 is cured . the green tire curing process cures body 12 and anchoring patch 92 along with monitoring device 34 embedded within anchoring patch 92 . the apparatus and method of using anchoring patch 92 is disclosed and described in u . s . patent applications ser . nos . 09 / 205 , 931 and 09 / 206 , 273 , filed dec . 4 , 1998 , which are owned by the assignee of the present application . in the other embodiment where patch 92 is an attachment patch , patch 92 is fabricated and cured separate from body 12 . in this embodiment , monitoring package 34 is connected to attachment patch 92 or embedded within attachment patch 92 before patch 92 is cured . power source 36 may be attached to patch 92 before patch 92 is connected to innerliner 18 or after patch 92 is connected to innerliner 18 . accordingly , the improved method of providing electrical power to an embedded electronic device in a tire using close proximity electromagnetic coupling apparatus is simplified , provides an effective , safe , inexpensive , and efficient device which achieves all the enumerated objectives , provides for eliminating difficulties encountered with prior devices , and solves problems and obtains new results in the art . in the foregoing description , certain terms have been used for brevity , clearness , and understanding ; but no unnecessary limitations are to be implied therefrom beyond the requirement of the prior art , because such terms are used for descriptive purposes and are intended to be broadly construed . moreover , the description and illustration of the invention is by way of example , and the scope of the invention is not limited to the exact details shown or described . having now described the features , discoveries , and principles of the invention , the manner in which the method of providing electrical power to an embedded electronic device in a tire using close proximity electromagnetic coupling is constructed and used , the characteristics of the construction , and the advantageous new and useful results obtained ; the new and useful structures , devices , elements , arrangements , parts , and combinations are set forth in the appended claims .
1 (Performing Operations; Transporting)
embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings . fig1 shows a tire patch 10 of the present invention . the tire patch is of a preselected configuration , which as shown , is rectangular in shape . the patch may be of any other convenient configuration , but is shown as rectangular , and therefore has four edges 11 . the tire patch 10 has a first side 12 for interfacing with a face of an encapsulated tag assembly 30 , shown in fig2 . the patch has a second opposite side 14 approximating the contour of an inner liner of a tire . the contour of the second side 14 preferably is radiused to have about the same radius as the tire to which it is assembled , the radius being larger for larger tires . for very large tires , such as for off - the - road tires , the radius may be eliminated altogether , so that there is no contour and the opposite side is flat , having no contour . the rubber patch is vulcanized at a preselected temperature and for a time sufficient to vulcanize the patch . the patch may be rubber selected from the group consisting of ethylene propylene diene monomer ( epdm ) rubber , butyl rubber , natural rubber , neoprene and mixtures thereof . one preferred embodiment is a mixture of chlorobutyl rubber and natural rubber . another preferred embodiment is a mixture of styrene - butadiene rubber ( sbr ) and natural rubber . typically , patches made of these rubber compositions may be cured by heating to a temperature of about 150 ° c . and holding at this temperature for about 30 minutes . the time and temperature may be modified as necessary to achieve sufficient curing of the patch for further assembly . the first side 12 includes a recessed cavity 16 which is surrounded by a raised ridge 18 of rubbery polymer material . the recessed cavity optionally may have a roughened bottom surface to increase its surface area . the ridge 18 preferably is of the same material as the remainder of the patch . the ridge of material should be of sufficient height to capture the encapsulated rigid tag 30 . in a preferred embodiment , the ridge is about one eighth ( ⅛ ″) inch . the patch is gradually tapered from the ridge 18 of material of the first side of the patch 12 , outwardly toward the edges of the patch . affixed to the second side 14 of the vulcanized tire patch is a dual cure bonding layer 20 , which has a second side ( not shown ) and a first side 22 . this dual cure bonding layer 20 may be assembled to the patch at any time following vulcanization of the patch and prior to assembly of the patch assembly to the tire innerliner . the dual cure bonding layer 20 is permanently assembled to the patch . a non - curing cement ( not shown ) is applied to side 14 of the patch in order to hold the dual cure bonding layer 20 onto the patch . the non - curing cement and the dual cure bonding layer 20 are products of patch rubber company . the important feature of the dual cure bonding layer 20 is that it can be chemically activated and cured , without the need for heating to an elevated temperature . the process is diffusion controlled , however , and some minimal heating will speed the curing process . the dual cure bonding layer 20 may be any material which can be activated and cured to the vulcanized rubber of the tire inner liner and the vulcanized patch . preferably , however , the dual cure bonding rubber is natural rubber . the dual cure bonding rubber , after application of the activating cement , may cure at room temperature over a period of seventy two ( 72 ) hours . however , if more rapid curing is desired this may be accomplished by heating to 45 ° c . for at least twenty four hours . fig2 shows a cross - sectional view of the rigid tag assembly 30 , showing the encapsulated electronic monitoring device 32 . monitoring device may be a circuit board 34 which includes electronic memory as well as a variety of sensors for monitoring engineering conditions such as , for example , pressure , temperature and distance traveled . the monitoring device is discussed in detail in u . s . pat . no . 5 , 562 , 787 , incorporated herein by reference . mounted to the board is a power source 36 , such a battery , which permits the active monitoring of the engineering conditions , which may be stored in the electronic memory for later use . the power source provides a bulge 38 to the rigid tag assembly , although this feature is expected to become less prominent or even completely eliminated as advances in battery technology produce smaller yet more powerful batteries . the rigid tag assembly may also house an antenna , or may provide for assembly of an antenna which protrudes from the tag assembly so that the circuitry on the board can be activated for transmittal at will . the circuit board including sensors , battery and optional antenna , hereinafter referred to as the electronic monitoring device , are encapsulated in a potting material 40 which solidifies into a rigid material . referring to fig3 the electronic monitoring device is placed within a mold 50 having a first half 52 and a second half 54 . at least one of the mold halves has a face with increased surface area , shown as surface 56 in the second half 54 of mold 40 . the mold is then filled with the potting material 40 in fluid form , which fills the mold and flows around the electronic monitoring device and allowed to cure , resulting in a rigid tag assembly . any potting material having a young &# 39 ; s modulus of at least 30 , 000 psi and which is capable of being molded around the electronic monitoring device without damaging any of the components of the device . preferably , the potting material has a young &# 39 ; s modulus of at least about 100 , 000 psi . two preferred potting materials include epoxy and urethane . if desired , the curing of the potting material around the electronic device may be accelerated by preheating the mold to an elevated temperature which is above ambient , but below the temperature at which damage to the electronic monitoring device will occur . a preferred temperature is about 80 ° c . after the epoxy has been cured , the mold halves 52 , 54 are separated , yielding a rigid , encapsulated tag assembly 30 . tag assembly 30 has a bottom surface 42 having increased surface finish which is simply the impression of surface 56 from mold half 54 . rigid tag assembly 30 is assembled into the recessed cavity 16 on the first side 12 of tire patch 10 either after vulcanization of the patch or after assembly of the dual bond curing layer 20 to the patch . in order to permanently adhere tag assembly 30 to patch 10 , a fluid adhesive is applied to the interface between tag assembly 30 and recess 16 . this adhesive , preferably an epoxy adhesive , may be applied conveniently to surface 42 of tag assembly or to the base of recess 16 . as tag assembly 30 is pressed into recessed cavity 16 , the epoxy adhesive flows evenly along the interface between surface 42 and the base of recess 16 . the increased surface area between the base of recessed cavity 16 and surface 52 provides for additional bonding area and a stronger bond . because the ridges around the recess are closely dimensioned to correspond to the dimensions of tag assembly 30 , excess epoxy will flow between tag assembly 30 and ridge 18 , and some epoxy may even flow out from this region . of course , the flow of epoxy in this region will add to the strength of the assembly as the epoxy cures . while the epoxy can be allowed to cure at room temperature , the curing process can be accelerated by heating the assembly at an elevated temperature , for example a temperature of from about 75 - 90 ° c . for at least about 30 minutes . if the dual cure bonding layer 20 has not already been assembled to the second side 14 of tire patch 10 , it may be added at this time to form patch assembly 60 . referring now to fig5 patch assembly 60 was then assembled to the inner liner 75 of tire 70 . activating cement was first applied to second side ( not shown ) of dual cure bonding layer 20 . the patch assembly was then stitched to the inner liner of the vulcanized tire and the patch assembly / tire assembly was allowed to cure for a sufficient time and temperature to form a strong bond between the tire and the patch assembly . the times and temperatures utilized for this curing may be basically the same times and temperatures as previously discussed . to ensure a strong bond , the patch assembly optionally may be clamped to the tire inner liner 75 , until the curing cycle is completed . fig6 shows an alternative configuration of a tire patch 110 of the present invention . the tire patch 110 is of a preselected configuration , which as shown , is round in shape . the tire patch 110 has a first side 112 for interfacing with a face of an encapsulated tag assembly 130 , shown in cross - section in fig7 . first side 112 includes a recessed cavity 116 , which in this alternative configuration is formed by a cylindrical rigid insert 117 molded into the rubber patch . preferably cylindrical insert 117 is a rigid plastic material , such as nylon , epoxy or a rigid composite material such as glass - filled polyamide or glass - filled epoxy , but also may be a metal , as long as the metal does not interfere with the electronic functions and operation of tag assembly 130 . cylindrical rigid insert 117 is surrounded by a ridge 118 of rubbery material . the ridge preferably is of the same material as the remainder of the patch and should be of sufficient height to permanently hold cylindrical insert 117 in place following curing . in a preferred embodiment shown in fig6 and 7 , the ridge 118 is the same height as cylindrical insert 117 . the patch is gradually tapered from the ridge 118 of material of the first side of the patch outwardly toward the edges of the patch . recessed cavity 116 may have a roughened bottom surface to increase its surface area , as previously described , or alternatively may be smooth and made from the same material as the cylindrical insert . the patch has a second opposite side 114 which may approximate the contour of an inner liner of a tire . the contour of the second side 114 preferably is radiused to have about the same radius as the tire to which it is assembled , the radius being larger for larger tires . for very large tires , such as for off - the - road tires , the radius may be eliminated altogether , so that there is no contour and the opposite side 114 is flat , having no contour . tire patch 110 including cylindrical rigid insert 117 is cured prior to insertion of rigid tag assembly 130 to form a round patch assembly . rigid tag assembly 130 , which includes the encapsulated electronic monitoring device and has the same components as previously described , is essentially identical to rigid tag assembly 30 except for its profile , being round or circular instead of rectangular . round rigid tag assembly 130 is permanently bonded to the round patch assembly by inserting rigid tag assembly 130 into cylindrical insert 117 , as shown in fig8 after applying an epoxy adhesive such as a fusor system manufactured by lord corp . of erie pa . to the interface between the rigid tag assembly 130 and the cylindrical insert 117 . of course , the epoxy adhesive also may conveniently be applied to the interface between the bottom of cavity 116 , whether it is a roughened surface or made of the same or similar material as cylindrical insert 117 . as the rigid tag assembly 130 is inserted into cylindrical insert 117 , excess epoxy flows out from the interface , which must be removed before it cures . cylindrical insert 117 only must be of sufficient height so that after curing of the epoxy , there is sufficient bonding strength between the insert 117 and tag assembly 130 to assure no separation . although the rigid tag assembly 130 may be of the same height as cylindrical insert 117 , as shown in the preferred embodiment , it also may be lower or higher than cylindrical insert 117 upon assembly . if tag assembly 130 is higher than the cylindrical insert 117 , then insert 117 has a lower profile than the rigid tag assembly 130 so that the outer periphery of the rigid tag assembly 130 extends above the outer periphery of the cylindrical insert 117 , thereby reducing the overall amount of material required for tire patch 110 . patch assembly 160 formed by assembling rigid tag assembly 130 into tire patch 110 is bonded to a tire using the same materials and methods described above for patch assembly 60 . patch assemblies manufactured and assembled to a tire inner liner in the manner described above have run through tests equivalent to 100 , 000 miles , and have remained fully bonded to the tire . while in accordance with the patent statutes , the best mode and preferred embodiment has been set forth above , the scope of the invention is not limited thereto , but rather by the scope of the attached claims .
1 (Performing Operations; Transporting)
the present invention will be described by way of illustrative examples with reference to the drawings . fig1 is a front view of an optical pickup device of an example according to the present invention . the optical pickup device is configured as described below . light 2 emitted from a light source , e . g ., a laser diode 1 passes through a grating 3 and a holographic optical element 4 , and is incident upon a beam splitter 5 composed of a glass plate 13 and a prism 14 . the incident light 2 is reflected by a mirror at an interface between the glass plate 13 and the prism 14 so as to have its optical path changed . then , the light 2 passes through a collimating lens 6 , is reflected by a mirror 7 ( i . e ., a mirror for changing the optical path of the light 2 so as to be in parallel with the direction perpendicular to the recording medium ), and is focused onto a recording medium such as a magneto - optical disk ( not shown ) by an objective lens 8 . the light 2 reflected from the magneto - optical disk is incident upon the beam splitter 5 after passing through the objective lens 8 , the mirror 7 , and the collimating lens 6 . at the beam splitter 5 , the light 2 is split into servo error signal detecting light 9 and magneto - optical signal detecting light 10 . the servo error signal detecting light 9 is incident upon the holographic optical element 4 from the beam splitter 5 . the servo error signal detecting light 9 is diffracted by the holographic optical element 4 and is guided into a photodiode 11 to be detected as a servo error signal . on the other hand , the magneto - optical signal detecting light 10 is reflected by the mirror surface on a reverse side of the glass plate 13 included in the beam splitter 5 and is guided into a coupler portion of an optical waveguide element 12 without passing through the holographic optical element 4 . the light coupled to the coupler portion of the optical waveguide element 12 is split into polarized components each having a different polarization direction , and the polarized components are guided into a photodetector . the photodetector detects a magneto - optical signal based on the polarized components . next , the beam splitter 5 will be described in detail with reference to fig2 . the beam splitter 5 is composed of the glass plate 13 and the prism 14 adhering to each other . a b - face of the glass plate 13 is a total reflection mirror and an a - face of the glass plate 13 ( i . e ., an interface between the glass plate 13 and the prism 14 ) is a partial reflection mirror or a polarizing mirror . thus , the beam splitter 5 is configured so as to have a polarization characteristic . these mirrors are made of a dielectric multi - layer film , a metallic film , or the like . in particular , when a mirror made of a multi - layer film is formed on the a - face , a kerr rotation angle ( described later ) can be multiplied . as described above , the light 2 emitted from the laser diode 1 is reflected by the a - face to travel to the objective lens 8 and the magneto - optical disk . then , the light 2 travels in the same optical path to return to the a - face . the light 2 is partially reflected by the a - face to become the servo error signal detecting light 9 . the servo error signal detecting light 9 is guided into the photodiode 11 ( i . e ., a photodetector ) by the holographic optical element 4 which is a diffracting element . on the other hand , the magneto - optical signal detecting light 10 having passed through the a - face is totally reflected by the b - face to pass through the a - face to be guided into the optical waveguide element 12 . the magneto - optical signal detecting light 10 guided into the optical waveguide element 12 does not pass through the holographic optical element 4 ; therefore , in this arrangement , the light 10 is not diffracted and as a result , the amount of the light 10 is not decreased . furthermore , in the case where the diffracted light is coupled to the optical waveguide element 12 , the variations of an incident position and an incident angle caused by the wavelength fluctuation of the incident light leads to the decrease in efficiency of optical waveguide coupling . in this arrangement , such a problem is not caused , so that a magneto - optical signal can be stably obtained . in the optical pickup device of the present example as shown in fig2 light 15 emitted from the laser diode 1 is reflected by the b - face after passing through the a - face , passes through the collimating lens 6 and the objective lens 8 , and is focused onto the magneto - optical disk . then , the light 15 reflected from the magneto - optical disk is detected by the photodetectors . this causes a signal quality to be degraded . in order to avoid this problem , the collimating lens 6 should be positioned at a sufficient distance from the objective lens 8 so as not to allow the light 15 reflected by the b - face to be incident upon the objective lens 8 . however , this arrangement is not desired , because it results in the enlargement of the optical pickup device . for example , in the case where the glass plate 13 has a thickness of 1 mm , and the collimating lens 6 has a numerical aperture ( na ) of 0 . 17 and a focal length of 10 . 7 mm , the collimating lens 6 and the objective lens 8 should be positioned at a distance of 17 mm from each other . however , as shown in fig3 and 4 , if the thickness of the glass plate 13 of the beam splitter 5 is set to be sufficiently large , a region where the light emitted from the light source and passed through the a - face is irradiated and a region where the light reflected from the magneto - optical disk and passed through the a - face is irradiated can be separated on the b - face . when a light scattering film 16 or an antireflection film 17 is provided on the region where the light emitted from the light source and passed through the a - face is irradiated , stray light caused by the light reflected by the b - face can be eliminated . therefore , it is not necessary to position the collimating lens 6 at a certain distance from the objective lens 8 ; as a result , the optical pickup device can be miniaturized without degrading a signal quality . when the beam splitter 5 is provided with a polarization characteristic , a kerr rotation angle can be multiplied ; therefore , a signal quality can be improved . assuming that the reflectance of p - polarized light of the a - face is p , and that of the s - polarized light is s , the multiplication of factor b of the kerr rotation angle satisfies the relationship b =( 1 - p )/( 1 - s ). specifically , assuming that the reflectance of the p - polarized light is 0 %, and that of the s - polarized light is 70 %, the multiplication factor b of the kerr rotation angle is 3 . 33 and the utilization factor of the s - polarized light is 9 %. in this case , the light 2 emitted from the laser diode 1 should be s - polarized light . however , an ordinary laser diode emits a beam having a far - field pattern in an elliptical shape and having an electric field component in a short axis direction of the elliptical far - field pattern . therefore , a laser beam spreads to a great degree in a direction parallel to an x - axis shown in fig5 . as a result , on the b - face of the beam splitter 5 , the light emitted from the laser diode 1 cannot be separated from the light returning from the magneto - optical disk . in this case , by providing an aperture diaphragm 18 between the laser diode 1 and the beam splitter 5 so as to limit the spreading angle of the light incident upon the beam splitter 5 , as shown in fig5 the above - mentioned problem can be solved . furthermore , in the beam splitter 5 , by providing a polarizing mirror only at a portion of the a - face performing beam - splitting , instead of forming a partial reflection mirror over the a - face , the reflection of the magneto - optical signal detecting light 10 from the a - face can be reduced . specifically , in the above example , the utilization factor of the s - polarized light can be increased from 9 % to 30 %. next , a magneto - optical signal detecting system will be described with reference to fig6 and 7 . the magneto - optical signal detecting light 10 reflected by the b - face of the beam splitter 5 is guided into the package 19 ( see fig1 ) without passing through the holographic optical element 4 . the magneto - optical signal detecting light 10 is diverged after being converged and is guided into a prism 21 as shown in fig6 . the diverged light is collimated by a microlens 22 provided on a prism 21 and is coupled to an optical waveguide element 23 at a predetermined incident angle . the light guided into the optical waveguide element 23 from the optical coupler is split into each polarized component by a polarized beam splitter . a magneto - optical signal is detected by a photodiode 24 which has received the polarized components thus split . as the polarized beam splitter , for example , a mode splitter ( japanese laid - open patent publication no . 6 - 82644 ) utilizing the difference in refractive index of each polarized beam component can be used . when a light source , a photodetector , an optical waveguide element , and the like are accommodated in the package 19 , the resulting device can be made small and light - weight ; furthermore , productivity and environmental resistance of the device can be enhanced . as shown in fig1 , the laser diode 1 can be provided on the side of the glass plate 13 of the beam splitter 5 , and the optical waveguide element 12 can be provided on the side of the prism 14 . in other words , the laser diode 1 can be positioned so as to be farther away from the collimating lens 6 , compared with the optical waveguide element 12 . in this case , the light emitted from the laser diode 1 becomes p - polarized light which spreads to a great degree in a direction parallel to a y - axis ( shown in fig1 ). this makes it unnecessary to use an aperture diaphragm . the reflection from the a - face of the light immediately after emitted from the laser diode 1 causes a problem . however , this problem can be solved by providing the polarizing mirror 19 only on a portion of the beam splitter 5 performing beam splitting . if the polarizing mirror is designed so that the reflectance of the p - polarized light has a reflectance of 30 % and the s - polarized light has a reflectance of 100 %, a kerr rotation angle multiplication factor of 3 . 33 can be obtained . next , a production example of the optical waveguide element 23 will be described . in the present example , as the optical waveguide element 23 , two optical waveguides having different structures , at a boundary between which the thickness is changed in a tapered shape , are used . the guided light is allowed to travel diagonally across the boundary . at this time , since the refractive index of the optical waveguides are different depending upon the polarization direction , each polarized light is refracted at a different refractive angle . in the present example , by providing two or more of such boundaries , the optical waveguide length is shortened . the production example will be more specifically described with reference to fig6 and 7 . first , an si substrate 25 is subjected to thermal oxidation to form a buffer layer 26 ( thickness : about 2 μm ) made of sio 2 thereon . then , as shown in fig6 a high refractive layer 29 made of glass with a high refractive index , e . g ., ta 2 o 5 is formed on a polarized beam splitting portion ( region d ) shown in fig7 . furthermore , a glass film ( corning # 7059 ) 27 is formed over the high refractive layer 29 as a waveguide layer , and an sio 2 film is formed as a gap layer for prism coupling . exemplary numerical values of each layer , such as those of refractive index and film thickness are shown below . under the above conditions , the effective refractive index of the respective regions c and d of the waveguide layer become as shown in table 1 . this leads to the difference in refractive index of each polarized beam . as shown in fig7 when the light is incident upon a boundary between the region c and the region d at an incident angle of 45 ° and is allowed to pass through a polarized beam splitting portion ( region d ) in an isosceles right triangle once , the difference in refractive angle between the respective polarized beams becomes 3 . 5 °. in order to detect each polarized beam by each photodiode 24 , the distance between the light beams on the respective photodiodes 24 is required to be about 50 μm , and the waveguide length is required to be about 850 μm . when the light is allowed to pass through the polarized beam splitting portion twice , the difference in refractive angle becomes larger ( i . e ., 7 . 6 °), and the required waveguide length can be shortened to be about 400 μm . thus , the optical waveguide element 12 can be decreased in size . the optical waveguide element 12 can be produced by the application of ic technology ; therefore , the optical waveguide element 12 has outstanding productivity . in addition , since optical systems can be integrated on one substrate , the optical waveguide element 12 can be made small and light - weight . fig8 shows an exemplary arrangement of the optical waveguide element 12 , the laser diode 1 , and the photodiode 11 for detecting a servo error signal . the polarization direction of the light emitted from the laser diode 1 is in parallel with the y - axis . on the other hand , the magneto - optical signal detecting light has its polarization plane rotated by 1 ° to 2 ° due to the kerr effect . however , the rotation amount is small ; therefore , it is desired that the polarized components having a polarization direction of ± 45 ° with respect to the polarization direction of the light focused onto the magneto - optical disks are detected and a differential signal is detected . as shown in fig8 when the optical waveguide element 12 is positioned so as to form an angle of 45 ° with respect to the x - axis , a te - mode and a tm - mode of the optical waveguide element 12 correspond to the polarized components having a direction of ± 45 ° with respect to the polarization direction of the light emitted from the laser diode , whereby a reproduced signal with a high s / n can be obtained . fig1 shows an exemplary arrangement of the package 19 of the optical pickup device shown in fig1 . the polarization direction of the light emitted from the laser diode 1 is in parallel with the x - axis and has a far - field pattern spreading in the y - axis direction . as described above , in the optical pickup device of the present invention , the beam splitter is positioned between the collimating lens and the holographic optical element working as a diffracting element , instead of being positioned between the objective lens and the collimating lens , whereby a part of light returning from the magneto - optical disk is guided into the optical waveguide element in the package including the light source without passing through the diffracting element , and a magneto - optical signal is detected . because of the above arrangement , a small optical waveguide element having outstanding productivity can be used in place of a large expensive wollaston prism , resulting in a small and light - weight optical pickup device . in addition , since it is not required that the objective lens is positioned at a certain distance from the deflective mirror and that the half mirror plate of the composite mirror is designed so as to have large thickness , the resulting optical pickup device can be made thinner . furthermore , the beam splitter can be more readily fabricated at lower cost by using a mirror plate and a triangular prism , compared with the composite mirror using a half mirror plate in a wedge shape requiring higher processing accuracy . when the beam splitter is provided with a polarization characteristic , a signal quality can be improved by the effect of kerr rotation angle multiplication . furthermore , by designing the mirror plate so as to have large thickness and providing an antireflection film and a light scattering film on a part of the mirror , light emitted from the light source and reflected by the mirror plate surface can be prevented from being incident upon the collimating lens and is focused onto the magneto - optical disk surface to be stray light ; therefore , the distance between the collimating lens and the objective lens can be shortened without degrading a signal quality ; as a result , an optical pickup device can be made smaller and more light - weight . in this case , when the aperture diaphragm is provided in the optical path between the light source and the beam splitter , the spreading angle of the light emitted from the light source can be limited . therefore , an optical pickup device can be miniaturized without degrading a signal quality . according to the present invention , polarized beam separation for detecting a magneto - optical signal is performed by using a small optical waveguide element including a microlens , a prism , and a polarized beam splitting portion of optical waveguide type . the light is coupled to the optical waveguide element by prism coupling , so that the problem related to the fluctuation of a wavelength of a laser beam , caused when using a laser diode as a light source , can be solved . when the boundary between two optical waveguide elements with different structures is formed as a tapered coupling portion whose thickness is changed in a tapered shape , and a light beam passes through the boundary so as to travel diagonally across it , the following advantage can be obtained : each polarized beam is refracted with a different refractive angle from each other because the refractive index of the respective optical waveguide elements is varied depending upon the polarization direction , and polarized beam separation with a high extinction ratio can be performed . furthermore , by forming two or more boundaries and allowing a light beam to pass through these boundaries , the difference in refractive angle of each polarized beam can be made large , and an optical waveguide length can be shortened . still furthermore , a microlens is provided on the upper face of the prism so as to be integrated therewith , an optical waveguide element can be made smaller . various other modifications will be apparent to and can be readily made by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of this invention . accordingly , it is not intended that the scope of the claims appended hereto be limited to the description as set forth herein , but rather that the claims be broadly construed .
6 (Physics)
the following discussion is presented to enable a person skilled in the art to make and use the disclosure . various modifications to the embodiments will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art , and the generic principles herein may be applied to other embodiments and applications without departing from the spirit and scope of the present disclosure . thus , the present disclosure is not intended to be limited to the embodiments shown , but is to be accorded the widest scope consistent with the principles and features disclosed herein . referring to fig1 , a uwb modulating system , in particular a uwb transmitter 100 , is schematically illustrated according to an embodiment of the present disclosure . adopting a pulse position modulation ( ppm ) technique , the uwb transmitter 100 is adapted to receive a data stream , for example in the form of a modulated digital signal sb carrying a stream of bits b i , generated by a binary source included in a control block 105 , and to generate a corresponding train of modulated uwb pulse signals . each bit b i can take a high logic value “ 1 ” ( for example , associated to the value of a supply voltage vcc ), and a low logic value “ 0 ” ( for example , associated with a ground voltage gnd ). the train of modulated uwb pulse signals , conveying the information carried by the data stream , i . e . by the modulated digital signal sb , is then radio - transmitted by means of an antenna 110 . the correlation between bit values b i and uwb pulse signals is established by the modulation technique that is adopted for modulating the digital signal sb . according to the ppm technique , the position of the generic uwb pulse signal depends on the value , “ 1 ” or “ 0 ”, of the corresponding bit b i in the data stream . adopting instead a pulse amplitude modulation ( pam ) technique , it is the amplitude of the generic uwb pulse signal that depends on the value assumed by the corresponding bit b i . the uwb transmitter 100 includes a uwb pulser 115 , having a first input terminal coupled to an output terminal of a driver circuit block 120 fed by the modulated digital signal sb , a second input terminal coupled to an output terminal of a sine wave generator block 125 , and an output terminal coupled to an input terminal of an output stage circuit 130 , having an output terminal coupled to the antenna 110 . the driver circuit block 120 and the sine wave generator block 125 have input terminals coupled to the control block 105 . when the uwb transmitter 100 has to transmit information , the driver circuit block 120 receives the data stream , i . e ., the digital signal sb modulated adopting , for example , a ppm technique , and generates a corresponding signal adapted to drive the uwb pulser 115 . in particular , the driver circuit block 120 generates a corresponding square wave signal rp . moreover , the sine wave generator block 125 generates a sinusoidal signal sc of frequency fc ; preferably , the sine wave generator block 125 is adapted to generate a sine wave voltage signal having a frequency fc variable ( in a continuous or discrete way ) within a predetermined frequency range , the frequency value being for example established by the control block 105 . the uwb pulser 115 includes a pulse generator 140 , controlled by the driver circuit block 120 , and adapted to generate a signal pulse of carefully selected shape , for example a nearly - gaussian pulse ig , as will be more clear in the following description . the uwb pulser 115 further includes a signal multiplier block 150 , having a first input terminal coupled to the output terminal of the sine waves generator block 125 for receiving the sinusoidal signal sc , and a second input terminal coupled to the pulse generator 140 for receiving the nearly - gaussian pulse ig . the multiplier block 150 further includes an output terminal for providing a uwb signal pulse pv , given by the product of the sinusoidal signal sc by the nearly - gaussian pulse ig . an output stage circuit 130 allows coupling the output of the uwb pulser 115 with the antenna 110 , without degrading the spectra of the uwb signal pulse pv . alternatively , a binary phase shift keying modulation ( bpsk ) technique may be adopted : the data stream is provided to the sine wave generator block 125 in the form of a modulated digital signal sb ′ carrying a stream of bits b ′ i , and the sine wave generator block 125 is driven by the control block 105 in such a way to modify the phase of the sinusoidal signal sc depending on the values assumed by the bit b ′ i of the modulated digital signal sb ′. the qualitative trend of a uwb signal pulse pv generated by the uwb pulser 115 as a function of time is illustrated in fig2 a . the uwb signal pulse is composed by a sinusoidal wave of frequency fc enveloped by a nearly - gaussian pulse , and lasts some nanoseconds ( being its bandwidth higher than 500 mhz ). as known in the art , the spectrum of a sinusoidal wave enveloped by a gaussian pulse is a gaussian pulse too , having a center frequency ( i . e ., the frequency corresponding to the maximum amplitude of the gaussian pulse ) that corresponds to the frequency of the sinusoidal wave ; neglecting the low - amplitude , side portions of the gaussian spectrum , the spectral width of the resulting signal can be considered as confined . similarly , the spectrum of the sinusoidal wave signal enveloped by the nearly - gaussian pulse is given by the spectrum of the nearly - gaussian pulse , shifted in frequency and centered at the frequency of the sinusoidal wave signal , as illustrated in fig2 b ; the closer the nearly - gaussian pulse resemble a gaussian pulse , the more the spectrum pf of the uwb signal pulse pv is gaussian . fig2 b shows a diagram of the power spectral density of the spectrum pf versus frequency . since the duration in time of the uwb signal pulse pv is less than one nanosecond , the spectrum pf has a corresponding width of several ghz . for being compatible with the fcc rules , the spectrum pf has to be restricted within a spectral mask sm that begins at the frequency of 3 . 1 ghz and ends at the frequency of 10 . 6 ghz . moreover , within this spectral mask , the power spectral density must have a higher limit value equal to − 41 dbm / mhz . by acting on the sine waves generator block 125 , the control block 105 is capable to vary the frequency fc , shifting the entire spectrum pf . in a preferred embodiment of the present disclosure , the shape of the nearly - gaussian pulse ig ( i . e ., the uwb signal pulse envelope ) can be varied , so as to adjust the shape of the spectrum pf . in particular , according to an embodiment of the present disclosure , by properly modifying the square wave signal rp the shape of the nearly - gaussian pulse ig can be varied ; to this end , the control block 105 acts ( control line 170 ) on the driver circuit block 120 so as to modify the square wave signal rp . the applicant has found that for generating a pulse of a predetermined shape , an advantageous solution consists of properly stimulating the input of a circuit having a non - linear transfer characteristic , which shape closely approximates , as far as possible , the shape of the desired pulse . for this reason , in order to generate a nearly gaussian pulse it is expedient to exploit a circuit whose transfer characteristic has a shape that approximates a gaussian . for better understanding the previous statements , reference will be now made to fig4 a - 4d , wherein the behavior of a circuit having a transfer characteristic y = ng ( x ) ( x represents a generic input of the circuit , and y a generic output thereof ) with a nearly gaussian shape is analyzed . as can be seen in fig4 a , the nearly gaussian shape of the transfer characteristic y = ng ( x ) is obtained by the overlap of two non - linear transfer characteristics , each one having the shape of a hyperbolic tangent : y = ng ( x )= a ( tan h ( x + w )− tan h ( x − w )), ( 1 ) where a is an amplitude parameter and w is a width parameter . the amplitude parameter a establishes the amplitude of the transfer characteristic y = ng ( x ). the width parameter w establishes the shape and the width of the transfer characteristic y = ng ( x ), as illustrated in fig4 b , wherein a family of transfer characteristics y = ng ( x ) is depicted , depending on different values of the width parameter w : the higher the value of the width parameter w , the wider the shape of the transfer characteristic y = ng ( x ). turning now to fig4 c , the effects of an input x variation on the output y are illustrated according to a first example , where it is assumed that the input x varies depending on time t ( i . e ., x = x ( t )) within an interval of values δx . according to this first example , the input x ( t ) is a periodic generically rectangular signal of frequency 1 / t between a lower value xl and a higher value xh , wherein the difference between the higher value xh and the lower value xl is equal to the interval δx . moreover , the input x ( t ) has a rise time tr ( i . e ., the time it takes for x ( t ) to rise from xl to xh ) equal to the fall time tf ( i . e ., the time it takes for x ( t ) to fall from xh to xl ). the output y varies over time , i . e . y = y ( t ), and is in particular a periodic signal having a period t / 2 ( i . e ., half the period of the input x ( t )). the output y ( t ) consists of a train of nearly gaussian pulses each having the same shape as the transfer characteristic y = ng ( x ), but , in general , a different duration . more particularly , the output y ( t ) comprises nearly gaussian pulses in correspondence of the rising and falling edges of the input x ( t ); said nearly gaussian pulses thus have , a time duration equal to the rise / fall times tr / tf . by varying , particularly increasing the rise / fall times tr / tf , as is illustrated in fig4 d , the time durations of the nearly gaussian pulses of the output y ( t ) are accordingly varied , particularly increased . referring to fig3 a , a detailed circuit diagram of the uwb pulser 115 is illustrated . as previously described , the uwb pulser 115 consists of a pulse generator 140 and a multiplier block 150 . the pulse generator 140 comprises a first and a second npn differential pairs , one having the output terminals cross - coupled to the output terminals of each other . more particularly , the first differential pair comprises two npn bipolar transistors q 1 , q 2 , and the second differential pair comprises two npn bipolar transistors q 3 , q 4 . the transistors q 1 and q 2 have the emitter terminals coupled to each other , and further coupled to a first biasing current generator , supplying a continuous current iee 1 . the transistors q 3 and q 4 have the emitter terminals coupled to each other , and further coupled to a second biasing current generator supplying a continuous current iee 2 . the base terminals of the transistors q 1 and q 3 are coupled to the output terminal of the driver circuit block 120 , schematized in the drawing as a voltage signal generator generating an input voltage signal vin series — coupled to a bias voltage generator generating a continuous ( dc ) voltage vb ; the collector terminal of the transistor q 1 is coupled to the collector terminal of the transistor q 4 , forming a circuital node n 1 . the transistor q 2 has the base terminal coupled to a bias voltage generator supplying a second dc voltage vb 1 , and the collector terminal coupled to the collector terminal of the transistor q 3 , forming a circuital node n 2 . the base terminal of the transistor q 4 is coupled to a bias voltage generator generating a third dc voltage vb 2 . the multiplier block 150 comprises a third and a fourth npn differential pairs coupled to each other . the third differential pair comprises two npn bipolar transistors q 5 , q 6 , and the fourth differential pair comprises two npn bipolar transistors q 7 , q 8 . the transistors q 5 and q 6 have the emitter terminals coupled to each other and further coupled to the circuital node n 1 ; the transistors q 7 and q 8 have the emitter terminals coupled to each other and further coupled to the circuital node n 2 . moreover , the base terminal of the transistor q 5 is coupled to the base terminal of the transistor q 8 , and the base terminal of the transistor q 6 is coupled to the base terminal of the transistor q 7 . both the third and the fourth differential pairs are driven by the sinusoidal voltage signal sc , provided by the sine wave generator block 125 in a differential way . more particularly , the sinusoidal voltage signal sc is applied between the base terminal of the transistor q 5 ( positive input terminal ) and the base terminal of the transistor q 6 ( negative input terminal ). consequently , the sinusoidal voltage signal sc is also applied between the base terminal of the transistor q 8 ( positive input terminal ) and the base terminal of the transistor q 7 ( negative input terminal ). the transistors q 5 and q 7 have the collector terminals coupled to each other , defining a first output node no 1 of the uwb pulser 115 . in a similar way , the transistors q 6 and q 8 have the collector terminals one coupled to each other , defining a second uwb pulser output node no 2 . a current - to - voltage converter 155 is further provided , attached to the output nodes no 1 and no 2 , including a first and a second resistors r 1 and r 2 , both having a resistance value rc . the first resistor r 1 is coupled between the first output node no 1 and a terminal providing the supply voltage vcc , the second resistor r 2 is coupled between the second output node no 2 and a terminal providing the supply voltage vcc . a differential pair of npn bipolar transistors exhibits a non - linear transfer characteristic ( expressing the differential output current id as a function of the differential input voltage vd ), having the shape of a hyperbolic tangent : wherein ibias is the current biasing the differential pair , α is a proportionality parameter including the saturation current of the transistors , and vt is the thermal voltage . it is pointed out that for small input voltages vd ( in particular , sufficiently smaller than 2vt ), the transfer characteristic ( 2 ) is almost linear , while for large values of vd the non - linearities of the npn bipolar transistors reduce the gain of the differential pair and cause the transfer characteristic to bend , thereby obtaining the hyperbolic tangent shape . the behavior of the pulse generator 140 of fig3 a is adapted to generate nearly - gaussian ( current ) pulses ig . in fact , taking account of equation ( 2 ) above , defining with ig 1 the current flowing from the emitter terminals of the transistors q 5 and q 6 to the node n 1 , and defining with ig 2 the current flowing from the emitter terminals of the transistors q 7 and q 8 to the node n 2 , the differential output current ig = ig 1 − ig 2 of the pulse generator 140 is equal to : wherein ic 1 , ic 2 , ic 3 , ic 4 are the collector currents of the transistors q 1 , q 2 , q 3 , q 4 , respectively . vid 1 , 2 is the differential input voltage of the first differential pair , and vid 3 , 4 is the differential input voltage of the second differential pair . since : wherein the input signal vin ( representing the square wave signal rp generated by the driver circuit block 120 ) is a square wave signal of period t having rise times tr and fall times tf , the equation ( 3 ) becomes : which resembles equation ( 1 ). the value of the width parameter w of equation ( 1 ) depends on how much the biasing of the transistors q 1 , q 2 , q 3 , q 4 unbalances the corresponding two differential pairs . the value of the width parameter w is established in equation ( 5 ) by properly setting the voltages vb , vb 1 and vb 2 according to the following relationships : since equation ( 5 ) resembles equation ( 1 ), the pulse generator 140 has a transfer characteristic having a nearly gaussian shape . thus , the pulse generator 140 is adapted to generate a nearly gaussian pulse . the multiplier block 150 , having a “ gilbert cell ” circuital architecture , is characterized by the following transfer characteristic : io 1 and io 2 are the output currents of the multiplier block 150 , given by ic 5 + ic 7 and ic 6 + ic 8 , respectively ; ic 5 , ic 6 , ic 7 and ic 8 are the collector currents of the transistors q 5 , q 6 , q 7 and q 8 , respectively ; the differential output current of the multiplier block 150 , i . e ., io 1 − io 2 , corresponds to the uwb ( current ) signal pulse . defining with vo 1 and vo 2 the voltages at the first and second output nodes no 1 , no 2 , respectively , and thanks to the presence of the first and second resistors r 1 , r 2 , the differential output voltage of the uwb pulser 115 , taken between the first output node no 1 ( positive terminal ) and the second output node no 2 ( negative terminal ) results equal to ( supposing that r 1 = r 2 = rc ): vo 1 − vo 2 = vcc − rc · io 1 −( vcc − rc · i 02 )= rc ·( io 2 − io 1 ), ( 8 ) by imposing iee 1 = iee 2 = iee , equation ( 10 ) can be rewritten in the following way : as can be seen observing equation ( 11 ), the differential output voltage of the uwb pulser 115 depends both on the input voltage signal vin ( representing the square wave signal rp generated by the driver circuit block 120 ) and on the sinusoidal voltage signal sc . moreover , when the sinusoidal voltage signal sc has a low amplitude , where by “ low amplitude ” there is intended sufficiently lower than the thermal voltage vt , the previous equation can be simplified . in fact , assuming that : where vm is the amplitude of the voltage signal sc , and assuming that : pv = vo ⁢ ⁢ 1 - vo ⁢ ⁢ 2 ≅ α 2 · rc · iee · vm 2 ⁢ vt · [ tanh ⁡ ( vin + vb - vb ⁢ ⁢ 2 2 ⁢ vt ) - tanh ⁡ ( vin + vb - vb ⁢ ⁢ 1 2 ⁢ vt ) ] · sin ⁡ ( 2 ⁢ π · fc · t ) , ( 14 ) where the differential output voltage vo 1 - vo 2 of the uwb pulser 115 corresponds to the uwb voltage signal pulse pv . in fact , as can be seen by equation ( 14 ), the uwb voltage signal pulse pv generated by the uwb pulser 115 is a sinusoidal wave enveloped by a nearly - gaussian pulse . as previously mentioned , for being adapted to be exploited in a transmission system , the uwb voltage signal pulse pv has to be compatible with the strict limitations imposed by the regulatory authorities like the fcc . in this case , the extension of its spectrum pf has to be restricted within the spectral mask sm . by neglecting possible aliasing effects , an approximated expression of the envelope of the fourier transform of the module of the uwb voltage signal pulse pv is : wherein vmax is the highest voltage that the square wave signal rp assumes . from the previous equation , an inverse proportionality relation exists between the − 10 db ( in respect with the frequency fc ) band bw of the uwb voltage signal pulse pv and the rise times tr of the input voltage signal vin ( i . e ., the rise time tr of the rectangular voltage pulses of the square wave signal rp ): by making explicit the depending of vmax on tr and w , the following relationship is obtained : bw = 2 ⁢ v ⁢ max π · vt · tr · ln ⁢ 10 2 ⁢ ( w + 1 2 ) . ln ( b - a 2 + ( b - a 2 ) 2 - 1 ) , ( 17 ) a = ⅇ 2 ⁢ w - ⅇ - 2 ⁢ w p · tanh ⁡ ( w ) ; b = ⅇ 2 ⁢ w + ⅇ - 2 ⁢ w , ( 18 ) with p that is a ratio term determining the value of vmax that allows generating a gaussian pulse having a precision p on the side portions thereof . in this way , by varying the rise times tr of the rectangular voltage pulses of the square wave signal rp generated by the driver circuit block 120 , it is possible to vary the bandwidth bw of the uwb voltage signal pulse pv in a reliable way . referring now to fig3 b , an unbalancing circuit for providing the dc vb , vb 1 and vb 2 to the pulse generator 140 in such a way to unbalance the differential pairs q 1 , q 2 and q 3 , q 4 according to equation ( 6 ) is depicted . more particularly , the input voltage signal vin ( representing the square wave signal rp ) is provided to the base terminals of the transistors q 1 and q 3 by means of a first coupling capacitor cc 1 , having a first terminal receiving the input voltage signal vin and a second terminal coupled both to the base terminal of the transistor q 1 and to the base terminal of the transistor q 3 . a terminal providing the dc voltage vb is coupled to the second terminal of the first coupling capacitor cc 1 by means of a biasing resistor rb . in the same way , a terminal providing the dc voltage vb 1 is coupled to the base terminal of the transistor q 2 by means of a further first biasing resistor rb 1 , and a terminal providing the dc voltage vb 2 is coupled to the base terminal of the transistor q 4 by means of a further second biasing resistor rb 2 . moreover , a second and a third coupling capacitors cc 2 , cc 3 are included . the second coupling capacitor cc 2 has a first terminal coupled to the base terminal of the transistor q 2 and a second terminal coupled to a terminal providing the ground voltage gnd ; the third coupling capacitor has a first terminal coupled to the base terminal of the transistor q 4 and a second terminal coupled to a terminal providing the ground voltage gnd . in case the input voltage signal vin is provided to the to the pulse generator 140 in a differential way , as depicted in fig3 c , and according to an embodiment of the present disclosure , the unbalancing circuit is the same as the one depicted in fig3 b , but with the second terminals of the second and third coupling capacitors that are coupled to each other , and with the input voltage signal vin that is applied between the first terminal of the first coupling capacitor cc 1 ( positive input terminal ) and the second terminals of the second and third coupling capacitors cc 2 , cc 3 ( negative input terminal ). a further embodiment of the unbalancing circuit is depicted in fig3 d , in which , as in the previous case , the input voltage signal vin is provided in a differential way . the input voltage vin is applied between the base terminal of a npn bipolar transistor q 9 ( positive input terminal ) and the base terminal of a further npn bipolar transistor q 10 ( negative output terminal ). the transistor q 9 has the collector terminal coupled to a terminal providing the supply voltage vcc and the emitter terminal coupled to the first terminal of a biasing resistor rb 3 . the biasing resistor rb 3 has a second terminal coupled to the base terminals of the transistors q 1 and q 3 , forming a circuital node nb 1 . a further biasing resistor rb 4 has a first terminal coupled to the node nb 1 , and a second terminal coupled to a biasing current generator providing a continuous current iee 3 . the transistor q 10 has the collector terminal coupled to a terminal providing the supply voltage vcc and the emitter terminal coupled to the base terminal of the transistor q 4 , forming a circuital node nb 2 . a biasing resistor rb 5 has a first terminal coupled to the node nb 2 , and a second terminal coupled to a first terminal of a further biasing transistor rb 6 . the biasing resistor rb 6 has the second terminal coupled to the base terminal of the transistor q 2 and to a biasing current generator providing a continuous current iee 4 . the input signal vin is provided to the inputs of the two differential pairs q 1 , q 2 and q 3 , q 4 by means of the transistors q 9 and q 10 , acting as emitter followers . the unbalancing of the differential pairs is accomplished by the voltage drops generated by the passage of the continuous currents iee 3 , iee 4 through the biasing resistors . although the uwb pulser 115 previously described has been implemented using npn bipolar transistors , alternative solutions are possible . for example , similar results can be achieved if each transistor q 1 - q 8 in fig3 a is replaced by a corresponding voltage - controlled current generator g 1 - g 8 , as depicted in fig3 e . from a practical viewpoint , the voltage - controlled current generators may be implemented by mosfets , as depicted in fig3 f . as can be seen , the circuital architecture is the same as that illustrated in fig3 a , with the npn bipolar transistors q 1 - q 8 replaced by n - channel mosfets m 1 - m 8 . mixed solutions are also possible : for example , in fig3 g the uwb pulser 115 comprises a pulse generator 140 realized with npn bipolar transistors and a multiplier block 150 realized with mosfet transistors ; in fig3 h the uwb pulser 115 comprises a pulse generator 140 realized with mosfet transistors and a multiplier block 150 realized with npn bipolar transistors . as previously mentioned , the uwb pulser 115 converts each transition of the square wave signal provided to its input into a corresponding uwb voltage pulse pv . moreover , the time duration of the uwb voltage pulse pv is uniquely determined by the duration of the rise / fall times tr / tf of the square wave signal . since the − 10 db bandwidth bw of the uwb voltage pulse pv is inversely proportional to the time duration of the uwb voltage pulse pv , i . e ., to tr or tf , the performance in terms of speed and temporal coherence of the driver circuit block 120 needs to be carefully controlled ; in particular , it is to be observed that the circuit performances are affected by the fabrication process tolerances . in fig5 , the driver circuit block 120 is depicted according to an embodiment of the present disclosure , in which the duration of the rise / fall times tr / tf is constant . the driver circuit block 120 includes a shift - register 510 , a summing network 520 and a low - pass filter 530 . the shift register 510 is capable to store a number n of bits b i . it receives from the control block 105 a clock signal clk having a repetition period tc , necessary for timing all the operation performed by the driver circuit block 120 , and the modulated digital signal sb . the shift register 510 provides n output bits q 1 , q 2 , . . . , qn carried by corresponding output terminals ( for convenience , the bits and the corresponding terminals providing them are denoted with the same references ) coupled in sequence to n input terminals s 1 , s 2 , . . . , sn of the summing network 520 . data bits b i are fed by the modulated digital signal sb with a frequency 1 / t . the shift register 510 is capable to store an ordinate sequence of n bits , and includes n bistable elements ( for example , d - latches implemented with e 2 cl technology ) timed by the same clock signal clk , one bistable element per bit . moreover , each bistable element of the shift register 510 is coupled to a corresponding one of the output terminals q 1 , q 2 , . . . , qn . the bistable elements are coupled in such a way that the output of a generic bistable element ( except the last ) is coupled to the input of the subsequent bistable element . the bits stored in the shift register 510 moves from the first bistable element ( having the output coupled to the output terminal q 1 ) to the last bistable element ( having the output coupled to the output terminal qn ), passing from a generic bistable element to a subsequent one at each half period tc / 2 of the clock signal clk . since , according to this example , the shift register 510 is implemented with e 2 cl technology , the d - latches included therein have a differential circuit structure , and the logic values “ 1 ”, “ 0 ” are associated with a high logic voltage vh ( e . g ., equal to 275 mv ) and a low logic voltage vi ( e . g ., equal to − 275 mv ), respectively . consequently , also the modulated digital signal has to be properly adapted , by means of a voltage shifter circuit not shown in the figure , before being provided to the input of the shift register 510 . in the starting condition , it is supposed that the modulated digital signal sb and the output bits q 1 , q 2 , . . . , qn are at the low logic voltage v 1 . when the modulated digital signal sb assumes the high logic voltage vh during a half period tc / 2 , at the subsequent half period the output bit q 1 assumes the high logic voltage vh ( i . e ., it assumes the “ 1 ” logic value ). if the modulated digital signal sb is maintained at the high logic voltage vh for at least n / 2 periods tc , the input variation is transferred to all the n output terminals ; consequently , at the end of n / 2 periods tc , all the output bits q 1 , q 2 , . . . , qn are at the high logic voltage vh ( i . e . they are all at the “ 1 ” logic value ). the summing network 520 includes an output terminal providing a sum signal ss to the low - pass filter 530 . the sum signal ss is an analog voltage signal which value is proportional to the number of output bits q 1 , q 2 , . . . , qn that are at the high logic voltage vh : wherein k is a constant parameter . for example , for implementing the function expressed in equation ( 19 ) a number n of npn differential pairs coupled to a same pair of resistors can be used . the sum signal ss takes the highest value when all the output bits q 1 , q 2 , . . . , qn are at the “ 1 ” logic value , and is equal to : fig6 illustrates the time trends of all the signals involved in the generation of a single rectangular voltage pulse of the square wave signal rp , in the exemplary case of a 4 - bit shift register 510 . in this case , the sum signal ss is a rectangular voltage pulse having staircase - like rising / falling edges with rise / fall times tr / tf equal to two times the period tc . the low pass - filter 530 ( that will not be described in detail , because not relevant to the scope of the present disclosure ) includes an output terminal , for providing the square wave signal rp to the uwb pulser 115 . in fact , by providing the sum signal ss to the low - pass filter 530 , the rising / falling edges of the rectangular voltage pulse are smoothed , and their trends become nearly linear , as required for properly driving the uwb pulser 115 . according to a further embodiment of the present disclosure , the driver circuit block 120 is adapted to be controlled by the control block 105 in such a way to vary the duration of the rise / fall times tr / tf and , consequently , to adjust the width of the uwb voltage pulses pv . since the sum signal ss is a rectangular voltage pulse having staircase - like rising / falling edges with rise / fall times tr / tf that depend on the period tc of the clock signal clk , a method for varying the rise / fall times tr / tf consists of directly adjusting the period tc . moreover , the rising / falling edges of the signal rc may be non linear . in fact , referring back to fig4 c and 4d , and considering again the generic input x and the generic output y related by the nearly - gaussian transfer characteristic y = ng ( x ), a non - linear variation of the input x allows to change the shape of the output y ( t ). since the shape variation of a pulse in the time domain implies a corresponding shape variation of its spectrum in the frequency domain , the possibility of having non linear rising / falling edges can be very useful for adjusting the spectrum pf of the uwb voltage pulses pv in a carefully controlled way . for example , a driver circuit block 120 adapted to generate rectangular voltage pulses with non linear rising / falling edges can be implemented by means of a multivibrator circuit , or by properly modifying the contributions of the bits provided by the shift register . according to a further embodiment of the present disclosure , the sine wave generator block 125 ( fig1 ) may generate a signal sc that is the sum of a plurality of ( at least two , more generally ) p of sinusoidal waves sc 1 , sc 2 , . . . scp , of different frequencies fc 1 , fc 2 , . . . , fcp . in this way , the spectrum of the signal sc has a corresponding plurality p of harmonics . if the frequencies fc 1 , fc 2 , . . . , fcp are sufficiently spaced from each other , the spectrum of the uwb signal pulse pv consists of p replicas of the spectrum pf of the nearly - gaussian pulse ig , each replica having a center frequency equal to a corresponding one among the frequencies fc 1 , fc 2 , . . . , fcp . conversely , when the frequencies fc 1 , fc 2 , . . . , fcp are sufficiently close , said p replicas of the spectrum pf are mutually influenced : the resulting spectrum has a wider width with respect to spectrum pf of the nearly - gaussian pulse ig . naturally , in order to satisfy local and specific requirements , a person skilled in the art may apply to the solution described above many modifications and alterations . particularly , although the present disclosure has been described with a certain degree of particularity with reference to preferred embodiment ( s ) thereof , it should be understood that various omissions , substitutions and changes in the form and details as well as other embodiments are possible ; moreover , it is expressly intended that specific elements and / or method steps described in connection with any disclosed embodiment of the disclosure may be incorporated in any other embodiment as a general matter of design choice . the uwb transmitter 100 of fig1 may be utilized in a variety of different types of electronic communications systems such as wireless communications systems contained in a variety of different types of electronic devices such as consumer electronic devices like telephones and portable digital assistants ( pdas ).
7 (Electricity)
to solve the previously - described problems , the present invention generally provides a belt module comprising , see fig2 triple - section guide rails consisting of pairs of rails 5 and 6 rigidly supported at points 3 and 4 within the main body 1 of a reproducing apparatus ; two pairs of rails 7 and 8 provided outwardly of the periphery of belt module 2 and slidably fitted in or engaged with the aforesaid pairs of rails 5 and 6 so as to mount module 2 slidably with respect to the aforesaid rails 5 and 6 ; and reinforcing rails ( not visible in fig2 ) inserted between the first - mentioned pairs of rails 5 and 6 and the second - mentioned pairs of rails 7 and 8 . the aforesaid reinforcing rails are adapted to be slid to a given position on the pairs of rails 5 and 6 , following the movement of module 2 when this last is withdrawn from main body 1 of the reproducing apparatus , such that the reinforcing rails may support the load of a heavy module 2 with the load uniformly applied to the triple - section rail guides . thus , there is no risk that an excessive load would be exerted on a single pair of rails alone . module 2 is so constructed ( see fig3 ) that when in the position withdrawn out of main body 1 of the reproducing apparatus , the module can be rotated about hinges 25 , 25 &# 39 ; towards an operator ( clockwise direction in fig3 ) to provide an opening between the unit itself and the support rails , whereby the belt may be replaced with ease by releasing the roller which holds it in tension . in the event that the surface of the belt is stained due to adherence of toner or dust , or a sheet of copy paper is stuck in the reproducing apparatus , then cleaning of the belt surface or removal of the jammed copy paper from the apparatus is possible with module 2 maintained in the position withdrawn out of main body 1 of the reproducing apparatus . according to the present invention , since module 2 is slidably supported on a pair of rails 5 and 6 , each rigidly supported at two points , all rails are free from deflection even after frequent and repeated operations withdrawing and reinserting module 2 from and into main body 1 of the reproducing apparatus . in addition , the aforesaid rails supported at two points do not interfere with replacement of a belt on module 2 , such replacement being readily accomplished . a detailed description of the preferred embodiment of the present invention will be given below in conjunction with fig3 through 5 . rail support members 9 provided within the main body 1 of a reproducing apparatus rigidly support two pairs of rails 10 , 10 &# 39 ; and 11 , 11 &# 39 ; mounted on main body 1 at points 3 and 4 . the two pairs of rails 10 , 10 &# 39 ; and 11 , 11 &# 39 ; are positioned ( see fig4 ) in facing relation to another two pairs of rails 14 , 14 &# 39 ; and 15 , 15 &# 39 ; which are fixedly mounted on the outer wall of module 2 , with reinforcing rails 12 and a plurality of bearings 13 being interposed between the respective rail pairs , the reinforcing rails 12 being slidable together with module 2 . thus , triple - section rail guides in combination serve as a support for the unit . this is done for the sake of distributing the load of the heavy module 2 uniformly among those rails . in detail , when module 2 is withdrawn from main body 1 of the reproducing apparatus with the reinforcing rails 12 inserted between the pairs of rails 10 , 10 &# 39 ; and 11 , 11 &# 39 ; provided on the main body 1 and the pairs of rails 14 , 14 &# 39 ; and 15 , 15 &# 39 ; of module 2 , the extremely heavy module 2 may be maintained out of main body 1 for a long period of time , during which period cleaning of the belt surface or removal of a copy paper stuck in the main body is effected , without risk of an excessive load being inadvertently exerted on rails 10 , 10 &# 39 ; and 11 , 11 &# 39 ; and on the rails 14 , 14 &# 39 ; and 15 , 15 &# 39 ;, since the reinforcing rails 12 inserted in respective pairs of these rails serve to distribute the load of the heavy module 2 so that it is shared by all the rails . when module 2 is withdrawn from main body 1 , the reinforcing rails 12 in turn are slid along the respective rails 10 , 10 &# 39 ; and 11 , 11 &# 39 ; fixed on the main body and stop at a given position on those rails , whereby the load of module 2 is shared among the pairs of rails 10 , 10 &# 39 ; and 11 , 11 &# 39 ;, and the pairs of rails 14 , 14 &# 39 ; and 15 , 15 &# 39 ;, as stated above . when module 2 is pushed back into main body 1 , the reinforcing rails 12 are also slidingly returned on the respective rails 10 , 10 &# 39 ; and 11 , 11 &# 39 ;. modular unit 2 is composed of a pair of opposing frames 16 and a plurality of rollers 17 , 18 , 19 and 20 , one of which is a driving roller . the aforesaid pairs of rails 14 , 14 &# 39 ; and 15 , 15 &# 39 ; are fixed to rail - attaching members 21 and 21 &# 39 ; projecting from the frames 16 , thereby supporting the module 2 at rest , as well as permitting it to travel back and forth on the rails 10 , 10 &# 39 ; and 11 , 11 &# 39 ; by way of the rails 14 , 14 &# 39 ; and 15 , 15 &# 39 ;. a belt 22 is trained in tension about the aforesaid plurality of rollers 17 , 18 , 19 and 20 . an adjusting member 23 , such as a jack screw , is threaded radially into the shaft of roller 20 near the end of the shaft . the adjusting member 23 is anchored with respect to the directions of the double - headed arrow in fig4 by means of a screw - support member 24 attached to frame 16 , for purposes of providing the tension in belt 22 . if adjusting member 23 is turned to move shaft 20 toward the screw - support member 24 ( i . e ., the leftward direction of the arrow in fig4 ), then belt 22 will be demountable from module 2 . although in this embodiment a screw is provided for purposes of replacing a used belt by a new one or for tensioning the belt , the adjusting means are not limited to a screw since spring tension may be utilized for tightening or for permitting replacement of belt 22 . modular unit 2 , as set forth , is adapted to be pivotally moved in a manner to provide an opening between the unit itself and the pairs of rails 14 , 14 &# 39 ; and 15 , 15 &# 39 ;, after withdrawal from main body 1 . in this embodiment , module 2 is coupled to main body 1 by hinges 25 and 25 &# 39 ; between the rail mounts 21 , 21 &# 39 ; and the unit frame 16 . for retaining or locking module 2 in the position providing an opening between it and the rails 14 , 14 &# 39 ; and 15 , 15 &# 39 ; for a long period of time during which replacement of belt 22 trained about the plurality of rollers can be effected , there is provided between rail mounts 21 , 21 &# 39 ; and unit frame 16 , a mechanism for locking module 2 in open position . as shown in fig3 through 5 , an arm 28 is pivotally mounted between brackets 26 and 26 &# 39 ;, which have an l - shape in cross section and are rigidly fastened to unit frame 16 . arm 28 has a pin - engaging cut - away portion 27 near its free end and is normally urged towards frame 16 , i . e ., in the clockwise direction in fig3 . a pin 30 is mounted on a pin support member 31 which is turn is affixed to one end of rail mount 21 , so as to fit in the pin - engaging cut - away portion 27 of the above - mentioned arm . pin 30 and arm 28 are located in spaced relation to each other in a manner to provide a given opening for module 2 with respect to the rails 14 , 14 &# 39 ; and 15 , 15 &# 39 ; when the pin and arm are engaged . fig5 illustrates the pivotal movement of modular unit 2 with respect to main body 1 . if module 2 is moved from rest in a direction to create an opening between same and the rails 14 , 14 &# 39 ; and 15 , 15 &# 39 ;, as shown in fig5 the free end of arm 28 will come to bear on pin 30 against the action of a spring 29 . when cut - away portion 27 of arm 28 comes into engagement with pin 30 , module 2 will be locked in a position to provide an opening between same and rails 14 , 14 &# 39 ; and 15 , 15 &# 39 ;. a shaft 32 passing through module 2 in the transverse direction thereof ( see fig5 ) is held by the frames 16 and has one end which engages the lower face of arm 28 in a manner to normally urge the arm upwardly . shaft 32 is urged in the leftward direction in fig5 under the action of a coil spring 33 . if shaft 32 is manually urged in the direction of the arrows shown adjacent the open -- i . e ., dotted line -- position in fig5 arm 28 is raised up , thereby releasing module 2 from locked position . the modular unit 2 thus constructed and having the belt 22 trained in tension therearound is actuatable by the driving roller when the unit is returned into main body 1 , so as to permit effecting reproduction of an original image . when there arises the necessity of cleaning belt 22 , removing a copy paper stuck in main body 1 or replacing a belt 22 , actuation of module 2 is stopped and it is then withdrawn from main body 1 towards an operator ( in the leftward direction in fig3 ), whereby a copy paper stuck in main body 1 can be removed or cleaning the surface of belt 22 accomplished by rotating the belt by means of a manual drive wheel ( not shown ), module 2 meanwhile being maintained in the withdrawn position . for replacing a used belt 22 by a new one , modular unit 2 is withdrawn from main body 1 and urged in the clockwise direction ( fig3 ) about the hinges 25 and 25 &# 39 ;, to thereby provide a wide opening between the unit and rails 14 , 14 &# 39 ; and 15 , 15 &# 39 ;. after arm 28 mounted on unit 2 has been locked by pin 30 , the screw 23 passing through the end of roller shaft 20 ( as shown in fig4 ) is manipulated to move the shaft in the leftward direction of the arrow in fig4 thereby relieving tension on belt 22 , whereby the used belt 22 can be taken away from the unit and replaced by a new one . at completion of belt replacement , screw 23 is manipulated in the counter - direction to exert tension on the fresh belt 22 . for reinserting module 2 in main body 1 , shaft 32 shown in fig5 is manually urged rightward against the force of spring 33 so as to release arm 28 from engagement with pin 30 . then , module 2 , while resting on rails 14 , 14 &# 39 ; and 15 , 15 &# 39 ;, is manually urged toward main body 1 , thereby being returned to its home position . according to the present invention , there are provided triple - section rail guides in combination , which consist of pairs of rails 10 , 10 &# 39 ; and 11 , 11 &# 39 ; fixed on support members 9 at points 3 and 4 provided within main body 1 , reinforcing rails 12 and pairs of rails 14 , 14 &# 39 ; and 15 , 15 &# 39 ; mounted on the outer wall of module 2 . the latter pairs of rails are in facing relation to the former pairs of rails by way of the reinforcing rails 12 . in particular , when module 2 is withdrawn from main body 1 and allowed to stand on the extended rails for a long period of time , the load of the extremely heavy modular unit 2 is distributed by the reinforcing members so as to be uniformly applied to respective rails of the triple - section rail guides , without concentration of such a heavy load on one pair of rails only . thus , the respective rails are maintained free from the deflection experienced with the conventional rails supported at one side , without provision of a particularly strong reinforcing member for supporting such rails . furthermore , since module 2 is pivotally movable on the rails 14 , 14 &# 39 ; and 15 , 15 &# 39 ; to afford selective opening between same and main body 1 , these pairs of rails on unit 2 do not interfere with replacement of a belt 22 .
6 (Physics)
a disk array system including dual active controllers constructed in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention is shown in block diagram form in fig3 . in addition to the structure shown in the disk array system of fig1 the system of fig3 includes a dedicated communication link 57 connected between the array controllers 11 and 13 , and an inter - controller communication chip application specific integrated circuit incorporated into each of the controllers , identified by reference numerals 61 and 63 , respectively . the communication link 57 and inter - controller communication chips provide communication between , and resource arbitration and allocation for the dual disk array controllers . fig4 is a block diagram of the inter - controller communication chip incorporated into each of the dual active array controllers 11 and 13 included within the disk array system shown in fig3 . the inter - controller communication chip ( hereafter referred to as the icon chip ) contains all functions necessary to provide high speed serial communication and resource arbitration / allocation between two disk array controllers . the primary application for the icon chip is in disk array systems utilizing redundant disk array controllers . because the redundant controller configuration shares resources ( disk drives and scsi buses ) between two controllers , a method of arbitrating for these common resources must be utilized in order to prevent deadlocks and to maximize system performance . the icon chip contains a hardware implementation of a resource allocation algorithm which will prevent deadlocks and which strives to maximize system performance . in addition to performing resource arbitration / allocation , the icon chip also provides a means of sending / receiving generic multiple byte messages between disk array controllers . the icon chip includes the following logic modules : the microprocessor interface block allows an external microprocessor to configure and monitor the state of the icon chip . configuration and status information are maintained in registers within the icon chip . the configuration , control , and status registers are designed to provide operating software with a wide range of functionality and diagnostic operations . interrupt masking and control are also included in this functional block . the inter - controller communication block contains all structures and logic required to implement the inter - controller communication interface . this block includes the following structures / logic : send state sequencer 201 , receive state sequencer 203 , message send buffer 205 , message receive buffer 207 , status send register 209 , and status receive buffer 211 . these modules work together to form two independent unidirectional communication channels . serialization and deserialization of data packets occurs in send state sequencer 201 and receive state sequencer 203 modules . serial data output from the send state sequencer 201 may be fed into the receiver state sequencer 203 module for a full diagnostic data turnaround . the inter - controller communication block 200 is used to send generic messages and status or to send specific request / grant / release resource messages between two disk array controllers . communication between pairs of icon chips is provided by 6 signals . these signals are defined as follows : table 1______________________________________communication signal descriptionsname type deseription______________________________________ardy / out ` a ` port ready . this output is controlled by the icon ready bit in the control register and is monitored by the alternate controller . brdy / in ` b ` port ready . this input is used to monitor the ready / not ready status of the alternate controller . areq . dat / out ` a ` port request / serial data . this output signal is used to request data transfer and then send serial data to the alternate controller in response to the ` a ` port acknowledge signal . breq . dat / in ` b ` port request / serial data . this input is used to receive serial data from the alternate controller . aack / in ` a ` port acknowledge . this signal is received from the alternate controller as the handshake for a single data bit transfer . back / out ` b ` port acknowledge . this output signal is sent to the alternate controller to control a serial receive data transfer operation . ______________________________________ the resource allocation block 300 contains all structures and logic required to manage up to 8 shared resources between two disk array controllers , referred to as the master and slave disk array controllers . these structures / logic include the resource allocator 301 , two sets of resource request lists ( master / slave ) 303 and 305 , two sets of release resource fifos ( master / slave ) 307 and 309 , two sets of resources granted fifos ( master / slave ) 311 and 313 , and the resource scoreboard comprising resources allocated and resources available blocks 315 and 317 , respectively . the key element in this block is resource allocator 301 . this block consists of a hardware implementation of an intelligent resource allocation algorithm . all other data structures in this block are directly controlled and monitored by the resource allocator 301 . the resource allocator 301 present in the icon chip for the master controller continually monitors the state of the resource request lists 303 and 305 , the release resource fifos 307 and 309 , and resource scoreboard to determine how and when to allocate resources to either controller . the resource allocator 301 present in the icon chip for the slave controller is not active except during diagnostic testing . the controller functions logic 400 provides several board - level logic functions in order to increase the level of integration present on the disk array controller design . this invention encompasses the establishment of a simple communication link and protocol between devices sharing resources , and a unique arbitration algorithm which is used for the management of the shared resources . the communication link and protocol are used to request , grant , and release resources to or from the resource arbiter . the protocol requires the establishment among the devices sharing resources of a single master device , and one or more slave devices . the master / slave distinction is used only for the purposes of locating the active resource allocation logic 300 . although each controller includes resource allocation logic , this logic is only active in the master controller . in the discussion which follows , references to the resource allocation logic 300 and its components will refer to the active resource allocation logic and its components . both master and slave devices retain their peer to peer relationship for system operations . the active resource allocator 301 is implemented in the master device . a device formulates a resource request by compiling a list of resources that are required for a given operation . the resource request is then passed to the resource allocation logic 300 . the resource allocation logic 300 maintains a list of requests for each device in the system , seeking to satisfy all requests quickly and fairly . once the allocation logic can satisfy a particular request , it signals a grant to the requesting device for the resources requested . the device with the granted resource requests has access to the granted resources until it releases them . the release is then performed by sending a release message to the resource allocator to free the resources for consumption by other resource requests . all resource requests , request granting , and request freeing involving a slave device is performed by sending inter - device messages , which include message type and data fields , between the master ( where the active resource allocation logic is located ) and the slave devices using the interface described above . all resource requests , request grants , and request freeing involving only the master device may be done within the local to the master device . the resource allocation logic 300 located in the arbitrarily assigned master device includes a resource allocation algorithm and associated data structures for the management of an arbitrary number of shared resources between an arbitrary number of devices . the data structures and algorithm for sharing resources are discussed below . for each device which requires shared resource management , a request queue , or list of resource requests , of arbitrary depth is maintained by the master device ( master and slave request lists 303 and 305 ). associated with each of the device request queues are two count values , a list age ( which indicates the relative age of a device request queue with respect to the other request queues ) and a request age ( which indicates the relative age of the oldest entry in a single device &# 39 ; s request queue with respect to other entries in the same request queue ). in addition to the count values associated with each device request queue , two boolean flags are also maintained ; a request stagnation flag and a list stagnation flag . request stagnation true indicates that the relative age of a device &# 39 ; s oldest resource request has exceeded a programmable threshold value . list stagnation true indicates that the relative age of a device &# 39 ; s request queue with respect to other devices &# 39 ; request queues has exceeded a programmable threshold value . stagnation ( request or list ) is mutually exclusive between all devices , only one device can be in the stagnant state at any given time . the master device also maintains the current state of resource allocation and reservation by tracking &# 34 ; resources available &# 34 ; and &# 34 ; resources reserved &# 34 ;. &# 34 ; resources available &# 34 ; indicates to the resource allocation algorithm which resources are not currently in use by any device and are not currently reserved for future allocation . any resources contained within the &# 34 ; resources available &# 34 ; structure ( resources available block 317 ) are therefore available for allocation . &# 34 ; resources reserved &# 34 ; indicates to the resource allocation algorithm which resources have been reserved for future allocation due to one of the devices having entered the stagnant state ( request stagnation or list stagnation true ). once a device enters the stagnant state , resources included in the stagnant request are placed into the &# 34 ; reserved resources &# 34 ; structure ( resource reserved block 315 ) either by immediate removal from the &# 34 ; resources available &# 34 ; structure , or for resources currently allocated , at the time they are released or returned to the resource pool ) and kept there until all resources included in the stagnant request are available for granting . stagnation ( request or list ) is mutually exclusive between all devices ; only one device can be in the stagnant state at any given time . the last two data structures used by the resource allocation algorithm are pointers to the currently selected device ( generically termed turn and listselect ) which is having it &# 39 ; s resource request queue being searched for a match with available resources . resource allocation fairness is provided using the above - defined data structures . the request stagnation flag as previously described is used to ensure fairness in granting resource requests within a single device . for example , assuming random availability of resources , a device which requests most resources in groupings of two could starve it &# 39 ; s own requests for groupings of five resources from the same resource pool unless a mechanism for detecting and correcting this situation exists . the request age counts with their associated thresholds ensure that resource requests within a single device will not be starved or indefinitely blocked . the list stagnation flag is used to ensure fairness in granting resource requests between devices . for example , a device which requests resources in groupings of two could starve another device in the system requesting groupings of five resources from the same resource pool . the list age counts with their associated thresholds ensure that all devices &# 39 ; requests will be serviced more fairly and that a particular device will not become starved waiting for resource requests . two modes of operation are defined for the resource allocation algorithm : normal mode and stagnant mode . under normal mode of operation , no devices have entered the stagnant state and the algorithm uses the turn pointer in a round - robin manner to systematically examine each of the device &# 39 ; s request queues seeking to grant any resources which it can ( based on resource availability ) with priority within a device request queue based on the relative ages of the request entries . upon transition to the stagnant mode ( a device has enter the stagnant state ), the turn pointer is set to the stagnant device and the resource allocation algorithm will favor granting of the request which caused the stagnant state by reserving the resources included in the stagnant request such that no other device may be granted those resources . although the turn pointer is effectively frozen to the stagnant device , other device request queues and other entries within the stagnant device &# 39 ; s request queue will continue to search for resource matches based on what is currently available and not reserved using the secondary list pointer ( listselect ). the actual resource grant operation includes the removal of granted resources from the &# 34 ; resources available &# 34 ; structure along with the clearing of &# 34 ; resources reserved &# 34 ; structure ( if the resource grant was for a stagnant request ). resource freeing or release operations are accomplished simply by updating the &# 34 ; resources available &# 34 ; structure . the following is an implementation of the algorithm using the &# 34 ; c &# 34 ; programming language for a sample case of a master and a single slave device with the following characteristics : as stated earlier , the number of devices , number of shared resources , and queue depth are strictly arbitrary . the functionality contained and implied by this algorithm is implemented in the device sharing the resources designated the master . the description describes the service poll used to look for a resource request to be granted from any controller . the release operation is simply provided by allocating the resources to be released to the channels available variable . although this example implementation uses the &# 34 ; c &# 34 ; programming language , the implementation may take any form , such as other programming languages , hardware state machine implementations , etc . __________________________________________________________________________void resource . sub .-- allocation . sub .-- algorithm ( void ) /* beginresourceallocation algorithm */ int service . sub .-- loops ; resource . sub .-- operation * stagnant . sub .-- operation ;/* while (( q . sub .-- head . sub .-- is . sub .-- not . sub .-- empty ( slave . sub .-- list )) & amp ;& amp ; ( q . sub .-- head . sub .-- is . sub .-- not . sub .-- empty ( master . sub .-- list )))*/ for ( service . sub .-- loops = 0 ; service . sub .-- loops & lt ; 4 : service . sub .-- loops ++) { if ( service . sub .-- loops == 0 ) { if ((! master . sub .-- request . sub .-- stagnation ) & amp ;& amp ; (! master . sub .-- list . sub .-- stagnation ) & amp ;& amp ; (! slave . sub .-- request . sub .-- stagnation ) & amp ;& amp ; (! ! slave . sub .-- list . sub .-- stagnation )) { if ( last . sub .-- serviced == master ) turn = slave ; else turn = master ; } } if ( turn == master ) { if (! ( q . sub .-- head . sub .-- is . sub .-- not . sub .-- empty ( master . sub .-- list ))) { master . sub .-- list . sub .-- age = 0 ; turn = slave ; continue ; } if ((! master . sub .-- list . sub .-- stagnation ) & amp ;& amp ; (! master . sub .-- request . sub .-- stagnation )) { if ( acquire . sub .-- from . sub .-- master ()) { if ( oldest . sub .-- master . sub .-- serviced ) { turn = slave ; master . sub .-- request . sub .-- age = 0 ; } else { master . sub .-- request . sub .-- age ++; if ( master . sub .-- request . sub .-- age & gt ;= request . sub .-- threshold ){ num . sub .-- master . sub .-- req . sub .-- stagnation ++; master . sub .-- request . sub .-- stagnation = true ;} else { turn = slave ;} } /* a request from the master queue was serviced */ master . sub .-- list . sub .-- age = 0 ; slave . sub .-- list . sub .-- age ++; if (( slave . sub .-- list . sub .-- age & gt ;= list . sub .-- thresho1d )& amp ;& amp ;(! master . sub .-- request . sub .-- stagnation )) { if ( q . sub .-- head . sub .-- is . sub .-- not . sub .-- empty ( slave . sub .-- list )){ num . sub .-- slave . sub .-- list . sub .-- stagnation ++; slave . sub .-- list . sub .-- stagnation = true ; turn = slave ; } } } else { /* no master queue request was serviced */ turn = slave ; } } else { /* master . sub .-- list . sub .-- stagnation or master . sub .-- request . sub .-- stagnation */ stagnant . sub .-- operation = ( resource . sub .-- operation *) master . sub .-- list -& gt ; head ; slave . sub .-- list . sub .-- age = 0 ; if ( acquire . sub .-- from . sub .-- master ()) { if ( oldest . sub .-- master . sub .-- serviced ) { turn = slave ; master . sub .-- list . sub .-- stagnation = false ; master . sub .-- request . sub .-- stagnation = false ; slave . sub .-- list . sub .-- age ++; master . sub .-- request . sub .-- age = 0 ; master . sub .-- list . sub .-- age = 0 ; } } else { if ( acquire . sub .-- from . sub .-- slave ()) { slave . sub .-- list . sub .-- age = 0 ; if ( oldest . sub .-- slave . sub .-- serviced ) slave . sub .-- request . sub .-- age = 0 ; } } } } else { /* turn = slave */ if (! ( q . sub .-- head . sub .-- is . sub .-- not . sub .-- empty ( slave . sub .-- list ))) { slave . sub .-- list . sub .-- age = 0 ; turn = master ; continue ; } if ((! slave . sub .-- list . sub .-- stagnation ) & amp ;& amp ; (! slave . sub .-- request . sub .-- stagnation )) { if ( acquire . sub .-- from . sub .-- slave ()) { if ( oldest . sub .-- slave . sub .-- serviced ) { turn = master ; slave . sub .-- request . sub .-- age = 0 ; } else { slave . sub .-- request . sub .-- age ++; if ( slave . sub .-- request . sub .-- age & gt ;= request . sub .-- threshold ){ num . sub .-- slave . sub .-- req . sub .-- stagnation ++; slave . sub .-- request . sub .-- stagnation = true ;} else { turn = master ;} } /* a request from the slave queue was serviced */ slave . sub .-- list . sub .-- age = 0 ; master . sub .-- list . sub .-- age ++; if (( master . sub .-- list . sub .-- age & gt ;= list . sub .-- threshold ) & amp ;& amp ;(! slave . sub .-- request . sub .-- stagnation )) { if ( q . sub .-- head . sub .-- is . sub .-- not . sub .-- empty ( master . sub .-- list )){ num . sub .-- master . sub .-- list . sub .-- stagnation ++; master . sub .-- list . sub .-- stagnation = true ; turn = master ;} } } else { /* no slave queue request was serviced */ turn = master ; } } else { /* slave . sub .-- list . sub .-- stagnation or slave . sub .-- request . sub .-- stagnation */ stagnant . sub .-- operation = ( resource . sub .-- operation *) slave . sub .-- list -& gt ; head ; master . sub .-- list . sub .-- age = 0 ; if ( acquire . sub .-- from . sub .-- slave ()) { if ( oldest . sub .-- slave . sub .-- serviced ) { turn = master ; slave . sub .-- list . sub .-- stagnation = false ; slave . sub .-- request . sub .-- stagnation = false ; master . sub .-- list . sub .-- age ++; slave . sub .-- request . sub .-- age = 0 ; slave . sub .-- list . sub .-- age = 0 ; } } else { if ( acquire . sub .-- from . sub .-- master ()) { master . sub .-- list -- age = 0 ; if ( oldest . sub .-- master . sub .-- serviced ) master . sub .-- request . sub .-- age = 0 ; } } } } } } /************************************************************ ***/ status acquire . sub .-- from . sub .-- master () /************************************************************ ***/ { resource . sub .-- operation * list . sub .-- end , * operation , * first . sub .-- operation ; node * operation . sub .-- node ; int temp . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available ; int first . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available , other . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available ; oldest . sub .-- master . sub .-- serviced = false ; if ( q . sub .-- head . sub .-- is . sub .-- not . sub .-- empty ( master . sub .-- list )) { list . sub .-- end = ( resource . sub .-- operation *) master . sub .-- list ; first . sub .-- operation = operation = ( resource . sub .-- operation *) master . sub .-- list -& gt ; head ; first . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available = channels . sub .-- available ; other . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available = channels . sub .-- available ; if ( master . sub .-- list . sub .-- stagnation ∥ master . sub .-- request . sub .-- stagnation ) { other . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available = channels . sub .-- available ( channels . sub .-- available & amp ; operation -& gt ; channel . sub .-- map ); } if ( slave . sub .-- list . sub .-- stagnation ∥ slave . sub .-- request . sub .-- stagnation ) { first . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available = other . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available = channels . sub .-- available ( channels . sub .-- available & amp ; operation -& gt ; channel . sub .-- map ); } do { operation . sub .-- node = ( node *) operation ; if ( operation == first . sub .-- operation ) temp . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available = first . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available ; else temp . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available = other . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available ; if ( operation -& gt ; channel . sub .-- map == ( operation -& gt ; channel . sub .-- map & amp ; temp . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available )) { /* channels are available for this operation ; grant it */ unlink . sub .-- node ( operation . sub .-- node ); link . sub .-- q . sub .-- tail ( master . sub .-- granted . sub .-- list , operation . sub .-- node ); channels . sub .-- available = operation -& gt ; channel . sub .-- map ; if ( operation == first . sub .-- operation ) oldest . sub .-- master . sub .-- serviced = true ; last . sub .-- serviced = master ; age . sub .-- request . sub .-- age ( master . sub .-- list ); check . sub .-- channel . sub .-- use (); return ( true ); } operation = ( resource . sub .-- operation *) operation . sub .-- node -& gt ; next ; } while ( operation != list . sub .-- end ); return ( false ); } else { return ( false ); } } /************************************************************ ***/ status acquire . sub .-- from . sub .-- slave () /************************************************************ ***/ { resource . sub .-- operation * list . sub .-- end , * operation , * first . sub .-- operation ; node * operation . sub .-- node ; int temp . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available ; int first . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available , other . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available ; oldest . sub .-- slave . sub .-- serviced = false ; if ( q . sub .-- head . sub .-- is . sub .-- not . sub .-- empty ( slave . sub .-- list )) { list . sub .-- end = ( resource . sub .-- operation *) slave . sub .-- list ; first . sub .-- operation = operation = ( resource . sub .-- operation *) slave . sub .-- list -& gt ; head ; first . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available = channels . sub .-- available ; other . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available = channels . sub .-- available ; if ( slave . sub .-- list . sub .-- stagnation ∥ slave . sub .-- request . sub .-- stagnation ) { other . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available = channels . sub .-- available ( channels . sub .-- available & amp ; operation -& gt ; channel . sub .-- map ); } if ( master . sub .-- list . sub .-- stagnation ∥ master . sub .-- request . sub .-- stagnation ) { first . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available = other . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available = channels . sub .-- available ( channels . sub .-- available & amp ; operation -& gt ; channel . sub .-- map ); } do { operation . sub .-- node = ( node *) operation ; if ( operation == first . sub .-- operation ) temp . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available = first . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available ; else temp . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available = other . sub .-- op . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available ; if ( operation -& gt ; channel . sub .-- map == ( operation -& gt ; channel . sub .-- map & amp ; temp . sub .-- channels . sub .-- available )) { /* channels are available for this operation ; grant it */ unlink . sub .-- node ( operation . sub .-- node ); link . sub .-- q . sub .-- tail ( slave . sub .-- granted . sub .-- list , operation . sub .-- node ); channels . sub .-- available = operation -& gt ; channel . sub .-- map ; if ( operation == first . sub .-- operation ) oldest . sub .-- slave . sub .-- serviced = true ; last . sub .-- serviced = slave ; age . sub .-- request . sub .-- age ( slave . sub .-- list ); check . sub .-- channel . sub .-- use (); return ( true ); } operation = ( resource . sub .-- operation *) operation . sub .-- node -& gt ; next ; } while ( operation != list . sub .-- end ); return ( false ); } else { return ( false ); } } /* end resource allocation algorithm */ __________________________________________________________________________ explanations and definitions for terms used in the above algorithm are provided below : service -- loops -- the number of requests that can be outstanding at any one time . master -- request -- stagnation -- the state entered when the master icon chip has serviced the slave icon requests too many times without servicing a master icon &# 39 ; s request . ( inter - icon fairness parameter ) master -- list -- stagnation -- the state entered when a request on the master icon &# 39 ; s request list is ` aged ` beyond a configurable threshold relative to other requests being serviced in the master icon &# 39 ; s request queue . ( this is used to promote intra - icon list request fairness to ensure starvation within the master icon &# 39 ; s list is avoided because of a request requiring a large number of resources waiting behind many requests requiring only small numbers of resources .) slave -- request -- stagnation -- the state entered when the master icon chip has serviced the master icon &# 39 ; s requests too many times without servicing a slave icon &# 39 ; s request . ( inter - icon fairness parameter ) slave -- list -- stagnation -- the state entered when a request on the slave icon &# 39 ; s request list is ` aged ` beyond a configurable threshold relative to other requests being serviced in the slave icon &# 39 ; s request queue . ( this is used to promote intra - icon list request fairness to ensure starvation within the slave icon &# 39 ; s request list is avoided because of a request requiring a large number of resources waiting behind lots of requests requiring only small numbers of resources .) last -- serviced -- a mechanism for providing fairness in servicing the least recently serviced controller . turn -- indicates which list will be looked at first when servicing requests . master -- list -- age -- the relative age of the request list for the master as compared to the number of requests serviced from the slave &# 39 ; s list . it is used to ensure that the master is serviced at worst case , after some number of requests have been serviced from the slave . when the master list age exceeds a threshold , the master -- request -- stagnation state is entered into . master -- request -- age -- the relative age of the oldest member of the master list when compared to the number of requests serviced from the master &# 39 ; s list . it is used to ensure that the oldest request on the master &# 39 ; s list is serviced at worst case , after some number of other requests have been serviced within the master list . when the master request age exceeds a threshold , the master -- list -- stagnation state is entered into . slave -- list -- age -- the relative age of the request list for the slave as compared to the number of requests serviced from the master &# 39 ; s list . it is used to ensure that the slave is serviced at worst case , after some number of requests have been serviced from the master . when the slave list age exceeds a threshold , the slave -- request -- stagnation state is entered into . slave -- request -- age -- the relative age of the oldest member of the slave list when compared to the number of requests serviced from the slave &# 39 ; s list . it is used to ensure that the oldest request on the slave &# 39 ; s list is serviced at worst case , after some number of other requests have been serviced within the slave list . when the slave request age exceeds a threshold , the slave -- list -- stagnation state is entered into . the algorithm presented above , together with the description of the invention provided earlier , should be readily understood by those skilled in the art as providing a method for managing the operations of multiple disk array controllers which share access to the disk drive units , busses , and other resources within the array . although the presently preferred embodiment of the invention has been described , it will be understood that various changes may be made within the scope of the appended claims .
6 (Physics)
in the following description of the drawings , identical reference signs are used for the same or functionally equivalent components . fig1 shows an euv radiation generating apparatus 1 that includes a driver laser device 2 , a beam guiding device 3 ( beam guiding chamber ), and a vacuum chamber 4 . a focusing device in the form of a focusing lens 6 is arranged in a vacuum environment formed in the vacuum chamber 4 to focus a co 2 laser beam 5 in a target region b . the euv radiation generating apparatus 1 shown in fig1 substantially corresponds to the design described in us 2011 / 0140008 a1 , which is incorporated into the content of this application by reference in its entirety . the illustration of measuring devices for monitoring the beam path of the laser beam 5 was dispensed with for reasons of clarity . as an alternative or in addition to a focusing lens 6 , the focusing device can have at least one reflecting optical element . the driver laser device 2 includes a co 2 beam source and a plurality of amplifiers for producing a laser beam 5 with a high radiation power (& gt ; 1 kw ). reference is made to us 2011 / 0140008 a1 for a detailed description of examples of possible configurations of the driver laser device 2 . from the driver laser device 2 , the laser beam 5 is deflected by a plurality of deflection mirrors 7 to 11 in the beam guiding chamber 3 and a further deflection mirror 12 in the vacuum chamber 4 onto the focusing lens 6 , which focuses the laser beam 5 in the target region b , in which tin is arranged as a target material 13 . instead of the focusing lens 6 , one or more mirrors for focusing the co 2 laser beam into the target region b can also be used . it is understood that other materials to tin can also be used as target material 13 . the target material 13 is hit by the focused laser beam 5 and , in the process , converted into a plasma state , which serves for the generating of euv radiation 14 . the target material 13 is supplied to the target region b with the aid of a provisioning device ( not shown here ), which guides the target material 13 along a predetermined path which crosses the target region b . in respect of details relating to the provision of the target material , reference is likewise made to the us 2011 / 0140008 a1 . an adjustment device 15 is arranged in a beam guiding space in the beam guiding chamber 3 , the adjustment device 15 serving to set a beam diameter d of the laser beam 5 and an aperture angle α ( cf . fig5 b ) of the laser beam 5 . the adjustment device 15 includes a first mirror 16 which has a first , convexly curved reflecting surface 16 a . the laser beam 5 that is incident on the first mirror 16 in collimated fashion is reflected by the first reflecting surface 16 a as a divergent laser beam 5 and it is incident on a second mirror 17 , which has a second , concavely curved reflecting surface 17 a . the laser beam 5 leaves the second mirror 17 as a converging laser beam 5 and it is incident on a third mirror 18 , which has a third , convexly curved reflecting surface 18 a . the laser beam 5 is reflected by the third mirror 18 as a divergent laser beam 5 and it is incident on a fourth mirror 19 , which has a fourth , concavely curved reflecting surface 19 a . the radii of curvature of the four reflecting surfaces 16 a - 19 a of the four mirrors 16 - 19 are matched to one another in such a way that the laser beam 5 is reflected in the manner described further above , e . g ., that the laser beam 5 is divergent between the first mirror 16 and the second mirror 17 , convergent between the second mirror 17 and the third mirror 18 , and divergent between the third mirror 18 and the fourth mirror 19 . in the shown example , the first mirror 16 and the fourth mirror 19 are embodied as off - axis parabolic mirrors , e . g ., the first reflecting surface 16 a and the fourth reflecting surface 19 a each form an off - axis segment of an ( elliptical ) paraboloid . the term “ off - axis ” means that the reflecting surfaces 16 a , 19 a do not contain the axis of rotation of the paraboloid ( and hence do not contain the vertex of the paraboloid either ). the second mirror 17 and the third mirror 18 are embodied as ellipsoid mirrors , e . g ., the reflecting surfaces 17 a , 18 a each form a segment of an ellipsoid . in principle , the reflecting surfaces 17 a , 18 a may form symmetric segments of an ellipsoid , and so a respective segment of the ellipsoid has two equal focal lengths or back focal lengths for the incident laser beam and for the emerging laser beam . in the example shown below in fig2 a and 2b , the second mirror 17 is a nonsymmetrical ellipsoid mirror ( also referred to as an off - axis ellipsoid mirror ), in which the reflecting surface 17 a forms a segment of an ellipsoid which does not extend with rotational symmetry with respect to one of the major axes of the ellipsoid indicated in fig2 b , the reflecting surface 17 a forming a portion of said ellipsoid . the same applies to the reflecting surface 18 a of the third mirror 18 . the second mirror 17 and the third mirror 18 each have a different back focal length and focal length for the incident laser beam 5 and for the emerging laser beam 5 . the use of the second mirror 17 and of the third mirror 18 in the form of off - axis ellipsoid mirrors facilitates more degrees of freedom in relation to the design and the spacings of the four mirrors 16 to 19 than is the case for symmetrical ellipsoid mirrors . for setting the beam diameter d and the aperture angle α of the laser beam 5 , the adjustment device 15 includes a movement device 20 which is subsequently described in more detail on the basis of fig2 a . in the shown example , the movement device 20 has a basic body in the form of a carrier plate 21 , on which a ( first ) housing 22 is fastened rigidly , e . g ., by way of a screw - in connection . the housing 22 is embodied in the form of a cylinder with a rectangular base area ( e . g ., in the form of a cuboid ) and has an entrance opening ( not shown here ) at one end , through which the collimated laser beam 5 , which propagates along a beam axis ( x - axis of an xyz - coordinate system ), enters into the housing 22 . attached to the other end of the housing 22 is the first mirror 16 , at the reflecting surface 16 a of which the laser beam 5 emerges through a first opening 23 in the direction of the second mirror 17 which , together with the third mirror 18 , is arranged in a common , cuboid housing 24 . the second mirror 17 and the third mirror 18 are arranged at a fixed distance a from one another at opposite ends of the common housing 24 , which likewise has a cuboid embodiment . the divergent laser beam 5 enters into the common housing 24 at a second opening 25 ( which is covered in fig2 a ), it is reflected from the second mirror 17 to the third mirror 18 , and leaves the common housing 24 by way of a third opening 26 . the laser beam 5 emerging from the common housing 24 enters into a further housing 28 through a fourth opening 27 ( which is covered in fig2 a ), the fourth mirror 19 being arranged in said further housing . the further housing 28 likewise has a cuboid embodiment and the fourth mirror 19 is attached to one end of the cuboid housing 28 . at the opposite end of the further housing 28 , the laser beam 5 emerges from the further housing 28 , and hence from the adjustment device 15 , at an exit opening . in the example shown in fig2 a and 2b , the first mirror 16 and the second mirror 17 produce a z - fold of the laser beam 5 that is incident in the adjustment device 15 along the x - direction , i . e ., the laser beam 5 reflected at the second mirror 17 has substantially the same propagation direction as the incident laser beam 5 , i . e ., it extends with a substantially parallel offset to the incident laser beam 5 . accordingly , the third mirror 18 and the fourth mirror 19 of the adjustment device 15 produce a further z - fold , i . e ., the laser beam 5 impinging on the third mirror 18 is reflected by the third mirror 18 and fourth mirror 19 in such a way that the laser beam extends substantially parallel to the laser beam 5 impinging on the third mirror 18 . the z - fold at the first mirror 16 and second mirror 17 and the further z - fold at the third mirror 18 and fourth mirror 19 are matched to one another in such a way that the laser beam 5 that is incident into the adjustment device 15 and the laser beam 5 that emerges from the adjustment device 15 extend parallel to one another , i . e ., propagate in the x - direction in the shown example . the z - fold at the first mirror 16 and second mirror 17 , and the further z - fold at the third mirror 18 and fourth mirror 19 are matched to one another in such a way that the laser beam axis 33 a of the laser beam 5 between the first mirror 16 and the second mirror 17 , and the laser beam axis 33 b between the third mirror 18 and the fourth mirror 19 , correspond . if , as in the shown example , the laser beam 5 that is incident into the adjustment device 15 and the laser beam 5 that emerges from the adjustment device 15 extend parallel to one another , an angle of incidence β of the laser beam 5 on the first mirror 16 typically corresponds in this case to an angle of incidence β of the laser beam 5 on the fourth mirror 19 . as a result of the parallel alignment of the respective laser beam axes 33 a , 33 b of the laser beam 5 , the housing 24 with the second mirror 17 and third mirror 18 can be displaced without a beam offset occurring in this case . without such a parallel alignment , a separate actuation of all four mirrors 16 to 19 might be required to compensate a possibly occurring beam offset . in the example shown in fig2 a and 2b , both the common housing 24 and the further housing 28 are mounted on the carrier plate 21 in a movable , more precisely displaceable , manner . the movement device 20 is embodied to move , more precisely displace , the common housing 24 and the further housing 28 independently of one another . for this purpose , a guide plate 29 is fastened to the outer side of the common housing 24 , and it is possible to displace said guide plate along a common displacement direction 30 which corresponds to the longitudinal direction of the guide plate 29 . the guide plate 29 is fastened to the common housing 24 in such a way ( substantially centrally in the shown example ) that , in the case of the displacement along the common displacement direction 30 , the displacement direction 30 forms a displacement axis 30 a at the position at which the laser beam 5 impinges on the second mirror 17 , said displacement axis corresponding to the laser beam axis of the laser beam 5 impinging on the second reflecting surface 17 a of the second mirror 17 . accordingly , the fourth mirror 19 is also fastened to a further guide plate ( not shown in fig2 a ) to displace the further housing 28 along a further displacement direction 31 which , in the shown example , extends parallel to the common displacement direction 30 . the further guide plate is fastened to the further housing 28 in such a way ( substantially centrally in the shown example ) that the further displacement direction 31 , at the position at which the laser beam 5 impinges on the fourth mirror 19 , forms a further displacement axis 31 a , which corresponds to the laser beam axis of the laser beam 5 that impinges on the fourth reflecting surface 19 a of the fourth mirror 19 . the guide plate 29 is mounted in a linearly movable manner between two linear guides 32 a , 32 b that are formed on the carrier plate 21 , said linear guides being illustrated in fig3 a to fig5 a . the same applies to the further guide plate , the illustration of which was dispensed with for reasons of clarity , just like the illustration of further linear guides in fig2 a to fig5 a . the guide plate 29 can be displaced between the two linear guides 32 a , 32 b along the common displacement direction 30 by means of an actuator ( not shown ), for example a linear motor . the further housing 28 can also be displaced between the two further linear guides along the further displacement direction 31 by means of a further actuator , for example a further linear motor . the movement device 20 is embodied to actuate the actuator and the further actuator independently of one another such that the common housing 24 and the further housing 28 can be displaced independently of one another along the common displacement axis 30 a and along the further displacement axis 31 a , respectively . during the movement of the common housing 24 , the second mirror 17 and the third mirror 18 are displaced together relative to the first mirror 16 and the fourth mirror 19 . during the movement of the further housing 28 , the fourth mirror 19 is displaced relative to the first , stationary mirror 16 . fig2 a shows the movement device 20 in a basic position , in which a focal position f 1 of the first mirror 16 that is embodied as a paraboloid and a first focal position f 2 a of the second mirror 17 that is embodied as ellipsoid correspond . independently of the respective positioning of the adjustment device 15 , a second focal position f 2 b of the second mirror 17 corresponds to a first focal position f 3 a of the third mirror 18 that is likewise embodied as an ellipsoid since the two mirrors are arranged at a constant distance from one another . furthermore , in the basic position , a second focal position f 3 b of the third mirror 18 corresponds to a focal position f 4 of the fourth mirror 19 that is embodied as a paraboloid . the axis of symmetry 34 ( axis of rotation ) of the first ( parabolic ) mirror 16 , on which its focal position f 1 is situated , and the axis of symmetry 35 of the fourth ( parabolic ) mirror 19 , on which its focal position f 4 is situated , are aligned parallel to one another . fig2 b shows the beam profile of the laser beam 5 through the adjustment device 15 in the basic position of the movement device 20 shown in fig2 a . the laser beam 5 that is incident in the adjustment device 15 in collimated fashion emerges from the adjustment device 15 in collimated fashion in the basic position , with the beam diameter d of the emerging laser beam 5 being greater by a factor m relative to the beam diameter d ′ of the laser beam 5 entering into the adjustment device 15 , i . e ., the magnification nominally brought about by the adjustment device 15 is d / d ′= m . when using off - axis ellipsoid mirrors 16 , 17 , the ( magnification ) factor m of the adjustment device 15 emerges as the product of the ( magnification ) factor m 12 =− f 2 a / f 1 of the imaging by the first mirror 16 and the second mirror 17 , the ( magnification ) factor m 23 =− f 3 a / f 2 b of the imaging by the second mirror 17 and third mirror 18 , and by the ( magnification ) factor m 34 =− f 4 / f 3 b of the imaging by the third mirror 18 and the fourth mirror 19 , i . e ., the following applies : where f 1 , f 2 a , f 2 b , f 3 a , f 3 b , f 4 respectively denote the focal length , e . g ., the distance between the respective mirror 16 to 19 , or the respective reflecting surface 16 a to 19 a , and the respective focal position f 1 , f 2 a , f 2 b , f 3 a , f 3 b , f 4 . for the distance d 12 between the first mirror 16 and the second mirror 17 , in the basic position , d 12 = f 1 + f 2 a applies , for the distance d 23 ( and a ) between the second mirror 17 and the third mirror 18 , d 23 = f 2 b + f 3 a applies and for the distance d 34 between the third mirror 18 and the fourth mirror 19 , d 34 = f 3 b + f 4 applies . the focal lengths f 1 , f 2 a , f 2 b , f 3 a , f 3 b , f 4 of the first mirror 16 to the fourth mirror 19 are dependent on the available installation space and , for example , may lie in the order of magnitude between approximately 500 mm and approximately 1000 mm . if the second mirror 17 and the third mirror 18 are embodied as symmetrical ellipsoid mirrors , the ( magnification ) factor simplifies as follows : m =− f 4 / f 1 . in this case , the following applies for the distance d 12 between the first mirror 16 and the second mirror 17 , the distance d 23 ( or a ) between the second mirror 17 and the third mirror 18 , and for the distance d 34 between the third mirror 18 and the fourth mirror 19 : d 12 = f 1 + f 2 , d 23 = f 2 + f 3 and d 34 = f 3 + f 4 . as described further above , symmetrical ellipsoid mirrors have identical focal lengths , i . e . the following applies in this case : f 2 a = f 2 b = f 2 and f 3 a = f 3 b = f 3 . in the basic position , the second mirror 17 and the third mirror 18 are arranged in such a way that imaging of the incident laser beam 5 by the adjustment device 15 is carried out practically without aberrations since two of the focal positions f 1 , f 2 a , f 2 b , f 3 a , f 3 b , f 4 coincide in each case . in the example shown in fig2 b , the incident laser beam 5 has a beam diameter d ′ of approximately 40 mm . fig3 a and 3b show the movement device 20 and the beam profile through the adjustment device 15 in an upper position of the common housing 24 , in which the further housing 28 has been slightly displaced out of the basic position shown in fig2 a to compensate a parasitic change in divergence of the laser beam 5 , and so the emerging laser beam 5 continues to be collimated . in fig3 a and 3b , the common housing 24 is displaced into an upper position , in which it adjoins the further housing 28 . in the upper position shown in fig3 a , the further housing 28 is therefore arranged at a maximum possible distance from the first mirror 16 or from the housing 22 . in the upper position shown in fig3 a and 3b , the adjustment device 15 produces an emerging , collimated laser beam 5 with a minimum possible beam diameter d , the size of which depends on the possible displacement paths of the movement device 20 and the employed focal lengths and which , for example , may be at approximately 80 % of the magnification factor m produced in the basic position . fig4 a and 4b show the movement device 20 or the beam profile through the adjustment device 15 in a lower position of the common housing 24 , in which the further housing 28 has likewise been slightly displaced out of the basic position shown in fig2 a in order to compensate a parasitic change in divergence of the laser beam 5 and produce a collimated emerging laser beam 5 . in fig4 a and 4b , the common housing 24 is displaced into a lower position , in which the latter adjoins the stationary housing 22 in which the first mirror 16 is arranged . in the lower position shown in fig4 a , the further housing 28 is therefore arranged at a minimum possible distance from the first mirror 16 or from the housing 22 . in the lower position shown in fig4 a and 4b , the adjustment device 15 produces an emerging , collimated laser beam 5 with a maximum possible beam diameter d , the size of which depends on the possible displacement paths of the movement device 20 and the employed focal lengths and which , for example , may lie at approximately 120 % of the magnification factor m produced in the basic position . finally , fig5 a and 5b show the movement device 20 and the beam profile through the adjustment device 15 in a position in which the common housing 24 is positioned like in the basic position shown in fig2 a . in the position shown in fig5 a and 5b , the further housing 28 is displaced along the further displacement axis 31 a into a lower position , in which the further housing 28 adjoins the common housing 24 . in the position shown in fig5 a and 5b , the adjustment device 15 produces a divergent emerging laser beam 5 with approximately the maximum possible divergence , e . g ., the ( half ) aperture angle α of the laser beam 5 is increased by the maximum possible value in relation to the laser beam axis ( x - direction ), wherein the magnitude of the maximum ( half ) aperture angle α , for example , may be on the order of a few milliradians ( mrads ). the aperture angle α and the beam divergence of the laser beam 5 are presented in an exaggerated fashion in fig5 b for elucidation purposes . the ( virtual ) focal position of the divergent laser beam 5 emerging from the adjustment device 15 in fig5 b is at a distance of approximately fifty meters from the fourth mirror 19 in the shown example . the divergence of the laser beam 5 is produced by reducing the distance between the third mirror 18 and the fourth mirror 19 in relation to the basic position . as described further above , the specific values for ( half ) the aperture angle α and for the ( virtual ) focal position of the emerging laser beam 5 depend on the employed focal lengths and the possible displacement paths of the movement device 20 . as a result of displacing the further housing 28 downward , the laser beam 5 impinges on the fourth mirror 19 with a smaller beam cross section than is the case in the basic position shown in fig2 a and 2b . accordingly , a nominal magnification of the laser beam 5 is produced in the position shown in fig5 a and 5b , said nominal magnification having a scale which is less than the ( nominal ) magnification factor m in the basic position ( i . e ., d / d ′& lt ; m applies ). by displacing the common housing 24 in the direction of the first mirror 16 , it is possible to increase the imaging scale , and so the latter once again corresponds to the nominal imaging scale m . in the case of such a displacement , the aperture angle α is further enlarged , which may be taken into account for setting the desired aperture angle α . by way of a movement of the further housing 28 along the further displacement axis 31 a into an upper position of the further housing 28 ( not presented pictorially ), the movement device 20 can produce a convergent emerging laser beam 5 , with the ( half ) aperture angle α of the convergent laser beam 5 likewise being of the order of a few milliradians . the focal position of the convergent laser beam 5 emerging from the adjustment device of fig5 b can , for example , likewise have a distance of approximately fifty meters from the fourth mirror 19 . the change in the imaging scale ( d / d ′& gt ; m ) which occurs during the upward displacement of the further housing 28 can be compensated by virtue of increasing the distance between the second mirror 17 and the third mirror 18 relative to the first mirror 16 , such that a convergent emerging laser beam 5 is produced with a beam diameter d , which corresponds to the nominal imaging scale ( d / d ′= m ). the aperture angle α decreases slightly in the case of such a displacement . in the case of the displacement of the further housing 28 , the emerging laser beam 5 is offset in the y - direction , i . e ., the latter impinges with a lateral offset on the first deflection mirror 9 ( cf . fig1 ) which follows the adjustment device 15 in the beam guiding device 3 . to compensate this beam offset , the first deflection mirror 9 and a further deflection mirror 10 , following the latter in the beam path , may be embodied to be swivelable about a respective tilt axis extending in the z - direction and / or to be displaceable in the y - direction . the tilts and / or the displacements of the deflection mirrors 9 , 10 are matched to one another in such a way that the laser beam 5 impinges on the subsequent deflection mirror 11 at the desired position ( and parallel to the x - direction , i . e . aligned at the correct angle ). it is understood that the compensation of the beam offset may , alternatively or additionally , also be carried out with the help of the further deflection mirrors 11 , 12 , or in any other way , so as to ensure that the laser beam 5 is focused onto the target position b as desired by the focusing lens 6 . only small aberrations occur in the positions of the movement device 20 shown in fig3 a and 3b to fig5 a and 5b and in the position not presented pictorially , in which a convergent laser beam 5 is formed . moreover , the energy distribution of the laser beam 5 is maintained over the beam cross section during the displacement of the second to fourth mirrors 17 , 18 , 19 . the adjustment device 15 described herein , including the first mirror 16 and the fourth mirror 19 , which are embodied as parabolic mirrors , and including the second mirror 17 and the third mirror 18 , which are embodied as ellipsoid mirrors , moreover facilitates a particularly compact realization of the adjustment device 15 , which is therefore particularly advantageous in view of the required installation space . no intermediate focus is produced in the beam path between the four mirrors 16 to 19 in the adjustment device 15 shown in fig2 a and 2b to fig5 a and 5b , in which the reflecting surfaces 16 a , 18 a of the first mirror 16 and the third mirror 18 have convex curvature and in which the second reflecting surface 17 a and the fourth reflecting surface 19 a of the second mirror 17 and of the fourth mirror 19 , respectively , have concave curvature . alternatively , it is also possible to embody the adjustment device 15 in such a way that one , two or three intermediate foci are produced in the beam path between the individual mirrors 16 to 19 , as described below in more detail on the basis of fig6 a , 6b and 6c , which show the adjustment device 15 , respectively , in the basic position , analogously to fig2 a and 2b . in the illustrations shown in fig6 a , 6b and 6c , the first mirror 16 and the fourth mirror 19 are embodied as off - axis paraboloid mirrors , as described further above , and the second mirror 17 and third mirror 18 are embodied as ellipsoid mirrors . in the adjustment device 15 shown in fig6 a , the reflecting surfaces 17 a , 18 a of the second mirror 17 and third mirror 18 each have a concave curvature , while the reflecting surfaces 16 a , 19 a of the first mirror 16 and the fourth mirror 19 each have a convex curvature . in this way , an intermediate focus is produced between the second mirror 17 and third mirror 18 . in the adjustment device 15 shown in fig6 b , the reflecting surface 16 a of the first mirror 16 has a convex curvature , while the reflecting surfaces 17 a to 19 a of the second to fourth mirrors 17 to 19 each have a concave curvature , as a result of which a second intermediate focus is formed between the third mirror 18 and the fourth mirror 19 . in the adjustment device 15 shown in fig6 c , the reflecting surfaces 16 a to 19 a of all four mirrors 16 to 19 each have a concave curvature , as a result of which a third intermediate focus is formed between the first mirror 16 and the second mirror 17 . it is understood that the adjustment devices 15 shown in fig6 a , 6b and 6c may be provided with a movement device 20 which is embodied in the manner described further above in order to set both the beam diameter d and the aperture angle α of the laser beam 5 . it is likewise understood that the movement device 20 may also have an embodiment that differs from the one shown in fig2 a and 2b to fig6 a , 6b and 6c . also , the adjustment device 15 can be used to produce a nominal reduction in size of the laser beam 5 with a reduction scale 1 / m by virtue of reversing the beam direction of the laser beam 5 . the adjustment device 15 with the movement device 20 or the beam guiding device 3 can also be used in a meaningful manner in other optical arrangements than in the euv radiation generating apparatus 1 that is described further above , in which other optical arrangements an adjustment of both the beam diameter d and the aperture angle α of a laser beam 5 is required , in particular in the case of optical arrangements which have a very long beam path or require very high powers . by way of example , such a beam guiding device 3 can be used in a laser processing machine for laser welding and / or laser cutting applications . a number of embodiments of the invention have been described . nevertheless , it will be understood that various modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention . accordingly , other embodiments are within the scope of the following claims .
6 (Physics)
referring to the drawings in detail , a cord reel is denoted generally therein by the numeral 10 . cord reel 10 comprises a housing 12 including a peripheral wall 14 and a radial wall 16 ( fig4 and 5 ). peripheral wall 14 is provided with an aperture thereto at 17 , bounded and reinforced by smoothly rounded jambs 18 , and a handle 19 angularly displaced from the aperture . mounted for rotation within housing 12 is a reel 20 comprising a hub 22 including peripheral hub wall 23 , from which there radiates opposed cheekwalls 24 parallel to radial housing wall 16 . as seen in fig4 and 5 , radial wall 16 has an inwardly turned portion at 26 , this portion being concentrically located within hub 22 and spaced therefrom . inwardly turned portion 26 terminates in a radial flange 28 , the flange having a plurality of notches 29 disposed about the periphery thereof . housing peripheral wall 14 generally closely surrounds the perimeter of cheek walls 24 to preclude access to the interior of the housing 12 therebetween . however , the peripheral wall is outwardly divergent towards aperture 17 , and a shaped fillet 30 locates between upper cheek wall 24 and peripheral wall 14 in the vicinity of aperture 17 , being releasably secured to jambs 18 by screws 31 . it will be appreciated that fillet 30 serves to reinforce peripheral wall 14 in the vicinity of aperture 17 . radial housing wall 16 is integrally formed with a fillet portion similarly shaped to fillet 30 and which secures to the lower end of jambs 18 to close off the housing . hub 22 is divided into upper and lower compartments 32 , 34 respectively by hub radial walls 36 , 38 and 40 , wall 40 being detachable from wall 38 and secured thereto by a plurality of machine screws 42 and spacers 44 . housing radial wall 16 is stepped at 46 and detachable hub radial wall 40 i dimensional to engage behind step 46 , whilst being radially spaced therefrom , so as to prevent hub 22 being withdrawn from housing 12 . antifriction washer 48 locates between flange 28 and the intermediate hub radial wall 38 , permitting reel 20 to rotate freely within housing 12 . a handle 49 is provided to rotate reel 20 . within compartment 34 there locates a plunger 50 which is spring biased upwardly by helical spring 52 . plunger 50 is shaped and located so as to engage a notch 29 when in its upward position , thereby locking reel 20 to preclude the rotation thereof . hub radial wall 36 is windowed at 53 to provide access to upper compartment 32 of hub 22 . window 53 is closed by shutter 54 which is hinged at 56 along one side thereof to hub radial wall 36 . within compartment 32 is located at latch 58 , which is pivotally secured at 60 to radial hub wall 38 by a furcated latch arm 62 . latch 58 is biased towards hinge 56 by a spring 64 . shutter 54 is provided with a downwardly dependent catch 66 which engages latch 58 to retain the shutter in a closed position thereby preventing access to upper compartment 32 of hub 22 . plunger 50 is provided with a stem 68 which projects upwardly through hub radial wall 38 into upper compartment 32 to terminate within the boundary of window 53 adjacent hub radial wall 36 . lateral play of plunger stem 68 is precluded by a surrounding tubular wall 70 therefor mounted from wall 38 . shutter 54 is provided with a small downwardly dependent post 72 which locates so as to bear upon plunger stem 68 when the shutter 54 is in its closed position , and so disengage plunger 50 from notch 29 , thereby unlocking reel 20 so as to permit the rotation thereof . an aperture 74 through hub peripheral wall 23 is provided in general radial alignment with the furcated opening in latch arm 62 , thereby forming a passage from housing 12 into upper compartment 32 . having described the structure of cord reel 10 , the manner of operation thereof will now be described . a standard electrical extension cord 80 having a plug connector 82 and a socket connector 84 at opposed ends thereof has one end which enters housing 12 at aperture 17 and passes into upper compartment 34 via the passage provided by hub wall opening 74 and the furcation of latch arm 62 to float within the compartment , that is to say it is freely moveable within the confines thereof . assuming connector 82 to be nested within hub compartment 32 , as shown in fig4 shutter 54 may be closed and latched into place , thereby capturing connector 82 within compartment 32 and rendering cord 80 inoperably for the purpose of supplying current to an electrical curcuit . as shutter 54 is moved to its latched position , post 72 simultaneously bears upon plunger stem 68 to force plunger 50 downwards out of contact with notch 30 , thereby unlocking reel 20 . cord 80 may now be wound on reel 20 using handle 49 . for as long as shutter 54 remains closed , cord 80 is effectively rendered inoperative . shutter 54 can be opened only by disengaging catch 66 from latch 58 . latch 58 is operable by applying tension to cord 80 , thereby drawing connector 82 into contact with latch arm 62 and causing the latch arm to rotate against the bias of spring 64 . assuming cord 80 to be wound onto reel 20 , tension applied to the cord extending from housing 12 will cause reel 20 to turn , and the cord will be unwound . no tension will be transmitted to connector 82 until cord 80 is essentially unwound from reel 80 . even assuming handle 49 were held to prevent reel 20 from rotating freely , tension applied to cord 80 would be expanded by frictional forces with any more than 2 - 3 turns of cord 80 on the reel . in practice , cord 80 is found to be fully unwound from reel 20 , with apertures 17 and 74 in general radial alignment , prior to catch 66 being released . once connector 82 is accessible , cord 80 becomes operable . by pulling on connector 82 , cord is drawn through aperture 17 into hub 22 and through window 53 until a desired length of cord is obtained to connect plug 80 to a convenience receptacle or the like . the spacing between jambs 18 is such as to permit cord 80 to be drawn readily into and from housing 12 , but to prevent connector 84 from passing into the housing . in the event that it is required to replace cord 80 , fillet 30 is detached from jambs 18 by withdrawing screws 31 , thereby providing an opening of sufficient size to permit the passage of either connector 82 or 84 therethrough . pivot 60 , which retains furcated latch arm 62 in position , is withdrawn , thereby disengaging cord 80 and permitting either connector end 82 or 84 to be threaded through compartment aperture 74 , and a new cord to be inserted in housing 12 . whilst my invention has been particularized in relation to one specific embodiment thereof , it will be appreciated that many departures therefrom may be expedient whilst achieving the same ends , and it is intended that all such departures be encompassed within the scope of my invention .
1 (Performing Operations; Transporting)
to enhance sensitivity and wavelength selectivity , infrared sensing arrays may include an integral optical cavity , tuned for the wavelength of interest , for example 9 - 10 μm for thermal imaging of human subjects . the cavity is formed by placing a reflector one quarter wavelength ( λ / 4 ) behind the sensors in the array . ( the reflector is “ behind ” the sensor array in the sense that the reflector is placed on the side of the array that is opposite the side on which the radiation to be sensed is actually incident . in terms of fabrication , on the other hand , the reflector is typically placed over the front side of the sensor chip , while the radiation is incident on the back side .) the reflector may be formed as an extended metal layer , which is deposited on a cap wafer that is then bonded to the wafer on which the sensor array is formed , so that the reflector is positioned at the appropriate distance ( λ / 4 ) from the sensors themselves . in experiments with this configuration , however , the inventors found that because of the machining and thinning of the wafer on which the sensor array is formed , the array tends to warp in the center . consequently , the distance between the sensors and the reflector varies substantially over the area of the array , resulting in substantial variations in the optical cavity length . embodiments of the present invention that are described herein overcome this limitation by attaching an individual optical cavity to each sensor in an array . instead of adding a separate reflector for all ( or a large group ) of the sensors , the individual reflectors are typically created by using the metal and dielectric layers that are deposited integrally on the sensor chip as part of the wafer fabrication process . the individual cavities in this case may be open ( i . e ., they may contain vacuum or air between the sensing element and the reflecting layer ), or they may contain dielectric material that is transparent to the ir wavelengths of interest . because the cavities are fixed to the individual sensors , the desired cavity dimensions are maintained even in the face of warping of the array as a whole . as a result , coupling of the incoming ir radiation to the sensors is enhanced . furthermore , the use of individual reflectors , as opposed to a single , common reflector for multiple sensors , reduces crosstalk between neighboring sensors and thus enhances the resolution of the array . although the embodiments that are described herein refer specifically to tmos sensor designs , the principles of the present invention may similarly be applied to other types of ir sensor arrays . fig1 is a conceptual sectional view of an ir sensor array 20 , in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention . the array comprises multiple sensing elements 21 , each comprising a sensor 22 , such as a tmos sensor , and an individual optical cavity 24 . although this sectional view shows only a part of a single row of sensing elements , in practice the sensing elements are typically arranged in a two - dimensional matrix array , with supporting structures that connect them to the surrounding substrate , as described , for example , in the above - mentioned patent . these structures are omitted here for the sake of simplicity . cavities 24 are formed by reflectors 26 , which are held by support structures 28 at a distance of λ / 4 from sensors 22 . as a result , when radiation is incident on the array , as illustrated by the arrows coming up from the bottom of the figure , the portion of the radiation that is not absorbed in sensors 22 passes through cavities 24 , reflects back from reflectors 26 , and nulls the incident radiation at the sensor surface . reflectors 26 are held in place by “ columns ” 28 , comprising metal and possibly dielectric layers , which are deposited on the sensor wafer as a part of the fabrication process . cavities 24 in this example are shown as open spaces , but the cavities may alternatively contain dielectric material , as illustrated in fig3 and 4 . fig2 a and 2b schematically show details of the structure of sensing elements 21 , in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention . fig2 a is a sectional view , while fig2 b is a top view of reflector 26 . in this example , sensor 22 is formed from a silicon - on - insulator ( soi ) wafer , with the silicon base wafer etched off the back side to reveal a buried oxide ( box ) layer 30 . the sensor itself comprises a silicon wafer layer 32 , with a polysilicon layer 34 deposited over the wafer and doped to define a source 36 , a drain 38 , and a gate 40 of the tmos transistor . typically , the area of each sensing element is on the order of 45 × 45 μm ( and these are the dimensions of the reflector shown in fig2 b ), but larger or smaller sensing elements may similarly be produced in this manner . reflector 26 is supported at a distance of λ / 4 from the tmos transistor by columns 28 , which comprise a stack of metal layers 42 and interconnecting vias 44 . in this case , λ / 4 is roughly 2 . 5 μm , since cavity 24 is under vacuum or filled with air . the layers and vias in columns 28 are formed by the deposition steps that are applied in depositing and etching successive metal and dielectric layers over wafer layer 32 . these same metal layers 42 ( comprising copper , for example ) are typically also used for making connections to source 36 , drain 38 , and gate 40 of the transistors and other elements of the sensor array device . reflector 26 is likewise formed from one of these metal layers , for example , the fourth metal layer ( m4 ), which is dedicated and shaped for use as the individual cavity reflectors , rather than for electrical connections . additional metal layers 46 , 48 may overlie reflector 28 . in the pictured example , reflector 26 is perforated by a matrix of through - holes . these through - holes , whose width is substantially less than λ / 4 , are etching holes , which are used in removing the dielectric material from cavity 24 in order to give the desired , overall optical path length of λ / 4 between the transistor and reflector 26 . fig3 is a schematic sectional view of a sensing element 50 in a tmos sensor array , in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention . in this embodiment , cavity 24 contains dielectric material , so that the radiation wavelength in the cavity is effectively shorter ( by 1 / n , wherein n is the effective refractive index at the radiation wavelength ). therefore , the cavity is simpler to fabricate and more stable than an open cavity , and it may be made physically shorter than the open cavity of the preceding embodiments . sensing element 50 comprises a box layer 52 , overlaid by a silicon wafer 56 with a polysilicon layer 58 containing the source and drain of the sensor transistor , separated from the box layer by shallow - trench isolation ( sti ) 54 . a silicon nitride layer 60 is deposited over the transistor components , followed by a pre - metal dielectric ( pmd ) layer 62 . a first metal layer 64 ( m1 ) is deposited over pmd layer 62 , with vias ( not shown in the figure ) connecting it to the source , drain and gate of the transistor in layer 58 . layer 64 may be formed using a damascene process , for example , by depositing a silicon nitride layer 66 followed by an inter - layer dielectric ( ild ) 68 , and then etching trenches and filling them with copper . these layers are overlaid with another silicon nitride layer 70 and ild 72 , followed by a further metal layer 74 ( m2 ), which serves as the cavity reflector . additional nitride layers 76 , ild 78 and metal layers 80 may be formed over or alongside cavity 24 . cavity 24 in sensing element 50 extends between polysilicon layer 58 and metal layer 74 . the effective dielectric constant ε eff of the cavity , at the relevant wavelength ( 9 μm in this example ), can be computed using the individual thicknesses and respective dielectric indices of the layers in the cavity , as illustrated in the following table : layer thickness ( nm ) ε weight nitride 50 7 350 pmd 360 4 . 2 1512 nitride 40 8 . 1 324 ild 220 3 . 7 814 nitride 40 8 . 1 324 ild 360 3 . 7 1332 sum 1070 4650 based on this table , the effective dielectric constant ε eff of the entire cavity is 4650 / 1070 = 4 . 351 . the effective refractive index n eff of cavity 24 is equal to the square root of ε eff , i . e ., n eff = 2 . 09 . therefore , the effective thickness of the cavity is 2 . 09 × 1 . 070 μm ≅ 2 . 25 μm , i . e ., λ / 4 at 9 μm . the layer thicknesses may be adjusted in similar fashion to give substantially any desired effective cavity thickness for any target wavelength . since metal layer 74 serves as a reflector , it is generally not available for connection of the circuit elements in the sensor array . layer 80 ( m3 ) and higher metal layers may be used for this purpose . the addition of dielectric and metal layers over each sensor in the manner shown in fig3 increases the thermal mass , and hence the response time , of the sensing elements , but the sensor array may be designed to minimize this effect , as shown in the next figure . fig4 is a schematic sectional view of an array 90 of sensing elements 50 , in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention . box layer 52 , on which sensing elements 50 are formed , is supported by a part of a silicon substrate 92 that remains after etching away the original soi support wafer . source 36 and drain 38 , which are formed in a polysilicon layer 94 , are connected by vias to respective conductors in metal layer 64 , as is gate 40 . sensing elements 50 comprise dielectric cavities 96 with an effective thickness of λ / 4 between the transistor and the individual reflector that is formed by metal layer 74 in each sensing element . additional metal layers are contained in columns 98 , which serve to maintain the optical and thermal separation between adjacent sensing elements . optionally , the sensor arrays described above may include a “ blind sensor ,” which senses only its own temperature and not the scene background , and can thus be used as an indicator of sensor array temperature for purposes of background subtraction . there are several approaches to making a sensor “ blind ”: 1 . a sensor that “ sees ” a mirror ( not a cavity ) is blind since it sees only “ itself ”. 2 . a sensor with the “ wrong ” cavity will be blind since it will not absorb radiation of the target wavelength . 3 . a sensor covered with a mirrors ( in the direction of the incoming flux ), which completely reflect the incoming radiation , will similarly be blind . fig5 is a schematic sectional illustration of a blind sensing element 100 , in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention . sensing element 100 is an example of the second approach listed above for creating a blind sensor . in element 100 , first metal layer 64 ( m1 ) is extended across the cavity behind the sensing element , at a distance equal to λ 1 / 4n eff , such that λ 1 & lt ; λ 2 , wherein λ 2 is the wavelength of interest , such as 9 - 10 μm as in the preceding examples . the effective optical path from the transistor to m 1 is thus considerably less than λ 2 / 4n eff , and sensing element 100 will therefore be blind to radiation of wavelength λ 2 . at the same time , a bandpass filter 102 , which is typically provided in order to prevent radiation outside the range of interest , such as outside the range of 9 - 10 μm , from reaching the sensing elements , blocks radiation at wavelength λ 1 . consequently , blind sensing element 100 will absorb very little radiation from the scene . this blind sensing element and the enhanced capabilities it supports can be provided at little or no added cost in terms of device fabrication and packaging . fig6 is a schematic sectional illustration of a multi - band sensing element 110 , in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention . in this case , metal layer 64 is patterned to create an additional cavity reflector 112 , at a distance λ 1 / 4n eff from the transistor in sensing element 110 . metal layer 74 remains positioned at a distance λ 2 / 4n eff from the transistor , as in the preceding examples . consequently , the cavity behind sensing element 110 has resonances at both λ 1 and λ 2 , and the sensing element will thus be sensitive to both of these wavelengths ( assuming neither wavelength range is filtered out of the incoming radiation ). sensing element 110 may be designed in this manner , for example , to sense radiation in both the 3 - 5 μm and 8 - 10 μm bands . optionally , the geometry of the sensing element may be modified to have three or more resonant wavelengths . as a further option , different sensing elements in the same array may have respective reflectors at different distances , so that different sensing elements are sensitive to different wavelengths . it will be appreciated that the embodiments described above are cited by way of example , and that the present invention is not limited to what has been particularly shown and described hereinabove . rather , the scope of the present invention includes both combinations and subcombinations of the various features described hereinabove , as well as variations and modifications thereof which would occur to persons skilled in the art upon reading the foregoing description and which are not disclosed in the prior art .
6 (Physics)
as shown in fig1 a ballast 10 , which includes a drive control circuit 65 , is connected to a lamp 85 . lamp 85 can be , but is not limited to a fluorescent lamp of the cold cathode type , which is partially surrounded by a shield 925 . the light from lamp 85 can be used to illuminate a liquid crystal display ( lcd ) of a computer ( not shown ). shield 925 reflects light from lamp 85 toward the lcd . a portion of the electromagnetic interference ( emi ) generated by lamp 85 is also blocked by shield 925 so as to minimize interfering with surrounding electrical devices . the parasitic capacitance between lamp 85 and shield 925 is represented by a parasitic capacitor 80 . lamp 85 is connected to a secondary winding 915 of a transformer 910 . the leakage inductance of transformer 910 is represented by leakage inductor 83 . the parasitic capacitances associated with transformer 910 are represented by a capacitor 81 . parasitic capacitances associated with transformer 910 can exist between a primary winding 920 of transformer 910 and secondary 915 , within secondary winding 915 and primary winding 920 , between a ferrite core 911 of transformer 910 and secondary winding 915 / primary winding 920 and between transformer 910 and ground . a resonant circuit is formed by a resonant inductor 75 , leakage inductor 83 and parasitic capacitors 80 and 81 . other than resonant inductor 75 , there is no other discrete inductor or capacitor included which substantially affects the resonant frequency of the resonant circuit . there is also no discrete ballasting element , typically a capacitor , in series with lamp 85 . the elimination of these discrete components from the resonant circuit or serially connected to lamp 85 reduces the parts count and cost of ballast 10 . power losses associated with these discrete components are also eliminated thereby improving the ballast efficiency . a capacitor 126 is serially connected to resonant inductor 75 . a pair of switches 100 and 112 are serially connected between a bus 40 and a bus 50 . bus 40 is at the high rail voltage . bus 50 is at the low rail ( common ) voltage . switches 100 and 112 are metal oxide semiconductor , field effect transistors ( mosfets ) which are joined together at a junction 110 . a capacitor 115 is connected from a junction 110 to rail 50 . capacitor 126 is a blocking capacitor which filters out the dc portion of a trapezoidal voltage ( vds ) produced at junction 110 . trapezoidal voltage vds is illustrated in fig2 c . capacitor 115 slows down the voltage transition ( dv / dt ) across the drain - source voltage of each switch 100 and 112 and thereby facilitates turn on and turn off of each switch when the voltage thereacross is substantially zero ( i . e . zero voltage switching ). the half - bridge switching circuit ( i . e . switching stage ) includes switches 100 and 112 . these switches are turned on and off by a drive control circuit ic 109 . a gating signal vg1 is supplied by ic 109 along a gate line 1002 to control the conductive state of switch 100 . a gating signal vg2 is supplied by ic 109 along a gate line 1004 to control the conductive state of switch 112 . switches 100 and 112 are never turned on at the same time and have on time duty ratios of slightly less than 50 % as shown in fig2 a and 2b , respectively . a small dead time tdead during which both switches are turned off is required to permit the zero voltage switching to be implemented . a switch 815 prevents switch 100 from being turned on when switch 112 is turned on . gating signals at high logic levels supplied at the same time to each of these switches for turning on each switch can occur during a fault ( transient ). the gates of switches 112 and 815 are connected to each other . when switch 112 is turned on by gating signal vg2 being at a high logic level , switch 815 is also turned on by gating signal vg2 . when switch 815 is turned on , the gating signal vg1 is shunted to bus 50 thereby turning off switch 100 . accordingly , switch 100 can not remain in a conductive state when switch 112 is turned on . a capacitor 800 is an input bypass capacitor for filtering the high frequency harmonics generated by switches 100 and 112 . a dc voltage source , such as a battery ( not shown ), when connected to a pair of terminals 61 and 62 which terminate buses 40 and 50 , respectively , provides a dc voltage between buses 40 and 50 . a pair of transistors ( e . g . bipolar transistors ) 805 and 810 , a pair of resistors 820 and 830 and a zener diode 825 together form a linear regulator . this linear regulator is connected to a pin vdd of ic 109 to power the latter . a ttl logic - level signal from an external source such as , but not limited to , a computer ( not shown ) is applied along a line 1010 to the base of transistor 810 through a terminal 63 . when terminal 63 is at a high logic level , transistor 810 turns on which activates the linear regulator . the regulated voltage supplied to pin vdd of ic 109 by the linear regulator is equal to the sum of the voltages across zener diode 825 and resistor 830 . the voltage across resistor 830 is equal to the voltage at terminal 63 less the voltage across the base - emitter of switch 810 . when terminal 63 is at a low logic level , transistor 810 turns off . the linear regulator is deactivated . no voltage is supplied to pin vdd of ic 109 . ic 109 and ballast 10 are shut down . in other words , when terminal 63 is at a high logic level , ballast 10 is turned on . when terminal 63 is at a low logic level , ballast 10 is turned off . the linear regulator , which is connected to bus 40 through a line 1001 , permits a relatively large range of dc power supplies to be connected between terminals 61 and 62 for operating ballast 10 . generally , dc power supplies ranging from about 8 volts to about 30 volts can be used for operating ballast 10 . the linear regulator also minimizes the power required to operate ic 109 . the power dissipated by ic 109 and its associated circuitry is minimized by the linear regulator maintaining a relatively constant level of voltage supplied to pin vdd of ic 109 . the voltage outputted by the linear regulator is substantially the same regardless of whether the voltage across terminals 61 and 62 is about 8 volts or about 30 volts . ic 109 tracks the resonant frequency by sensing the current flowing through resonant inductor 75 and operates the half - bridge inverter at a switching frequency above the resonant frequency . a resistor 900 and a capacitor 905 form an integration circuit for sensing the current flowing through resonant inductor 75 . the voltage across capacitor 905 , which is approximately proportional to the integral of the voltage of a winding 950 coupled to inductor 75 , represents the current through inductor 75 . ic 109 senses the zero - crossing of current flowing through inductor 75 based on the voltage at an rind pin of ic 109 . based on the zero - crossing timing and the feedback system , ic 109 determines the forward conduction time for switches 100 and 112 . ic 109 drives the half - bridge inverter into an inductive mode so that there is a phase delay between the half - bridge node voltage vds and the inductor current il as shown in fig2 c and 2d . capacitive mode operation of the inverter is prevented by a capacitive mode protection circuit within ic 109 . ic 109 regulates lamp power by sensing lamp current and lamp voltage . lamp current is sensed by a sensing resistor 153 . the lamp current signal is fed to a pair of pins li1 and li2 of ic 109 through a pair of resistors 171 and 168 along a pair of lines 1007 and 1006 , respectively . the lamp current signal is amplified and rectified by ic 109 . lamp voltage is sensed from primary winding 920 by the combination of a line 1008 , a diode 180 , a pair of resistors 930 and 189 and a capacitor 183 . the rc network of resistors 930 and 189 and capacitor 183 forms a low - pass filter which provides an average value of lamp voltage to be applied to a pin vl of ic 109 . ic 109 calculates the lamp power by multiplying the lamp current signal and lamp voltage signal . the calculated lamp power is represented by a current which is supplied to a crect pin of ic 109 . the current supplied to the crect pin by ic 109 flows into an rc network formed by a pair of resistors 935 and 195 and a pair of capacitors 192 and 940 . this rc network has two poles and one zero to stabilize a feedback system . a dc voltage is provided at the crect pin through a low - pass filter formed by a resistor 195 and a capacitor 192 . the dc voltage at the crect pin is compared with the voltage at a dim pin of ic 109 by an error amplifier within ic 109 . the output of the error amplifier controls the forward conduction time of switches 100 and 112 . a feedback system maintains the voltage at the crect pin equal to the voltage at the dim pin thereby regulating lamp power . adjusting the voltage level at the dim pin changes the level to which the lamp power will be set to . the maximum lamp power as characterized by lamp brightness can be set to one of two levels by the ttl level ( 0 or 5 volts ) applied to a terminal bright of ballast 10 from an external source ( not shown ). the bright terminal is connected to a resistor 835 by a line 1011 . another terminal vdd of ballast 10 is connected to resistor 840 by a line 1012 . terminal vdd 10 is connected to an external dc voltage source ( e . g . 5 v ) ( not shown ). when a low logic level ( e . g . 0 volts ) is applied to terminal bright , the voltage applied to the dim pin , which sets the lamp power to one of two maximum levels , is determined by the voltage divider formed by a pair of resistors 835 and 840 . when a high logic level ( e . g . 5 volts ) is applied to terminal bright , the voltage applied to the dim pin increases and is clamped by ic 109 at about 3 . 0v , resulting in a higher maximum lamp power level . actual dimming of the lamp is based , in part , on a control circuit 198 which includes a pulse width modulation ( pwm ) scheme . the voltage at the crect pin is equal to the product of the current flowing out from the crect pin and the resistance connected from the crect pin to bus 50 ( i . e . common ). the voltage at the crect pin is maintained at the same voltage as the dim pin by the feedback system . when an additional resistor is connected between the crect pin and bus 50 , the total resistance between the crect pin and bus 50 is reduced . a higher current flows from the crect pin in order to maintain the voltage at the crect pin at the same voltage as the dim pin . this higher current level represents that more power is delivered to the lamp increasing its brightness . when the resistance between the crect pin and bus 50 is increased , a lower current flows from the crect pin in maintaining the crect pin voltage equal to the dim pin voltage . this lower current level represents that less power is delivered to the lamp decreasing its brightness . the amount of resistance between the crect pin and bus 50 is controlled by control circuit 198 . control circuit 198 includes a dual voltage - comparator ic 850 having an open - collector output at its pin outb . ic 850 is available , for example , from national semiconductor corporation of santa clara , calif . as part no . lm393m . the supply voltage for ic 850 is provided from terminal 63 of ballast 10 . one of the two voltage comparators within ic 850 in combination with a plurality of resistors 855 , 860 , 865 , 870 and 875 and a capacitor 880 form a triangular waveform oscillator at a frequency of 100 hz - 1 khz . a second voltage comparator within ic 850 compares the voltage from a dimin terminal of ballast 10 with the triangular waveform across capacitor 880 . the outb pin is at the bus 50 ( common ) potential when the voltage of the triangular waveform is greater than the voltage at an inb + pin of ic 850 . the outb pin is otherwise open ( floating ) when the voltage of the triangular waveform is less than the voltage at the inb + pin of ic 850 . in other words , a duty ratio dpwm of the outb pin is determined by the voltage at terminal dimin . the dimin terminal is connected to an external dc voltage source ( not shown ) which varies in potential between about 0 to 5 volts . resistor rdim is therefore connected and disconnected between the crect pin and bus 50 at the dpwm duty ratio of the outb pin . lamp power will therefore jump between a higher and lower level at the dpwm duty ratio . the average lamp power is proportional to the dpwm duty ratio . the level to which lamp 85 is dimmed is determined by the voltage applied to terminal dimin . the dimin terminal is connected to resistor 895 by a line 1009 . resistors 895 and 885 form a voltage divider , the voltage at the junction therebetween being biased by the voltage at terminal 63 through resistor 890 . the higher the voltage at the dimin terminal , the smaller the duty ratio dpwm thereby lowering the average lamp power and light level . in the event of lamp short - circuit , a large current may flow through resonant inductor 75 . a higher voltage across capacitor 905 results . this higher voltage is sensed by the combination of a diode 182 , a pair of resistors 930 and 189 and capacitor 183 . the rc network of resistors 930 and 189 and capacitor 183 forms a low - pass filter which provides an average value of voltage at capacitor 905 to be applied to a pin vl of ic 109 . the average value of voltage represents the current flowing through inductor 75 . the product of inductor 75 current and lamp 85 current can thereby be regulated . saturation of inductor 75 is therefore prevented . ic 109 , ic 850 and transistors 805 , 810 and 815 can be integrated into a single ic chip if desired . integrated circuit ( ic ) 109 includes a plurality of pins . a pin rind is connected by a line 1005 to junction 179 of resistor 900 and capacitor 905 . resistor 900 and capacitor 905 form an integration circuit to sense current through inductor 75 . the voltage across capacitor 905 , which is approximately proportional to the integral of the voltage at the secondary winding 950 of inductor 75 , represents the current through inductor 75 . therefore the input voltage at pin rind reflects ( a representative sample ) the level of current flowing through inductor 75 . a pin vdd , which is connected to junction 807 of the linear regulator , supplies the voltage for driving ic 109 . a pin li2 is connected through a resistor 168 to bus 50 ( common ). a pin li1 is connected through a resistor 171 to junction 88 . the difference between the currents inputted to pins li1 and li2 reflects the sensed current flowing through lamp 85 . the voltage at a pin vl , which is connected through a resistor 189 to junction 181 , reflects somewhat the averaging voltage of lamp 85 . the current flowing out of a crect pin into ground through a parallel combination of a resistor 195 , a capacitor 192 , and a series circuit of a resistor 935 and a capacitor 940 , reflects the average power of lamp 85 ( i . e . the product of lamp current and lamp voltage ). a control circuit 198 changes the total resistance from crect pin to ground for dimming control . capacitor 192 serves to provide a filtered d . c . voltage across resistor 195 . a resistor 156 is connected between a pin rref and ground and serves to set the reference current within ic 109 . a capacitor 159 , which is connected between a cf pin and ground , sets the frequency of a current controlled oscillator ( cco ). a capacitor 165 , which is connected between a cp pin and ground , is employed for timing of the nonoscillating / standby mode . a gnd pin is connected directly to bus 50 ( common ). a pair of pins g1 and g2 are connected directly to gates g1 and g2 of switches 100 and 112 , respectively . a pin s1 , which is connected directly to junction 110 , represents the voltage at the source of switch 100 . a pin fvdd is connected to junction 110 through a capacitor 138 and represents the floating supply for ic 109 . a capacitor 213 is connected between the dim pin and ground . the voltage applied to the dim pin reflects the maximum level of illumination as set by dim control circuit 198 . operation of the inverter and drive control circuit 65 is as follows . initially ( i . e . during startup ), as capacitor 106 is charged from the linear regulator output 807 , switches 100 and 112 are in nonconducting and conducting states , respectively . the input current flowing into pin vdd of ic 109 is maintained at a low level ( less than 500 microamperes ) during this startup phase . capacitor 138 , which is connected between pin 51 and pin fvdd , charges to a relatively constant voltage equal to approximately the voltage at pin vdd and serves as the voltage supply for the drive circuit of switch 100 . when the voltage across cap 106 exceeds a voltage turnon threshold ( e . g . 8 volts ), ic 109 enters its operating ( oscillating / switching ) state with switches 100 and 112 each switching back and forth between their conducting and nonconducting states at a frequency well above the resonant frequency determined by inductor 75 , leakage inductor 83 and all parasitic capacitors 80 and 81 . junction 110 varies between about 0 volts and the voltage applied to terminal 61 depending on the switching states of switches 100 and 112 . capacitor 115 serves to slow down the rate of rise and fall of the voltage at junction 110 thereby reducing switching losses and the level of emi generated by the switching stage of the inverter . a relatively large operating current of , for example , 10 - 15 milliamps supplied to pin vdd of ic 109 results . capacitor 126 serves to block the d . c . voltage component from being applied to transformer 910 . the initial operating frequency of ic 109 , which is about 150 khz , is set by resistor 156 and capacitor 159 and the reverse diode conducting times of switches 100 and 112 . ic 109 starts sweeping down its switching frequency at a rate set internal to ic 109 toward an unloaded resonant frequency ( i . e . resonant frequency of inductor 75 and capacitor 80 prior to ignition of lamp 85 -- e . g . 60 khz ). as the switching frequency approaches the resonant frequency , the voltage across lamp 85 rises rapidly and is generally sufficient to ignite lamp 85 . once lamp 85 is lit , the current flowing therethrough rises from a few nano - amps to several milliamps . the current flowing through resistor 153 , which is equal to the lamp current , is sensed at pins li1 and li2 based on the current differential therebetween as proportioned by resistors 168 and 171 , respectively . the voltage of lamp 85 , which is scaled by the turns ratio of the transformer 910 , is detected by diode 180 , resistors 930 , and capacitor 183 resulting in a d . c . voltage , proportional to the averaging lamp voltage , at junction 181 . the voltage at junction 181 is converted into a current by resistor 189 flowing into pin vl . the current flowing into pin vl is multiplied inside ic 109 with the differential currents between pins li1 and li2 resulting in a rectified a . c . current fed out of pin crect into the parallel combination of capacitor 192 , resistor 195 , and , the series circuit of resistor 935 and capacitor 940 . capacitor 192 and resistor 195 convert the a . c . rectified current into a d . c . voltage . the voltage at the crect pin is forced equal to the voltage at the dim pin by a feedback circuit / loop contained within ic 109 . regulation of power consumed by lamp 85 results . a more detailed description regarding the circuitry and operation of ic 109 can be found in u . s . pat . no . 5 , 680 , 017 , issued oct . 21 , 1997 , and which is incorporated herein by reference thereto . fig3 illustrates an alternative embodiment of the invention . those components in fig1 and 3 of similar construction and operation are identified by like reference numerals and will not be further discussed herein . as shown in fig3 a ballast 10 &# 39 ; includes a capacitor 126 &# 39 ; serves as both a blocking capacitor and ballasting element . the amount of power saved by eliminating the ballasting element in fig1 is not achieved by the ballast of fig3 . nevertheless , by placing capacitor 126 &# 39 ; on the primary side of transformer 910 rather than on its secondary side less power is consumed than in a conventional ballast . the size and power loss of step - up transformer 910 is reduced . unlike ballast 10 of fig1 a discrete resonant capacitor 80 &# 39 ; is required as part of the resonant circuit . ballasting capacitor 126 &# 39 ; and resonant capacitor 80 &# 39 ; together provide dc voltage blocking . unlike conventional ballasts , however , no additional dc blocking capacitor on the secondary of transformer 910 is required . the power loss associated with the equivalent series resistance ( esr ) of an additional blocking capacitor is eliminated . a low - voltage , low - esr capacitor can be used for ballasting capacitor 126 &# 39 ;. ballast 10 &# 39 ;, as compared to conventional ballasts , has a reduced parts count and cost and consumes less power . in ballast 10 , the sensing circuit for monitoring the current flowing through inductor 75 is formed by winding 950 , resistor 900 and capacitor 905 . the voltage at junction 179 of ballast 10 represents the current through resonant inductor 75 . in ballast 10 &# 39 ;, the sensing circuit for monitoring the current flowing through inductor 75 is formed by a single resistor 162 . similar to ballast 10 , the voltage at junction 179 &# 39 ; represents the current through the resonant inductor 75 . it will thus be seen that the objects set forth above and those made apparent from the preceding description , are efficiently attained and since certain changes can be made in the above construction without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention , it is intended that all matter contained in the above description and shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense .
7 (Electricity)
fig1 depicts a preferred embodiment high pressure , manually - operable air pump of the present invention , indicated generally at 10 , in a preferred mounting on a bicycle , a portion of which is depicted and indicated generally at 12 . the air pump 10 of the present invention is used as the seat post coupling the seat 14 , to the bike frame , indicated generally at 16 . a lower end of the pump 10 is received in the seat tube 26 of the frame 12 and is clamped in the frame 12 with the collar 28 provided at the mouth of the seat tube 26 . the upper end of the pump 10 is received and clamped in the seat post collar 30 ( sectioned in fig1 ) of the seat 14 . referring to fig2 where the preferred air pump 10 is shown separated from the bicycle 12 , the pump 10 includes a first elongated tube 18 and a second elongated tube 20 , shorter than and coaxial with the first tube 18 . the first tube 18 has an outer diameter sufficient to permit that tube to be removably received in the seat tube 26 of the frame 16 and clamped to the frame by a collar 28 ( see fig1 ) of the seat tube 26 . preferably , the outer diameter of the first tube is between about seven - eighths and one inch . the first tube 18 preferably also has a length sufficient to permit adequate height adjustment of the seat 14 . preferably , the first tube length is at least about twelve inches . the second elongated tube 20 has an outer diameter preferably less than the outer diameter of the first tube 18 and sufficient to permit that tube to be removably received and clamped in the seat post collar 30 of seat 14 ( also fig1 ), preferably an outer diameter between about seven and eight - tenths of an inch . the second tube 20 need only be sufficiently long to permit it to be received in the seat post collar 30 . the second tube 20 thus has a length shorter than the first tube length desirably less than about three inches and preferably about two and one - half inches or less . means , indicated generally at 32 , are provided for fixedly securing together , and , preferably , for releasably , immovably securing together the first and second elongated tubes 18 and 20 . fixedly securing in this instance means without relative translational or rotational movement of the elongated tube tubes 18 and 20 with respect to one another . preferably , means 32 comprises a first mating member , preferably in the form of a first elongated planar flange 34 , which protrudes radially outwardly from an end ( the upper end in the figures ) of the first tube 18 . means 32 preferably further comprises a second mating member , preferably in the form of a second , identically elongated planar flange 36 protruding radially outwardly at an end ( lower end in the figures ) of the second tube 20 proximal the first tube 18 . the planar flanges are parallel to one another to permit their joining together . preferably , each of the first and second flanges 34 and 36 is fixedly secured to the first and second tubes 18 and 20 , respectively , by suitable , conventional means such as brazing or , preferably , welding 68 ( see fig3 ). a first , removable fastener 40 , a flexible support 41 ( flexibly coupling the first fastener 40 with the first elongated tube 18 ), a second fixed fastener 42 and a flexible hose 44 having at its exposed end 48 an air valve coupling 50 are further depicted in fig2 . as is shown in fig1 the pump 10 is preferably positioned with the first fastener 40 towards a front side of the seat 14 to fit into the space provided above the cross tube 27 of the frame 16 and the front side of the seat tube collar 28 . the internal construction of the pump 10 is revealed in fig3 and 4 . the first elongated tube 18 constitutes a housing of the pump and defines a cylindrical pump chamber 52 therein having a closed end 54 . a piston assembly , indicated generally at 56 , is provided and includes a piston 58 within the chamber 52 , a connecting arm 60 having a first end 62 coupled with the piston 58 and an opposing second end 64 , and an air passage , indicated generally at 66 , extending generally axially through the piston 58 . the passage preferably continues through the connecting arm 60 . the second end 64 of the connecting arm 60 is fixedly coupled with the second flange member 36 by suitable means such as mutually engaging threading . the second flange member 36 in turn fixedly supports the second elongated tube 20 which is secured to the second flange member 36 by suitable means such as the welds 68 . each of the second flange member 36 and the attached second elongated tube 20 provides a means for gripping the connecting arm 60 and manually reciprocating the piston 58 in the chamber 52 . fig3 and 4 further depict a first , one - way valve means , indicated generally at 70 , on the piston 58 and a second , one - way valve means , indicated generally at 88 , along the air passage 66 . referring to fig3 the first valve means 70 preferably comprises an annular valve member 72 , preferably an elastic 0 - ring , and a first groove 74 . the first groove 74 extends circumferentially around an outer surface of the piston 58 and receives the annular valve member 72 . preferably , the first groove 74 has an axial dimension which is greater than the maximum axial dimension of the annular valve member 72 , to permit axial movement of the valve member 72 along the groove 74 . as also can be seen in fig3 and 4 , the piston 58 preferably is fabricated from first and second annular components 76 and 78 , respectively , which are attached by suitable means , such as threading , to the first end 62 of the connecting arm 64 . the first annular component 76 has one end of reduced diameter and forms the bottom and one side of the first groove 74 . the second annular component 78 preferably includes a beveled , generally frustoconical , circumferential surface 82 ( best seen in fig4 ) adjoining and facing the reduced diameter end of the first component 76 . the beveled surface 82 forms a seat for the annular valve member 72 . surface 82 is located at an end of the groove 74 which is distal to the closed end 54 of the chamber 52 . opposing grooves 84 are provided axially along the circumferential surface of the first annular component 76 . these grooves 84 define a portion of the circumferential groove 74 which is configured to permit air to pass between the annular valve member 72 and the piston 58 when the valve member 72 is located as shown in fig4 over that portion of the circumferential groove 74 containing the axial extending grooves 84 . preferably , a first end 46 of the flexible hose 44 is passed through the length of the connecting arm 60 and fixedly coupled to the first end 62 of the connecting arm 60 by means of an annular insert 86 which is received in the extreme end of the hose 44 clamping that end between the insert 86 and the inner circumferential surface of the connecting arm 60 . preferably , the outer cylindrical surface of the insert 86 which is received in the extreme end of the hose 44 is finished , for example by the provisions of threading or serrations , to better grip the first end 46 of the hose 44 . in this way , the first end 46 of the hose 44 is fixedly coupled with the piston assembly 56 and the second tube 20 and pneumatically coupled with the air passage 66 in the piston 58 . referring to fig4 the insert 86 forms one seat of the second , one - way valve means 88 located along the air passage 66 . the remainder of the second valve means 88 is preferably provided by an interior chamber 90 , which is formed in the first annular component 76 , an elastic o - ring 92 , which forms an opposing seat of the valve means 88 , and a valve member in the form of a sphere 94 . fig3 further depicts details of the preferred means 32 for fixedly securing the first and second elongated tubes together . the preferred means 32 includes , in addition to the first and second flanges 34 and 36 and the first and second fasteners 40 and 42 , an unthreaded bore 96 through the first flange member 34 and a threaded bore 98 through the second flange member 36 . the threaded bore 98 is alignable with the unthreaded bore 96 for receiving a threaded portion 40a of the fastener 40 extending through the unthreaded bore 96 , for fixedly securing together the mated first and second flange members 34 and 36 in a removable fashion . the second fastener 42 preferably is a rivet extending fixedly through the first flange 34 on a side of the tubes 18 and 20 diametrically opposed to the first fastener 40 and bores 96 and 98 . a portion of the rivet 42 , protruding axially from the first flange 34 towards the second flange 36 , is received in a cut - out 36a , which is exposed on a side of the second flange 36 , when the flanges 36 and 38 rotate to align the bores 96 and 98 . head portion 42a at the rivet 42 and the first flange 36 prevent relative axial movement of the second flange 38 , thereby securing the tubes 18 and 20 together . the first and second fasteners 40 and 42 on opposing sides of the tubes 18 and 20 prevent bending of the pump at the flanges 36 and 38 . lastly , an open end of the first elongated tube 18 , opposite closed end 54 , can be at least partially closed , for example by a third annular component 100 , which includes a central bore 102 to permit extension of the second end 64 of the connecting arm 60 from the first elongated tube 18 , and one or more additional bores , such as bore 104 which permits the free passage of air into and out of the first elongated tube 18 . the component 100 prevents debris from entering the first tube 18 . it may provide some support and guidance to the connecting arm 60 but the preferred construction of the piston assembly 56 is such that the assembly 56 maintains itself coaxial in the tube 18 . fig5 depicts diagrammatically a preferred configuration for the air valve connector 50 , also seen in fig2 . the connector 50 is mounted at a second end 48 of the flexible hose 44 and includes a central tubular member 106 one end of which has a conically tapered outer surface 108 which is inserted into the end 48 of hose 44 . a fastening member 112 is clamped over the end 48 and one end of central member 106 fastening the connector 50 to the hose 44 . a threaded collar 114 is rotatably supported at the remaining end of the central tubular member 106 . the threaded collar 114 is sized to be received by a conventional air valve stem for coupling the flexible hose 44 to the stem . an annular sealing gasket 118 , such as an o - ring , is preferably provided . it is specifically noted that unlike most conventional air valve connectors , the preferred connector 50 of the present invention lacks a central stalk or other solid structure for depressing the air valve in the valve stem ( neither depicted ). as will be subsequently explained in further detail , this is because the pump 10 of the present invention is capable of compressing air to a sufficiently high pressure to force depression of an air valve in a stem without physically contacting that valve . use and operation of the pump 10 will now be described with respect to the various figures . as shown in fig1 the pump 10 can be constructed of suitable material with suitable dimensions , for example , about 1018 to 1027 mild steel seamless tubing , preferably mandrel drawn , with about a 50 mil wall thickness , as the elongated tubes 18 and 20 , so as to permit use of the pump 10 as the seat post for supporting a conventionally constructed bicycle seat 14 on a conventionally constructed bike frame 16 . the pump 10 may be originally installed or subsequently installed as a replacement for a conventional seat post . the pump 10 may be used by removing the flexible hose 44 from the storage bag 15 ( fig1 ), if provided , and the air valve connector 50 attached to a conventional threaded air valve stem like that which is provided with tires , tubes or the like . the fastener 40 is unscrewed from the second flange 36 and the tubes 18 lo and 20 rotated to free rivet 42 from flange 36 to separate first and second tubes 18 and 20 . the second tube 20 , still fixedly secured to the seat 14 , may be raised and lowered by raising and lowering the seat 14 while the pump is still mounted on the bicycle 12 to reciprocate the piston 58 along the chamber 52 . after use , rivet 42 and cutout 36a may be engaged and the threaded portion 40a of fastener 40 may again be passed through unthreaded opening 96 into the threaded bore 98 for securing the first and second tubes 18 and 20 together . the air valve connector 50 may be removed from the valve stem and the flexible hose 44 returned to the storage bag 15 , if provided . of course , the pump 10 may be used as a conventional hand - operated air pump when not mounted in a bicycle . it may be installed as a seat post in and subsequently removed from any number of conventional bicycles , without alterations to either the bicycles or their seats , making the pump 10 extremely versatile . fig3 and 4 depict in detail the operation of the first and second valve means 70 and 88 , which provide the pump 10 of the present invention with certain unique capabilities . fig3 depicts the positions of the first and second valve means 70 and 88 during a compression stroke when the piston assembly 56 is being moved in a first axial direction ( down in the figure ) into the first tube 18 and towards the closed end 54 of the chamber 52 . fig4 depicts the configuration of the two valve means 70 and 88 during a reciprocal , refill stroke when the piston 58 is being moved in a second , opposing axial direction away from the closed end 54 of the chamber 52 . referring first to fig3 during the compression stroke , air is compressed by the piston 58 in the closed end 54 of the chamber 52 by the first valve means 70 . in particular , the o - ring valve member 72 tends to drag slightly on the inner wall of chamber 52 during movement of the piston 58 towards the closed end 54 , seating on the beveled valve seat ( 82 in fig4 ). the o - ring 72 , being elastically deformable , expands further into contact with the inner circumferential surface of the chamber 52 when that valve member 72 is seated against the valve seat 82 by the compressed air trapped in the closed end 54 of the chamber 52 to further seal the annular gap 120 which exists between the inner circumferential surface of the chamber 52 and the outer circumferential surface of the piston 58 . in this regard , the beveled valve seat 82 used in connection with the elastic o - ring 72 is a very important feature of the invention . as the pressure of the air being compressed by the piston 58 builds up in the closed end 54 , the o - ring 72 is pressed increasingly harder onto the tapered valve seat 82 and into the narrowing gap formed between the beveled surface of the seat 82 and the inner circumferential surface of the chamber 52 , thereby expanding the o - ring 72 into contact with the inner circumferential surface of the chamber 52 and increasing the sealing effect . this particular configuration permits the preferred pump 10 to compress air to pressures of up to at least about two hundred psi . the major limitation to maximum air compression of the pump 10 is not the operation of the pump but rather the ability of the user to apply sufficient force to the piston assembly 56 to further compress the air . preferably , a single , first tube 18 defines both a housing and the cylindrical pump chamber contained therein . however , since the optimum outer diameter of the first tube 18 must be sufficiently large to permit that tube 18 to be clamped within a seat tube collar 28 of conventional construction , the diameter of the cylindrical chamber may be reduced , thereby reducing the cross - sectional area of the chamber 52 and total force which must be applied to the piston assembly 56 to achieve a given compression , for example by the use of the second elongated tube ( not depicted ) within the first elongated tube 18 to reduce the diameter of the cylindrical pump chamber 52 . during the compression stroke , the valve member sphere ( 94 in fig4 ) of the second valve means 88 is eventually forced from the surface of the o - ring ( 92 in fig4 ) when the pressure of the air being compressed at the closed end 54 of the chamber 52 exceeds the pressure of the air in the air passage 66 , thereby permitting compressed air to pass from the chamber 52 into the air passage 66 . referring to fig4 during the reciprocal or refill stroke , the piston 58 is moved in a second , opposing axial direction ( up in the figure ) away from the closed end 54 . friction between the o - ring valve member 72 and the inner circumferential surface of the chamber 52 causes the member 72 to move away from the beveled seat 82 and over the axially extending grooves 84 , thereby permitting air , which enters the first tube 18 through the additional bore 104 of the third annular component 100 , to pass between the piston 58 and the o - ring 72 and enter the closed end 54 of the chamber 52 . at the same time , the compressed air in the air passage 66 and / or any partial vacuum created at the closed end 54 of the chamber 52 cause the sphere 94 of the second valve means 88 to be received in the seat provided by o - ring 92 thereby preventing air from passing through the air passage 66 into the chamber 52 . although an elastic o - ring is preferred as the annular valve member 72 of the first valve means 70 , it would be possible , though less desirable , to provide a substantially inelastic annular valve member , for example one of ptfe or nylon , and an at least resiliently and , preferably , elastically deformable , beveled valve seat 82 which is outwardly expanded into contact with the inner circumferential surface of the chamber 52 when the valve member 72 is seated against the valve seat 82 by compressed air in the chamber 52 for sealing the annular gap 120 seen in fig3 . similarly , although a frustoconical beveled surface is preferred for the valve seat 82 , other sloping surface configurations may be employed . while the disclosed pump is eminently suitable for manual operation and for use as the seat post of a bicycle , the pump 10 may be modified for automatic , mechanical reciprocation and may be modified to pump other fluids , namely liquids . from the foregoing description , it can be seen that the present invention provides a unique , versatile , and manually operable pump , which can be configured as a bicycle air pump possessing significant advantages over conventional bicycle air pumps . while various modifications have been described and / or suggested , one of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that changes could be made to the above - described embodiment of the invention without departing from the broad inventive concepts thereof . it is understood , therefore , that this invention is not limited to the particular embodiment ( s ) disclosed , but is intended to cover any modifications which are within the scope and spirit of the invention , as defined by the appended claims .
1 (Performing Operations; Transporting)
fig2 is a block diagram of a memory system 200 according to one embodiment of the present invention . the memory system 200 includes a master device 210 ( e . g ., a memory controller ) coupled to a plurality of memory devices 260 a – 260 i via a communication path formed by a primary channel 215 and stick channels 275 a – 275 d . in one embodiment , the master device , transceivers and memory devices transmit signals on the communication path through current - mode signaling . that is , each conductor in a given channel 275 a – 275 d is pulled up to a predetermined voltage level through a termination impedance and may be driven to at least one lower voltage level by sinking an appropriate amount of current . although the termination impedances are depicted in fig2 as being coupled to the ends of the channels 275 a – 275 d , the termination impedances may alternatively be placed at any point along their respective channels , including within the master device 210 , or within a transceiver or memory device coupled to the channel . in an alternative embodiment , voltage mode signaling may be used in which the master device , transceivers and memory devices output digital voltage levels to the bus to effect digital signaling . in voltage mode embodiments , the bus may be allowed to float or the bus may be pulled up or down through termination impedances . in the embodiment of fig2 , a clock generator 230 generates a clock signal 240 called clock - to - master ( ctm ) that propagates toward master device 210 . a second clock signal 250 , preferably having the same frequency as ctm 240 , propagates away from the master device 210 and is called clock - from - master ( cfm ). ctm 240 is used to clock the transmission of information to master device 210 on the primary channel 215 , while cfm 250 is used to clock transmission of information from the master device 210 to memory device 260 a and transceivers 220 a and 220 b . together ctm and cfm provide for source synchronous transmission of data ( i . e ., data travels with clock ) in both directions on the primary channel 215 . in one embodiment , ctm 240 and cfm 250 are the same signal , with the conductors that carry cfm 250 and ctm 240 being coupled to one another at or near the master device 210 ( e . g ., within the master device 210 , at a pin of the master device 210 or at another point just outside the master device 210 ). in alternative embodiments , clock signals ctm 240 and cfm 250 may be separately generated . for example , master device 210 may include a clock generator circuit that generates cfm 250 in a predetermined phase relationship to ctm 240 . regardless of whether ctm 240 and cfm 250 are the same signal or separately generated , ctm 240 and cfm 250 will have a different phase relationship at different points along the primary channel due to the fact that they are traveling in different directions . for example , if cfm and ctm are in phase at master device 210 , then at transceiver 220 b , they will be out of phase by the amount of time it takes for ctm 240 to travel from the transceiver 220 b to the master 210 plus the time it takes for cfm 250 to travel from the master 210 to the transceiver 220 b . this phase difference between ctm and cfm , referred to herein as t tr , is different at each point along the primary channel . each of transceivers 220 a – 220 c serves as a bi - directional repeater between a host channel ( i . e ., a channel used to deliver signals from the master device 210 ) and at least one stick channel . more specifically , transceiver 220 b serves as a bi - directional repeater between host channel 215 ( the primary channel ) and stick channel 275 c ; transceiver 220 c serves as a bi - directional repeater between host channel 275 c and stick channel 275 d ; and transceiver 220 a serves as a bi - directional repeater between host channel 215 and each of stick channels 275 a and 275 b . in one embodiment , each of the transceivers 220 a – 220 d provides regenerative gain and drive capability and resynchronizes signal transmissions between the clock domain of the host channel and the stick channel . it should be noted that the channel topology depicted in fig2 is merely an example — numerous alternative channel topologies may be constructed without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention . by using transceivers 220 a – 220 d to segment the overall communication path into multiple segments , the resistive and capacitive loading of any given length of the communication path may be kept below a tolerable threshold . this permits the communication path to be extended to support more memory devices without unacceptable loss of signal margin due to resistive or capacitive loading . although each of transceivers 220 a – 220 c is shown in fig2 as supporting one or two stick channels , a given transceiver may support any number of stick channels up to a practical limit . also , though the primary channel 215 and stick channels 275 a – 275 d are each shown as supporting one or two memory devices , more memory devices may be supported by the channel segments in alternate embodiments . similarly , any number of transceivers up to a practical limit may be hosted by a given channel segment . in one embodiment , each of the transceivers uses the clock signals that correspond to its host channel to generate one or more clock signals for the stick channel ( or channels ) that it serves . for example , transceiver 220 b generates a clock signal “ clock - to - end ” ( cte ) 270 c based on clock signals ctm 240 and cfm 250 . cte 270 c is folded back at the end of stick channel 275 c to provide clock signal “ clock - to - transceiver ” ( ctt ) 280 c , which in turn is used to generate clock signal “ clock - from - transceiver ( cft ) 290 c . similarly , transceiver 220 c generates clock signals cte 270 d , ctt 280 d and cft 290 d based on clock signals ctt 280 c and cft 290 c , and transceiver 220 a generates clock signals cte 270 a , ctt 280 a , cft 290 a , cte 270 b , ctt 280 b and cft 290 b from clock signals ctm 240 and cfm 250 . the relationship between ctm 240 and cfm 250 described above applies to the clock signals ctt and cft generated for each stick channel . for example , in the embodiment of fig2 , ctt and cft for a given stick channel are the same signal , with their respective conductors being coupled together at or near the transceiver for the stick channel ( e . g ., within the transceiver , at a pin of the transceiver or at another point just outside the transceiver ). in alternative embodiments , ctt and cft may be separately generated . for example , a given transceiver may include a clock generator circuit that generates cft in a predetermined phase relationship to ctt . regardless of whether ctt and cft are the same signal or separately generated , ctt and cft will have a different phase relationship at different points along the stick channel they serve . this phase difference between ctt and cft for a given stick channel is analogous to the phase difference , t tr , between ctm 240 and cfm 250 discussed above , and is referred to herein as t - stick tr . as discussed below , transceivers 220 a – 220 d perform a latency alignment function by adjusting the transfer latency from host channel to stick channel according to the phase difference between the host channel &# 39 ; s clocks ( i . e ., t tr when the host channel is the primary channel 215 and t - stick tr when the host channel is a stick channel ). in one embodiment , the cft and ctt clocks on stick channels ( stick clocks ) are synchronized to ctm 240 on the primary channel 215 . requests / commands from the master device 210 are received with cfm and resynchronized to cft for retransmission on the stick channel . this timing relationship is discussed below in further detail . fig3 a is a timing diagram of a data transfer operation in the memory system 200 of fig2 . more specifically , fig3 a illustrates the timing of a data transfer from memory device 260 g to master device 210 . data c is available on stick channel 275 c at the falling edge of stickclk 330 . in the embodiment shown , txclk 320 is the equivalent of ctm 240 and stickclk 330 is 180 degrees out of phase with txclk 320 . data c is transferred onto the primary channel 215 at the second falling edge of txclk 320 at time t 2 . the overall propagation delay from the primary channel 215 to the stick channel 275 ( i . e ., the latency incurred crossing transceiver 220 b ) is t lat ( sp ) . in the embodiment shown , t lat ( sp ) is 1 . 5 clock cycles in duration . fig3 b illustrates the timing of a data transfer in the opposite direction — from master device 210 to memory device 260 g . the primary channel 215 has data a on it at a first time , at a falling edge of rxclk 310 . for one embodiment , rxclk 310 is equivalent to cfm 250 . cfm 250 lags ctm 240 by time t tr so that rxclk 310 lags txclk 320 by time t tr . as discussed above , time t tr is twice the time of flight down the bus , which is the difference in phase between ctm and cfm at the pin of the slave device ( transceiver ). generally period t tr should be less than one cycle ( e . g . 0 . 8 t cycle ), otherwise the timing relationship may be confusing ( i . e . 2 . 2 cycles looks just like 0 . 2 cycles ). in alternative embodiments , circuitry for tracking multiple cycles may be used so that t tr need not be limited to less than a clock cycle . at the falling edge of rxclk 310 , data a is available to the transceiver . for one embodiment , transceiver latches data a at this time . the data a is available on the stick channel 275 c on the falling edge f of stick clock 330 , after the rising edge 2 r . the overall propagation delay from the primary channel 215 to the stick channel 275 c is t lat ( ps ) . fig3 c is a timing diagram of a data transfer from the master device 210 to the memory device 260 g when t tr is relatively large ( e . g ., 0 . 8 tcycle ). as shown , data b is available on primary channel 215 at a falling edge of rxclk 310 and then on the stick channel 275 c at time t 2 , the first falling edge after the second rising edge 2 r of stickclk 330 . the overall propagation delay from the primary channel 215 to the stick channel 275 is t lat ( ps ) . referring to fig3 b and 3c , it can be seen that the transfer latency from primary channel to stick channel ( t lat ( ps ) ) is dependent upon the time t tr . more specifically , t lat ( ps ) is given by a predetermined number of clock cycles less the round trip time on the channel between the transceiver and the master device , t tr . in an embodiment having the timing characteristic shown in fig3 b and 3c , the latency incurred crossing the transceiver in the direction of the stick channel may be expressed mathematically as t lat ( ps ) = 2 . 5 cycles − t tr . accordingly , when t tr is larger , t lat ( ps ) is smaller ( compare fig3 b and 3c ). thus , the transceiver 220 b effectively adjusts the time delay to repeat signals from the primary channel 215 on the stick channel 275 c to compensate for the flight time down the primary channel in each direction . the result of this compensation is that the roundtrip latency between the master device and a stick channel ( not counting t - stick tr or the latency required for the target memory device to respond ) is aligned to a clock cycle boundary . said another way , the round - trip latency between the master device and a stick channel is independent of the distance on the primary channel between the transceiver and the master device 210 . fig4 illustrates the response latency of a memory transaction in greater detail . as shown , the overall response latency perceived by the master device is made up of the following latencies : note that , because the time to cross the transceiver 220 from primary channel 215 to stick channel 275 is compensated to account for the round trip flight time on the primary channel ( t tr ), the primary channel flight time does not appear in the expression for total latency . more specifically , the round - trip latency between the master device 210 and the stick channel 275 ( i . e ., node n ) is equal to x + y cycles . by selecting x and y to add to a whole number of clock cycles , the round - trip latency between the master device 210 and the stick channel 275 is effectively aligned with a clock for the primary channel ( ctm 240 in the embodiment of fig2 ). that is , the round - trip time from the master device 210 to a given stick channel is aligned on a clock cycle boundary . as discussed below , this latency alignment simplifies timing in the memory system significantly , allowing more efficient bandwidth utilization on the primary channel and stick channels than is achieved with the above - described prior art techniques . referring to fig2 , for example , by choosing x to be 2 . 5 clock cycles and y to be 1 . 5 clock cycles ( the timing shown in fig3 a and 3b ), the roundtrip latency between master device 210 and any one of stick channels 275 a , 275 b and 275 c is aligned with every fourth clock cycle of ctm 240 . consequently , the master device 210 may use the four clock cycles which follow a transmission to any of memory devices 260 b – 260 i to transmit or receive other information on the primary channel 215 . fig5 illustrates the scaleability of the above - described latency alignment technique and the manner in which programmable latency registers may be used in conjunction with latency - aligning transceivers to establish a flat response latency over an entire memory system . memory system 700 includes a number of transceivers ( t 1 – t 5 ) that each serve as bi - directional repeaters for respective stick channels ( 775 a – 775 e ). transceivers t 1 , t 3 and t 5 are each coupled to the primary channel 715 and include latency alignment circuitry that aligns the round - trip latency between the master device and stick channels 775 a , 775 c and 775 e , respectively , to an integer number of clock cycles , n . transceivers t 2 and t 4 are hosted by stick channels 775 a and 775 c , respectively , and include latency alignment circuitry that aligns the round - trip latency between the respective masters ( t 1 and t 3 ) for their host channels and stick channels 775 b and 775 d to the integer number of clock cycles , n . in one embodiment , n is equal to four so that the round - trip latency between master device 210 and stick channel 775 a is four clock cycles and the round - trip latency between master device 210 and stick channel 775 b is eight clock cycles . more generally , the latency from the master device 210 to a given stick channel is m × n , where m is the number of transceivers that must be crossed to reach the stick channel , and n is the latency - aligned , round - trip time from a master of a given host channel to a stick channel that is coupled to the host channel through a single transceiver . note that no matter how many transceivers must be crossed in the memory system of fig5 , the overall round - trip time between master device 210 and any stick channel in the memory system is aligned with the transmit clock of master device 210 ( e . g ., cfm 250 in fig2 ). this enables construction of memory systems having large numbers of memory devices (“ mem ” in fig5 ) without loss of determinism in system timing . the intervals between command and response transmissions are well defined and may therefore be used for command and response pipelining . another benefit of the above - described latency - aligning tranceivers is that they may be used in conjunction with programmable - latency memory devices to provide a memory system with flat latency response . that is , the response latency of all memory devices may be made substantially equal , regardless of their proximity to the master device 210 . referring to fig5 , for example , memory devices hosted by stick channels 775 a , 775 c and 775 e may be programmed to delay their outputs by four clock cycles so that the overall response latency for all memory devices in the memory system is substantially equal ( with sub - clock cycle variance due to relative positions of memory devices on their stick channels ). expressed analytically , the total response delay perceived by the master device 210 is : where t dev — prog is the number of additional cycles of delay programmed within a given memory device , m is the number of transceivers that must be crossed to reach the stick channel that hosts the target memory device , and n is the latency - aligned , round - trip time from a master of a host channel to a stick channel coupled to the host channel through a single transceiver . thus , to provide a flat response latency throughout the memory system , the delay time ( t dev — prog ) for each memory device in the memory system may be set as follows : in this way , the total response latency will be substantially the same for each memory device in the memory system , regardless of the number of memory devices or stick channels in the memory system . fig6 is a block diagram of a transceiver according to one embodiment . the transceiver 220 receives the ctm 240 and cfm 250 clock signals from the master device . the transceiver 220 further receives host channel 410 . host channel 410 transmits address and data information from the master device to the transceiver 220 . for one embodiment , host channel 410 is a parallel bus , having multiple conductors . for another embodiment , host channel 410 is a serial communication path . for another embodiment , host channel 410 may include multiple buses , such as an address bus and a separate data bus , or even multiple control paths . the transceiver 220 acts as a slave device toward the master device 210 and includes a slave interface 420 to receive data and control signals from the master device via host channel 410 . to the master device , the transceiver 220 appears to be a memory device . requests from the master device arrive at the transceiver in the cfm 250 timing domain , and responses are sent back to the master in the ctm 240 timing domain . the master device 210 does not need to be modified to interact with the transceiver . on the stick channel 490 , the transceiver 220 functions as a master device , providing a master interface 430 to retransmit the requests / commands from the master device to the memory devices ( or transceivers ) coupled to stick channel 490 , and to forward responses from the memory devices to the master device via the slave interface 420 and host channel 410 . the memory devices perceive no difference in system operation resulting from the presence of transceiver 220 and therefore require no design modification . the transceiver 220 provides the clock - from - transceiver ( cft ) 290 and clock - to - transceiver ( ctt ) 280 signals to the memory devices and transceivers coupled to channel 490 . in one embodiment , cte 270 is routed to the end of the stick channel where it is folded back to provide ctt 280 . as discussed above , ctt 280 is folded back away from the transceiver 220 to provide cft 290 . data is transmitted to devices coupled to stick channel 490 in the cft 290 clock domain and received from devices coupled to stick channel 490 in the ctt 280 clock domain . for one embodiment , the transceiver 220 includes a stick transceiver 440 and a host transceiver 450 . the stick transceiver 440 transmits and receives data on the stick channel 490 . the host transceiver 450 transmits and receives data on the host channel 410 . the transceiver 220 further includes a first synchronizing unit 460 . the synchronizing unit 460 synchronizes data transmitted from the memory channel to the stick channel to the cft 290 . for one embodiment , the transceiver 220 may also include a second synchronizing unit 470 for synchronizing signals transmitted from the stick channel 490 to the host channel 410 with ctm 240 . for one embodiment , the second synchronizing unit 470 may be omitted if the ctt clock is synchronized with one of the clocks on the memory channel ( e . g ., in an embodiment in which the stick clocks ctt and cft are synchronized with ctm 240 ). the transceiver 220 further includes an isolation unit 480 that operates to prevent the transceiver 220 from repeating signals onto either the host channel 410 or the stick channel 490 . for one embodiment , the isolation unit 480 asserts an isolate signal 595 to force both sets of bus driver circuits into a high - impedance ( non - driving ) state . using the isolate feature , the transceiver 220 can effectively split a memory system into two partitions . in normal operation ( not isolated ), the transceiver 220 passes packets between the two partitions and the channel functions normally . when the transceiver &# 39 ; s isolation unit 480 is enabled , the two partitions become electrically isolated and , if desired , each individual section can operate independently . this may be advantageous in certain graphics applications , for example with a frame buffer and normal ( code and data ) drams sharing a single channel partitioned by a transceiver . the transceiver 220 further includes a power logic 485 for turning off the transceiver 220 when it does not need to transmit . in one embodiment , power logic 485 merely turns off the stick transceiver 440 , so that signals received via host channel 410 are not retransmitted on stick channel 490 . circuitry may be provided to interpret incoming addresses to determine whether they decode to memory devices coupled to stick channel 490 ( or downstream stick channels ). stick transceiver 440 may then be selectively enabled and disabled depending on whether memory devices coupled to stick channel 490 are being addressed . for example , if a certain amount of time passes ( or transactions detected ) without memory devices coupled to stick channel 490 being addressed , power unit 485 may disable stick transceiver 440 to save power . alternatively , transceiver 220 may power down stick transceiver 440 and other circuitry within transceiver 220 in response to a power - save command received on the host channel 410 . also , in alternative embodiments , transceiver 220 may remain fully enabled at all times and power unit 485 may be omitted altogether for one embodiment the transceiver 220 does not interpret incoming transmissions on the host channel and therefore does not respond to commands . that is , the transceiver 220 cannot be “ addressed ” by a master device ( e . g ., device 210 of fig2 ). consequently , in this embodiment the transceiver 220 does not include registers which may be read or written by a master device . in alternative embodiments , the transceiver 220 include command interpretation circuitry for parsing packetized commands or other transmissions received on the host channel . in these embodiments , the transceiver 220 may perform timing adjustments or other operations in response to commands from a master device . for example , the transceiver 220 may perform output driver calibration or other signal parameter calibration operations in response to commands from the master device . also , instead of calibration , the transceiver 220 may receive control parameters from the master device and install them in appropriate registers to provide master - specified signal adjustments ( e . g ., adjustments to slew rate , drive strength , receive and transmit timing , equalization , reference voltage adjustment , clock duty cycle correction and so forth ). moreover , as discussed above , the transceiver 220 may enter a power - saving state in response to commands received on the host channel . fig7 illustrates the synchronization and transceiver logic of a transceiver 220 according to one embodiment . the transceiver 220 receives a host channel 570 that couples the transceiver 220 to a master device along with signal lines for clock signals ctm 240 and cfm 250 . though not shown , the transceiver 220 may also include isolation circuitry and power saving circuitry as described above in reference to fig6 . the transceiver 220 also receives signal lines for clock signals cte 580 , ctt 585 and cft 590 along with a stick channel 575 that couples the transceiver 220 to memory devices and / or other transceivers . the transceiver 220 includes a phase locked loop ( pll ) 510 which performs a clock recovery function , generating a buffered output 512 in phase alignment with cfm 250 . this recovered version of cfm 250 is input to the primary receiver 515 where it is used to time reception of signals from the host channel 570 . the transceiver 220 also includes pll 525 to generate a recovered version of ctm 240 ( i . e ., buffered output 527 ) for clocking primary transmitter 520 . a pll 550 is used to generate cte 580 for the stick channel such that ctt 585 arrives at the transceiver 180 degrees out of phase with ctm 240 . this inverted version of ctm 240 is designated “ stick clock ” in fig7 . pll 545 is also used to generate a clock signal 529 that is 180 degrees out of phase with ctm 240 ( i . e ., in phase with the stick clock ) for clocking the secondary receiver 540 . the 180 degree phase offset between ctm 240 and the stick clock permits the latency between reception of signals in secondary receiver and retransmission of the signals at the primary transmitter 520 to be aligned on half - clock cycle boundaries ( e . g ., 1 . 5 clock cycles as shown in fig3 a ). because transceiver 220 receives data from the host channel 570 in response to edges of cfm 250 and then retransmits the data on the stick channel in response to edges of ctm 240 , the time required to cross the transceiver in the direction of the stick channel ( t lat ( ps ) ) is compensated by the amount of time by which cfm 250 lags ctm 240 . that is , t lat ( ps ) is equal to the number of cycles of ctm 240 that transpire during the transceiver crossing , less t tr . by contrast , data crossing the transceiver in the direction of the host channel 570 is both received and retransmitted in response to clock edges aligned with edges of ctm 240 ( stickclk being an inverted version of ctm 240 ). that is , t lat ( sp ) is equal to the number of cycles of ctm 240 consumed crossing the transceiver without compensation for t tr . this asymmetry between t lat ( ps ) and t lat ( sp ) results in a bidirectional transceiver crossing time that includes compensation for t tr , thus causing the round - trip latency between the master device and a given stick channel to be aligned to the ctm 240 clock . transceiver 220 also includes a re - timing circuit 530 that delays the data transfer between the primary receiver 515 and the secondary transmitter 535 when t tr becomes so small that half clock cycle boundary may be crossed . more specifically , re - timing circuit 530 determines the phase difference ( t tr ) between the recovered versions of ctm 240 and cfm 250 and selects between a delayed and a non - delayed path for transferring data from primary receiver 515 to secondary transmitter 535 , ensuring that the overall t lat ( ps ) is a fixed number of clock cycles less t tr . fig8 is a diagram of a transceiver that includes circuitry for preventing a latch - up condition . latch - up occurs when data received from a first channel and transmitted to the second channel is detected on the second channel , and promptly retransmitted to the first channel . this feedback latches the device into a state . portions of the transceiver have been omitted from fig8 for simplicity . only the primary receiver 515 , primary transmitter 520 , secondary transmitter 535 , secondary receiver 540 , and re - timer 530 are shown . a latch - up prevention logic 610 is placed between primary receiver 515 and primary transmitter 520 . a similar latch - up prevention logic 620 is placed between secondary transmitter 535 and secondary receiver 540 . the latch - up prevention logic 610 receives an input from the primary receiver 515 and from the secondary receiver 540 . the output of the latch - up prevention logic 610 is coupled to a disable logic ( dl ) 630 in the primary transmitter 520 . similarly , the latch - up prevention logic 620 receives an input from the secondary receiver 540 and the primary receiver 515 . the output of the latch - up prevention logic 620 is coupled to a disable logic ( dl ) 640 in the secondary transmitter 535 . pin 680 is coupled to the host channel 570 ( not shown ), while pin 690 is coupled to stick channel 575 ( not shown ). when the primary receiver 515 receives data from the host channel 570 , it sends a disable signal through node 517 to the latch - up prevention logic 610 . the latch - up prevention logic 610 sends a disable signal to the primary transmitter &# 39 ; s disable logic 630 . the disable logic 630 prevents the primary transmitter 520 from transmitting information received from the secondary transceiver 540 for a period of time . the disable signal is also sent to the disable logic ( dl ) 625 of latch - up prevention logic 620 . the disable signal turns off the latch - up prevention logic 620 . the data received by the primary receiver 515 is transmitted , through the secondary transmitter 535 to the stick channel . when the secondary receiver 540 receives the same data from the stick channel , the latch - up prevention logic 620 is already disabled , preventing the turning off of the secondary transmitter 535 . furthermore , the primary transmitter 520 is already disabled , preventing the retransmission of the data to the host channel . in this manner , the latch - up prevention logic 610 prevents the system latch up . the latch - up prevention logic 610 , 620 releases their transmitter , 520 and 535 respectively , after the entire data is transmitted by the primary receiver 515 . similarly , if data is first received on the stick channel by the secondary receiver , latch - up prevention logic 620 disables secondary transmitter 535 through disable logic 640 . the disable signal further disables latch - up prevention logic 610 through disable logic 615 . using the above - described latch - up prevention logics , the danger of latch - up is avoided . for one embodiment , the latch - up prevention logic 610 may be implemented as an and gate and an inverter , such that the output of the secondary receiver 540 is inverted , and coupled as an input to an and gate . the other input to the and gate is the logic from the primary receiver 515 . in this way , only when the output of the primary receiver 515 is on , while the output of the secondary receiver 540 is off , does the latch - up prevention logic 610 output its disable signal . although the exemplary embodiments of latency - aligning receivers and systems and methods for incorporating latency - aligning receivers have been described in terms of memory systems . it will be appreciated that the concepts and principles disclosed are not limited to memory systems , but rather may be applied in any system where it is desirable to increase the number of devices attached to a communication path without overloading the communication path or complicating system timing . more generally , though the invention has been described with reference to specific exemplary embodiments thereof , it will be evident that various modifications and changes may be made thereto without departing from the broader spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims . the specification and drawings are , accordingly , to be regarded in an illustrative rather than a restrictive sense .
6 (Physics)
fig1 illustrates an image - guided surgery system with which the present invention may be employed . the system includes a surgical or medical instrument 11 , such as an endoscope , having an elongate axis 12 and tip 13 , which is used to probe an internal target site 14 of a patient 15 . a plurality of fiducials or markers 16 are placed on the patient 15 near the target site . the fiducials are used to register corresponding points on the preoperative or intraoperative 2 - d image scans of patient target site 14 . instrument 11 has a plurality of tracking elements 17 on its shaft 12 which emit signals to sensors 33 positioned in view of the instrument . both the instrument and the sensors are in communication with a tracking controller which is in communication with a computer system that processes the signals received by sensors 33 to track the movement of instrument 11 during surgery . the tracking controller may be a separate element or it may be physically integrated with the computer system and may even be embodied in an option card which is inserted into an available card slot in the computer . the computer system is also used to render and display the 2 - d preoperative or intraoperative images and render 3 - d surface or volumetric images , either of which may be perspective or orthographic , of target site 14 on a display device . various aspects of the image - guided surgery procedure , such as registration , tracking , image generation and navigation , may be implemented by a program of instructions ( e . g ., software ) in response to user input supplied by various input devices such as a keyboard , mouse , track ball or joystick . the software is executed by a processor , such as a central processing unit ( cpu ) which may be in the form of a microprocessor . other processors may also be used in conjunction with the cpu such as a graphics chip . as shown in fig1 a dynamic frame - of - reference ( dfr ) 21 is rigidly attached to a support 22 that is securely attached to the portion of patient 15 ( e . g ., head 23 ) where the surgery is to be performed . thus , when the patient &# 39 ; s head moves , support 22 and dfr 21 also move . securely attached to the dfr is a rigid elongated element 24 extending outwardly from a main surface of dfr 21 at a known angle and terminating in a tip 25 at its distal end . dfr 21 includes a plurality of sensors 35 in communication with tracking controller which is also in communication with the computer system , instrument 11 and sensors 33 to determine the location and orientation of the dfr including element 24 and its tip 25 . in accordance with one variation of the preferred embodiment of the invention , a pointer 26 has its tip 27 attached to one end of an elastic , telescopic or otherwise length - adjustable potentiometer 28 or equivalent device , the other end of which is attached to tip 25 . if pointer 26 is not attached to dfr 21 , then the pointer will include tracking elements / position sensors 26 a that are in communication with sensors 33 and the computer system to track the movement and determine the position and orientation of the pointer . the remaining figures . taken in conjunction with fig1 describe the various embodiments of the invention . fig2 illustrates a first mode of operation in accordance with embodiments of the invention . first , the user selects a target point 29 in patient target site 14 and establishes the orientation of the instrument view axis ( e . g ., the endoscope view axis ) with respect to target point 29 . next , selected preoperative or intraoperative scan data representing internal scans of the patient target site are used to construct an image of the patient target site , with respect to the orientation of the instrument , such as viewed along the view axis of the instrument . that is , the constructed image is orthogonal to the view axis of the instrument but is viewed along the axis of the instrument . the image is then displayed in various 2 - d orientations and in 3 - d on the display device for viewing by the user . fig3 illustrates a second mode of operation , in accordance with embodiments of the invention , where a view orientation with respect to a virtual target point 31 , external to the patient , is transformed to a view orientation with respect to a selected target point 29 in the patient . the virtual target point may be established at any external location that can be determined relative to the tracking system , e . g ., relative to dfr 21 . for example , virtual target point 31 can be at the tip of elongated support 24 as shown in fig1 or it can be located in free space and initially defined by the tip of pointer 26 . as illustrated in fig3 the user selects an orientation with which to view the virtual target point and the corresponding image of patient target site 14 . the view orientation of the virtual target point is defined by an imaginary line extending between a known point on the pointer , e . g ., its tip 27 and virtual target point 31 . thus , selecting the view orientation also involves selecting the location of the virtual target point , if it is not at a fixed location , e . g ., at the tip of the elongated support , as shown in fig1 . the virtual target point can be defined in free space by moving the tip of the pointer to the desired point in space and clicking a selector button on pointer 26 to establish virtual target 31 point at the tip of the pointer . the virtual target point will remain at that location even after the pointer is moved , until a new virtual target point is established by the user . the selected view orientation and virtual target point location is then input into the computer where this information is processed and stored . in particular , the computer establishes a correspondence between selected target point 29 in patient target site 14 and virtual target point 31 in “ virtual ” space , which may be accomplished , for example , using point - to - point mapping . point - to - point mapping essentially involves determining a transformation matrix that maps the coordinates of point 29 to another set of coordinates representing point 31 . a transformation is then made between the view orientation with respect to virtual target point 31 and the view orientation with respect to selected point 29 . scan data is used to construct an image of the patient target site , as viewed along the view orientation with respect to the virtual target point . the image is then displayed on the display device . fig4 and 5 illustrate a preferred embodiment of the second mode of operation , where the virtual target point is located a specified distance from a known point on the pointer 26 which is used to view the virtual target point and the corresponding image of the patient target site 14 along the axis of the pointer 26 . it should be noted that in this embodiment as well as in the other disclosed embodiments pointer 26 may be the medical instrument used at the patient target site 14 or it may be a separate instrument . the user selects a target point b in the patient target site 14 that lies on the axis of the instrument 11 at a selected distance d from a known point a on the instrument 11 and inputs this information into the computer . the coordinates x 1 , y 1 , z 1 of selected point b in the patient target site are determined with respect to known point a . next , the user specifies an external virtual target point b ′ with respect to the axis of pointer 26 . this may be accomplished , for example , by clicking a selector button on pointer 26 to establish b ′ at the tip of the pointer relative to its axis . the coordinates x 1 , y 1 , z 1 of b are transformed to a second set of coordinates x 1 ′, y 1 ′, z 1 ′ representing b ′ to establish correspondence between points b and b ′ in their respective spaces . a transformation is then made between the view orientation along the axis of pointer 26 with respect to point b ′ at distance d ′ and the view orientation along the axis of instrument 11 with respect to point b at distance d , where d and d ′ may or may not be equal . these transformations establish correspondence between the two view orientations , so that the view that the user sees along the axis of pointer 26 at distance d ′ is the same view as the user sees ( or would see ) along the axis of instrument 11 at distance d in the corresponding view orientation . now , as pointer 26 is moved , say , counterclockwise through an angle θ to the position shown in fig5 the user now sees patient target site 14 through point b ′ as if instrument 11 was moved that same angular distance to the position shown in a dashed line in fig5 . also , if the user were to move pointer 26 along its axis , say away from b ′ thereby increasing d ′, the user would view target site 14 as if instrument 11 was also moved along its axis away from b to increase d . the computer may maintain a constant ratio between d and d ′, or alternatively may employ other linear or nonlinear mathematical relationships between d and d ′ in correlating the view distances . scan data is used to construct images of the patient target site 14 , as viewed along the axis of the pointer 26 , with respect to b ′ , and these images are displayed on the display device . a variation on the above - described embodiment is to use a “ universal swivel ” device connecting the tip of elongated element 24 ( which in this case represents virtual target point b ′) to the tip of the pointer 26 ( point a ′ in fig5 ). the universal swivel device may be potentiometer 28 or equivalent device . here , point b ′ is at a known location and d ′ may easily be determined using the potentiometer 28 . preferably , the potentiometer is adjustable along its axis to allow the pointer to be moved in and out but keeps the axis of the pointer aligned with the axis of the potentiometer . thus , this arrangement enables pointer 26 to rotate about virtual point b ′ while maintaining co - linearity between any two points on the pointer 26 and b ′. the “ universal swivel ” may also be implemented using a joystick , or similar device . here the ball of the joystick represents virtual target point b ′ and the joystick itself represents pointer 26 . view distance d ′ is fixed and corresponds to some view distance d in the patient target site . the joystick need not be tracked using sensors but would interface with the computer as an input device so that its position can be determined . the user inputs information to the computer to establish distance d ′, a reference view orientation with respect to point b ′, and a corresponding reference joystick position . based on that information , the computer then employs an algorithm to correlate different positions of the joystick with different view orientations with respect to point b ′, which , in turn , is correlated with various view orientations of instrument 11 with respect to target point b . as the joystick is moved , the view orientation that the user sees on the display device changes . the “ universal swivel ” may also be implemented using a track ball as a computer input device . once calibrated , manipulating the track ball can be used to change the view orientation vector a ′ b ′ which is correlated to various view orientations of instrument 11 represented by vector ab . here there is no pointer 26 , and the view orientation with respect to b ′ is relative to the position of the track ball . as with the joystick , view distance d ′ is fixed and corresponds to a view distance d in the patient target site . the user inputs information to the computer to establish d ′ which is correlated with d . in another embodiment of the second mode of operation , which is more general than the first embodiment , a transformation is made between a view orientation with respect to a selected virtual target point and a view orientation with respect a selected patient target site point , where the view orientations may or may not be along the axis of the instrument / pointer . an example of this embodiment is illustrated in fig6 and 7 , where the view orientation with respect to the target point is along the axis of the instrument but the view orientation with respect to the virtual target point is not along the axis of the pointer . this is merely one example of this embodiment ; other variations are possible . referring now specifically to fig6 and 7 , the user supplies input specifying a target point b in patient target site 14 , where b is defined relative to the instrument , e . g ., b lies along the axis of the instrument 11 . the coordinates x 1 , y 1 , z 1 of selected point b in the patient target site are determined with respect to the position of the instrument . the coordinates x 1 , y 1 , z 1 and a distance d may be determined relative to a known point , say a , on the tip of instrument 11 . the imaginary line between b and a defines the view orientation with respect to the selected patient target site point . next , the user specifies an external virtual target point b ′ with respect to the position of pointer 26 . this may be accomplished , for example , by using a position selector on the pointer as previously described . the coordinates x 1 , y 1 , z 1 are transformed to a second set of coordinates x 1 ′, y 1 ′, z 1 ′ representing b ′, and the view orientation in the “ virtual ” space is determined by the line between a ′ and b ′. a transformation is then made between the view orientation defined by vector a ′ b ′ and the view orientation defined by vector ab . thus , as the tip of pointer 26 is moved , say , counterclockwise through an angle θ , as shown in fig7 the user now sees patient target site 14 as if instrument 11 were moved that same angular distance to the position shown in dashed lines in fig7 . that is , view orientation a ′ 2 b ′ in the “ virtual ” space corresponds to view orientation a 2 b in the “ real ” space . scan data is used to construct images of the patient target site 14 , as viewed along the transformed view orientation , and these images are displayed on the display device . in another embodiment of the second mode of operation , a transformation is made between a view orientation along the axis of pointer 26 and a view orientation along the axis of instrument 11 . here , the view orientations are maintained along the axis of the instrument and the pointer respectively but not necessarily with respect to points b and b ′ when the pointer 26 is moved . an example of this embodiment is illustrated in fig8 and 9 . this is merely one example of this embodiment ; other variations are possible . referring now specifically to fig8 and 9 , the user supplies input specifying a patient target site point b along the axis of instrument 11 a specified distance d from a known point , say a , on the instrument . the coordinates x 1 , y 1 , z 1 of the selected point b are determined with respect to a known point , say a , on the instrument . next , the user specifies an external virtual target point b ′ with respect to the axis of pointer 26 , as previously described with regard to the first embodiment . the coordinates x 1 , y 1 , z 1 are transformed to a second set of coordinates x 1 , y 1 , z 1 representing b ′. a transformation is then made between the view orientation along the axis of pointer 26 and the view orientation along the axis of instrument 11 . in this embodiment , the view orientations are maintained along the axis of the respective viewing device . thus , if pointer 26 is moved laterally to the right , as shown in fig9 the view orientation remains along the axis of the pointer , and corresponds to the view orientation along the axis of instrument 11 , as if it had been moved laterally to the right the same distance , as shown in dashed line in fig9 . similarly , if pointer 26 is rotated , with or without accompanying lateral motion , the view orientation remains along the axis of the pointer , and corresponds to the view orientation along the axis of instrument 11 , as if it had been moved in the same manner . scan data is used to construct images of the patient target site 14 , as viewed along the transformed view orientation , and these images are displayed on the display device . as previously noted , various aspects of the image - guided surgery procedure , such as registration , tracking , image generation and navigation , may be implemented by a program of instructions ( i . e ., software ). various aspects of the present invention including transforming a target point in a patient target site to an external virtual target point and transforming the corresponding view orientations , which are part of the navigation step , may likewise be implemented by software . software implementing one or more of the various aspects of the present invention may be written to run with existing software used for image - guided surgery . the software for any or all of these tasks of the present invention may be fetched by the cpu from random - access memory ( ram ) for execution . the software may be stored in read - only memory ( rom ) on the computer system and transferred to ram when in use . alternatively , the software may be transferred to ram or directly to the cpu for execution from rom , or through a storage medium such as a disk drive or through an i / o device such as a modem . more broadly , the software may be conveyed by any medium that is readable by the cpu . such media may include , for example , various magnetic media such as disks or tapes , various optical media such as compact disks , as well as various communication paths throughout the electromagnetic spectrum including infrared signals , signals transmitted through a network or the internet , and carrier waves encoded to transmit the software . as an alternative to software implementation , the above - described aspects of the invention may be implemented with functionally equivalent hardware using discrete components , application specific integrated circuits ( asics ), digital signal processing circuits , or the like . such hardware may be physically integrated with the computer processor ( s ) or may be a separate device which may be embodied on a computer card that can be inserted into an available card slot in the computer . thus , the above - described aspects of the invention can be implemented using software , hardware , or combination thereof . with that in mind , it is to be understood that the flow diagrams used to illustrate the various aspects of the present invention show the performance of certain specified functions and relationships therebetween . the boundaries of these functional blocks have been defined herein for convenience of description . alternate boundaries may be defined so long as the appropriate functions are performed and the appropriate relationships therebetween are maintained . the diagrams and accompanying description provide the functional information one skilled in the art would require to implement a system to perform the functions required . each of the functions depicted in the flow diagrams may be implemented , for example , by software , functionally equivalent hardware , or a combination thereof . while embodiments of the invention have been described , it will be apparent to those skilled in the art in light of the foregoing description that many further alternatives , modifications and variations are possible . the invention described herein is intended to embrace all such alternatives , modifications and variations as may fall within the spirit and scope of the appended claims .
0 (Human Necessities)
shown in fig1 is an elevated water storage facility 10 which includes an elevated water storage tank 12 supported by a pillar 14 having flutes 16 thereon . the tank occupies substantially all of the top cross - sectional area of the pillar and includes a cylindrical portion 18 , an arcuate top 20 and an arcuate bottom portion 24 . a riser 26 is also included , as is other means necessary to conduct water from the facility to users , some of whom may be located at great distances from the facility . the fluted pillar thus serves as an exterior wall of the facility . a plurality of floors 30 are included so the facility 10 is multi - purpose and also serves as usable space for offices , storage , or the like . a floor is shown in fig5 - 8 and includes a multiplicity of panels 31 - 34 and is mounted on the riser by mounting brackets , such as bracket 36 , by fasteners , such as bolts 38 , or the like . the fluting of the pillar accommodates the floor , and a floor framing system is shown in fig5 while fig6 and 7 show the intersection of a floor and the pillar with support bars , such as bar 44 , mounting the floor to the pillar at the flutes . the pillar 14 bears the load of the tank 12 and the contacts thereof . the intersection 50 of the pillar and the tank is shown in fig2 and occurs beneath the cylindrical portion of the tank . preferably , 21 / 4 inch thick cone plates 52 are mounted at a 30 ° angle on the top of the pillar 14 . th pillar wall is supported on a foundation 60 best shown in fig4 as including a spread base 62 and a wall supporting portion 64 having a sleeve 66 thereon . strengthening means 68 is also included in the foundation 60 and can be located as shown in fig4 or at other positions on that foundation . the riser 26 is supported by an octagonal foundation 70 best shown in fig3 . the foundation 70 includes a base 72 and a supporting portion 74 . the elevated storage facility 10 is further discussed in the above - referenced co - pending patent application , ser . no . 168 , 808 . shown in fig9 is an elevated storage facility 100 which includes a load bearing core 110 supporting a tank 112 thereon . the facility 100 includes water delivery means as discussed above , and a conical portion 113 connecting cylindrical portion 18 &# 39 ; to bottom portion 24 &# 39 ;. a top portion 20 &# 39 ; is also included in the tank . the core can be fluted as indicated at area 114 if so desired , and is surrounded by a wall 116 , which can be a curtain wall construction if suitable . the core 110 includes a riser 118 having an octagonal foundation 119 shown in fig1 and 13 , and can include a pillar 12 such as discussed above , and thus the tank and core of the facility 100 can be formed of the facility 10 if suitable . retrofitting can accomplish such result , and can also be used to form facility 100 from other facilities . a roof portion 120 connects the outer wall 116 to the tank top portion 20 &# 39 ;. the facility 100 also includes a plurality of floors , such as floor 122 . the pillar wall is supported on a foundation which can be similar to the foundation 60 discussed above . elevators , and the like equipment , can also be included as desired . the pillars in either facility 10 or facility 100 can be concrete , if desired . as shown in fig1 , a plurality of columns , such as column 140 , are located immediately adjacent to and interior of the exterior wall 116 . the pillar 110 ( fig9 ) is supported on foundations , such as foundation 142 shown in fig1 , and which is similar to the foundation 60 shown in fig4 . the columns 140 support floor 145 beams for the floors between the exterior wall 116 and the core 110 . preferably , there are sixteen of these columns 140 . as shown in fig9 the ground floor 146 is unenclosed with access areas 147 or the like includable as suitable . the columns 140 terminate at the first floor level radial beams , and additional support columns 150 ( shown in fig1 ) can be located immediately adjacent to and exterior of the pillar . the vertical columns 150 are supported on foundations similar to the foundation 142 shown in fig1 . as shown in fig1 , radial first floor beams 145 support at their exterior ends the columns 140 and are supported at their interior ends by riser 118 and approximately mid - way by the vertical columns 150 . the foundation 142 includes strengthening means 154 , as discussed above . shown in fig1 is a manhole 160 located in the interior wall 114 just beneath the tank 112 . as this invention may be embodied in several forms without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof , the present embodiment is , therefore , illustrative and not restrictive , since the scope of the invention is defined by the appended claims rather than by the description preceding them , and all changes that fall within the metes and bounds of the claims or that form their functional as well as conjointly cooperative equivalents are , therefore , intended to be embraced by those claims .
4 (Fixed Constructions)
as shown in fig3 the pack separation and transfer apparatus 10 of this invention can be used to handle a continuously moving file 12 of folded sheet objects , such as paper napkins or paper towels , moving in a trough 14 . the file has a lead pack 12a of folded sheet objects that is separated from a second pack 12b of folded sheet objects by means of a flag 13a . similarly , a second pack 12b is separated from the remainder of the file by means of another flag 13b . as disclosed in the aforementioned fischer patent , each flag 13 can be formed by displacing several of the folded sheets so that the top edge of each flag sheet extends about 3 / 8 inch above the file . the purpose of the pack separation and transfer apparatus 10 is to automatically transfer the lead pack 12a of the folded sheets from the moving file 12 to a work station , shown as element 100 in fig4 e , and which for example could be a conveyor belt which would transport individual packs to a wrapping machine ( not shown ). for the sake of convenience , an element depicted in more than one figure will retain the same element number in each figure . as shown in fig1 through 3 , the pack separation and transfer apparatus 10 includes a frame consisting of side plates 18 and 19 bolted to bottom frame member 22 . also bolted respectively to side plates 18 and 19 are angle - shaped foot members 23 and 24 . as shown in fig3 the bottom of trough 14 is inclined upwardly at an angle θ with respect to the horizontal . a plate 15 is mounted between side plates 18 and 19 so that the upper surface of plate 15 acts as an extension of the bottom of trough 14 . if the width of trough 14 exceeds the width of the folded sheets by more than 1 / 4 inch , it may be desirable to mount spacers 20 , 21 on each side plate 18 , 19 whereby the leading portion of each spacer , as illustrated by elements 21a of fig1 and 3 , can be tapered so that the width of the pack separating and transfer apparatus 10 is gradually reduced . the trough extension 15 terminates in a generally l - shaped transfer pan 65 that is connected to the trough extension 15 by a hinge 74 . in the discussion that follows , various members will be connected together by means of a pin . the pin , although securing the two members together , will allow the members to rotate with respect to each other about the pin . a pin connection support member 66 is attached to the transfer pan 65 . one end of a movable link 67 is attached to support member 66 by a pin 70 . the other end of movable link 67 is attached to one end of a movable link 68 by means of a pin 71 . the other end of movable link 68 is connected to a pin support bracket 69 by means of a pin 72 . mounted on movable link 72 is a cam roller 73 . the mechanism formed by transfer pan 65 and movable links 67 and 68 are known in the art as an open four link chain . referring now to fig1 a flag pusher support member 41 is pivotally connected to the frame by means of a pin 45 . one end of a movable link 42 is connected to support member 41 by means of a pin 46 . the other end of movable link 42 is connected to one end of a movable link 43 by means of a pin 47 . the other end of movable link 43 is connected , by means of a pin 48 , to a pin connection support bracket 44 that is mounted to the side plate 19 . a cam roller 49 is mounted on movable link 43 . the flag pusher support member 41 , along with movable links 42 and 43 also form an open four link chain . a pivot support bracket 51 is attached to the flag pusher support member 41 . referring now to fig4 b and 4c , the pivot support bracket 51 has mounted therein a flag sensor pivot 54 about which a flag sensor 53 can rotate . the flag sensor 53 includes as an integral part thereof an arm 55 which also rotates about pivot point 54 . mounted on arm 55 is a magnet 56 . mounted on the flag pusher support member 51 is a reed switch 57 that is controlled by magnet 56 . also mounted within the pivot support bracket 51 is a pivot 59 about which a flag pusher member 58 can rotate . the flag pusher member 58 includes a tooth 61 that engages the flag and assists in separating the lead pack 12a from the file . the flag pusher member 58 also includes a projection 60 which cooperates with an edge 52 of the pivot support bracket 51 in order to limit the counterclock - wise rotation of flag pusher member 58 . the separation and transfer apparatus 10 includes a pair of transfer arms 80 , 81 which rotate about a shaft 89 . transfer arm 80 is connected to transfer arm 81 by means of a plate 93 so that the two transfer arms 80 , 81 will rotate in unison about shaft 89 . transfer arm 80 has attached thereto a pin connection support bracket 82 . one end of a movable link 83 is connected to support bracket 82 by means of a pin 88 and the other end of movable link 83 is connected to one end of a movable link 84 by means of a pin 87 . the other end of movable link 84 is connected , by means of a pin 86 , to a pin connection support bracket 85 mounted on side plate 19 . a cam roller 90 is mounted on movable link 84 . the transfer arm 80 along with movable links 83 and 84 also make up an open four link chain . each transfer arm includes an arcuate extension 98 . mounted on one arcuate extension 98 is a magnet 91 . mounted on the side plate 18 is a reed switch 92 that is controlled by magnet 91 . referring now to fig4 f , there is shown a sheet support assist member 96 , which in a preferred embodiment is a piece of mylar , one end of which is fastened to the trough extension memmber 15 . the other end of the sheet support member 96 is allowed to project beyond the trough extension memmber 15 beside the l - shaped pan 65 . the outside edge of the sheet support memmber 96 underlies the outer edge of the folded sheets in the file 12 . the motion of the flag pusher support member 41 is controlled by the shape of cam 35 which contacts cam roller 49 . the motion of l - shaped pan 65 is controlled by the shape of cam 36 which contacts cam roller 73 . the motion of transfer arms 80 and 81 is controlled by the shape of cam 37 which contacts cam roller 90 . cams 35 , 36 and 37 are mounted on a cam shaft 30 mounted in bearing 31 in side plate 18 and in bearing 32 in side plate 19 . cam shaft 30 is intermittently driven from a single revolution clutch assembly 28 . drive means for the single revolution clutch 28 is provided by a sprocket 33 , attached to said clutch , that is driven by means of a chain 34 and a drive sprocket 27 attached to the shaft of a motor 26 which is mounted on a plate 25 . normally , motor 26 continuously drives sprocket 33 . the single revolution clutch assembly 28 is solenoid operated . power to the solenoid is applied through the contacts of reed switch 57 . when the flag sheets pass under the flag sensor thereby causing magnet 56 , which rotates in unison with flag sensor 53 , to be placed sufficiently near reed switch 57 so as to close the contacts thereof , power is applied to the solenoid of the single revolution clutch assembly 28 . the single revolution clutch assembly 28 engages cam shaft 30 and causes cam shaft 30 to rotate 360 ° after which the clutch assembly 28 is disengaged from shaft 30 until another reed switch 57 closure occurs . the shape of cam 36 , which contacts cam roller 73 , controls the motion of l - shaped pan 65 . as shown in fig3 l - shaped pan 65 is in the rest position . during the initial portion of a cam cycle , l - shaped pan 65 is caused to rotate approximately 90 ° about hinge 74 . this causes the lead pack 12a of the file to be moved out of the path of the continuously moving file . during the latter portion of the cycle of cam 36 , the l - shaped pan 65 is returned to the rest position for receiving the next pack from the continuously moving file . the shape of cam 35 which contacts cam roller 49 controls the motion of the flag pusher support member 41 . as best illustrated in fig4 d , the function of flag pusher member 41 is to maintain tooth 61 behind flag 13a to initiate the separation of the lead pack 12a from the file and to provide for the transfer of the flag sheets 13a with the lead pack 12a . as shown in fig1 the pivot point 45 for flag pusher support member 41 is located very close to the hinge 74 of l - shaped pan 65 so that tooth 61 will maintain contact with the back of flag 13a when the flag pusher support member 41 rotates in synchronism with pan 65 . it is not necessary for the flag pusher member 41 to rotate through a full 90 ° as does l - shaped pan 65 . in a preferred embodiment of this invention the flag pusher support member rotates through 41 °. as shown in fig2 the width of l - shaped pan 65 is considerably less than the width of the folded sheets , which have previously been described as being slightly less the distance between the side walls of spacers 20 and 21 . the width of l - shaped pan 65 is also less than the spacing between the interior edges to transfer arms 80 and 81 . therefore , as best illustrated in fig4 e and 4f , after the l - shaped pan 65 has been rotated down and out of the path of the continuously moving file 12 , the edges of the folded sheets will overhang the sides of l - shaped pan 65 and will be in the path of transfer arms 80 and 81 . as the transfer arms 80 and 81 are caused to pivot about shaft 89 , as determined by the shape of cam 37 , they contact the overhanging edges of the folded sheets and push the lead pack off of l - shaped pan 65 and onto the work station 100 . tthe transfer arms 80 and 81 are then returned to the rest position as shown in fig1 . fig4 e and 4f also illustrate the cooperation of the arcuate extension 98 of transfer arm 80 with flexible member 96 to provide temporary support for the lead sheets of the remainder of the advancing file . as the transfer arms 80 , 81 pivot about shaft 89 to transfer the lead pack 12a of folded sheets from the pan 65 to the work station 100 , the upper surface 99 of arcuate extensions 98 is extended beneath the lead sheets in the remaining file . if flexible material 96 were not present , the bottom of the lead sheets in the remaining file 12b would try to rest on the upper surface 99 of the arcuate extension 98 and , as the transfer arm 80 pivoted , the upper surface 99 of the arcuate extension would pull the lead sheets away from the remaining file . thus , flexible member 96 isolates the bottom edges of the lead sheets in the file from the motion of the upper surface 99 of arcuate extension 98 while still allowing surface 99 to support the lead sheets of the file as the file advances beyond the hinge point 74 of the l - shaped pan 65 . as best shown in fig4 d and 4e , as l - shaped pan 65 rotates about hinge 74 , the member 96 should also flex around hinge 74 so that the lead pack 12a will maintain its arrangement in the l - shaped pan 65 . as transfer arms 80 and 81 transfer the pack 12a from the pan 65 to the work station 100 , the upper surface 99 of arcuate extension 98 straightens out the flexible member 96 and provides temporary support for the lead sheets of the remaining file . during the initial separation of the lead pack 12a from the next pack 12b in the file , a partial vacuum is created between the last flag sheet 13a and the first sheet in the next pack 12b . this partial vacuum applies a force to the lead sheets of the next pack 12b which tends to pull them away from the remaining file . if the file motion is in a perfectly horizontal direction , then any slight vacuum force on the lead sheets would cause the lead sheets to move in the direction of the rotation of pan 65 , and then gravity will cause the sheet to remain with the pack in pan 65 . by inclining the end of the trough 14 and the trough extension 15 upward at an angle of between 33 ° and 37 °, the forces on the lead sheets of the remaining file that are generated during the separation of the lead pack from the file are not sufficient to pull or rotate the lead sheets past the vertical , and gravity will cause the lead sheets to fall back into the remaining file . it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that means , such as wire retainers ( not shown ) attached to spacers 20 and 21 , could contact and restrain the lead sheets of the remaining file thereby allowing trough extension 15 to be inclined at an angle less than 33 ° to the horizontal . the overall operation of the pack separation and transfer apparatus 10 will now be described . referring to fig3 there is shown a continuously moving file 12 of folded sheets that is progressing from trough 14 onto trough extension 15 and into the l - shaped pan 65 . the initial pack 12a is shown about halfway into pan 65 and is separated from the next pack 12b by several flag sheets 13a that have been displaced so that they extend a short distance above the file 12 . as shown in fig4 a , as the file continues to move , flag sheets 13a contact the bottom edge of the flag pusher 58 which causes flag pusher 58 to rotate about pivot point 59 thereby allowing the flag sheets 13a to pass under the flag pusher member 58 with a minimum of disturbance . as the file continues to advance into pan 65 , the flag sheets 13a reach the position illustrated in fig4 b wherein they pass beyond the tooth 61 of flag pusher member 58 . the gravitational force acting on flag pusher 58 causes it to rotate counterclockwise so that the tooth 61 is positioned behind the flag 13a . the counterclockwise rotation of flag pusher 58 is limited by projection 60 which contacts edge 52 of flag pusher support member 51 . as the file continues to advance into pan 65 the flag 13a pushes against the bottom surface of flag sensor 53 causing it along with magnet 56 to rotate about pivot point 54 . when the flag sheets 13a have reached a predetermined point in the apparatus , the lead pack 12a will be in pan 65 and magnet 56 will be so located as to operate reed switch 57 . the closure of reed switch 57 causes power to be applied to the solenoid which operates the single revolution clutch assembly 28 . during a first portion of the cycle , flag pusher support member 41 is pivoted about pin 45 , and tooth 61 acting on the rear of flag shets 13a , initiates the separation of lead pack 12a and flag sheets 13a from the file . during a second portion of the cycle , pan 65 which is pivoted about hinge 74 , rotates in synchronism with flag pusher support member 41 to reach the position of fig4 d . during a third portion of the cycle the pan 65 continues to pivot about hinge 74 until the initial pack 12a is completely out of the path of the remaining file and flag pusher support member 41 is rotated in the clockwise direction and is returned to the resting position as illustrated in fig4 e . during the fourth portion of the cycle , transfer arms 80 and 81 are caused to pivot about shaft 89 which transfers the lead pack 12a from pan 65 to work station surface 100 as indicated in fig4 f . during the fifth portion of the cycle , pan 65 and transfer arms 80 and 81 are returned to their rest positions to await the arrival of the next pack 12b in the file . when transfer arm 80 returns to the rest position , magnet 91 attached to arcuate extension 98 operates reed switch 92 to provide a signal indicating the completion of the cycle . while the present invention has been described with reference to a specific embodiment thereof it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made without departing from the invention in its broader aspects . for example , although the flag sensor 53 of the preferred embodiment utilizes a mechanical sensor to cause the operation of a reed switch 57 that is responsive to the location of a magnet 56 , it will be clear to those skilled in the art that other flag detecting means such as a light source and a photoelectric cell can be used to detect the presence of the flag . the magnetically operated signaling device is preferred when the apparatus is handling paper products because the response of a photoelectric signalling device can be adversely affected by buildup of paper fibers and dust on the components thereof . furthermore , flag sensor 53 does not have to move with flag pusher support member 41 but could remain stationary . it will also be apparent to those skilled in the art that the flag pusher support member 41 does not have to be driven independently of pan 65 . for example , the flag pusher support member 41 can be attached to pan 65 so that the flag pusher member 58 moves in unison with pan 65 thereby eliminating the linkage that drives flag pusher support member 41 .
1 (Performing Operations; Transporting)
dcoit can be encapsulated in a number of wall materials to provide xylene in - can stability and to provide sustained release of the dcoit upon exposure to water ( i . e ., natural water or saltwater ). in a particular embodiment of the invention , the microcapsules are able to limit the release of the encapsulated dcoit to less than 10 % and preferably less than 5 % in xylene at room temperature for 90 days . in other embodiments , the xylene impermeability is such that less than 10 % and preferably less than 5 % of dcoit is released at 45 ° c . over 90 days . in accordance with an embodiment of the invention a microcapsule having a wall formed from a hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohol and phenolic resin is used for this purpose . in the case of microcapsules formed using partially hydrolyzed pva , the hydrophilic character of the capsule shell can be adjusted by varying the amount of partially hydrolyzed pva that is incorporated in the wall . in one embodiment , the partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohol and the phenolic resin components ( e . g ., urea - resorcinol - formaldehyde ) are incorporated into the capsule shell in the amount of about 4 to about 8 parts by weight partially hydrolyzed pva and about 20 to 30 parts phenolic resin . the encapsulation procedure for making these microcapsules is well known in the art and is illustrated in example 1 . as illustrated in this example , to prevent the dcoit from reacting with the wall materials , the dcoit is mixed with a solvent diluent such as a substituted aromatic solvent like sas 310 from nisseki chemical . an amino - formaldehyde microcapsule ( e . g . a melamine - formaldehyde ( mf )) shell provides very stable microcapsules impermeable to xylene , but tends to be too impermeable in seawater to provide good bio - efficacy for use in conventional antifouling paints . it has been found that by optimizing the shell thickness , a balance of the desired properties of the microcapsules can be achieved . in one embodiment of the present invention , control of microcapsule shell thickness by particle size distribution and shell - to - core ratios contributes diffusion performance or sustained release characteristic . in one embodiment a microencapsulated dcoit based on an amino - urea - formaldehyde shell system , the target wall thickness is about 0 . 1 to about 0 . 2 micron , or the shell to core ratio is about 0 . 03 / 1 to 0 . 05 / 1 by weight depending on the mean capsule diameter and overall capsule size distribution profile . partially hydrolyzed pva functions as a dopant in the amino - urea formaldehyde wall . in accordance with one embodiment of the invention an agent referred to herein as a “ dopant ” is incorporated in the microcapsule wall to enhance the ability of water to leach the dcoit from the capsule . according to one theory , the dopant interferes with the amino - urea - formaldehyde condensation reaction and cause hydrophilic defects in the microcapsule wall to facilitate the diffusion of the dcoit . representative examples of dopants include : partially and fully hydrolyzed pvas , hydroxylethylcellulose , hydroxypropylcellulose , methylcellulose , hydroxyethylmethylcellulose , hydroxypropylmethylcellulose , hyroxybutylmethylcellulose , ethylhydroxyethylcellulose and polyethylene glycols . while the amount of dopant used will vary with the nature and thickness of the wall , in a particular embodiment the dopants are incorporated into the wall in an amount of about 2 to about 10 % by weight based upon the weight of the wall materials . for capsules having thick walls , the amount of required dopant is expected to be more than the effective amount for thinner wall capsules . in order to enhance natural water or saltwater release or extraction of the dcoit , in one embodiment of the invention , the dcoit is mixed with a partially water miscible solvent . examples of partial water miscible solvents include esters and ethers and , more particularly , dibasic esters such as dimethyl adipate , or a blend of diisobutyl adipate , diisobutyl glutarate and diisobutyl succinate , polyglycol p - 1200 , and glycol ether eb acetate . miscible organic solvents having partial water solubility in the range of approximately 0 . 5 to 5 % in water are used in one embodiment of the invention . the upper range on the water solubility is not an absolute limit but reflects that if the solvent is more water soluble , it may move into the continuous phase and not remain with the dcoit to enhance its water leachability . high boiling hydrophilic solvents , for example , having boiling points above 175 ° c . are desirable to use . if the boiling point of this solvent is too low , the solvent is difficult to retain in the microcapsule during the capsule drying operation . in a particular embodiment the higher boiling partially water miscible solvent is incorporated into the core in an amount of about 5 to about 50 % and in other embodiments in an amount of about 10 to 25 % by weight based upon the weight of the dcoit . in some embodiments a dual walled capsule has been used . in particular a dual encapsulation process with a first interfacial capsule wall of acrylic polymer and second wall of pva - urea - resorcinol - gluteraldehyde can be used as illustrated in more detail in example 3 . the dual acrylic - pva - urg system is advantageous because it provides a formaldehyde free product . encapsulation based on pva - urg or acrylic alone typically results in quite leaky capsules that are difficult to recover as a powder . however , combining the two systems to form hybrid capsule shells has resulted in dry free flow capsule powders . another embodiment of the present invention , uses a dual encapsulation process with a first interfacial capsule wall of acrylic polymer and pva - urea - resorcinol - formaldehyde ( urf ) polymer is illustrated in example 4 . in still another embodiment of the present invention , dual wall microcapsules are formed comprising a first wall that is an interfacial reaction product of an aromatic polyisocyanate , a second wall of pva - urea - resorcinol - formaldehyde ( urf ) condensation polymer is illustrated in example 5 . other microcapsule wall systems that can be used in other embodiments of the present invention , include an mf shell capsule further re - encapsulated with pva - urf ( example 6 ); an mf shell capsules re - encapsulated with pva - urea - resorcinol - gluteraldehyde polymer ( example 7 ); a pva - urf shell capsule re - encapsulated with an mf process ; a hydrophilic shell comprising gelatin - gum arabic as a first shell and a overcoat of melamine - formaldehyde resin or a urea - resorcinol - formaldehyde condensation polymer ( examples 8 and 9 ). regarding the dual wall systems , the mf provides significant improvement in xylene stability while the pva - urf or pva - urg wall provides additional hydrophilicity in the shell to facilitate diffusion of the dcoit in an aqueous environment . the dual wall system provides shell strength to minimize capsule damage during paint formulation and spray application to ship hulls . the ultimate shell characteristics for microencapsulated dcoit are achieved by adjusting the thickness of the two wall materials to afford a balance of xylene stability and diffusion of dcoit in seawater . in another embodiment of the invention , the dcoit is first encapsulated in a thin ( e . g ., less than about 0 . 1 micron ) mf wall , and then further encapsulated in a pva wall as described above . in this case the use of the solvent diluent like the sas 310 may not be necessary for the encapsulation using the pva - urf system since the mf wall prevents the dcoit from reacting with the wall components . thus , this dual encapsulation process allows the dcoit to be encapsulated without the diluting effect of solvent and therefore affords a more cost effective product . of course , the partially water miscible solvent may continue to be used with the dcoit to enhance water leachability . in one embodiment of the present invention , multi - shell microcapsules comprising an interfacial first wall with the reaction of an aromatic polyisocyanate , a second shell of gelatin - gum arabic and a third overcoat capsule wall of melamine - formaldehyde resin ( example 10 ). the 3 - wall system of isocyanate / gelatin - gum arabic / mf is just another method of controlling capsule - wall permeability in an aqueous environment . the isocyanate - gelatin interface reduces premature diffusion of the dcoit in the xylene - based paints . the interfacial reaction of polyisocyanate in conjunction with the pva - urf provides another method of microencapsulating dcoit . the interfacial skin of polyurethane or polyurea formed by the reaction of the isocyanate with the pva or a polyamine provides an additional barrier for improving capsule stability in the xylene based maf paints . in accordance with one embodiment of the invention , the microcapsules should be small in order to be used in spray applications and to provide better distribution of the active ingredient in the paint film . in one embodiment , the capsule size range is about 5 microns to about 40 microns , and more typically about 5 microns to about 20 microns . distribution of the biocide improves with smaller capsules such as less than 10 microns . the microcapsules are usually dried before incorporating them into the paint formulation . any conventional process for drying microcapsules including spray drying can be used for this purpose . however , for certain water - based paints , it will in some cases be possible to incorporate the microcapsules into the paint without drying . in accordance with an embodiment of this invention , the encapsulated biocide is combined with a film former or binder such as the film formers and binders that have been proposed for use in marine paints , gel coats and the like ( e . g ., natural or synthetic resin or rosin binders ) to provide coating compositions . in one embodiment of the invention , marine antifouling paint compositions can be prepared . such paints can be prepared by incorporating the microcapsules described herein into the paint in an amount that is sufficient to impart the desired antifouling properties . such amounts can be readily determined empirically by those skilled in the art . examples of marine paints reported in the literature that are useful herein may contain about 5 to 50 % by weight , or in other cases about 10 to 25 % by weight , xylene or another solvent base , about 20 to 30 % by weight zinc resinate to plasticize the resin binder , about 10 to 20 % by weight resin binder , about 0 to 50 %, or in other cases about 30 to 40 % by weight , cuprous oxide pigment , and 4 to 6 % by weight thixotropic viscosity modifier . generally , the ingredients were thoroughly mixed as follows : 200 ml of the paint composition is introduced into a tight metallic container of 0 . 5 l capacity together with 100 ml ( bulk volume ) of glass beads with a diameter of 2 - 3 mm . the container is then shaken for 45 minutes on a mechanical shaker . the final paint composition is separated from the glass beads by filtration . the microencapsulated dcoit biocide is incorporated in the paint in an amount to provide the marine antifouling properties that are desired ( e . g ., about 3 to 10 % by weight ). the amount required will be a function of the rate at which the dcoit is leached from the microcapsules . in one embodiment , the capsules are added in an amount to provide about 2 % dcoit in the dry film . other applications for microencapsulated dcoit may include use as a controlled release biocide in latex or oil - based paints and coatings , adhesives , sealants , caulks , mastic and patching materials , building materials , roofing materials such as shingles , plastics , polymer composites , paper processing , paper coatings , wood preservation , cooling water towers , metal working fluids , and as a general preservative . additionally , while the discussion herein particularly addresses xylene based paints , the encapsulation techniques described herein may also be useful in providing solvent resistance and in - can stability for paints based on other solvents such as c - 3 to c - 10 ketones , more specifically c - 5 to c - 7 ketones ( e . g ., methyl isobutyl ketone ( mibk ), isoamyl methyl ketone , hexanone , etc . ); c - 1 to c - 10 alcohols , more specifically c - 4 to c - 6 alcohols ( e . g ., n - butanol and 2 - butoxy ethanol ); c - 5 to c - 50 aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons , more specifically c5 - c32 hydrocarbons and still more specifically c5 - c19 hydrocarbons ( e . g ., petroleum spirits , ethyl benzene , and trimethyl benzene ); and for paints containing plasticizers such as phosphate esters and aromatic esters . in accordance with another embodiment of the invention , a combination of two or more microcapsules can be used which release the biocide at different rates , for example , one microcapsule may be used that releases the biocide after or over a short time period and another microcapsule ( s ) might be used that releases the biocide after or over a somewhat longer time . these microcapsules may be made of different wall materials or different wall thicknesses in accordance with other embodiments of the invention . the present invention is further illustrated by the following non - limiting examples . an aqueous phase was prepared consisting of 160 grams each of a 5 % strength aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol , vinol 540 and vinol 125 ( both manufactured by air products ) and 300 grams of water . the aqueous phase is heated to 40 ° c . the core material is prepared as a mixture of 100 grams of kathon 287t ( 97 %) manufactured by rohm and haas and 100 grams of a substituted aromatic solvent , sas 310 manufactured by nisseki chemical and heated to 40 ° c . the aqueous phase and the core material are added to a 1 - quart waring blender jar and the slurry is emulsified at moderate speed for about 15 minutes to produce an oil - in - water emulsion of droplets in the size range of about 10 to 40 microns . the emulsion is transferred to a 1 - liter beaker . the slurry is slowly agitated using a turbine impellor while maintaining the temperature at about 40 ° c . a solution of 4 grams of urea and 10 grams of resorcinol in 60 grams of water is slowly added to the emulsion . a solution of 2 grams sodium sulfate in 30 grams of water is subsequently added to the slurry in drop - wise fashion . a 30 ml 37 % formaldehyde solution is added drop - wise followed 10 minutes later by the addition of 20 ml of a 10 % sulfuric acid solution over a 5 - minute period . the slurry is warmed to 45 ° c . and after about one hour a solution of 4 g of urea , 6 g of resorcinol , 50 g of water and 20 ml of 37 % formaldehyde second addition is added drop - wise . this solution may be divided , with half added in 15 minutes followed by a 15 - minute hold period prior to adding the second half . one hour later another solution like the proceeding is added to the slurry in the same fashion . the slurry is heated to 55 ° c . and allowed to stir for 16 hours . the microcapsule slurry is cooled to ambient temperature and ph adjusted to 7 . 0 using 10 % sodium hydroxide solution . the slurry is then diluted with water and strained using a 125 - 150 um sieve to remove encapsulated air and any debris . the slurry is set aside to allow the microcapsules to settle . the supernatant liquid is decanted and microcapsule concentrate is re - slurried with water . a small amount of syloid 244 silica from w . r . grace company is stirred into the slurry ; and the microcapsules are vacuum - filtered using whatman 4 . 0 paper and tray dried to produce 230 grams of dry free - flowing powder . the resultant microcapsules are mostly 10 - 40 microns and can be incorporated in a marine coating composition to impart anti - fouling properties . the microcapsules were tested for stability in xylene by placing a 50 - mg sample into 50 mls of xylene and periodically analyzing a small aliquot of the xylene spectrophotometrically for the presence of dcoit to determine the amount diffused through the capsule shell . samples were tested after room storage . 1 . 1 % dcoit was released after 56 days at room temperature . the microencapsulation of the neat kathon 287t is carried out in an aqueous continuous phase to produce microcapsules comprising an amino - formaldehyde shell . an aqueous phase is prepared consisting of 27 . 5 g of a 3 . 75 % ethylene maleic anhydride co - polymer ( manufactured by zeeland chemical company ) solution and 30 . 37 g of water and heated to 45 ° c . in a separate vessel , 32 . 5 g of kathon 287t 97 % manufactured by rohm and haas and is heated to 45 ° to form a liquid melt . an emulsion is prepared by dispersing the melted kathon core material in the aqueous phase using an ika - works mixer and high speed turbine with the speed controlled to produce kathon droplets mostly in the range of 10 - 50 um . while maintaining the temperature at 45 ° c . during the emulsification process , 5 . 58 grams of cymel 385 manufactured by cytec is added to stabilize the emulsion . after about 15 minutes , the agitation speed is reduced and additional 1 . 79 grams of the cymel 385 resin is added while maintaining the temperature at around 50 ° c . after a few minutes , a 5 - gram solution of a 5 % polyvinyl alcohol vinyl 540 manufactured by air products is added followed a drop - wise addition of 11 grams of a 15 % salt solution of potassium dihydrogen phosphate over a 10 minute period . the temperature of the microcapsule slurry is slowly increased to 65 ° c . and 2 . 06 grams of urea is added about 1 . 5 hours after the salt addition . after an additional 4 hours of stirring at 65 ° c ., the slurry is cooled to ambient and the ph adjusted to 7 . 0 using 45 % potassium hydroxide solution . the slurry is diluted 1 : 1 with water and sieved using a 125 um sieve to remove encapsulated air and any debris . the microcapsules are allowed settle and the supernatant liquid decanted . the microcapsule concentrate is re - slurried in water and the decantation process repeated . the microcapsules are re - slurried with water ; vacuum filtered using whatman 4 . 0 paper ; and tray dried either on the lab bench at ambient conditions or in a warm oven . the resultant microcapsules are a dry - free flowing powder that can be readily incorporated into a marine paint formulation to provide a marine coating in accordance with one embodiment of the invention . the microcapsules were tested using the xylene extraction test described in example 1 and 1 . 4 % dcoit was released after 56 days at room temperature . microencapsulation of dcoit biocide with a dual shell of acrylic and pva - urea - resorcinol - gluteraldehyde an internal phase is prepared by mixing together molten kathon 287t ( 150 g ) at a temperature of around 50 ° c ., with methyl methacrylate ( 10 g ) 1 , 4 , butanediol diacrylate ( 10 g ) and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate ( 10 g ). just prior to emulsification , tertbutyl perpivalate ( 1 g ) is mixed in to the internal phase . the internal phase is homogenized into water ( 254 g ) containing polyvinyl alcohol ( elvanol 50 - 42 ) ( 6 g ) using a waring 1 liter blender for 10 minutes until a stable emulsion is formed . the emulsion is then transferred into a 1 - liter beaker with overhead stirring , thermometer and nitrogen supply and deoxygenated with nitrogen for 1 hour while heating to 90 ° c . the batch is then held at 90 ° c . for 1 . 5 hours after nitrogen removal before being cooled down to 45 ° c . the resulting emulsion contains polymeric particles each comprising a polymeric shell encapsulating the kathon 287t having a mean particle size of 19 microns . the particles of encapsulated kathon 287t are then subjected to a secondary treatment at 45 ° c . involving drop wise additions of aluminum sulfate tg 8 . 3 % ( 60 g ) over 12 minutes , 10 v / v % sulfuric acid ( 34 g ) over 12 minutes , and a mixture of urea ( 2 g ), resorcinol ( 1 . 5 g ), and water ( 20 g ) over 12 minutes . then a mixture of 25 % gluteraldehyde ( 5 g ) and water ( 5 g ) are added drop wise very slowly over 20 minutes to prevent aggregation . then a second addition of urea ( 2 g ), resorcinol ( 1 . 5 g ), and water ( 20 g ) is added over 12 minutes followed by a mixture of 25 % gluteraldehyde ( 5 g ) and water ( 5 g ) added drop wise over 12 minutes . followed by a third addition of urea ( 2 g ), resorcinol ( 1 . 5 g ), and water ( 20 g ) is added over 12 minutes followed by a mixture of 25 % gluteraldehyde ( 5 g ) and water ( 5 g ) added drop wise over 12 minutes . after all additions are made the temperature is increased from 45 ° c . to 50 ° c . and held overnight to cure for approximately 16 hours . after cooling and ph neutralization the microcapsules are filtered and dried to produce a fine free flowing powder that can be readily incorporated into a marine paint formulation to provide a marine coating in accordance with one embodiment of the invention . example 3a is repeated using a solution of sodium sulfate powder ( 2 g ) dissolved in water ( 30 g ) instead of aluminum sulfate . the sodium sulfate solution is added drop wise over 12 minutes . again , a dry free flowing powder was achieved that can be readily incorporated into a marine paint formulation to provide a marine coating in accordance with one embodiment of the invention . dual encapsulation process with a first interfacial capsule wall of acrylic polymer and pva - urea - resorcinol - formaldehyde polymer an internal phase is prepared by mixing together molten kathon 287t ( 150 g ) at a temperature of around 50 ° c ., with methyl methacrylate ( 10 g ) 1 , 4 , butanediol diacrylate ( 10 g ) and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate ( 10 g ). just prior to emulsification , tertbutyl perpivalate ( 1 g ) is mixed in to the internal phase . the internal phase is homogenized into water ( 453 g ) containing polyvinyl alcohol ( elvanol 50 - 42 ) ( 6 g ) and ( elvanol 71 - 30 ) ( 6 g ) using a waring 1 liter blender for 8 minutes until a stable emulsion is formed . the emulsion is then transferred into a 1 . 5 - liter beaker with overhead stirring , thermometer and nitrogen supply and deoxygenated with nitrogen for 1 hour while heating to 90 ° c . the batch is then held at 90 ° c . for 1 . 5 hours after nitrogen removal before being cooled down to 40 ° c . the resulting emulsion contains polymeric particles each comprising a polymeric shell encapsulating the kathon 287t having a mean particle size of 19 microns . the particles of encapsulated kathon 287t are then subjected to a secondary treatment at 40 ° c . involving drop wise addition of a mixture of urea ( 3 g ), resorcinol ( 7 . 5 g ), and water ( 45 g ) over 12 minutes . then a solution of sodium sulfate powder ( 1 . 5 g ) and water ( 22 . 5 g ) is added drop wise over 10 minutes . then a 37 % solution of formaldehyde ( 22 . 5 ml ) is added drop wise over 10 minutes . after a 10 - minute hold at 40 ° c ., 10 v / v % sulfuric acid is added drop wise over 6 minutes . the batch is then stirred and slowly heated to 45 ° c . over 1 hour . then a second addition of a solution of urea ( 3 g ), resorcinol ( 4 . 5 g ), water ( 37 . 5 g ) and 37 % formaldehyde ( 15 ml ) is divided in half and added over 12 minutes followed by the second half after a 15 minute hold at 45 ° c . the batch is then stirred and slowly heated to 48 ° c . over 1 hour . a third addition of urea ( 3 g ), resorcinol ( 4 . 5 g ), water ( 37 . 5 g ) and 37 % formaldehyde ( 15 ml ) is added over 12 minutes . after all additions are made the temperature is increased from 48 ° c . to 50 ° c . and held overnight to cure for approximately 16 hours . after cooling and ph neutralization the microcapsules are filtered and dried to produce a dry product that can be readily incorporated into a marine paint formulation to provide a marine coating in accordance with one embodiment of the invention . dual wall microcapsules comprising an interfacial first wall with the reaction of an aromatic polyisocyanate , a second shell of pva - urea - resorcinol - formaldehyde condensation polymer an internal phase is prepared by mixing together molten kathon 287t ( 90 g ) at a temperature of around 50 ° c ., with desmodur l 75 ( bayer ) ( 10 g ). the internal phase is homogenized into water ( 302 g ) containing polyvinyl alcohol ( elvanol 50 - 42 ) ( 4 g ) and ( elvanol 71 - 30 ) ( 4 g ) using a waring 1 liter blender for 13 minutes until a stable emulsion is formed . the emulsion is then transferred into a 1 - liter beaker with overhead stirring and thermometer . the batch is then heated to 5 ° c . and a solution of triethylene diamine ( 0 . 5 g ) and water ( 10 g ) is added drop wise . the batch is then held at 50 ° c . overnight . the resulting emulsion contains polymeric particles each comprising a polymeric poly urea shell encapsulating the kathon 287t having a mean particle size of 16 microns . the particles of encapsulated kathon 287t are then subjected to a secondary treatment at 40 ° c . involving drop wise addition of a mixture of urea ( 2 g ), resorcinol ( 5 g ), and water ( 30 g ) over 12 minutes . then a solution of sodium sulfate powder ( 1 g ) and water ( 15 g ) is added drop wise over 6 minutes . then a 37 % solution of formaldehyde ( 15 ml ) is added drop wise over 7 minutes . after a 10 - minute hold at 40 ° c ., 10 v / v % sulfuric acid is added drop wise over 5 minutes . the batch is then stirred and slowly heated to 45 ° c . over hour . then a second addition of a solution of urea ( 2 g ), resorcinol ( 3 g ), water ( 25 g ) and 37 % formaldehyde ( 10 ml ) is divided in half and added over 12 minutes followed by the second half after a 15 minute hold at 45 ° c . the batch is then stirred and slowly heated to 48 ° c . over 1 hour . a third addition of urea ( 2 g ), resorcinol ( 3 g ), water ( 25 g ) and 37 % formaldehyde ( 10 ml ) is added over 12 minutes . after all additions are made the temperature is increased from 48 ° c . to 50 ° c . and held overnight to cure for approximately 16 hours . after cooling and ph neutralization the microcapsules are filtered and dried to produce a lumpy isolation . an internal phase is prepared by melting kathon 287t ( 260 g ) at a temperature of around 50 ° c . the internal phase is homogenized into an aqueous a solution consisting of 110 . 0 g of a 3 . 75 % ethylene maleic anhydride copolymer solution and 121 . 48 g of water using a waring 1 liter blender . while maintaining the temperature of around 50 ° c . during the emulsification process , cymel 385 ( 22 . 33 g ) manufactured by cytec is added to stabilize the emulsion . after about 15 minutes , the agitation is reduced and 10 - 50 um droplets are formed . the emulsion is then transferred into a 1 - liter beaker with overhead stirring and thermometer . then a 15 % salt solution ( 44 g ) of potassium dihydrogen phosphate is added drop wise . the batch is then heated to 65 ° c . over 1 . 5 hours and held for 4 hour then cooled . the resulting emulsion contains polymeric particles each comprising a polymeric amino - formaldehyde shell encapsulating the kathon 287t having a mean particle size of 16 microns . the particles of encapsulated kathon 287t slurry are then divided in half . this ( 272 g ) fraction is subjected to a secondary treatment at 45 ° c . involving drop wise addition of a mixture of urea ( 3 g ), resorcinol ( 3 g ), and water ( 30 g ) over 10 minutes . then a 37 % solution of formaldehyde ( 18 ml ) is added drop wise over 7 minutes . after a 10 - minute hold at 45 ° c ., 10 v / v % sulfuric acid ( 10 ml ) is added drop wise over 5 minutes . the batch is then stirred at 45 ° c . over 1 hour . then a second addition of a solution of urea ( 3 g ), resorcinol ( 7 g ), water ( 30 g ) and 37 % formaldehyde ( 25 ml ) is divided in half and added over 12 minutes followed by the second half after a 15 minute hold at 45 ° c . the batch is then stirred and slowly heated to 55 ° c . over 1 hour . then heated to 60 ° c . for 3 hours and cooled . after cooling and ph neutralization the microcapsules are filtered and dried to produce a fine free flowing powder that can be readily incorporated into a marine paint formulation to provide a marine coating in accordance with one embodiment of the invention . the microcapsules were tested using the xylene extraction test described in example 1 except that a sample of the microcapsules was also tested at 45 ° c . in this test 0 . 4 % dcoit was released after 28 days at room temperature and 2 . 7 % dcoit was released after 28 days at 45 ° c . an internal phase is prepared by melting kathon 287t ( 260 g ) at a temperature of around 50 ° c . the internal phase is homogenized into an aqueous solution consisting of 110 . 0 g of a 3 . 75 % ethylene maleic anhydride copolymer solution and 121 . 48 g of water using a waring 1 liter blender . while maintaining the temperature of around 50 ° c . during the emulsification process , cymel 385 ( 22 . 33 g ) manufactured by cytec is added to stabilize the emulsion . after about 15 minutes , the agitation is reduced and 10 - 50 um droplets are formed . the emulsion is then transferred into a 1 - liter beaker with overhead stirring and thermometer . then a 15 % salt solution ( 44 g ) of potassium dihydrogen phosphate is added drop wise . the batch is then heated to 65 ° c . over 1 . 5 hours and held for 4 hour then cooled . the resulting emulsion contains polymeric particles each comprising a polymeric amino - formaldehyde shell encapsulating the kathon 287t having a mean particle size of 16 microns . the particles of encapsulated kathon 287t slurry are then divided and half are filtered to a wet cake of 80 . 51 % ( 127 . 5 g dry wt .). the wet cake is then re - suspended in a mixture of water ( 254 g ) containing polyvinyl alcohol ( elvanol 50 - 42 ) ( 6 g ) and subjected to a secondary treatment at 45 ° c . involving drop wise additions of aluminum sulfate tg 8 . 3 % ( 60 g ) over 12 minutes , 10 v / v % sulfuric acid ( 34 g ) over 12 minutes , and a mixture of urea ( 2 g ), resorcinol ( 1 . 5 g ), and water ( 20 g ) over 12 minutes . then a mixture of 25 % gluteraldehyde ( 5 g ) and water ( 5 g ) are added drop wise very slowly over 20 minutes to prevent aggregation . then a second addition of urea ( 2 g ), resorcinol ( 1 . 5 g ), and water ( 20 g ) is added over 12 minutes followed by a mixture of 25 % gluteraldehyde ( 5 g ) and water ( 5 g ) added drop wise over 12 minutes . followed by a third addition of urea ( 2 g ), resorcinol ( 1 . 5 g ), and water ( 20 g ) is added over 12 minutes followed by a mixture of 25 % gluteraldehyde ( 5 g ) and water ( 5 g ) added drop wise over 12 minutes . after all additions are made the temperature is increased from 45 ° c . to 50 ° c . and held overnight to cure for approximately 16 hours . after cooling and ph neutralization the microcapsules are filtered and dried to produce a fine free flowing powder that can be readily incorporated into a marine paint formulation to provide a marine coating in accordance with one embodiment of the invention . the microcapsules were tested using the xylene extraction test described in example 1 except that a sample of the microcapsules was also tested at 45 ° c . in this test 2 . 4 % dcoit was released after 14 days at room temperature and 3 % dcoit was released after 14 days at 45 ° c . example 7a is repeated using a solution of sodium sulfate powder ( 2 g ) dissolved in water ( 30 g ) instead of aluminum sulfate . the sodium sulfate solution is added drop wise over 12 minutes . again , a dry free flowing powder was produced that can be readily incorporated into a marine paint formulation to provide a marine coating in accordance with one embodiment of the invention . dual encapsulation with gelatin / gum arabic as the first shell and melamine resin as the second wall in a 1000 ml beaker fitted with an ika - works mixer and 4 - blade turbine impellor , dissolve 6 grams 300 bloom gelatin and 6 grams spray dried gum arabic in 240 ml deionized water . start mixing at room temperature , again and heat to 80 ° c . with stirring . adjust the ph to clear the solution with 10 % naoh ( ph 7 ). adjust the ph to 4 . 1 with 10 % acetic acid . warm 40 grams kathon 287t to 50 - 60 ° c . to melt . transfer the gelatin / gum arabic solution to a warm blender jar and add the kathon 287t melt . emulsify slowly ( 10 min ) to achieve the desired droplet size ( 10 - 40 microns ). transfer back to the beaker - mixer apparatus in an empty water bath . using a separatory funnel , about 175 ml warm ( 50 - 60 ° c .) deionized water was added drop - wise . check with a microscope to observe liquid - liquid phase separation of a fluid phase that partially wraps the droplets . adjust the amount of deionized water up or down to achieve this result . begin slow cooling the beaker by adding a few ice cubes to the water bath . at 35 ° c ., the fluid polymer phase should be observed microscopically . continue slow cooling to 28 ° c . check microscopically again to verify if the solution is mostly clear with a noticeable wall formation and little free polymer . continue slow cooling to 25 ° c . one should observe a substantial wall and no free polymer . continue cooling to 15 ° c ., at which time 10 grams of 25 % gluteraldehyde is added . after adding more ice , stir overnight , allowing the reaction to warm to room temperature . decant 2 times by letting capsules settle and rinsing with 300 ml deionized water . capsules can be isolated at this point by filtering and adding 1 . 5 grams aerosil 972r to the filter - cake and shaking in a wide - mouth bottle to mix well . the powder is laid out on a paper towel to bench - dry overnight . this resulted in a free flowing powder with single ( droplet ) capsules as well as some aggregates . a second wall can be added by filtering the twice - decanted slurry . the wet filter - cake is re - suspended in 25 grams of 3 . 75 % ema solution and 50 ml deionized water . begin heating to 50 ° c . and while dripping in 3 grams cymel 385 in 12 ml deionized water . at 50 ° c ., drop - wise , add 10 grams 15 % dihydrogen phosphate solution . heat to 65 ° c . and hold over night . cool to room temperature and adjust the ph to 7 . 0 with 45 % potassium hydroxide solution . filter , and wash with deionized water . spread out on a paper towel to dry . this resulted in a free flowing powder with single ( droplet ) capsules as well as some aggregates . dual encapsulation with gelatin / gum arabic as the first shell and urea - resorcinol - formaldehyde polycondensate as the second wall in a 1000 ml beaker fitted with an ika - works mixer and 4 - blade turbine impellor , dissolve 6 grams 300 bloom gelatin and 6 grams spray dried gum arabic in 240 ml deionized water . start mixing at room temperature , again and heat to 80 ° c . with stirring . adjust the ph to clear the solution with 10 % naoh ( ph 7 ). adjust the ph to 4 . 1 with 10 % acetic acid . warm 40 grams kathon 287t to 50 - 60 ° c . to melt . transfer the gelatin / gum arabic solution to a warm blender jar and add the kathon 287t melt . emulsify slowly (˜ 10 min ) to achieve the desired droplet size ( 10 - 40 microns ). transfer back to the beaker - mixer apparatus in an empty water bath . using a separatory funnel , about 175 ml warm ( 50 - 60 ° c .) deionized water was added drop - wise . check with a microscope to observe liquid - liquid phase separation of a fluid phase that partially wraps the droplets . adjust the amount of deionized water up or down to achieve this result . begin slow cooling the beaker by adding a few ice cubes to the water bath . at 35 ° c ., the fluid polymer phase should be observed microscopically . continue slow cooling to 28 ° c . check microscopically again to verify if the solution is mostly clear with a noticeable wall formation and little free polymer . continue slow cooling to 25 °. one should observe a substantial wall and no free polymer . continue cooling to 15 ° c ., at which time 10 grams of 25 % gluteraldehyde is added . after adding more ice , stir overnight , allowing the reaction to warm to room temperature . decant 2 times by letting capsules settle and rinsing with 300 ml deionized water . capsules can be isolated at this point by filtering and adding 1 . 5 grams aerosil 972r to the filter - cake and shaking in a wide - mouth bottle to mix well . the powder is laid out on a paper towel to bench - dry overnight . this resulted in a free flowing powder with single ( droplet ) capsules as well as some aggregates . a second wall can be added by filtering the twice - decanted slurry . the wet filter - cake is re - suspended in 25 grams of 3 . 75 % ema solution and 50 ml deionized water . begin heating to 50 ° c . and while dripping in 2 grams urea and 0 . 2 grams resorcinol in 10 ml deionized water . at 50 ° c ., drop - wise , add 5 grams 37 % formaldehyde solution then 10 grams 15 % dihydrogen phosphate solution . heat to 55 ° c . and hold over night . cool to room temperature and adjust the ph to 7 . 0 with 45 % potassium hydroxide solution . filter , and wash with deionized water . spread out on a paper towel to dry . this resulted in a free flowing powder with single ( droplet ) capsules as well as some aggregates . in a 1000 ml beaker fitted with an ika - works mixer and 4 - blade turbine impellor , dissolve 6 grams 300 bloom gelatin and 6 grams spray dried gum arabic in 240 ml deionized water . start mixing at room temperature , again and heat to 80 ° c . with stirring . adjust the ph to clear the solution with 10 % naoh (˜ ph 7 ). adjust the ph to 4 . 1 with 10 % acetic acid . warm 40 grams kathon 287t to 50 - 60 ° c . to melt . add 4 grams desmondure cb - 75 and mix well . transfer the gelatin / gum arabic solution to a warm blender jar and add the kathon 287t solution . emulsify slowly ( 10 min ) to achieve the desired droplet size ( 10 - 40 microns ). transfer back to the beaker - mixer apparatus in an empty water bath . using a separatory funnel , about 175 ml warm ( 50 - 60 ° c .) deionized water was added drop - wise . check with a microscope to observe liquid - liquid phase separation of a fluid phase that partially wraps the droplets . adjust the amount of deionized water up or down to achieve this result . begin slow cooling the beaker by adding a few ice cubes to the water bath . at 35 ° c ., the fluid polymer phase should be observed microscopically . continue slow cooling to 28 ° c . check microscopically again to verify if the solution is mostly clear with a noticeable wall formation and little free polymer . continue slow cooling to 25 ° c . one should observe a substantial wall and no free polymer . continue cooling to 15 ° c ., at which time 10 grams of 25 % gluteraldehyde is added . after adding more ice , stir overnight , allowing the reaction to warm to room temperature . decant 2 times by letting capsules settle and rinsing with 300 ml deionized water . capsules can be isolated at this point by filtering and adding 1 . 5 grams aerosil 972r to the filter - cake and shaking in a wide - mouth bottle to mix well . the powder is laid out on a paper towel to bench - dry overnight . this resulted in a free flowing powder with single ( droplet ) capsules as well as some aggregates . a third wall can be added by filtering the twice - decanted slurry . the wet filter - cake is re - suspended in 25 grams of 3 . 75 % ema solution and 50 ml deionized water . begin heating to 50 ° c . and while dripping in 3 grams cymel 385 in 12 ml deionized water . at 50 ° c ., drop - wise , add 10 grams 15 % dihydrogen phosphate solution . heat to 65 ° c . and hold over night . cool to room temperature and adjust the ph to 7 . 0 with 45 % potassium hydroxide solution . filter , and wash with deionized water . spread out on a paper towel to dry . this resulted in a free flowing powder with single ( droplet ) capsules as well as some aggregates . having described the invention in detail and with reference to specific advantages thereof it will be apparent that numerous modifications are possible without departing from the spirit and scope of the following claims .
8 (General tagging of new or cross-sectional technology)
the invention provides a system and method for directed call establishment to reduce cost and enable the provision of enhanced services to subscribers originating cellular calls in a public land mobile network ( plmn ). the system includes a mobile handset provisioned with an application client adapted to perform directed call establishment . the mobile handset cooperates with but operates independently of a converged services node ( csn ). the csn may be embodied as a session initiation protocol ( sip ) application server in a packet data network . fig1 is a schematic diagram of a hosted voip network 10 provisioned with a csn configured to perform directed call establishment in accordance with the invention . as is well understood by those skilled in the art , hosted voip networks are connected to untrusted voip networks 12 that serve enterprise and / or home environments . the hosted voip network 10 is also connected to the pstn / plmn 14 to permit the offering of transparent communications services originated or terminated in any one of networks 12 and 14 . the untrusted voip networks 12 are connected to the hosted voip network 10 by session border controllers 16 , well known in the art . the pstn / plmn network 14 is connected to the hosted voip network 10 by media gateways 18 and soft switches 34 . the hosted voip network 10 is provisioned with the csn 20 , which acts as a sip application server to provide inter - working functions for specific services between the pstn / plmn 14 and the voip networks 10 , 12 . the hosted voip network 10 further includes one or more feature servers 24 which receive incoming communications session requests from the session border controller ( s ) 16 via communications link ( s ) 36 in a manner well known in the art . the hosted voip network 10 further includes other sip application servers 26 and media servers 28 , both of which are known in the art . each of the servers are connected to a core sip proxy 30 a which has global knowledge of the hosted voip network 10 and controls intra - network routing . an inter - network routing server 32 provides routing control when calls must be routed to other connected networks 12 , 14 . soft switches 34 perform soft switching services within the hosted voip network 10 . the soft switches 34 are connected by signaling links 52 to pstn / plmn network 14 and are ip connected as indicated at 50 to the media gateways 18 . communication channel 58 connects the session border controllers 16 and the media gateways 18 . trunks 56 connect the media gateways 18 to the pstn / plmn 14 . ip interfaces 38 , 40 , 42 , 44 , 46 and 48 respectively connect the feature servers 24 , csn 20 , sip application servers 26 , media servers 28 , inter - network routing server 32 and soft switches 34 to the core sip proxy 30 a in a manner well known in the art . ip interfaces 36 and 37 connect the session border controllers 16 to the feature servers 24 and the core sip proxy 30 a , likewise in a manner known in the art . it should also be noted that the csn 20 may be connected to the signaling network of the pstn / plmn 14 by any version or variant of transaction capabilities application part ( tcap ) signaling links 22 . this permits the csn 20 to coordinate and control calls originating in the pstn / plmn 14 , the hosted voip network 10 , or other untrusted voip networks 12 , provided that signaling routes provisioned in the respective networks are configured to route signaling messages to the csn 20 as explained in detail in applicant &# 39 ; s co - pending united states patent application publication no . 20060142010 entitled method , system and apparatus for call path reconfiguration filed dec . 27 , 2004 , the specification of which is incorporated herein by reference . fig2 is a schematic diagram of an ims network 60 provisioned with the csn 20 . the ims network 60 is connected by links 54 to : other untrusted voip networks 12 by border control functions 17 ; the pstn / plmn 14 by media gateways 18 ; and , other ims domains 62 by signaling links 72 and 74 . in addition to the components described above with reference to fig3 , the ims 60 includes a session charging function 66 connected to the csn 20 by signaling link 84 and a home subscriber server ( hss ) 68 connected to the csn 20 by signaling link 80 and to a proxy / service / interrogating call session control function ( p - csf ) 64 by a signaling link 78 . a serving call session control function ( s - cscf ) 30 b functions in a way similar to the core sip proxy 30 described with reference to fig2 , and is connected to the other network components in the same way . the s - cscf 30 b and the p - cscf 64 are connected to the border control function ( s ) 17 by signaling links 76 . the s - cscf 30 b is also connected to an interrogating call session control function ( i - cscf ) 65 by a signaling link 70 , which is in turn connected to the media gateway control function ( mgcf ) 18 by a signaling link 71 and to the p - cscf 64 by a signaling link 82 . the s - cscf 30 b is connected to the other ims domain 62 by a signaling link 74 . the p - cscf 64 is connected to the other ims domains by a signaling link 72 . all components , interconnections and operations of all elements of the ims 60 are well known in the art , with the exception of the csn 20 . as described above with reference to fig1 , the csn 20 may be connected to the signaling network of the pstn / plmn 14 by any version or variant of transaction capabilities application part ( tcap ) signaling links 22 . this permits the csn 20 to coordinate and control calls originating in the pstn / plmn 14 , the ims 60 , other ims domain 62 or untrusted voip networks 12 , provided that signaling routes provisioned in the respective networks are configured to route signaling messages to the csn 20 . fig3 is a schematic diagram of one embodiment of the csn provisioned to provide directed call establishment in accordance with the invention . as explained above , in this embodiment the csn 20 is a sip application server . the csn 20 is provisioned with a directed call establishment ( dce ) application 88 programmed to function as described below with reference to fig6 - 8 . the csn 20 is also provisioned with a sip signaling interface 90 , a data messaging interface 92 , and optionally a ss7 signaling interface 96 . the csn 20 is also provisioned with a database 98 that is populated with at least one directed call establishment dial number ( dce / dn ) pool . as will be explained below in detail , each dce / dn pool contains dial numbers used to route cellular calls from a single / dual - mode mobile handset 100 ( fig4 ) through a most appropriate gateway to the csn 20 . a most appropriate gateway may be the most economical to limit cost , or a gateway that supports the required feature set , or any combination of requirements . the number of dce / dn pools populated in the database 98 is a matter of design choice , service level agreements and other factors understood by those skilled in the art . fig4 is a block diagram of a single or dual - mode mobile handset 100 provisioned with a mobile handset application client 102 that is programmed with directed call establishment logic to perform client functions for directed call establishment in accordance with the invention . the application client 102 operates cooperatively with but independently of the csn 20 to enable the cost savings and enhanced communications services afforded by directed call establishment . the application client 102 includes a user interface 104 provisioned with a user interface manager 110 . the user interface manager 110 controls a microphone 112 , a speaker 114 , and a visual display 116 and accepts inputs from a keypad 118 in a manner well known in the art . the application client 102 further optionally includes a call setup and handoff control 106 , which is provisioned with a first line 120 ( line 1 ) and a second line 122 ( line 2 ). line 1 ( 120 ) and line 2 ( 122 ) are used to enable subscriber features such as “ call waiting ”, “ 3 - way conference ” and “ call hold ”, all of which are known in the art . network interfaces 108 support a cellular stack 124 , and if the mobile handset 100 is a dual - mode handset also support a packet network stack 126 . the cellular stack 124 includes a set of layered protocols that are used in existing cellular networks . these protocols are used to send information to and receive information from an msc via a base station using a cellular radio 128 . similarly , the packet network stack 126 includes a set of layered protocols for sending and receiving information via a packet network using a packet radio 130 . the application client 102 is either provisioned with an excluded number list 140 or with a query mechanism 141 that permits the application client 102 to query a network database 143 which stores the excluded number list , as will be explained below in more detail with reference to fig5 . the excluded number list is used to store dial numbers to which directed call establishment is not applied , e . g . emergency numbers and the like . in one embodiment , the excluded number list is pre - provisioned with default excluded numbers , and may be edited by the user to add excluded numbers as desired , or to modify or delete excluded numbers that the user has added . any call launched to a called number that is not in the excluded number list 140 , 143 is a “ selected call ” to which direct call establishment is applied . although the client shown in this embodiment is for a dual mode mobile handset , directed call establishment can be incorporated into a single mode mobile handset that is not part of a seamless handoff service offering . fig5 is a flow diagram providing an overview of tasks performed by the application client 102 of the single or dual - mode mobile handset 100 shown in fig3 , while providing a directed call establishment service in accordance with the invention . the application client 102 of the mobile handset 100 monitors user input ( 202 ) by monitoring the user interface 104 ( fig4 ) to determine when the user launches a new call using the keypad 118 or the speaker 114 , in a manner well known in the art . if the application client 102 detects initiation of a new call ( 204 ), and the mobile handset 100 is a dual - mode device , the application client 102 determines whether the mobile handset 100 is operating in cellular mode ( 206 ). if a dual - mode mobile handset 100 is not operating in cellular mode , the application client 102 processes the new call ( 207 ) using the packet radio 130 and returns to monitoring user input ( 202 ). if the handset 100 is a single mode cellular device , steps 206 and 207 are not performed , as will be understood by those skilled in the art . if the mobile handset 100 is operating in cellular mode , the application client 102 determines whether the new call is associated with an excluded number ( 208 ) by referring to the excluded number list 140 or querying the database to refer to the excluded number list 143 ( fig4 ). as noted above , any number may be designated an excluded number ; however , the numbers most likely to be placed in the excluded number list are , for example , “ 911 ” and the access number for the mobile handset 100 user &# 39 ; s voice mailbox . if the new call has been placed to an excluded number , the application client 102 processes the call in the usual way using the cellular radio ( 210 ). if the new call has not been placed to an excluded number , the call is selected for directed call establishment and the application client 102 collects location information ( 212 ). the location information may be collected on a continuous or periodic basis , for example on startup ; when a handoff from one base station to another is performed ; or on a predetermined schedule . the location information can be collected in a number of different ways . location information ( e . g ., country code and area code ) is routinely provided to the mobile handset 100 by cellular service providers in a manner well known in the art . alternatively , location information can be derived from a global positioning system ( gps ) if the mobile handset 100 is equipped with a gps receiver . the manner in which location information is collected is not important . the location information is useful , however , in enabling a most appropriate packet data network gateway to be selected for a roaming mobile handset 100 , as will be explained below in more detail with reference to fig6 . the application client 102 then composes a directed call establishment ( dce ) request message using : current mobile handset location information ; mobile handset identification ; and , the called number associated with the new call ( 214 ). the handset identification may be , for example , the mobile number associated with the mobile handset 100 or a single directory number if the user subscribes to a single directory number service . depending on the dce / dn selection algorithm ( s ) in the csn 20 , other information may also be sent in the dce request message , such as : handset hardware configuration ; attached network capabilities ; etc . the application client 102 then sends the dce request message to the csn 20 ( 216 ) using the data messaging channel available through the cellular radio 128 , and waits for a dce response message . as understood by those skilled in the art , the data channel may be a circuit mode data channel ( for example , ussd ); a packet mode cellular data channel ; a wide local area network ( wlan ) data channel ; a short message service ( sms ) data channel ; a multimedia message service ( mms ) data channel ; or the like . in reply to the data message sent at 212 , the mobile handset 100 receives ( 218 ) a dce response message containing a directed call establishment dial number ( dce / dn ) from the csn 20 via the data messaging channel . as will be explained below in more detail with reference to fig6 - 8 , the dce / dn is a temporary number used to route a signaling path for the call though the csn 20 . the application client 102 extracts the dce / dn from the dce response message and launches a cellular voice call using the dce / dn as the called number ( 220 ). this establishes a call signaling path to the csn 20 and anchors the call in a voip or an ims network that hosts the csn 20 , as will be explained in more detail with reference to fig6 - 8 . fig6 is a flow diagram providing an overview of tasks performed by the dce application 88 operating on the csn 20 during a first phase of directed call establishment . during the first phase , the csn 20 monitors its data channel ( 300 ) for receipt of a data message . each time a data message is received , the csn 20 determines whether the data message is a dce request message ( 302 ). if the csn 20 determines that the data message is to a dce request message , the csn 20 performs any processing required by the data message ( 304 ) and returns to monitoring the data channel ( 300 ). if it is determined at 302 that the data message is a dce request message , the csn 20 passes the dce request message to the dce application 88 , and the dce application 88 extracts location information , mobile handset 100 identification and the called number from a the dce request message ( 306 ). the dce application 88 then selects ( 308 ) a dce / dn from the database 98 ( fig3 ). in one embodiment , the dce application 88 uses the location information and other optimization logic that exists in the csn 20 to select a dce / dn from one of a plurality of dce / dn number pools indexed such that the location information can be used to locate a specific dce / dn number pool from which the dce / dn is selected . the purpose of the location - indexed dce / dn number pools is to route the call to a most appropriate gateway to a packet data service where the call is anchored to the csn 20 , which can exercise call control . each dce / dn in a dce / dn number pool is unique to that number pool and , once assigned to a call , the dce / dn cannot be re - used for another call that requires a dce / dn from the same number pool until the directed call setup is completed , as will be explained below in more detail . once the dce dn is assigned a timer is started . once the dce / dn is selected and the timer is started at 308 , the dce application 88 stores a copy of the dce / dn along with the handset identification , the called number and any other information received in the dce request message in a memory for later retrieval ( 310 ), as will be further explained below with reference to fig7 and 8 . the dce application 88 then prepares a dce response to the dce request message received at 302 to sends the dce response message ( 312 ) to the mobile handset 100 . fig7 is a flow diagram providing an overview of tasks performed by the dce application 88 during a second phase of directed call establishment . as will be understood by those skilled in the art , the csn 20 continuously monitors the timer ( 340 ) set at 308 , as well as its call signaling interface ( s ) for inbound call control messages . if the timer set at 308 expires , it is assumed that the mobile handset 100 is unable to complete the call , and the call session is canceled ( 342 ). the csn 20 then returns the dce / dn to the number pool from which it was extracted ( 344 ), and processing of the call ends . each time an inbound call setup request is received , the called number is extracted ( 350 ). the called number is examined to determine whether it is a dce / dn ( 352 ). if the called number is not a dce / dn , the csn 20 performs any required call processing ( 354 ) and returns to monitoring the timer set at 308 and its call signaling interface ( s ) for inbound call control messages . if the called number is a dce / dn , the csn 20 passes the call control message to the dce application 88 , which uses the dce / dn ( and location information if location information was used at 308 to select the dce / dn number pool ) to retrieve in the called number ( 356 ). the dce application 88 then returns the dce / dn to the number pool from which it was extracted ( 358 ) for use by other directed call establishment calls . the dce application 88 then prepares a call setup request ( 360 ) using the handset identification and the called number stored at 310 . as will be understood by those skilled in the art , the handset identification is inserted in the calling party number and the called number is inserted in the called party number of the call setup request . after the call setup request is prepared , the dce application 88 passes it to the csn 20 , which forwards the call setup request into the packet network using routing criteria well understood in the art ( 362 ) and directed call establishment ends . because the csn 20 is now a signaling node in the call path , it can exercise control over directed call establishment calls to effect special call features when directed to do so using any one of a plurality of special call feature activation procedures . fig8 is a message flow diagram schematically illustrating principle messages exchanged between components of the networks shown in fig1 or 2 in an example of providing the directed call establishment service . in this example , a b - party using the mobile handset 100 dials an a - party &# 39 ; s number ( 400 ). a - party in this example is using a pstn telephone 88 , but could be using a fixed - line telephone connected to a pstn or voip network , or a mobile device connected to any one of a plmn , wi - fi , wi - max or voip network . when b - party launches a new call using the mobile handset 100 , the application client 102 intercepts the call launch ( 402 ) and determines whether the number is on the exclusion list , as explained above with reference to fig5 . the application client 102 then prepares a dce request message and sends it to the csn 20 ( 404 ) using data messaging techniques well known in the art . the dce request message includes location information , a - party &# 39 ; s number and the handset identification , as also described above with reference to fig5 . on receipt of the dce request message , the dce application 88 extracts the information sent in the dce request message , and uses the location information by applying an algorithm to select a dce / dn from a dce / dn number pool ( 406 ). the dce application 88 then stores the handset identification and the called number with the dce / dn ( 408 ). as soon as that information is stored , the dce application 88 formulates a dce response message and passes it to the csn 20 , which sends the dce response message to the mobile handset 100 ( 410 ). the dce response message contains the dce / dn . when the mobile handset 100 receives the dce response message , the application client 102 launches a call to the dce / dn ( 412 ) provided by the csn 20 in the dce response message sent at 410 . as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art , the user of the mobile handset 100 assumes that the call launched at 412 is the call placed to a - party , because the process described above is entirely transparent to the user of the mobile handset 100 . when the call is launched , the dce / dn is sent over the pstn signaling channel ( 414 ) to a mobile switching center ( msc ) 92 that is currently serving the mobile handset 100 . the msc 92 translates the dce / dn using translation tables well known in the art and determines that an integrated services user digital part ( isup ) initial address message ( iam ) should be sent over a trunk that will direct the message to a media gateweay 96 associated with the dce / dn . the msc 92 therefore formulates the iam and forwards it towards the media gateweay 96 ( 416 ). on receipt of the iam , the media gateway 96 translates the dce / dn and determines that it points to the csn 20 . the media gateway 96 therefore formulates a sip invite message and sends it to the csn 20 ( 418 ). the sip invite message contains a called number equal to the dce / dn ; and indication that the call originated from b - party ; and a rtp port number to be used for the b - party connection . on receipt of the sip invite , the csn 20 returns a sip 100 trying message ( 420 ) to the media gateway 96 . meanwhile , the csn 20 passes the dce / dn to the dce application 88 which performs dce / dn correlation ( 424 ) with dce / dn records stored at 408 to retrieve the information stored at that time . after finding a matching dce / dn and retrieving the stored information , the dce application 88 passes it to the csn 20 , which formulates a sip invite message that it sends to the media gateway 96 ( 426 ). the sip invite message contains a called number equal to the a - party number ; an indication that the call is from the mobile handset 100 ; and , the b - party rtp port number provided in the sip invite at 418 . the media gateway 96 returns a sip 100 trying message ( 428 ). the media gateway 96 then responds by formulating an iam message , which it sends into the pstn signaling network ( 430 ). the iam includes a calling party number equal to the handset identification , and a called party number equal to the called number , i . e ., the a - party number . the called party number causes the iam to be routed to the pstn end office 98 , which serves a - party telephone 88 . the pstn end office 98 verifies that the telephone 88 is on - hook and responds with an address complete message ( acm ) ( 431 ). the pstn end office 98 then applies ringing ( 434 ) to the line that supports the telephone 8 . on receipt of the acm at 431 , the media gateweay 96 sends a sip 180 ringing message ( 433 ) to the csn 20 , which forwards returns a sip 180 ringing message towards the b - party ( 434 ). the media gateway 96 responds by returning an address complete message ( acm ) to the msc 92 ( 435 ), and ringing applied by the pstn end office 90 ( 436 ) is heard by b - party . meanwhile , on hearing the ringing applied at 432 , a - party takes the telephone 88 off - hook ( 437 ) and an off - hook signal is returned to the pstn end office 98 ( 438 ). on receipt to the off - hook signal , in the pstn end office 98 formulates an answer message ( anm ) and sends it to the media gateway 96 ( 440 ). on receipt of the anm , the media gateway formulates a sip 200 ok message and sends that to the csn 20 ( 442 ). the csn 20 then returns a sip 200 ok message ( 444 ) corresponding to the sip invite received at 418 . the media gateway responds by sending an anm to the msc 92 ( 446 ). thereafter b - party is connected to a - party via the media gateway 96 ( 448 ), and the call signaling path extends through the csn 20 . this anchors the call at the csn 20 and permits the csn 20 to exercise control over the call if and when required or requested to do so . the invention thereby provides a simple , reliable and economical mechanism for permitting cellular service providers to support enhanced call services for their roaming subscribers without the use of service level agreements , which entail complex negotiations , costly network provisioning , and the like . the invention also reduces costs for service providers and service subscribers by routing cellular calls through a most appropriate gateway to a packet data network where the call is anchored in a converged services node , which can then exercise control over the call in order to provide the enhanced call services . it should be understood that the above - described networks , equipment and algorithms are exemplary only . the scope of the invention is therefore intended to be limited solely by the scope of the appended claims .
7 (Electricity)
fig1 is a circuit diagram illustrating a first embodiment of the present invention , and fig2 is a chart of waveforms at various points for illustrating the operation of the same circuit . in fig1 , elements having the same function as those in fig7 showing a conventional power converter are denoted by the same reference symbols , and explanations of those elements are omitted . the first embodiment of the present invention differs from the power converter of fig7 in that it is provided with a switching device control signal generator 7 a and a control scheme decision unit 9 . gs 1 to gs 4 in fig2 are the gate driving voltage waveforms for switching devices s 1 to s 4 shown in fig1 , vs 1 to vs 4 are the drain - source voltage waveforms for switching devices s 1 to s 4 , and vt is a primary winding voltage waveform for the transformer 6 . the switching devices s 1 to s 4 are driven by gate signals generated by the switching device control signal generator 7 a . as a result , the dc voltage of the dc power supply 5 is converted to ac voltage and applied to the primary side winding of the transformer 6 . the alternating current that arises in the secondary side winding of the transformer 6 is rectified to direct current by the diodes 10 to 13 . this direct current is smoothed by a smoothing circuit composed of an inductor 14 and a capacitor 15 , and fed to a load 16 . here , the power converter shown in fig1 ( dc / dc converter ) differs from the power converter shown in fig7 in that the control scheme for the primary side switching devices s 1 to s 4 is switched in accordance with the output current value ( load current value ). hence , the present invention is configured in such a way that the primary side current value in the transformer 6 is detected with a load current detector 8 and input to the control scheme decision unit 9 . fig2 shows the voltage waveforms at the switching devices when the current flowing to the load 16 has been detected as being at or below a specific current value , i . e ., when the load current is a light load or no load , and control of the switching devices s 1 to s 4 has been switched to a pwm scheme . that is , at time t 1 , switching devices s 1 and s 4 turn on and the current flows over the following path : s 1 → inductor 20 → transformer 6 → s 4 . at this time , the voltage vt on the primary side winding of the transformer 6 becomes [+ ed ]. at time t 3 , switching devices s 2 and s 3 turn on and the current flows over the following path : switching device s 3 → transformer 6 → inductor 20 → switching device s 2 . that is , the current flows in the reverse direction to time t 1 . at this time , the voltage vt on the primary side winding of the transformer 6 becomes [− ed ]. at time t 2 and time t 4 , all of the switching devices s 1 to s 4 are turned off . at these times , the voltages at switching devices s 1 to s 4 oscillate about [ ed / 2 ] due to resonance between the parasitic capacitances at s 1 to s 4 and the inductor 20 . when the power fed to the load 16 is large , i . e ., at a heavy load where the ratio of the load current value to the rated current value is 100 %, 75 % or 50 %, the load current value detected at the load current detector 8 is large . hence , the control scheme detection unit 9 selects the phase shift scheme . the control signal generator 7 a decides how much to shift the phase of the reference pulse in accordance with the current value that is detected , and carries out on / off control of the switching devices s 1 to s 4 . on the other hand , when the power fed to the load 16 is small , i . e ., at a light load when the ratio of the load current value to the rated current value is 10 % or 20 %, or in a no - load state , the load current value detected at the load current detector 8 is small . the control scheme decision unit 9 thus selects the pwm scheme , and sends a signal to the control signal generator 7 a indicating that the pwm scheme was selected . in the pwm scheme , the period in which the switching devices s 1 to s 4 ( mosfets ) are all in an off state is long . during off state , switching devices s 1 and s 2 and switching devices s 3 and s 4 , depending on the ratios of the parasitic capacitances held by each , oscillate about ½ the dc power supply 5 voltage [ ed ] ( when the parasitic capacitances of the switching devices s 1 to s 4 are the same ) owing to resonance with the inductor 20 . by adding the positive voltage [ ed / 2 ] ( excluding the oscillating component ) between the drain and source of each mosfet of switching devices s 1 to s 4 , a state wherein reverse voltage has been added to the body diode ( not shown in fig1 ) within each mosfet is maintained . hence , the reverse - direction voltage added to the body diode does not fall below 0 v . for this reason , forward current does not flow to the body diode ; nor does a reverse recovery current arise . even if a hard switching operation does arise according due to the pwm scheme at a light - load or no - load time , because the current value is small , the increase in switching loss , such as turn - on loss and turn - off loss , is minimal . that is , because the power converter control scheme according to the present invention has been configured so as switch from a phase shift control scheme to a pulse width modulation scheme at a light - load time or no - load time , the reverse recovery current generated in a phase shift scheme can be suppressed . therefore , the present invention is able to achieve a higher power converter efficiency without generating a reverse recovery and in particular without increasing the number of switching devices . on the other hand , if a phase shift control scheme is employed at a light - load time , as explained above , switching device 2 turns on when the voltage vs 1 of switching device 1 is near zero and the voltage vs 2 of switching device 2 is near [ ed ]. yet , upon conversion to the pwm scheme , because all the off periods become longer , when switching device 2 is on , the voltage vs 1 of switching device 1 rises above a near - zero value and the voltage vs 2 of switching device 2 falls below a near -[ ed ] value . as a result , the discharge loss of parasitic capacitance when the switching device 2 is on can be reduced . in addition , when switching device 2 is on , the current ( which flows over the following path : dc power supply 5 → switching device 1 parasitic capacitance → switching device 2 → dc power supply 5 ) which charges the parasitic capacitance of switching device 1 up to [ ed ] also decreases , thus enabling a reduction in the switching device 2 turn - on loss as well . in the power converter control scheme according to the present invention , the switching device control signal generator 7 a and the control scheme decision unit 9 can be suitably created using , for example , hardware equipment or microcomputers . also , in the above - described embodiment , the load current value was detected as the current which flows to the primary side of the transformer 6 , although it may of course be detected instead as the current which flows to the secondary side of the transformer 6 . fig3 is a chart of waveforms at various points for illustrating a second embodiment according to the present invention . the circuit configuration is the same as in fig7 . fig3 shows an embodiment in which the times t 2 and t 4 when all the switching devices are off was regulated , and the switching devices were set so as to turn on when the switching device voltage had approached a minimum value . for example , the on timing of switching device 2 is regulated so that the switching device 2 turns on when the voltage vs 2 has approached a minimum value . however , if the positive side and negative side voltage time products applied to the transformer are not equal , the transformer magnetizes and excess current flows , damaging the circuit device . hence , the on timing of switching device 2 must be regulated with condition t 1 = t 3 being satisfied . accordingly , the sum of time t 2 and time t 4 is set constant and the ratio between times t 2 and t 4 is regulated . for example , if the on timing of switching device 2 is advanced , the off timing must be advanced by exactly the same amount of time in order to avoid a magnetic saturation . in this way , the voltage of the switching device at the turn - on time can be adjusted to be small . for this reason , as is apparent also from formula ( 1 ), the energy that has accumulated in the parasitic capacitance of the switching device 2 becomes small . also , the loss consumed at the turn - on time decreases . at the same time , the voltage vs 1 of the switching device 1 varies as shown in formula ( 2 ) below . that is , when the voltage vs 2 is a minimum , the voltage vs 1 becomes a maximum . in other words , when the voltage vs 2 is a minimum , the difference between [ ed ] and [ vs 1 ] becomes small . as a result , the current ( which flows over the following path in fig7 : dc power supply 11 → switching device 1 parasitic capacitance → switching device 2 → dc power supply 11 ) that charges the parasitic capacitance at switching device 1 when switching device 2 is turned on becomes small . also , turn - on loss at the switching device 2 is reduced . because the energy of the parasitic capacitance that charges / discharges at the turn - on time can be reduced , noise generation can be suppressed . the inventive method for controlling a power converter thus enables operation to be carried out without adversely affecting other equipment . in the present embodiment , the ratio between times t 2 and t 4 is altered by shifting the on timing and off timing of the switching device 2 . however , in the inventive method for controlling a power converter , operation may be similarly carried out even by shifting the control timing of another switching device . fig4 shows a chart of operation waveforms corresponding to claim 4 . in this embodiment 3 , the switching frequency is regulated in such a way that a switching device turns on when the voltage of the switching device approaches a minimum value . for example , when the switching frequency is made high , each of the times t 0 to t 5 becomes short ; conversely , when the switching frequency is made low , each of the times t 0 to t 5 becomes long . however , the resonance period of the switching device voltage at times t 2 and t 4 when the switching devices are off is determined by the circuit constant or the parasitic component , and is fixed . therefore , by regulating the switching frequency , it is possible to regulate the turn - on timing in such a way that the switching device turns on when the switching device voltage approaches a minimum value . as a result , actions and effects similar to those in embodiment 2 are achieved . fig5 shows an example of a main circuit according to this invention , and fig6 shows an operation waveform chart for illustrating another embodiment of this invention . fig6 is a diagram showing an example in which , by regulating the on periods of switching devices 1 and 4 shown in fig7 , control was carried out so as to achieve actions and effects similar to those in embodiment 2 . for example , switching device 2 is turned on at a timing where the voltage vs 2 becomes a minimum , along with which the timing at which switching device 2 turns off is regulated so that the switching device 1 turns on when the voltage vs 1 of switching device 1 becomes a minimum . however , the control signal for switching device 1 at this time is not regulated . in this case , because the on timing and off timing of switching device 2 are both regulated , the control pulse width of switching device 2 changes and the lengths of times t 1 and t 3 do not agree , creating the possibility of transformer magnetization . hence , as shown in fig5 , a capacitor 21 is inserted on the primary side of the transformer 6 so as to eliminate the dc component of the primary side voltage in the transformer 6 . in this way , the circuit device can be safely operated without magnetization of the transformer . this embodiment , by shifting the on timing and off timing of switching device 2 , arranges for the respective switching devices to turn on when the voltage vs 1 of switching device 1 and the voltage vs 2 of switching device 2 become minimum values . in this embodiment , similar operation occurs even when the on timing and off timing of another switching device 2 are shifted , resulting in similar effects . to keep the output voltage constant even when the output power and output current fluctuate , it is necessary to vary what may be referred to as the “ conduction ratio ,” that is , the ratio between the times t 1 , t 3 and t 5 when the switching devices are on and the times t 2 and t 4 when they are off . hence , in the present embodiment , even when the conduction ratio varies with changes in the output power or output current , because the on timing is changed so that the switching device voltage approaches a minimum value as provided for in claim 7 , higher efficiency and lower noise can be achieved over a broad operating range . such control can easily be achieved by digital control ; that is , by storing in the power converter as precontrolled variables an on timing regulation variable and a switching frequency change variable . the inventive method for controlling a power converter is thus capable of carrying out control , with specific regulation variables , according to the detected values for output power and output current . in the present embodiment , as in embodiment 1 , at the time of a heavy load , soft switching is achieved by carrying out phase shift operation , and at the time of a light load , a pwm scheme is carried out . in this way , operation can be safely carried out without exceeding the limit value for the voltage change ratio ( dv / dt ). moreover , by applying this invention , not only is it possible to reduce loss in a pwm scheme at the time of a light load , loss over a broad load range can also be reduced . the regulation of on timing and off timing is readily achievable by , for example , the use of ordinary digital control and shift registers . the invention has been described with reference to certain preferred embodiments thereof . it will be understood , however , that modifications and variations are possible within the scope of the appended claims .
7 (Electricity)
before turning to a more detailed description of the invention , the present invention is illustrated as being embodied in a network 102 as shown in fig1 . the network may be the internet and may be , for example , connected to the users in any suitable manner , such as by way of traditional broadband , satellite , wilan , cable or utility power lines . in the present invention a real - time pricing signal is continuously transmitted over the network 102 over a predetermined period of time . the network may be connected to homes 104 and / or smart appliances 106 and power generators and / or power generator utilities . as shown in fig1 , the supply side may be connected to the demand side via a consumer portal and building ems 106 , through utility communications channels 108 or via satellite 110 . there further may be control interfaces 112 or advanced metering systems 114 that are used to assist in the orchestration of the supply / demand relationship by , for example , controlling local appliance or reporting metering information . in addition , the power generators may include solar or wind mills 116 and the smart appliances may be smart end - user devices , plug in hybrid cars or distributed generation storage systems 118 , for example . it shall be appreciated that one skilled in the art will know how to instruct a processor of a smart appliance in order to turn on or off the respective appliance in response to a pricing signal . for that matter , it is well within the capability of the skilled person to implement the invention in terms of software to be executed , wholly or in part , by a computer and store the instructions therefore on a computer readable medium . now a discussion of the mechanics of the invention will ensue by first considering the supply - side of the power equation . thereafter , a discussion of concrete example will be set forth to describe the invention in full detail . importantly , supply side generation of electricity is responsible for approximately ⅓ to ½ of primary energy consumption . for example , of all the energy consumed in new york state in 2005 , 38 % was used for the generation of electricity . in other words , the type of power generators for the electrical power is a predictable quantity and the invention aims at resourcing these generators . although , it should be clear at this point that the invention also is applicable to any type of power source . according to one implementation , for example , the invention increases efficiency of electrical generation by placing the demand right where the supply of power is at its optimal efficiency output . this reduces overall fuel consumption , forestalls building of new power plants , and / or has a positive impact on reducing greenhouse gases . the details of this effect of the invention will be described in more detail with references to the exemplary models below . the invention in another implementation puts to use renewable energy sources . observing fig2 , which shows united states electrical energy production ‘ supply - side ’ statistics , it can be plainly seen that renewable energy contributes a relatively small amount of the power supply sources in the united states as compared with traditional power . by contrast , wind power is responsible for nearly 30 % of the total danish demand for electricity and approximately 16 % of germany &# 39 ; s demand . to put this in perspective , wind power alone covers the aggregate demand of 1 . 4 million danish homes , or in other words , the entire energy demand of western denmark . regrettably , the u . s . has a culture of on demand power supply , which is hard to fulfill by application of renewable energy sources . however , the fault is not all due to lifestyle but also on the conditions suitable for tapping into these renewable energy sources . wind and solar are temperamental and are not always available around the clock . while it is true that holland and denmark have a culture of energy conservation , these countries are also blessed with regions of high wind . in addition , the infrastructure for renewable energy resources in the u . s . is not yet fully manifested . smaller countries like holland and denmark have been able to accomplish more because they have the luxury of having a smaller country to deal with . for the same reasons , many european countries ( particularly those in eastern europe ) have been able to update their power grids to address modern ideals and available technologies . for all that , the u . s . may be in a unique position to benefit from the instant invention . given the size and mixed variety of power infrastructures in the u . s ., there is a very real need for orchestration of the supply of power to the demand for that powering america . while the u . s . has lagged behind european countries in the renewable energy sector , the possibilities of wind power in the u . s . are demonstrable . the state of texas , for example , has significant wind power production and is the largest producer of wind energy in the united states . thus , the capability is there . there only needs the means by which these resources can be adequately put to use in the u . s . the present invention seeks , in at least one implementation , to capitalize on these renewable energy resources and put them to efficient use in the overall power supply matrix . the present invention orchestrates these pockets of renewable energy and integrates them into the mainstream infrastructure . as the u . s . embraces renewable energy more and more , as it undoubtedly will , the solution provided herein is scalable and will be there to orchestrate these resources as well . as can be seen from fig3 , which shows total stored capacity in mw , wind power production in the u . s . is expected to more than double in the next four years . now is the time for a realizable integration of these renewable energy resources . the present invention timely provides this integration by orchestrating the supply and demand , and vice versa . while efforts to foster increased production from renewable resources such as wind and solar are much needed and welcome , there is a growing problem of how to search for uses of ( demands for ) renewable energy right at the time when it becomes available . for example , if it is particularly windy while people are sleeping , there is an immediate supply of power , but there may not be as high a demand for that power as compared to during daylight hours . as a result , countries such as denmark have reached an upper limit and have begun or soon will limit production of renewable energy . even the countries which have incorporated renewable energy sources into their infrastructure , there is still a need for the present invention to orchestrate those resources . the present invention does not simply catalyze the bringing on line of renewable resources , it orchestrates them and brings them into the infrastructure in such a way that they are utilized at their maximum efficiency . thus , countries like denmark will also benefit from use of the invention . the question is then , how can renewable energy be provided on demand when weather is a temperamental variable ? one could imagine that the energy from a renewable resource could be stored , such as in a battery . while the invention is workable with storage elements , a battery solution alone does not sufficiently address the problem of providing the demand for power right at the time when the power is readily available . for one thing , using batteries to store the power disconnects the causal link between the generators supplying power and the demand of that power . thus , a battery cannot dictate how long a generator should be on line to meet a certain amount of demand . nor can a battery maximize the efficiency of the output of a particular generator based on the demand . for that matter , the battery cannot predict what total amount of power will be needed and will likely fall short of adequately matching that demand to the renewable supply . because the causal connection between supply of power and its usage is disconnected , a battery system by itself is unable to match demand or power with supply of power as described herein . what is needed in addition is the present invention . thus far , the mechanics of supply and demand have been discussed in the overall power scheme . now continuing on , the mechanics of the building blocks by which the invention orchestrates that supply and demand will now be discussed . in one implementation of the invention , there is employed a network , such as an ip network 102 shown in fig1 , to orchestrate the supply and demand of power . for one thing , the invention uses the network to send a pricing signal in real - time to homes or appliances . in this manner , the invention communicates an availability ( i . e ., in terms of price ) of supply - side power generation capacity . as will be explained below , the invention further changes the price so that the demand - side for the power can utilize generation resources in the most fuel efficient and environmentally friendly ways . as will further be explained , the invention indicates a price ( or prices for various or combine power supply sources ) that has the effect of shifting the demand to a time when resources are available or brought on line . the invention , thus , provides the demand in sufficient quantity to match an efficiency of a particular generator or combination of generators . to estimate the variable storage capacity on the demand - side , attention is directed to the various uses of energy in the home as shown in fig4 . some energy uses in the home such as lighting are required based on what users are doing ( herein referred to as activity dependant appliances or uses ) others are not . the present invention takes advantage of that distinction in one implementation by encouraging or deferring demand of power by user activity “ independent ” appliances , such as water heating and / or refrigeration appliances . of course , to some degree appliances such as hot water boilers and refrigerators are dependant on the user activity , however , less so than lighting appliances , and exhibit a certain amount of independence from the activity . these appliances tend to have a thermal storage capacity that allow them to provide energy on demand locally without demanding , or delay the demand , of power from an external source , such as a power plant . another feature to notice is that the independent activity appliances are more predictable over a certain period of time . in one implementation , the present invention can model uses based on independent activity appliances that illustrates this predictability for an aggregate number of appliances . that is not to say that the invention cannot create mappings of activity dependant appliances , in fact the invention is applicable to those appliances as well , given only the restraints of finding some commonality of behaviour of those appliances . for example , people tend to use lighting during the day as opposed to night time when they are asleep . in addition , the present invention operates at sufficiently frequent intervals to encourage or discourage demand . this has a significant positive impact on electrical demand without compromising the needs of users . for example , in one implementation , the invention schedules efficient generation for pre - cooling or pre - heating of living spaces , to cool millions of homes in southern climates before the occupants return on a summer evening , or heat homes in northern climates in anticipation of the workforce returning home . the methods presented here are a significant break away from the prior work on load shifting and load curtailment . peak shaving , for example , reduces the amount of electricity purchased for some period of time . sometimes this is accomplished by curtailment ( shutting down loads ), sometimes by load shifting ( thermal storage ) and sometimes by self - generation . much of this previous work has focused on shifting peak demand into the traditional diurnal valley so that a flatter demand curve results in lower requirements ( and costs ) for peak generation facilities . peak shifting could be achieved by creating a high pricing signal once a day during peak . in this peak - shifting scenario , every day at the same time peak pricing goes into effect which discourages usage . problematically , those users who can afford to pay peak pricing can choose to use as much as they want when they want , and may choose not to participate in load management at all . while a more expensive price of energy might help curtail demand by users during peak , a scenario that is not resolved is the impact on the less - fortunate and budget conscious users . a terrible negative effect of traditional peak pricing is that poor people simply cannot afford to use energy during peak . waiting until 2 : 00 am for the dishwasher to automatically start is a good thing , but would waiting until 2 : 00 am when the price of energy is low enough to , say , cook dinner , is not a feasible solution for the entire power demand market . a solution proposed by this invention to the problems encountered by load shifting is to change the price of energy to encourage or discourage use many ( many ) times throughout the day , for example as many as 8 - 10 times , in predictable ways . an implementation of the invention varies pricing enough so that demand is responsive , in other words that demand in the aggregate is incentivized to change its behaviour owing to pricing . in the same implementation , the invention may also consider the needs and budgets of the consumers whilst varying pricing in a demand responsive way . as mentioned already , providing various pricing changes throughout the day offers users of modest means to obtain the power they require at a time that is not inconvenient or would otherwise dramatically task that user &# 39 ; s stored energy waiting for pricing to drift downward . by making demand responsive to pricing , for example , by setting pricing to levels attainable by those of modest means or budget , the present invention does not simply cut off all demand as in peak shifting . with reference to fig5 - 10 , concrete examples of how the invention orchestrates , that is coordinates , supply - side power resources and demand - side power needs will be described . fig5 illustrates a model of generation supply capacity over a predetermined period of time , here 24 hours . in the figure each horizontal band is one or more ‘ chunks ’ of supply capacity . this model is somewhat simplified in that each of the types of power source , including combustion turbines , hydro electric energy , oil , coal and nuclear are illustrated in an arbitrary order . although , it could be observed that fig5 generally illustrates power sources that are arranged diagrammatically in order of ramp up time . for example , it is seen from the figure that the power sources , such as nuclear generators , which are less flexible and require a relatively long and complicated power up procedure , are arranged as base lines of energy , here shown as 20 % of the initial overall power needs or demand . these resources might account for user activity dependent demand , or on demand , such as lighting which requires an immediate supply of power when the user switches the light on and off throughout the day . on the other end of the power generator spectrum , we see more flexible generators that can meet on demand power needs arranged along the higher demand requirements as can be seen from fig4 . for example , hydro , combustion turbines , and / or spot market power generators represent power sources that may be brought online more quickly and with a relatively less complicated ramp up procedure . these more flexible resources may , as suggested by the figure , provide power for the remaining 60 %- 100 % of the aggregate demand . this demand may be , for example , power requirements for user activity independent appliances or uses , such as refrigerators and hot water boilers . now turning to the demand side of the equation , consider the simplified model of aggregate electrical demand shown , for example , by fig6 . the curve in fig6 may be the demand curve experienced by a winter peaking utility over a predetermined period of time , such as 24 hours . here it could be observed that the curve corresponds to one that is in a northern climate given the high electrical demand for space heating in the night hours . when night gives way to day , daily electric demand slowly falls in the morning and then rises steadily . the invention maps , or superimposes , the simplified supply and demand of power models in fig5 and 6 , to obtain fig7 . fig7 illustrates how the supply side operates throughout a predetermined period of time , here a 24 hour day , in order to meet the aggregate energy demand across large serving areas . the ‘ stair steps ’ in fig7 correspond to generators being brought on - line and off - line ( i . e ., starting up and shutting down ) throughout the day as aggregate demand rises and falls . steady state operation is illustrated where the lines are flat . it is to be noted that the highest output shown here is not necessarily the maximum output of the generator . it shall be appreciated that , for a particular power generator , a minimum efficiency of use occurs at point 702 when there is no demand for the power output . conversely , at point 704 , the demand almost matches the output of the power generator and yields a maximum efficiency of use as given by the equation efficiency = energy output / energy . one of the driving principles behind the present invention is to place or shift the aggregate demand right at the point where a generator is available to output at its maximum efficiency . it is to be appreciated that a certain amount of power , known in the industry as spinning reserve , is in practice in excess of instantaneous demand . of course , there are times when the output will overstep the spinning reserve upper ceiling . the spinning reserve provides capacity to meet unexpected demands and cover for generation or distribution failures . the spinning reserve is diagrammatically illustrated in fig7 at point 706 and , further , by the way the demand curve does not follow the boundary of the step curve . the aggregate demand curve shown in fig6 and 7 is predictable . in other words , the aggregate demand curve rises and falls with regularity from day to day , or over a certain time period . the curve may be said to have a markovian - like behavior . in other words , demand in the aggregate will generally be similar to the previous day . there may be exceptions caused by intervening events such as inconsistent weather , particularly , temperature swings that affect heating and cooling demands , weekdays versus weekend days , holidays , etc . in general , however , if the event is consistent from time period to time period a markovian like demand curve can be developed that is useful for prediction of future demand according to the present invention . for example , heat waves that last a number of days will affect the aggregate demand for a new , but predictable , demand curve . a region that receives sporadic rainfall could also have some predictable nature to its region &# 39 ; s demand curves . the invention matches this future predictability to supply resources . a markov process is defined as a stochastic process whose state at time t is x ( t ), for t & gt ; 0 , and whose history of states is given by x ( s ) for times s & lt ; t is a markov process if : pr [ x ( t + h )= y | x ( s )= x ( s ), vs ≦ t ]= pr [ x ( t + h )= y | x ( t )= x ( t )], vh & gt ; 0 equation 1 . that is , the probability of its having state y at time t + h , conditioned on having the particular state x ( t ) at time t , is equal to the conditional probability of its having that same state y but conditioned on its value for all previous times before t . pr [ x ( t + h )= y | x ( t )= x ]= pr [ x ( h )= y | x ( 0 )= x ], vt , h & gt ; 0 equation 2 . as mentioned above , the time period illustrated in the figures is merely representative and any time period can be selected . for example , given a particular weather pattern , it will make sense to select a time period that is either shorter or longer than a day . as long as the time period supports a pattern of predictable demand , the invention can operate to predict demand for future periods of time . to continue , the present invention takes advantage of the predictability of demand in the aggregate . as can be seen from fig5 - 8 , the present invention maps an aggregate demand curve within a period of time that is sufficient to demonstrate a predictability . by moving or shifting the demand for power according to the present invention , the supply side output can be more closely tracked , as illustrated by the steps formed in the shifted demand curve shown in fig8 . in other words , supply capacity of the power plants is more efficiently utilized . in the context of fig1 , a real time pricing signal is issued over the network 102 to homes 104 and / or to appliances such as hot water heaters , refrigerators and other appliances 106 . as will be further described , the various appliances have a typical duty cycle schedule that describes the energy consumption of the particular appliance in terms of duty timing and firing rate . based in part on the duty cycle schedule and the pricing signal , which is issued continuously over a period of time , it is decided whether or not to delay firing of the particular device . in the aggregate , these appliances in the cause demand which is shifted to a time when there is an optimal amount of power being output , possibly from a combination of power sources . in this manner , aggregate demand can be much more controlled . the demand ‘ follows ’ ( or accommodates ) the stair - stepped suply - side capacity as shown in fig8 thereby matching demand to supply , not vice versa . it shall be appreciated that this arrangement is contrary to conventional supply chasing demand . as already mentioned , an amount of spinning reserve must also be taken into account . the present invention , in one or more implementations , adjusts for the spinning reserve by matching aggregated demand to maximum plant efficiency less the spinning reserve as shown in fig7 . matching of the aggregate demand will be discussed in more detail . suffice to say at this stage that the point at which it is chosen to shift the demand is when the respective power generator is outputting power at the optimal quantity offsetting for spinning reserve . it will be appreciated that the precise amount of spinning reserve is a predetermined parameter that is specific to the particular power generator and will only be discussed as a variable herein without specific reference to the ratings of any particular generator . that these ratings are specific to the various utilities , which can be easily attained therefrom . in fig8 the overall energy usage ( i . e ., the integral or area under the curve ) is similar to that shown fig7 . while the pricing signal might or might not discourage overall usage in a 24 hour day , it definitely does discourage and encourage energy use at several times throughout the day . this is done to forestall bringing generating capacity online and then once brought online to move said capacity to its maximum output and efficiency as quickly as possible . the duration of time that a facility might be forestalled in coming online might be any period of time . in the meantime another power generator might be selected to meet more immediate need . thus , the invention can provide a delay that is deminimus to most power uses , such as a few to tens of minutes . this is done because too long a delay in meeting demand would unnecessarily burden users of modest income or budget because they would have to wait unreasonably long to , say , cook dinner or take a shower . as the more complex power generators come online , the invention can shift demand to those generators to meet additional demand not met by the more flexible generators . the ability to delay the start of such a facility and then within minutes to bring it to near its maximum output clearly has a significant fuel environmental savings . certainly some types of generators can come on - line and off - line more quickly than others , gas turbines being the most agile and perhaps nuclear plants being the least . and as previously stated there must be sufficient spinning reserve at all times . bringing these on line on when the demand is aggregated enough to match a maximum efficiency of one or more power generators , avoids both wasting energy keeping power generators online but idle or operating the power generators at lower efficiencies . in other words , by way of the present invention , less energy overall is needed to meet the power demands of users because less energy is wasted . that means in a very real sense , energy is conserved and less global warming emissions are created , thereby helping to slow the global warming problem . now that the mechanics of the invention have been described in sufficient detail , we now turn to specifics that will be described with reference to fig9 a . fig9 a illustrates a duty cycle schedule of a typical hot water heater . in another sense , fig9 a may also be considered to illustrate the energy storage capability of demand - side appliances . to be certain , a hot water heater consumes power . however , that very same heater at any time typically is holding and maintaining thermal energy . in that sense , the aggregate of a number of such hot water heaters could be considered as a sort of energy source , itself a power generator . while hot water heaters cannot be used as a source of power , they can be thought of as storing energy . in this sense , how much energy a particular hot water heater has left can be used to determine when the hot water heater should fire in comparison to a pricing signal . when , for example , the hot water heater has sufficient energy to provide a hot shower , for example , at a time when showers are expected to be demanded according to the duty cycle schedule , there may be a decision to delay firing for a few minutes with no real change in performance output . in other words , the user experiences a hot shower without ever knowing that the hot water boiler firing timing was delayed . the delay in demand of power is transparent to the end user . turning now to a more specific discussion of the hot water boiler modeled by fig9 a , there is seen , starting at the left side , a decline in water temperature from an upper limit of approximately 110 ° down to 95 ° over the period from near midnight to approximately 6 : 00 am . the relatively constant slope of the temperature line over this period indicates that no water has been drawn from the tank . at 6 : 00 am the water heater fires for a short duration to bring the output temperature back up from its lower limit , and fires again around 8 : 00 am to accommodate the demand for hot water being drawn from the tank . perhaps someone took a shower or did some laundry and / or dishes . of course , this duty cycle schedule is merely indicative of the power consumption of a typical hot water heater , and any other duty cycle schedule might be replaced with the one shown in fig9 a . continuing with the example , fig9 b shows a portion of the duty cycle schedule of fig9 a in more granularity over a six hour period . from this figure , it can be seen that the firing cycle ( assuming here that hot water is not being drawn ) is approximately 30 minutes in duration . again , fig9 a and 9 b are mere examples and any other firing timing could be substituted for that shown . referencing fig9 a and b , it can be estimated that the duty cycle of the residential hot water heater in standby mode ( where it assumed that no hot water is being drawn ) is approximately 30 minutes every 6 hours =˜ 8 %. accounting for additional firings during periods of hot water usage results in an estimated hot water heater duty cycle of ˜ 10 % over a 24 hour day . said another way , at any given point in time , 1 in 10 hot water heaters will be firing . considering there are approximately 110 million homes in the united states , roughly 11 million hot water heaters are firing around the clock , with even more expected to be firing before the morning rush hour and after the evening rush hour . when one considers the enormous impact that shifting demand has , one then understands the great potential for the present invention to both save costs for everyone concerned and help to save the environment at the same time . the invention tends to have an affect on demand in the aggregate , although the invention could also be used for less than an aggregate of appliances . in addition , the aggregate may represent a specific type of appliances or , more likely , a combination of types of appliances . it shall be noticed that the present invention is directed to aggregating demand on the appliance level , in contrast say to total demand from a user , ie , by reading meter data of that user . in that regard , the invention understands a picture of how appliances react over a course of time and , depending on their type , can price them out of the market for a specific period of time . in other words , the invention shifts demand on the appliance level , as opposed to the user level . of course , the invention can affect a combination of types of appliances , however , it does so by determining the demand on an appliance type . in one implementation aggregate of demand is calculated according to equation 3 . for example , if ⅓ of the 11 million hot water heaters in the u . s . are electrically fired , then at least 3 . 7 million electric hot water heaters can be managed at any given point in time . given that the typical electric hot water heater has a 4 . 5 kw demand when firing , the aggregate electrical demand of heating hot water is 16 . 5 gw ( gigawatts ) as indicated in equation 1 . this is a large amount of demand , representing approximately 22 % of the 73 . 9 gw of worldwide electrical supply from wind power at the end of 2006 . in terms of our instant example , the total aggregate demand for water heaters is the number of water heaters × percentage appliance duty cycle ( 10 %)× percentage firing timing ( 33 %)× wattage or , in our example , the present invention determines a typical duty cycle schedule over a period of time that is sufficiently long to provide a predictable demand curve such as the one shown in fig9 a . in this example , the duty cycle schedule is modelled for hot water heaters , but any type of appliance may similarly be modelled . thus far , an aggregate demand is calculated from the duty cycle schedule along with other parameters , such as the total number of appliances belonging to the demand group and firing timing over the period of interest . the aggregate demand , which may be for one or more types of appliances , is then compared , or mapped onto , such as shown in fig7 , with the a power supply - side curve . and it is determined then if a suitable supply of power is available from any of the power generators , or if , for example , power generators need to be brought online . if power generators need to be brought on - line , it is also determined how fast the particular generator or generators need to be brought up to maximum efficiency from the supply side curves of fig5 or 7 . as earlier mentioned , the generators that need to be brought on line may be renewable energy power sources such as , for example , wind power generators . these wind power generators also have a known typical operation time , i . e ., when wind typically is blowing in a particular region , and a model such as that shown in fig6 is developed . the demand would then be shifted then to the time when the wind power generators are in operation , i . e ., when the wind is blowing . in continuing with our example , the pricing signal is modified to discourage demand until such time that the supply side is able to match the demand . in one implementation , it does so until the supply side is operating at maximum , or optimal , efficiency . in another implementation , the pricing signal may discourage demand for a few to tens of minutes as mentioned above in order to give people of modest means a chance to utilize the power at convenient times , i . e ., rather than having to wait hours to cook dinner or take a shower , for example . in our hot water boiler example , users do not have to wait to take a hot shower . in still another implementation , the invention selects the time period according to the thermal storage capacity of a particular type of appliance or appliances . in regards to the hot water boiler example , there already may be sufficient hot water in the boiler for a shower such that the delay of demand , i . e ., switching the hot water boiler on is unnoticeable to the end user . in yet another implementation , the demand for power is discouraged because of infrastructure failures and is represented in the form of the supply side curve showing a lack of ability to presently provide power . those generators that can be brought online automatically will be by operation of the present invention and will be distributed the demand , i . e ., rather than the defunct or out of commission power generators . indeed , the present invention in this implementation will shift demand away from defunct power sources . the present invention , in yet another implementation , uses modes of operation to control aggregate demand by automatically adjusting the real - time price transmitted to end uses such as appliances that can start and stop at will based on the default set of user preferences . when electricity is inexpensive , heater will come on early and stay on longer . for example , a dishwasher may not choose to wait until after midnight when energy is less expensive . when energy is more expensive , on the other hand , a hot water heater may not choose to run until after its internal temperature has fallen some number of degrees below its normal ‘ start ’ temperature . likewise an a hot water heater that is already running may choose to stop before reaching it &# 39 ; s normal ‘ stop ’ temperature . the present invention provides for modes of operating the appliances that is implemented by an operating band that is either shifted upward or downward based on the pricing signal . in other words , the invention can effect delaying a start and a premature stop of the appliance by moving the operating band with the pricing signal . fig9 c and d illustrate examplary modes of operation , which include an inexpensive mode as shown in fig9 c and an expensive mode as shown in fig9 d . to explain , the inexpensive mode of operation of fig9 c indicates how the appliance should react during inexpensive pricing of electrical energy . conversely , fig9 d indicates how the appliance should operate during expensive pricing of electrical energy . of course , these figures are merely examples and any duty cycle and boundary conditions may be set . more specifically with reference to fig9 c , the duty cycle schedule of fig9 a is again shown here , but this time with an operating band 902 overlayed on the duty cycle schedule . the operating band indicates a region where the appliance is in operation and includes an upper and lower limit 904 a , b . the upper and lower limits may be set by the user or home owner of the appliance . the lower limit indicates the point at which the appliance is to switch on and the upper limit indicates when the appliance is to switch off . these may be set by the user in advance or preset through the network ( 102 , fig1 ) for the various pricing situations . of course , more than two modes of operation may be provided for with many different upper and lower limits . during inexpensive pricing , the user may not mind spending money for energy and would be willing to pay for hotter water . hence , the operation band boundary conditions are shifted upward . fig9 c shows that the operating band has a lower limit of 100 degrees f . and an upper limit of 115 degrees f . in other words , the appliance , in this case a hot water boiler , switches on when the internal water temperature falls below 100 degrees f . and switches off when it reaches 115 degrees f . during expensive pricing , the user may indeed mind spending money for energy and would not be as willing to pay for hotter water . hence , the operation band boundary conditions are shifted downward . fig9 d shows that the operating band has a lower limit of approx 90 degrees f . and an upper limit of 105 degrees f . in other words , the appliance , in this case a hot water boiler , switches on when the internal water temperature falls below 90 degrees f . and switches off when it reaches 105 degrees f . to reiterate , the present invention in this implementation shifts demand by shifting the operating band of the appliance upward or downward according to the modes of operation by setting the pricing accordingly . it will be appreciated that the hot water boiler of fig9 c and 9 d are mere examples and that any appliance may include this feature . for example , the modified start / stop operating band can also be applied to refrigeration processes . for example , when energy is inexpensive , a fridge will adjust it &# 39 ; s upper and lower limits to start prematurely ( at a higher temperature ) and stop after cooling to a lower than normal temperature . the present invention can also use modes of operation to effectuate thermal energy storage . thermal energy storage is achieved by automatically adjusting the upper and lower temperature limits of end uses such as space heating and cooling , heating hot water , and refrigeration . for example , by raising pricing , the invention causes hot water boiler appliances to shift the operating band lower , which causes the hot water boiler to wait until later to turn on . in other words , the present invention caused that hot water boiler to store thermal energy . fig1 illustrates the method 1000 by which the example above carries out the invention . as discussed above , the invention in step 1002 determines a duty cycle schedule . as described , the duty cycle schedule is determined for a predetermined period of time that is sufficient in duration or length to provide a duty cycle schedule of a group of appliances that is predictable from time period to time period . in the next step 1004 , the pricing signal , which is transmitted in real - time continuously of the period of time , is modified to encourage of discourage demand for power on the basis of an amount of currently available power and the duty cycle schedule . in step 1006 , the demand for power is shifted to a time when the power generator ( s ) are brought on line and operated at a maximum efficiency as indicated in step 1008 . the orchestration of supply of power and demand for power may be controlled by a third entity , i . e ., not the utilities and not the end users . the third entity may use , for example , a data management system , dynamic systems control and distributed operations equipment 112 . turning now to another example , the orchestration of supply of power to demand for power of refrigerators will now be described . as in the earlier example , a duty cycle schedule ( step 1002 , fig1 ) for a typical refrigerator is similarly be determined for a period of time that provides a predictability about that demand and that includes information about the firing timing and power consumption of the appliance . an aggregate demand is calculated according to equation 3 . one of the best estimates of the duty cycle for all properly working ‘ energy star ’ refrigerators is about 50 %. auto defrost models have a secondary duty cycle which amounts to about 10 minutes operation over a 18 - 36 hour period . this cycle draws a large amount of energy during that time , but compared to the compressor operation , impact on load is negligible . the storage capacity of refrigerators is significant , especially in hot climates . for example , florida &# 39 ; s hot and humid climate challenges even the best refrigerators . not surprisingly , refrigerators guzzle a lot of electricity in florida ( on average about 200 watts each ). with roughly 7 million refrigerators in the state of florida , for example , the average , or aggregate , demand of these units exceeds 1 gw . the aggregate demand is mapped or compared to the supply side curve and it is determined whether an instantaneous demand for power is capable of being met or whether output is at an efficient level . on this basis , it is determined to encourage or discourage demand in order to keep that demand where it is or shift it to a time when it is best matching to a maximum efficiency of output . the pricing signal is modified ( step 1004 , fig1 ) to encourage or discourage the demand for power and the demand is shifted ( step 1006 , fig1 ) to a time when the power generator ( s ) are operating at maximum efficiency ( step 1008 , fig1 ). the present invention also adjusts for the wastefulness of older technology . over 25 % of the refrigerators are old and inefficient — built before the advent of recent appliance efficiency standards . about 5 % of them are replaced each year . providing more efficiency from the supply side or from an intermediary infrastructure that orchestrates supply of power and demand for that power greatly cuts down on the wastefulness of those outdated refrigerators . again , it is important to note that at almost any time , an expensive or inexpensive price of electricity could have been sufficient incentive for refrigerators to delay or accelerate compressor operation by 10 or more minutes without having a noticeable impact on food temperature or longevity . in other words , the end user , particularly in the case of appliances with a high energy retention , does not notice the effect of the delay of the demand . here it is reiterated that the invention has a huge impact on environmentally harmful emissions . if 7 million florida refrigerators produce an average demand of 1 gw and northern - climate refrigerators use less energy , it is estimated that the 110 million refrigerators in the united states produce an average demand of ˜ 15 gw , or nearly 20 % of the 73 . 9 gw worldwide electrical supply from wind power at the end of 2006 . with the present invention , a renewable energy power source could be better integrated into that supply scheme , thereby reducing harmful emissions . advancements in refrigerator technology will yield two - speed or variable - speed ‘ always on ’ compressors that will be managed similarly . refrigerators will be encouraged to shift from low to high - speed , or vice versa , based on real - time energy prices . in that case , such smart appliances are controlled directly on the bases of those real - time prices that are sent out continuously over the predetermined period of time . it should also be considered that the foregoing examples are not limited to aggregating demand for one type of appliance but that one or more types of appliances may provide the aggregate demand . it is a matter only of determining the typical duty cycle schedule for the various types of appliances and using the formula 3 . similarly , the supply of power may be provided by one or more of the power generators . the examples provided were specific to electric utilities , though real - time control of demand is immediately applicable also to the transmission and distribution infrastructures of electric , gas and / or water utilities as well . in conclusion of the exemplary description of the invention , the magnitude of demand that can be managed using real - time pricing according to the present invention is quantifiable and significant . together , united states residential electric hot water heaters and refrigerators produce an average demand equivalent to approximately 40 - 45 % of the worldwide electrical supply from wind power at the end of 2006 . if even a fraction of the demand in the u . s . could be shifted to wind power sources , the present invention would have enormous benefit on the environment . the opportunities to orchestrate supply and demand of power are very real . there are significant advantages in reducing burning of fossil - fuels , emissions of pollutants , and forestalling the building of new power plants . and there is the possibility that renewable resources such as solar and wind power can search for and , essentially , create demand in real - time and hence be used more extensively and efficiently . although the present invention has immediate benefits to the environment , as technology expands into our everyday life the benefits of the present invention will further extend our energy resources and conserve our climate . in time , all of the infrastructure needed to fully maximize the benefit of the present invention will be in place . all of the technology is already there to implement in - building energy controllers , internet protocol interfaces for appliances , and sensible appliance control algorithms to react appropriately to real - time pricing signals . the details of that technology is not necessary for practice of the present invention . further , the present invention is not limited to affecting the demand side , but is in fact an orchestration of the supply of power with the demand for power . in other words , the invention is capable of being used well beyond utilities &# 39 ; price signals that are sent out in search of smart appliances . in a much more all - encompassing way , the demand - side ( of homes and businesses in the future ) is also able to search the supply - side for lowest cost / most efficient alternatives to meet heating , cooling and electric energy needs . this will automatically occur and flow directly from the implementation of the invention when power sources are developed not only to include distant utilities but nearby cogeneration power plants in the basement , the neighborhood or the family &# 39 ; s hybrid car . the invention can then be used as before , treating those new sources of energy as any other type of power plant . the concept of the ‘ networked home ’ being ‘ plugged into the car ’ should be explored in the near future and it is anticipated that the invention will work just as meaningfully with those new sources of energy as with those of the 20 th century . if occupants or appliances in a home or business need , say , heat and electricity , the cheapest source may a local resource ( e . g ., a car ), a utility resource , or a combination of local and distant resources . the invention as described works also in this environment regardless of type of power source .
6 (Physics)
the preferred embodiments are described herein in conjunction with an application of the invention for voice or data utilizing regular and hsdpa transmissions according to the third generation partnership project ( 3gpp ) wideband code division multiple access ( w - cdma ) communication system , which is an implementation of a universal mobile telecommunications system ( umts ). although 3gpp terminology is employed throughout this application , the 3gpp system is used only as an example and the invention may be applied to other wireless communications systems where measurement - based rrm is feasible . as used throughout the current specification , the terminology “ wireless transmit / receive unit ” ( wtru ) includes , but is not limited to , a user equipment , mobile station , fixed or mobile subscriber unit , pager , or any other type of device capable of operating in a wireless environment . these exemplary types of wireless environments include , but are not limited to , wireless local area networks and public land mobile networks . the terminology “ node b ” includes , but is not limited to , a base station , site controller , access point or any other type of interfacing device in a wireless environment . fig1 is a flow diagram of a procedure 20 for determining measurement values for use by rrm functions in accordance with the present invention . first , actual measurements and predictive values are received and stored in a database along with a timestamp of when they were received ( step 22 ). these measurements and values are received from different rrm functions such as call admission control , handover control , power control and radio link maintenance . regardless of whether they are actual system measurements or predictive values ( such as , for example , in the case of the call admission control function which predicts the system impact upon acceptance of a new call ), they are stored in a database . the rnc maintains the database of both the measurements and values and when they were stored . each time the rnc receives a measurement or value , it stores it in the database along with a timestamp corresponding to the time at which it is received . by doing so , the rnc can subsequently determine if measurements or values are available ( i . e ., stored in the database ) and if so , if they are valid with respect to their age ( i . e ., their age is less than a certain age threshold ). if an rrm measurement request has not been received as determined at step 30 , no further action is taken other than to continue to receive and store actual measurements and predictive values at step 22 . if a request for an rrm measurement has been received as determined at step 30 , the rnc reviews the database for the requested rrm measurement to determine whether the requested rrm measurement is available . measurements may be unavailable ( i . e ., they are not stored in the database ) either because no measurement report was sent or the measurement report was corrupted over the air interface . if actual system measurements are not available as determined at step 34 , a determination is made as to whether predictive values are available ( step 36 ). the predictive values ( m predicted ) are determined as follows . when certain rrm functions perform an action , they can predict what certain system measurements , ( such as interference or power ), will be once the action is performed . for example , one rrm function is the call admission control ( cac ) algorithm . the cac algorithm predicts what the interference and power will become once a call is added . if the predicted levels are acceptable , then the call is added ; if the predicted levels are unacceptable , then the call is denied . in accordance with the present invention , these predicted interference and power values ( along with other types of predicted values ) are then stored and used as predicted values for interference and power . since the prediction of rrm values is well known in the prior art for many different types of rrm functions , and the particular prediction method is not central to the present invention , it will not be described in detail hereinafter . if predictive values are available , the predictive values are used ( step 38 ), and if not , a default value is used ( step 40 ). a default value is a predetermined value which is established by historical conditions and or a series of measurements or evaluations . in essence , a default value is a predetermined value which is pre - stored and retrieved when desired . the default value is typically chosen such that rrm functions behave in a conservative way . if actual system measurements are available as determined at step 34 , then it is determined whether the actual system measurements are valid ( step 42 ). as aforementioned , with respect to the validity of actual system measurements , these measurements may be invalid because they are too old , or may be invalid because the system is in a transient phase and hence , the measurements do not accurately represent the state of the system . with respect to the age of a measurement , when a measurement report is received in the rnc database , it is assigned a timestamp . the timestamp corresponds to the time at which the measurement report was received . when the measurement is retrieved from memory , its timestamp is read . if the timestamp indicates that the measurement is older than a certain measurement age threshold ( e . g ., one second ), then the measurement is deemed invalid . with respect to the invalidity of a measurement because it is taken when the system is in a transient period , as aforementioned , each rrm function is associated with one or more rrm measurements . each time an rrm function performs an action on the system , it determines the time at which the action was taken . this time corresponds to the start of the “ transient period .” the transition period lasts for a certain duration , after which point the system is considered stable again . the duration of the transient period depends on the type of action that was performed by the rrm function . the duration of the transient period is a design parameter . if a particular rrm measurement is taken during the transient period of the rrm function , it is deemed to be invalid . this can be determined in several ways . in a first alternative , associated with each rrm measurement stored in the database is an indication of whether or not the rrm measurement was taken during the transient period . although these measurements are stored , they will be deemed invalid . in a second alternative , a timestamp for the beginning of each rrm transient is stored separately . when an rrm measurement is retrieved from the database , its timestamp may be compared to the timestamp of the transient period . if the timestamp of the retrieved rrm measurement is within the transient period ( i . e ., the timestamp of the beginning of the rrm transient plus the duration of the transient ), the retrieved rrm measurement is determined to be invalid . in a third alternative , actual measurements may be declared invalid by simply determining if a predicted measurement is in the database and if so , determining its timestamp . this alternative assumes that the transient period begins exactly when predicted measurements are written to the database . these alternatives are intended to be illustrative , not limiting , as there are many different ways that such a determination of invalidity may be effected . the system determines the validity of an actual measurement in view of both age of the actual measurement and the stability of the system . if the actual measurement is valid as determined at step 42 , then the actual measurement is used ( step 44 ). if the actual measurement is deemed not valid at step 42 , a determination is made as to whether a predictive value is available ( step 46 ). if a predictive value is available as determined at step 46 , the actual measurement is combined with the predictive value ( step 48 ). the combination of actual measurements and predictive values as performed at step 48 will now be described . although those of skill in the art realize that they are many different ways to combine the values , in one preferred embodiment , the present invention uses a combination of actual measurements ( m actual ) and predicted values ( m predicted ) as follows : m ( t )= α ( t )· m predicted +( 1 − α ( t ))· m actual ; equation ( 1 ) where α ( t ) is a time - varying weighting function and t represent the amount for time elapsed since the initiation of the transient period ( i . e ., transient period starts at t = 0 ). m ( t ) represents the combined measurement at time t which is provided to the rrm function . typically , α is a monotonically decreasing function between one ( 1 ) and zero ( 0 ). preferably α should equal 1 at t = 0 , immediately following the beginning of the transient period and α should equal 0 at the end of the transient period , once actual measurements are considered stable . example α weighting functions are shown in fig2 a and 2b for a transient phase of 1 second duration . in fig2 a , the variation over time is a substantially straight line function , whereas in fig2 b the variation over time results in α initially diminishing at a slow rate , followed by a rapidly diminishing rate . this may be approximated by an exponential or geometric change , depending on the nature of α . it is possible that succeeding actions take place during the transient period ( i . e ., before α has reached zero ). when a subsequent action is taken by an rrm function , the system enters a “ new ” transient period . since certain rrm functions typically predict what αvalue would be following an action that is taken at time t 1 , the predicted value is based on m ( t 1 ). in this case , m predicted is made based on m ( t 1 ), where t 1 is the time when the succeeding action is triggered . furthermore , t is reset to zero at the completion of the succeeding action ( i . e ., a new transient period is started ). if a new transient period is started , any subsequent rrm function that acts at t 2 would use t 1 as the beginning of the transient phase . as a result , t in equation 1 would be t = t 2 − t 1 . referring back to fig1 , if it has been determined that the actual measurement is not valid as determined at step 42 and predictive values are not available as determined at step 46 , then the rnc may implement one of the following four options ( step 50 ): ( 1 ) use a default value as in step 40 ; ( 2 ) combine the actual measurement with a default value ; ( 3 ) add a margin to the actual measurement ; or ( 4 ) declare the resources at issue to be unavailable . with respect to the first option , use of the default value , this was explained with reference to step 40 . with respect to the second option , combining the actual measurement and a default value , the rnc combines these in different ways depending upon the reason why the measurement is invalid . if the measurement is invalid because the latest actual measurement in the database is too old , then an equation similar to equation 1 can be used : m ( t )= α ( t )· m actual +( 1 − α ( t ))· m default equation ( 2 ) in equation 2 , the time - decaying α term is applied to m actual and t is the elapsed time since the measurement was stored in the database . preferably this α function differs from the one used in equation 1 in that it is chosen to decay much more slowly . if the actual measurement is declared invalid because the system is in a transient state , but fresh actual measurements are available , a weighted combination of the actual measurement and the default value is used : where a + b = 1 and the weighting factors a and b are configurable parameters that are optimized based on simulations or observations of the system . note that different measurements could have different weighting factors . with respect to the third option of adding a margin to the actual measurement , preferably a time - varying error margin is added to the actual measurement , as described by : where margin is a time - varying margin which is large at time zero , immediately following the initiation of the transient period , and monotonically decreases toward zero as the transient period ends . as is the case with equation ( 1 ), equation ( 4 ) is executed when the actual measurements are available , but are deemed not to be valid due to a transient period or an expired timestamp . note that this option is only valid in the case where measurements or metrics monotonically increase or decrease towards the converged value . in the case where measurements or metrics oscillate around the converged value , this option is not optimum . this option has the advantage that predictive measurements need not be presumed to exist during the transient period . it is further possible to execute equation ( 1 ) when predictive measurements are available and execute equation ( 4 ) when margin is considered the best “ prediction .” with respect to the last option of step 50 regarding declaring resources to be unavailable , if it has been determined that actual measurements , predictive values , adding a margin to an actual measurement or a combination of any of these options is undesirable , the system may simply decline to send an rrm measurement and those resources for which the rrm measurement was requested will be deemed by the assistant to be unavailable . accordingly , those resources will not be used . the result of the determination as to whether to use the actual value at step 44 , a predictive value at step 38 , a default value at step 40 , a combined actual measurement with a predictive value at step 48 , or one of the options in step 50 , is then used to provide the requested rrm measurement . to facilitate the management of measurements , a centralized measurement control unit is utilized at the rnc . the centralized measurement control unit implements the following functions : ( 1 ) storing received measurements within a central structure ; and ( 2 ) measurement processing , including measurement filtering , tracking measurement age , and validity ( e . g ., assigning timestamp upon reception , and age threshold comparison ) and selecting between or combining predicted values and actual measurements . a centralized measurement control unit 80 made in accordance with the present invention is shown in fig3 . the measurement control unit 80 includes a measurement setup unit 81 , a measurement reception and storing unit 82 , a measurement processing unit 83 and a measurement output unit 84 . the measurement setup unit 81 implements the measurement setup procedures with respect to the wtru and the node b . it is responsible for the setup and configuration of measurements . more specifically , it communicates with the node b and the wtru rrc layers to setup , modify , and end measurements , giving all measurement configuration details ( e . g ., averaging period , reporting criterion / period ). the measurement reception and storing unit 82 stores the actual and predicted wtru and node b measurements in an organized structure . this includes assigning timestamp information upon reception of a measurement in order to track the age of the measurement . the measurement processing unit 83 filters received measurements , verifies measurement validity and / or availability and combining actual measurements , predicted values and default as appropriate . the measurement processing unit 83 is responsible for all of the measurement processing that is described in the present invention . the measurement output unit 84 provides proper measurements to rrm functions upon request ( i . e ., providing actual measurements when valid , predicted measurements when unavailable or invalid or a combination of actual measurements , predicted values and default values , such as are illustrated in fig1 at steps 38 , 40 , 44 , 48 , and 50 ). moreover , this measurement output unit 84 can optionally be responsible for triggering rrm functions when measurements exceed a predetermined threshold .
7 (Electricity)
a method for detecting high impedance faults ( hifs ) by analyzing a local deviation from a regularization according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention will now be described . in fig1 , an input waveform is received from a power distribution network ( 105 ). the power distribution network may be any alternating current electrical transmission or distribution system or facility . the input waveform is measured ( recorded ) and is represented by a 1 - dimensional table of numbers iw ( s ), indexed by s = 0 , 1 , 2 . . . n − 1 , where n is the length of the table . the parameters describing this table include the time signature of the start of the measurement , a sampling rate r ( indicating how often the samples were taken ) and implicitly the total time ( n / r ) over which the samples were taken . an exemplary sampling rate may be 256 samples per cycle at 60 cycles per second . upon receipt of the input waveform , a table rms ( t ) of root mean square ( rms ) values indexed by t is computed ( 110 ). rms ⁡ ( t ) = 1 w ⁢ ∑ s - 0 w - 1 ⁢ iw ⁡ ( t * δ ⁢ ⁢ t + s ) 2 , with w representing the length of a sliding window ( in many samples ) over which rms was computed , δt representing the amount in seconds the sliding window is moved each time a normalized rms value is computed and s representing a running index of the samples within the sliding window . the number rms ( t ) represents the rms value of the input waveform at time t * δt . the value of w is a parameter that can be used to tune the algorithm . for example , in the case of a quasi - period input waveform , such as an alternating current ( ac ), the length w of the sliding window can be chosen as a multiple of the number of samples in a single cycle . thus , using the cycle mentioned above , the multiple of 1 / 60 of a second worth of samples , i . e ., 256 , is used . the multiple could be larger than 1 / 60 of a second or it could be smaller than 1 / 60 of a second . however , choosing a w that is smaller than half the cycle length , i . e ., smaller than 128 , creates artificial periodic anomalies . it is also noted that the sliding window is generally moved by w = δt * r ; however , these parameters do not have to be equal . in addition , choosing a length w of the sliding window larger than δt * r creates a smoothing effect . with the table rms ( t ) of rms values indexed by time computed ( factoring in the value of δt ), a regression line is fit thereto ( 115 ). for this , another sliding window of length d is used . this window is moved using a step size 1 , which corresponds to an increment of time equivalent to δt . for each position of the sliding window a linear model is fit to the rms data in the interval [ t − d / 2 , t + d / 2 ], and then a value f ( t ) of the linear model at the midpoint of the interval is computed . it is noted that the linear model can be replaced by a different model , such as polynomial , polynomial spline or trigonometric . a deviation between the locally fit line and the rms values is computed ( 120 ). the deviation is represented mathematically as : aif ( t )= rms ( t )− f ( t ). the value aif ( t ) is a difference between the linear model f ( t ) and the rms value rms ( t ) both computed at the midpoint of the sliding window d . the deviation can then be used as a fault indicator . prior to doing this , several parameters are chosen . it is noted that the following parameters can be chosen in any order . the first parameters to be chosen are a length q of a new sliding window ( 125 a ) and a step s ( 125 b ) smaller than q . the window length q may correspond to about 30 minutes of data , and the step s may correspond to about 10 minutes of data , for example . a mean value m of aif ( t ) over this window is computed . from this , a maximum m of | aif ( t )− m | over the window is computed . given the window and the step we can establish fault indicators for all the indices t in the interval of length s in the center of the window q , for this we chose a threshold t ( 125 c ). the threshold t is generally a value that lies between 0 and 1 ( i . e ., 0 & lt ; t & lt ; 1 ). now that the parameters have been chosen , it is determined whether the deviation is above the threshold t ( 130 ). for each t within the center interval of length s ( within the window q ) for which | aif ( t )− m | exceeds t * m , a “ fault ” is reported ( 135 a ) and for each t for which | aif ( t )− m | exceeds t * m , a “ no fault ” is reported ( 135 b ). it is noted that when a “ fault ” is reported , the algorithm is indicating that a “ fault occurred ”, not that “ the line is in a fault state ”. to establish the fault indicators for next values of the index t , we slide the window q by the step s , recalculate the values m and m , and then , compare the deviations | aif ( t )− m | to t * m in the new center interval of length s . it is noted that these center intervals do not overlap or leave gaps . the results of this determination are then placed in a fault occurrence table ( 140 ). the fault occurrence table is represented by a one - dimensional table of binary values fot ( t ), t = 1 , 2 . . . m . the binary value 1 indicates “ fault occurred ” and the binary value 0 indicates “ no fault occurred ” in the network for the state of the input waveform at the index t , which represents the time t * δt . the fault occurrence table can then be used to trigger alarms at moments t when fot ( t ), or when some other function , such as a high running average , shows a high binary value . fault occurrence tables that are calculated using different threshold values can also be used with the aid of receiver operating characteristic ( roc ) curves , to determine the best threshold level , which can be used to optimize the sensitivity of detection while keeping the frequency of false alarms low . a system for detecting hifs by analyzing a local deviation from a regularization according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention will now be described . in fig2 , a portion of a typical three - phase power distribution network is shown by reference numeral 205 . phase conductors 210 a - d of distribution network 205 are each monitored by current transformers 215 a - d . connected to the current transformers 215 a - d is a sensor 220 that collects analog signals representing phase currents of the phase conductors 210 a - d provided from the current transformers 215 a - d . the sensor 220 may be a lindsey multicore sensor available http :// www . lindsey - usa . com / cvmi . php . the sensor 220 may be mounted to a pole on which the current transformers 215 a - d are located . the sensor 220 may represent one or a multiple of sensors . the sensor 220 provides the collected data to a computer 225 , for example . the computer 225 may be a laptop that is used by a field technician , a computer found in an electrical substation or a central computer found at a power companies &# 39 ; headquarters . data may be transmitted from the sensor 220 to the computer 225 either by direct connection or by using broadband over power lines , for example . the computer 225 may include an analog - to - digital ( a / d ) converter 230 if a / d conversion has not already been performed by the sensor 220 . the computer 225 also includes a central processing unit ( cpu ) 235 , a memory 240 and a hif detection module 245 that includes program code for executing methods in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention . the computer 225 is also coupled to input and output devices 250 and 255 . the memory 240 includes random access memory ( ram ) and read only memory ( rom ). the memory 240 can also include a database , disk drive , tape drive or a combination thereof . the input 250 is constituted by a keyboard or mouse and the output 255 is constituted by a display or printer . fig3 is a schematic representation of the setup for an experiment that was conducted to test a method for detecting hifs by analyzing a local deviation from a regularization according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention . in fig3 , the line between stations 101 - 104 is a feeder , e . g ., a medium voltage ( 13 kv ) transmission line , that provides power from a substation ( located near station 104 ) to customers . the customers are connected to the feeder by transformers , which reduce the voltage to 120v , that sit on laterals . the segment to the right of the feeder ( test experiment site ) is such a lateral ; however , it is isolated from the customers and does not have transformers . sensors were situated on each of the stations 101 - 104 and they collected data from each of the four transmission lines of the feeder . fig4 shows results of the experiment represented as roc curves . in fig4 , data streams , such as a current on phase b ( wire b ) at station 102 , a current on phase b ( wire b ) at station 101 , a current on phase b ( wire b ) at station 104 and a voltage on the neutral phase at station 101 , were measured . a different threshold was applied to each of the measurements . for the given thresholds , points were plotted on each of the graphs , with the proportion of false positives to all false detections marked on the horizontal axes and the proportion of true positives to all true detections marked on the vertical axes . in general , an roc curve is monotone , i . e ., it joins the point ( 0 , 0 ) for a threshold of 0 and the point ( 1 , 1 ) for a threshold of 1 . thus , for better detection methods , the curve should lie closer to the upper left hand corner ( like that shown by the roc curves for station 102 , phase b and station 104 , phase b ), and for worse detection methods , the curve lies closer to the diagonal ( like that shown for the roc curve of station 101 , voltage , neutral phase ). it is noted that a detection method that produces points below the diagonal is worthless , since it provides proportionally more false positives than true detections . by using the present invention , bursts in an input signal , which appear in a short time range , can be detected . such bursts can be alternately detected by analyzing amplitudes of higher frequencies in fourier or wavelet transforms of the signal . however , as opposed to these methods , the invention is better tuned to detect isolated or highly non - periodic bursts , which often appear at hifs . for example , as discussed above , the burst of the signal is separated from the typical background behavior by averaging the first signal ( to get rid of basic frequencies ), then subtracting a locally found trend line from the signal ( to get rid of the changes slow in time ) and finally using thresholding to produce a yes / no decision signal . this is particularly advantageous , since anomalies of the signal that occur within a short time range can be detected with high precision , from either an on - site location or a central command station . it is noted that although the present invention has been discussed with particular reference to detecting hifs on power lines , the invention is not limited thereto . for example , the present invention may also be used to detect a fault in a signal emanating from a telephone line or a control system . in addition , the electrical signal may be a non - periodic signal , such as a direct current ( dc ) signal used on a high - voltage dc transmission line . it is understood that the present invention may be implemented in various forms of hardware , software , firmware , special purpose processors , or a combination thereof . in one embodiment , the present invention may be implemented in software as an application program tangibly embodied on a program storage device ( e . g ., magnetic floppy disk , ram , cd rom , dvd , rom , and flash memory ). the application program may be uploaded to , and executed by , a machine comprising any suitable architecture . it is also understood that because some of the constituent system components and method steps depicted in the accompanying figures may be implemented in software , the actual connections between the system components ( or the process steps ) may differ depending on the manner in which the present invention is programmed . given the teachings of the present invention provided herein , one of ordinary skill in the art will be able to contemplate these and similar implementations or configurations of the present invention . it is further understood that the above description is only representative of illustrative embodiments . for the convenience of the reader , the above description has focused on a representative sample of possible embodiments , a sample that is illustrative of the principles of the invention . the description has not attempted to exhaustively enumerate all possible variations . that alternative embodiments may not have been presented for a specific portion of the invention , or that further undescribed alternatives may be available for a portion , is not to be considered a disclaimer of those alternate embodiments . other applications and embodiments can be implemented without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention . it is therefore intended , that the invention not be limited to the specifically described embodiments , because numerous permutations and combinations of the above and implementations involving non - inventive substitutions for the above can be created , but the invention is to be defined in accordance with the claims that follow . it can be appreciated that many of those undescribed embodiments are within the literal scope of the following claims , and that others are equivalent .
6 (Physics)
fig1 is a cross - sectional view of a precursor wire which is used for producing of an nb 3 sn superconducting wire which has a high critical current density according to the embodiment 1 of the present invention , and the precursor wire is generally denoted at 100 . the method of producing nb 3 sn superconducting wire will now be described with reference to fig1 . according to the method of producing nb 3 sn superconducting wire , first , an nb rod 1 is prepared whose size is diameter of 31 . 2 mm × length of 600 mm . next , a cu tube 2 containing sn is prepared whose size is outer diameter of 35 . 0 mm × inner diameter of 31 . 5 mm × length of 600 mm , and the nb rod 1 is inserted in the cu tube 2 . following this , this cu tube 2 is drawn and reduced in diameter until the outer diameter decreases down to 6 . 1 mm , and further reduced in diameter until the cu tube becomes hexagonal rod whose length of the opposite side is 5 . 2 mm . at this step , a cu / nb composite rod 3 is obtained whose cross section is approximately hexagonal . next , the cu / nb composite rod 3 is cut to 175 mm , and thus obtained 121 rods are bundled and inserted in a cu container 4 containing sn whose size is outer diameter of 70 mm × inner diameter of 63 . 5 mm × length of 185 mm . next , the cu container 4 is enclosed with caps at its both ends , and the cu container 4 and the caps are welded using an electron beam in vacuum and accordingly sealed up , and then hip - processed and integrated as one , whereby a cu / multi - nb composite rod is obtained . the cu / multi - nb composite rod is subjected to hot extruding and reduced in diameter until the outer diameter decreases down to 25 . 0 mm , and the periphery of the cu / multi - nb composite rod is machined until the outer diameter becomes 24 . 5 mm . further , the cu / multi - nb composite rod is drawn and reduced in diameter until the outer diameter decreases down to 2 . 2 mm , further reduced in diameter until the cu / multi - nb composite rod becomes a hexagonal rod whose length of the opposite side is 1 . 85 mm , and cut to 1000 mm . at this step , nb modules 7 are completed . meanwhile , separately from fabrication of the nb modules 7 , a sn rod 5 containing in is prepared whose size is diameter of 30 . 7 mm × length of 300 mm and inserted in a cu tube 6 containing sn whose size is outer diameter of 35 mm × inner diameter of 31 mm × length of 300 mm . after the sn rod is drawn and reduced in diameter until the outer diameter decreases down to 2 . 2 mm , the sn rod is further reduced in diameter until the sn rod becomes a hexagonal rod whose length of the opposite side is 1 . 85 mm , and cut to 1000 mm . sn modules 8 which are cu / sn composite rods are thus completed . next , as shown in fig1 , eighty - four nb modules 7 and thirty - seven sn modules 8 are arranged and bundled , except for those at the outermost periphery , in such a manner that the outer sn modules 8 are surrounded by the nb modules 7 as shown in fig1 . following this , a ta tube 9 is prepared whose size is outer diameter of 24 . 5 mm × inner diameter of 24 mm × length of 1000 mm , and the bundle of the nb modules 7 and the sn modules 8 is inserted in the ta tube 9 . further , a cu tube 10 is prepared whose size is outer diameter of 34 mm × inner diameter of 26 mm × length of 1000 mm , and the ta tube 9 is inserted in the cu tube 10 . at this step , a precursor wire 100 whose cross section is as shown in fig1 is formed . next , the precursor wire 100 is drawn until the outer diameter decreases down to 0 . 7 mm . the workability at the drawing step is extremely good and wire having the length of 1800 m without any breakage is obtained . this is because the sn modules 8 are the cu / sn composite rods which are obtained by inserting the soft sn rod 5 in the cu tube 6 and the hardness balance of the precursor wire 100 accordingly improves . this wire is heat - treated at last , whereby an nb 3 sn superconducting wire is obtained . in this example , measurement samples are cut out from drawn wire , then heat - treated in an inert gas atmosphere at 650 ° c . for ten days , and made as the nb 3 sn superconducting wire . at this step , the nb 3 sn superconducting wire having a high critical current density is completed . the critical current of obtained superconducting wire was measured at the temperature of liquid helium ( 4 . 2 k ) in a magnetic field of 12 t and found to be 430 a . the critical current density in non stabilized - copper area ( non - cu jc ) was 2200 a / mm 2 . from these results , it is clarified that use of the producing method according to this embodiment makes it possible to obtain an nb 3 sn superconducting wire which has a high critical current density and favorable drawing workability which can not be obtained with the conventional methods . in the case of the precursor wire 100 according to the embodiment 1 , a sn volume ratio of sn cores in the sn modules 8 is 78 . 1 %, a nb volume ratio of nb filaments in the nb modules 7 is 67 . 7 %, and a ratio of the number of the sn modules 8 to the number of the nb modules 7 is 1 : 2 . 27 . even if the diameters and the lengths of the nb modules 7 and the sn modules 8 in the precursor wire 100 are changed , and even if the outer diameters , inner diameters and the lengths of the ta tube 9 and the cu tube 10 in the precursor wire 100 are changed , and even if the final diameters and the lengths of the precursor wire 100 are changed , the ratio of nb volume in the nb modules 7 is stayed within the range from 50 % to 75 %, or more preferably , the range from 55 % to 70 %. in the same manner , the sn volume ratio in the sn modules 8 is stayed within the range from 70 % to 90 %, or more preferably , the range from 75 % to 85 %. as for the ratio of the number of the sn modules 8 to the number of the nb modules 7 , when the number of the sn modules 8 is 1 , the number of the nb modules 7 is from 1 . 9 to 2 . 5 , and more preferably , from 1 . 95 to 2 . 35 . in the precursor wire 100 having such a structure , nb in the nb modules 7 ( nb filaments ) and sn in the sn modules 8 ( sn cores ) are buried in separate cu matrices and structured as separate modules , and therefore , the volume fractions of the nb filaments and the sn cores in the precursor wire 100 are increased . as a result , nb 3 sn superconducting wire with the high jc properties is able to be obtained , because the nb 3 sn reacted with a high concentration sn and nb each other by final heat treatment . further , since the sn modules are arranged surrounding the nb modules except for those at the outermost periphery , sn diffusion gets directed inward in such directions that solid angles become narrow and the sn modules intercept physical or electromagnetic coupling between the nb modules . therefore , the performance of the obtained nb 3 sn itself is improved and the nb 3 sn superconducting wire with high jc and high stability is able to be obtained . consequently , as mentioned above , it is possible to get the nb 3 sn superconducting wire with non - cu jc exceeding 2000 a / mm 2 at 4 . 2 k and 12 t . in addition , as described above , as the sn cores are the sn modules 8 which are buried in the cu matrix , cu absorbs the difference in hardness between nb and sn and the drawing workability improves . it is therefore possible to easily produce a long length wire . however , when the nb volume ratio in the nb modules 7 is less than 50 % or the sn volume ratio in the sn modules 8 is less than 70 %, it is not possible to obtain the nb 3 sn superconducting wire with such a high current density as that described above , because the amount of nb 3 sn generated by heat - treatment is decreased . on the contrary , when the nb volume ratio in the nb modules 7 is larger than 75 % or the sn volume ratio in the sn modules 8 is larger than 90 %, it is not possible to obtain such a long nb 3 sn superconducting wire as that described above , because the drawing workability becomes considerably poor . further , when the ratio of the number of the sn modules 8 to the number of the nb modules 7 is that the number of the nb modules 7 is less than 1 . 9 relative to the number of the sn modules 8 of 1 , it is not possible to obtain the nb 3 sn superconducting wire with such a high current density as that described above , because the amount of nb 3 sn generated by heat - treatment is decreased by decreasing the amount of nb compared with sn . conversely , when the ratio of the number of the sn modules 8 to the number of the nb modules 7 is that the number of the nb modules 7 is larger than 2 . 5 relative to the number of the sn modules 8 of 1 , it is not possible to obtain the nb 3 sn superconducting wire with such a high current density as that described above , because the amount of nb 3 sn generated by heat - treatment is decreased by decreasing the amount of sn compared with nb . while the embodiment 1 uses sn rods whose in dose is 1 wt % as the sn rods 5 containing in , the in dose is preferably from 0 wt % to 2 wt %, and more preferably , from 0 . 5 wt % to 1 . 5 wt %. since this increases the hardness of the sn modules and reduces the hardness difference from the nb modules , it is possible to easily produce a long wire . however , when the in dose is more than 2 wt %, it is not possible to obtain the nb 3 sn superconducting wire with such a high current density as that realized by the embodiment 1 , because the amount of nb 3 sn generated by heat - treatment is decreased by decreasing the amount of sn . when no in is added on the contrary , although the drawing workability somewhat deteriorates , the method of producing the sn rods becomes simple and a long wire which is approximately similar to that according to the embodiment 1 is obtained . further , while the sn dose in the cu tube 2 , the cu container 4 and the cu tube 6 is 0 . 15 wt % in the embodiment 1 , the sn dose is preferably from 0 wt % to 2 wt %, and more preferably , from 0 . 05 wt % to 0 . 5 wt %. since such a structure enhances the hardness of the sn modules and that of the nb modules , it is possible to more easily produce a long wire . however , when the sn dose is more than 2 wt %, the drawing workability becomes considerably poor and such long wire as that described above can not be obtained . when no sn is added on the contrary , although the drawing workability somewhat deteriorates , the method of producing the cu tubes and the cu container becomes simple and a long wire which is approximately similar to that according to the embodiment 1 is obtained . in addition , although the embodiment 1 uses the ta tube 9 as a sn diffusion barrier , a similar effect is attained even using a ta plate as it is shaped like a tube for instance . further alternatively , instead of ta , any nb - based metal or the like may be used as long as the metal is effective in preventing diffusion of sn . fig2 is a cross - sectional view of a precursor wire which is used for producing an nb 3 sn superconducting wire which has a high critical current density according to the embodiment 2 of the present invention , and the precursor wire is generally denoted at 200 . fig3 is a cross - sectional view of an nb module 12 which is used in the precursor wire 200 . in fig2 and 3 , the same reference symbols as those used in fig1 denote the same or corresponding portions . the method of producing nb 3 sn superconducting wire will now be described with reference to fig2 and 3 . according to the method of producing nb 3 sn superconducting wire , first , as shown in fig3 , nb modules 12 are fabricated in which nb - based metal filaments are arranged in a cu - based metal matrix . to be more specific , a cu rod containing sn whose size is diameter of 6 . 1 mm × length of 3 m is made , and that rod is drawn to a hexagonal rod whose length of the opposite side is 5 . 2 mm , and cut to 175 mm . in this manner , sixteen cu rods 11 containing sn are made . meanwhile , by a method similar to that according to the embodiment 1 , one hundred and five cu / nb composite rods 3 are made whose length of the opposite side is 5 . 2 mm and length is 175 mm . next , as shown in fig3 , the cu rods 11 and the cu / nb composite rods 3 are bundled such that the cu rods 11 are lined up in the radius directions which are at 120 degrees with each other . the total number of the cu rods 11 and the cu / nb composite rods 3 is 121 . next , these are inserted in the cu container 4 containing sn whose size is outer diameter of 70 . 0 mm × inner diameter of 63 . 5 mm × length of 185 mm . following this , the cu container 4 is enclosed with caps at its both ends , and the container and the caps are welded using an electron beam in vacuum and accordingly sealed up , and then hip - processed and integrated as one , whereby a cu / multi - nb composite rod is obtained . by a method similar to that according to the embodiment 1 , the cu / multi - nb composite rod is then subjected to hot extruding and reduced in diameter until the outer diameter decreases down to 25 mm , and the periphery of the cu / multi - nb composite rod is machined until the outer diameter becomes 24 . 5 mm . further , the cu / multi - nb composite rod is drawn and reduced in diameter down to 2 . 2 mm , further reduced in diameter until the cu / multi - nb composite rod becomes a hexagonal rod whose length of the opposite side is 1 . 85 mm . this is cut to 1000 mm at last , whereby the nb modules 12 shown in fig3 are fabricated . meanwhile , by a method similar to that according to the embodiment 1 , the sn modules 8 whose length of the opposite side is 1 . 85 mm and length is 1000 mm shown in fig2 are fabricated . following this , as shown in fig2 , eighty - four nb modules 12 and thirty - seven sn modules 8 are arranged and bundled , except for those at the outermost periphery , in such a manner that the outer sn modules 8 are surrounded by the nb modules 12 as shown in fig2 . next , the ta tube 9 is prepared whose size is outer diameter of 24 . 5 mm × inner diameter of 24 . 0 mm × length of 1000 mm , and the bundle of the nb modules 12 and the sn modules 8 is inserted in the ta tube 9 . further , the cu tube 10 is prepared whose size is outer diameter of 34 mm × inner diameter of 26 mm × length of 1000 mm , and the ta tube 9 is inserted in the cu tube 10 . at this step , the precursor wire 200 whose cross section is as shown in fig2 is formed . next , the precursor wire 200 is drawn until the outer diameter decreases down to 0 . 7 mm . the workability at the drawing step is extremely good and wire material having the length of 1800 m without any breakage is obtained . this is because the sn modules 8 are the cu / sn composite rods which are obtained by inserting the soft sn rod 5 in the cu tube 6 and the hardness balance of the precursor wire 200 accordingly improves . this wire is heat - treated at last , whereby an nb 3 sn superconducting wire is obtained . in this example , measurement samples are cut out from drawn wire , then heat - treated in an inert gas atmosphere at 600 ° c . for ten days , and made as the nb 3 sn superconducting wire . at this step , the nb 3 sn superconducting wire having a high critical current density is completed . the critical current of obtained superconducting wire was measured at the temperature of liquid helium ( 4 . 2 k ) in a magnetic field of 12 t and found to be 390 a . the critical current density in non stabilized - copper area ( non - cu jc ) was 2020 a / mm 2 . from these results , it is clarified that use of the producing method according to this embodiment makes it possible to obtain an nb 3 sn superconducting wire which has a high critical current density and favorable drawing workability which can not be obtained with the conventional methods . according to the embodiment 2 , as described above , in the nb module 12 , the area of the plurality of the cu / multi - nb composite rods 3 is divided by the cu rods 11 , which are lined up in the radius directions which are at 120 degrees with each other , into three fan - shaped sections whose central angles are 120 degrees . in other words , this is a structure that the area where the nb filaments are buried in a proportional manner in the cu matrix ( i . e ., the nb filament bundles ) is partitioned into the three fan - like sections by the area of the cu rods 11 . by means of this structure , physical or electromagnetic coupling between the nb filament bundles inside the nb module 12 is blocked , and an nb 3 sn superconducting wire which is highly stable is obtained . in the case of the precursor wire 200 according to the embodiment 2 , a sn volume ratio of sn cores in the sn modules 8 is 78 . 1 %, a nb volume ratio of nb filaments in the nb modules 12 is 58 . 8 %, and the ratio of the number of the sn modules 8 to the number of the nb modules 12 is 1 : 2 . 27 . even if the diameters and the lengths of the nb modules 12 and the sn modules 8 in the precursor wire 200 are changed , and even if the outer diameters , inner diameters and the lengths of the ta tube 9 and the cu tube 10 in the precursor wire 200 are changed , and even if the final diameters and the lengths of the precursor wire 200 are changed , the ratio of nb volume in the nb modules 12 is stayed within the range from 50 % to 75 %, or more preferably , the range from 55 % to 70 %. in the same manner , the sn volume ratio in the sn modules 8 is stayed within the range from 70 % to 90 %, or more preferably , the range from 75 % to 85 %. as for the ratio of the number of the sn modules 8 to the number of the nb modules 12 , when the number of the sn modules 8 is 1 , the number of the nb modules 12 is from 1 . 9 to 2 . 5 , and more preferably , from 1 . 95 to 2 . 35 . when the nb volume ratio in the nb modules 12 is less than 50 % or the sn volume ratio in the sn modules 8 is less than 70 %, it is not possible to obtain the nb 3 sn superconducting wire with such a high current density as that described above , because the amount of nb 3 sn generated by heat - treatment is decreased . on the contrary , when the nb volume ratio in the nb modules 12 is larger than 75 % or the sn volume ratio in the sn modules 8 is larger than 90 %, it is not possible to obtain such a long nb 3 sn superconducting wire as that described above , because the drawing workability becomes considerably poor . further , when the ratio of the number of the sn modules 8 to the number of the nb modules 12 is that the number of the nb modules 12 is less than 1 . 9 relative to the number of the sn modules 8 of 1 , it is not possible to obtain the nb 3 sn superconducting wire with such a high current density as that described above , because the amount of nb 3 sn generated by heat - treatment is decreased by decreasing the amount of nb compared with sn . conversely , when the ratio of the number of the sn modules 8 to the number of the nb modules 12 is that the number of the nb modules 12 is larger than 2 . 5 relative to the number of the sn modules 8 of 1 , it is not possible to obtain the nb 3 sn superconducting wire with such a high current density as that described above , because the amount of nb 3 sn generated by heat - treatment is decreased by decreasing the amount of sn compared with nb . while the area where the nb filaments are buried in proportional manner in the cu - based metal matrix is divided into the three fan - shaped sections whose central angles are 120 degrees by the cu - based metal matrix inside the nb module 12 according to the embodiment 2 , a similar effect is attained even when the number of the divided sections is other than 3 as long as the ratio of nb volume in the nb modules 12 is from 50 % to 75 %, or more preferably , the range from 55 % to 70 %. further , although the foregoing has described that the cu rods 11 containing sn are used as the partitioning material , other metal such as ta rods for instance may be used instead which can block physical or electromagnetic coupling between the nb filaments inside the nb modules . still further , although the foregoing has described that a plurality of rods are used as the shape of as the partitioning material , other shape such as a plate - like shape may be used instead which is effective in blocking physical or electromagnetic coupling between the nb filaments inside the nb modules . while sn rods whose in dose is 1 wt % are used as the sn rods 5 containing in according to the embodiment 2 , similar effect is attained even using sn - based metal rods whose in dose is preferably from 0 wt % to 2 wt %, and more preferably , from 0 . 5 wt % to 1 . 5 wt %. however , when the in dose is more than 2 wt %, it is not possible to obtain the nb 3 sn superconducting wire with such a high current density as that realized by the embodiment 2 , because the amount of nb 3 sn generated by heat - treatment is decreased by decreasing the amount of sn . when no in is added on the contrary , although the drawing workability somewhat deteriorates , the method of producing the sn rods becomes simple and a long wire which is approximately similar to that according to the embodiment 2 is obtained . although the embodiment 2 uses cu rods , a cu tube and cu container whose sn dose is 0 . 15 wt % as the cu rods 11 containing sn , the cu tube 2 containing sn , the cu container 4 containing sn and the cu tube 6 containing sn , cu rods , a cu tube and a cu container whose sn dose is from 0 wt % to 2 wt %, and more preferably , from 0 . 05 wt % to 0 . 5 wt % may be used . however , when the sn dose is more than 2 wt %, the drawing workability becomes considerably poor and such a long wire as that described above can not be obtained . when no sn is added on the contrary , although the drawing workability somewhat deteriorates , the method of producing the cu rods , the cu tube and the cu container becomes simple and a long wire as that described above is obtained . although the embodiment 2 uses the ta tube 9 as a sn diffusion barrier , a ta plate or the like as it is shaped like a tube for instance may be used as the barrier . further , although ta is used as the material of the sn diffusion barrier , other metal such as nb - based metal may be used instead which is effective in preventing diffusion of sn . in the present invention , cu - based metal refers to pure cu or cu which contains sn in the amount of 2 wt % or less . nb - based metal refers to pure nb or nb which contains at least one of ta of 10 wt % or less , or ti of 5 wt % or less . sn - based metal refers to pure sn or sn which contains at least one of ti of 5 wt % or less , or in of 2 wt % or less .
8 (General tagging of new or cross-sectional technology)
fig1 depicts an exemplary data processing system capable of processing database queries for query processing according to embodiments of the present invention . the system of fig1 includes a number of computers connected for data communications in networks . each of the computers of the system of fig1 may have installed upon it a database management system capable of processing database queries in accordance with the present invention . the data processing system of fig1 includes wide area network (“ wan ”) 101 . the network connection aspect of the architecture of fig1 is only for explanation , not for limitation . in fact , systems for processing database queries according to embodiments of the present invention may be connected as lans , wans , intranets , internets , the internet , webs , the world wide web itself , or other connections as will occur to those of skill in the art . such networks are media that may be used to provide data communications connections between various devices and computers connected together within an overall data processing system . in the example of fig1 , several exemplary devices including a pda 112 , a computer workstation 104 , a mobile phone 110 , personal computer 102 , a laptop 126 , a server 106 , and another personal computer 108 are connected to wan 101 . the network - enabled mobile phone 110 connects to wan 101 through wireless link 116 , the pda 112 connects to network 101 through wireless link 114 and the laptop 126 connects to the network 101 through a wireless link 118 . in the example of fig1 , the personal computer 108 connects through a wireline connection 120 to wan 101 , the computer workstation 104 connects through a wireline connection 122 to wan 101 , the personal computer 108 connects through a wireline connection 124 to wan 101 , and the server 106 connects through a wireline connection 119 to wan 101 . in the system of fig1 , exemplary devices 120 , 108 , 112 , 104 , 106 , 110 , 126 , and 102 support a database management system capable of processing database queries and interacting with a user 100 . the arrangement of servers and other devices making up the exemplary system illustrated in fig1 are for explanation , not for limitation . data processing systems useful according to various embodiments of the present invention may include additional servers , routers , other devices , and peer - to - peer architectures , not shown in fig1 , as will occur to those of skill in the art . networks in such data processing systems may support many data communications protocols , including for example tcp ( transmission control protocol ), ip ( internet protocol ), http ( hypertext transfer protocol ), wap ( wireless access protocol ), hdtp ( handheld device transport protocol ), and others as will occur to those of skill in the art . various embodiments of the present invention may be implemented on a variety of hardware platforms in addition to those illustrated in fig1 fig2 is a block diagram of an exemplary system for processing database queries in accordance with the present invention according to embodiments of the present invention . the system of fig2 includes a computer 212 having installed upon it a database management system (‘ dbms ’) 250 . dbms 250 administers access to the contents of the database 262 . the dbms 250 includes an sql module 260 . the sql module is implemented as computer program instructions that execute a sql query 302 . the exemplary sql module 260 of fig2 also includes an exemplary plan generator 256 . each sql query is carried out by a sequence of database operations specified as a plan . the plan generator of fig2 is implemented as computer program instructions that create a plan for a sql query . a plan is a description of database functions for execution of an sql query . taking the following sql query as an example : plan generator 256 may generate the following exemplary plan for this sql query : this plan represents database functions to scan through the stores table and , for each stores record , join all transactions records for the store . the transactions for a store are identified through the storeid field acting as a foreign key . the fact that a selection of transactions records is carried out for each store record in the stores table identifies the join function as iterative . the exemplary plan generator 256 of fig2 includes a parser 252 for parsing the sql query . parser 252 is implemented as computer program instructions that parse the sql query . a sql query is presented to sql module 260 in text form , the parameters of an sql command . parser 252 retrieves the elements of the sql query from the text form of the query and places them in a data structure more useful for data processing of an sql query by an sql module . the exemplary plan generator 256 also includes an optimizer 254 implemented as computer program instructions that optimize the plan in dependence upon database management statistics 264 . optimizer 254 optimizes the execution of sql queries against dbms 250 . optimizer 254 is implemented as computer program instructions that optimize execution of a sql query in dependence upon database management statistics 264 . database statistics are typically implemented as metadata of a table , such as , for example , metadata of tables of database 262 or metadata of database indexes . database statistics may include , for example : histogram statistics : a histogram range and a count of values in the range , frequency statistics : a frequency of occurrence of a value in a column , and cardinality statistics : a count of the number of different values in a column . these three database statistics are presented for explanation only , not for limitation . the exemplary sql module 260 of fig2 also includes a primitives engine 258 implemented as computer program instructions that execute primitive query functions in dependence upon the plan . a ‘ primitive query function ,’ or simply a ‘ primitive ,’ is a software function that carries out actual operations on a database , retrieving records from tables , inserting records into tables , deleting records from tables , updating records in tables , and so on . primitives correspond to parts of a plan and are identified in the plan . examples of primitives include the following database instructions : retrieve the next three records from the stores table into hash table h 1 retrieve one record from the transactions table into hash table h 2 join the results of the previous two operations store the result of the join in table t 1 the sql module 260 of fig2 also includes an adaptive query processing module 150 . the adaptive query processing module 150 of fig2 is capable of processing database queries according to the present invention . the adaptive query processing module 150 includes computer program instructions capable of identifying poorly performing queries ; substituting an alternate plan to execute the query ; and executing the query using the alternate plan . fig3 is a block diagram of automated computing machinery comprising a computer 152 useful in processing database queries in accordance with the present invention according to embodiments of the present invention . the computer 152 of fig3 includes at least one computer processor 156 or ‘ cpu ’ as well as random access memory 168 (“ ram ”). stored in ram 168 is database management system 250 . the database management system 250 of fig3 includes an sql module 260 , which in turn includes a plan generator 256 and a primitives engine 258 . the sql module 260 of fig3 also includes an adaptive query processing module 150 . the adaptive query processing module 150 was described with respect to fig2 . also stored in ram 168 is an application 232 , a computer program that uses the dbms 250 to access data stored in a database . also stored in ram 168 is an operating system 154 . operating systems useful in computers according to embodiments of the present invention include unix , linux , microsoft nt ™, i5os , and many others as will occur to those of skill in the art . operating system 154 , dbms 250 , and application 154 in the example of fig3 are shown in ram 168 , but many components of such software typically are stored in non - volatile memory 166 also . the computer 152 of fig3 includes non - volatile computer memory 166 coupled through a system bus 160 to processor 156 and to other components of the computer . non - volatile computer memory 166 may be implemented as a hard disk drive 170 , optical disk drive 172 , electrically erasable programmable read - only memory space ( so - called ‘ eeprom ’ or ‘ flash ’ memory ) 174 , ram drives ( not shown ), or as any other kind of computer memory as will occur to those of skill in the art . the exemplary computer 152 of fig3 includes a communications adapter 167 for implementing connections for data communications 184 , including connections through networks , to other computers 182 , including servers , clients , and others as will occur to those of skill in the art . communications adapters implement the hardware level of connections for data communications through which local devices and remote devices or servers send data communications directly to one another and through networks . examples of communications adapters useful according to embodiments of the present invention include modems for wired dial - up connections , ethernet ( ieee 802 . 3 ) adapters for wired lan connections , and 802 . 11b adapters for wireless lan connections . the example computer of fig3 includes one or more input / output interface adapters 178 . input / output interface adapters in computers implement user - oriented input / output through , for example , software drivers and computer hardware for controlling output to display devices 180 such as computer display screens , as well as user input from user input devices 181 such as keyboards and mice . fig4 illustrates a method 300 for processing an sql query . a query 302 , for example an sql query , is received . the query can be compiled as indicated 304 , and executed at 306 . query execution 306 can both write data to data store 308 and read data from data store 308 , as indicated at 310 . fig5 is a more detailed view of method 300 of fig4 . method 300 can include query 302 being parsed in parse query step 312 and a logical query plan generated in step 314 . the results of the logical query plan can be used to generate multiple , logically equivalent physical query plans in step 316 . one of the logical query plans , likely the lowest cost plan , can be selected for execution in step 318 . the selected physical plan can be executed in step 320 and the results of the query returned to the application in step 322 . fig6 illustrates a method 340 incorporating some aspects of an embodiment of the present invention . method 340 can operate on a set of generated physical plans , for example physical plans generated by step 316 of fig5 . the execution of the selected physical plan can be begun in step 344 , with the execution time of the selected plan checked periodically in step 346 . if the preset maximum allowed time for the selected plan execution has been reached , then branch 350 is taken at step 346 , to select another physical plan to execute at step 342 , preferably not the plan currently being executed . if the maximum execution time has not been reached , then branch 348 is taken at step 346 , ultimately path 352 may be taken to execute step 354 , in which the query processing results are returned to the application . fig6 is a simplified illustration , with a more detailed illustration of one method being shown in fig8 . fig7 illustrates another aspect of an embodiment method 360 , including implementing the time - up step 346 of method 340 in fig6 . method 360 can include selecting a best physical plan step 342 , as described with respect to fig6 . an estimated or maximum time allowed for execution of the selected physical plan can be retrieved and used to set a timer in step 362 . execution can be begun in step 364 . when execution of the selected physical plan is complete , the timer can be deactivated in step 368 and the query processing results returned to the application in step 366 . not shown in fig7 is the result of the timer timing out , which would result in other steps being taken . these other steps can include checking the current plan being executed , putting the current plan into a safe state , selecting another plan , re - costing current plans in light of the new information , and the like . fig8 - 10 may or may not be read by referring also to referring to fig1 when reading the text associated with fig8 - 10 . this text sometimes refers to reference numerals beginning with number 500 , which are used in fig1 to illustrate one example of the invention . the high level aspect of fig8 - 10 may understood without referring to the 500 series reference numerals of fig1 without loss of understanding . for this reason , the 500 series reference numerals are enclosed in parentheses in the discussion of fig8 - 10 . fig8 illustrates the startup steps for one embodiment of the invention , with an ipl or boot step shown at 402 . after ipl step 402 , a system job ( 512 ) can be created in step 404 to handle and log the problem or “ runaway ” queries , those queries taking longer than expected . this user job can act as a single point through which the problem query information passes , in some embodiments . after creation , system job ( 512 ) can wait to receive a message as shown in step 406 . in step 408 , a queue ( 510 ) can be created to handle timer messages . in step 410 , a plan cache ( 534 ) can be created , to contain the various plans which will be generated to handle the queries . fig9 illustrates one method 412 that can be executed when a query is to be executed . in step 414 a user job ( 500 ) begins to execute the db query . the first time this user job attempts to execute a query , a queue ( 503 ) is created in step 416 , which will receive runaway query messages , if any are generated . a timed message is created in step 418 , and sent to a timer ( 508 ) in step 420 . in a normal case , with no runaway query , indicated by the “ y ” branch from step 422 , the timer will be cancelled by the successfully completed query in step 424 . in the event there is a runaway query , indicated by the “ n ” branch from step 422 , the timer message is not cancelled , indicated by arrival at step 426 . fig1 illustrates a method 430 , which can be executed when step 426 of fig9 is arrived at due to a runaway query . in step 432 , the expired timer message is processed through a timed message queue ( 510 ) and received by the system job ( 512 ), which has been waiting on such a message receipt . the message receipt can be logged in step 434 . some further detailed evaluation ( indicated at 514 in fig1 ) may be performed in some embodiments . if there is indeed a runaway query , then a determination is made in step 436 as to whether a guardian thread already exists . if a guardian thread does not exist , as it normally will not exist , a signal event is generated at step 438 to tell the user job to create the guardian thread . in step 440 , the timer message can then be sent to the previously created queue ( 503 ), which can retrieve the timer message from the queue ( 503 ) and act upon it as discussed further with respect to fig1 . fig1 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of the invention , previously referred to with respect to fig8 - 10 . as previously discussed , upon ipl , a system job 512 , a system timed message queue 510 , and a database plan cache 534 can be created . significant additional system - wide overhead to handle the aspects of the present invention is not created in some embodiments of the present invention . a user job or application 500 is shown , having a main thread 502 . user job 500 typically exists to process db queries . a user job timer message queue 503 can be created , to handle runaway db queries , if any arise . a guardian thread 524 is not yet created in some embodiments , as the extra overhead required to launch the secondary thread is wasted on normal db queries . a query process 504 is executed , to execute the query , for example , an sql query . before the execution of the query is begun , a timed message 514 is created at 506 and sent to system timer 508 . the timed messages 514 can be objects which derive from a common base class so system job 512 can process the objects or messages in a polymorphic manner . during database startup , in some embodiments , named message pools can be created for each concrete type of message or object . these pools can perform the function of recycling objects of the same type and can reduce the overhead of running constructors and destructors . the message pools can create new messages on demand up to some high water mark based on system activity . the message can be an object which includes instructions as to what to do should the timer expire . the time entered in the timer is related to the estimated completion time of the physical plan to be executed , in many embodiments . the timer may be the estimated completion time adjusted upward by a percentage and / or an absolute amount of time , depending on the embodiment . the scheduled message is one example of a system timer , used in this example . other timers may be used in other embodiments . the system timer functionality is indicated at 508 , which can receive and handle the timer message 514 and later enqueue the timer message , if required , on queue 510 . the query execution can be begun at 520 . when the query is normally completed , the timed message can be cancelled as indicated at 532 . this will cancel the timed message function to make sure that the message is not sent . if the timer expires , timer 508 has the id of the queue to send the timed message to . so , timer 508 can send timed message 514 to system queue 510 . as system job 512 was waiting on a receive , system job 512 wakes up , logs the received message to a log file , and pushes the ( doit ) method within message ( object ) 514 , as indicated at 513 . the thread of control can come into the doit method in the watcher object 514 , which can hold user job 500 safely ; to see if it is the same message the same query is running . if so , then a runaway query message can be en - queued on queue 503 . the method can also test to determine if guardian thread 524 currently exists . the guardian thread will not normally exist until needed to handle a runaway query . in some embodiments , an event handler will be registered so that other jobs can asynchronously notify this job to perform some action . the initial uses of events can be : ( 1 ) tell the user job to spawn a guardian thread and interrogate the maintenance queue for a specific action to perform ; ( 2 ) tell the user job to conditionally ( only if the current plan has not reached the point of no return ) cancel the current sql plan and restart the query using a new plan found in plan cache 534 . in such embodiments , if guardian thread 524 does not exist , then the do it method in watcher object 514 can raise an event for user job 500 to cause the creation of the guardian thread . an event is used for signaling in some embodiments , as it can be looked at when the user job is at a quiesce point . that event , which can be generated in object or message 514 , is the indication , handled by an event handler 522 , that guardian thread 524 should be started . thus , a secondary thread , guardian thread 524 is started , which will receive a message from queue 503 . in some embodiments , a runaway message was constructed by a method of object 514 and enqueued on queue 503 . this message can be a message that will tell the guardian thread that we need to re - optimize , because we have a runaway query . guardian thread 524 can do a receive message as indicated within object 524 . the guardian thread can do a receive message , and doit method 527 within object 526 can be executed . now , with guardian thread 524 , we can analyze the running query , and determine if there is a problem . the method can analyze the running query , and determine if there is in fact a problem . when problem detection is triggered , the currently executing plan can be interrogated ( by the secondary thread ) to identify potentially volatile constructs . examples of volatile constructs , also referred to as risky constructs or risky parts of plans , include use of techniques that restrict join order optimization such as order by / group by pushdown , or lack of consideration for more complex star join processing techniques . these constructs are likely to be the cause of why the query is not completing as expected . information about the problem may also be placed in a history log , job log or other logging mechanism . if there is a problem , the currently running plan can be re - costed or otherwise marked as risky or long running . the re - costing process in the query job can occur in a secondary thread so as not to interfere with the executing plan ( to minimize disruption should the plan ultimately complete ). during the re - costing process , potential plans that contain these constructs will either not be considered as part of the plan space or forced to be reconsidered , as applicable . in some embodiments , risky constructs or risky parts of the plan that were used in the problem query can be removed from consideration from future executions of at least this query , and the query re - costed and re - optimized , given the new information . at the completion of the re - costing process , the new plan can be enlisted in a plan cache with an indication that this new plan should be considered over the original plan that was already in the cache . at this point the progress of the originally chosen plan can be interrogated to see if it has yet reached the ‘ point of no return .’ if the database still has the freedom to replace the currently executing plan and it is viewed that this plan still has a significant amount of processing to reach completion , the database engine can be interrupted so as to replace the current plan executable with the re - optimized plan executable and re - start the execution . referring again to fig1 , the selection of physical plans can be made again , with another plan selected from database plan cache 524 . the newly selected executable plan can be put into place and a signal sent at 528 , to restart the query , as indicated at 530 . note that this restart can be done at a low level in the query processing such that the user is not aware of the change . in another embodiment , the secondary thread may choose to make environmental changes to help the currently executing plan based on its intimate query plan knowledge . for example , it may fully load some object ( index or table ) into ram which the query is faulting on , add hardware resources ( cpu , ram ) with corresponding tweaks to the running plan ( versus full reoptimizations ) so the plan can take advantage of the resource , rebuild and replace a hash table based on observed cardinalities , or migrate the task to another cpu or node , for example if a remote node is querying / updating the same tables . note that while there are techniques to extend the ‘ point of no return ’ by tracking already returned records , in practice this is not always necessary . most problem queries have a basic signature that they run for a considerable amount of time before returning any records . also , query results are normally buffered such that many records are put into the user buffer before control is returned by the database . consequently the window up to the point of no return is quite large for problem queries and often more than sufficient to detect and correct the problem . exemplary embodiments of the present invention are described largely in the context of sql . this is for ease of explanation and not for limitation . optimizing database queries is not limited to sql . in fact , other query languages exist such as xml , qry / 400 , open query file (‘ opnqueryf ’), dll and the database queries may include queries of all such query languages and many others as will occur to those of skill in the art . exemplary embodiments of the present invention are described largely in the context of a fully functional computer system for processing database queries . readers of skill in the art will recognize , however , that the present invention also may be embodied in a computer program product disposed on signal bearing media for use with any suitable data processing system . such signal bearing media may be transmission media or recordable media for machine - readable information , including magnetic media , optical media , or other suitable media . examples of recordable media include magnetic disks in hard drives or diskettes , compact disks for optical drives , magnetic tape , and others as will occur to those of skill in the art . examples of transmission media include telephone networks for voice communications and digital data communications networks such as , for example , ethernets ™ and networks that communicate with the internet protocol and the world wide web as well as wireless transmission media such as , for example , networks implemented according to the ieee 802 . 11 family of specifications . persons skilled in the art will immediately recognize that any computer system having suitable programming means will be capable of executing the steps of the method of the invention as embodied in a program product . persons skilled in the art will recognize immediately that , although some of the exemplary embodiments described in this specification are oriented to software installed and executing on computer hardware , nevertheless , alternative embodiments implemented as firmware or as hardware are well within the scope of the present invention . it will be understood from the foregoing description that modifications and changes may be made in various embodiments of the present invention without departing from its true spirit . the descriptions in this specification are for purposes of illustration only and are not to be construed in a limiting sense . the scope of the present invention is limited only by the language of the following claims .
6 (Physics)
referring first to fig1 which best shows the general features of the invention , it can be seen that the toy roadway tile , indicated generally by the reference numeral 100 , is shown in use with similar tiles in a toy roadway system 101 . the system is shown as having a roadway of complex form on which are carried toy automobiles 102 . various suitable buildings 103 may be provided throughout the system . referring next to fig2 it can be seen that the tile 100 is provided with a main body 104 which is formed of sheet material and has a plurality of edges 109 . the main body is provided with visual land areas 105 which are associated with the top surface 106 and which serve to define a roadway 107 lying within the periphery of the main body . a tab plate 108 is attached to the bottom surface of the main body 104 and extends beyond the edges 109 thereof , so that the plate can be placed between the main body and the corresponding tab plate of another similar tile . fig3 shows the details of construction of one form of the tile 100 and it shows the manner in which the parts are assembled . it is clear that a spacer 110 lies between the main body 104 and the bottom surface of the tab plate 108 . the main body is connected to the tab plate inwardly of its edges 109 , so that the tab plate of a similar tile can be clamped between the main body and the tab plate . the tile is provided with a second main body 111 which is similar in size to the said first main body 104 and is attached to the other surface of the tab plate through a spacer 112 . the top surface of the main body 111 is provided with land areas 113 defining a different pattern of roadway as , will be explained further hereinafter . in fig3 each main body 104 and 111 is formed of sheet material and each edge of each main body is folded under to provide a resilient clamped lip 129 ( see fig5 ) between the main body and the tab plate 108 . fig4 a and 4b shows top and bottom plan views of the tiles 100 , showing a roadway 107 in the shape of a cross , whose arms terminate at the center of the sides 109 of the tile . as is evident in fig6 similar tiles 100 and 100 are joined together so that the roadways 107 form a continuous pattern . fig7 , 9 , 10 , 11 , and 12 show ways in which the tiles can be turned to provide different overall patterns of roadways . fig1 shows the manner in which a modified form of the invention in the form of a tile 116 is joined with other similar tiles to form a continuous roadway . fig1 is a perspective view of the end of the tile 116 , showing the manner in which the two main bodies are joined together main bodies 114 and 115 are joined together by means of integral triangular tabs 116 that are adapted to interlock with the main bodies and tabs of similar tiles the appearance of the tile in its front elevation is shown in fig1 ; the two main bodies 114 and 115 are joined together and are provided with a roadway 117 lying between land areas 118 and 119 . fig1 , 17 , 18 and 19 show a modified form of the tile as is evident in fig1 , the tile 120 is provided with a main body 121 with raised land areas 128 , a spacer 122 , a tab plate 123 , another spacer 124 and a second main body 125 . as is evident in fig1 , these elements are held together by rivets 126 . fig1 shows the tile 120 with the first main body 121 removed thus exposing the spacer 122 , the tab plate 123 , and the second main body 125 . as is evident in this view , the tab plate 123 is generally square in shape and is provided with a notch 127 at each corner , which notch serves to divide the outer edges of the tab plate into four tabs 128 . each tab has curved corners that engage stops provided by the edges of a spacer 124 and 122 . fig1 shows particularly well the manner in which raised land areas 128 are provided on the main bodies 121 and 125 to define the roadways it also shows the manner in which the tabs flex to form a resilient spring - like clamping means between the two main bodies . fig2 , 21 , and 22 shows the details of construction of another modified form of the invention , including a tile 130 in which it can be seen that the tab plate 131 is generally square with a bevel 130 at each corner . a spacer 133 is also shown as generally square and resides in a similarly shaped aperture 134 formed in the tab plate 131 . the main body 135 consists solely of land areas 136 formed of thick sheet material fastened by rivets 137 to the spacer 133 on the one hand and to the tab plate 131 on the other hand . as is evident in fig2 , the tab plate 131 is formed of sheet material of a first thickness and the spacer 133 is formed of sheet material of the thickness that is substantially greater than that of the tab plate . fig2 , 24 , 25 and 26 show the details of another modified form of the invention . the tile 138 is shown in fig2 as consisting of a first main body 139 which is joined through a spacer 140 to a second main body 142 . also lying between the two main bodies is a tab plate 141 having a central aperture 143 which is substantially the same size and shape as the spacer 140 except that the spacer has twice the thickness of the tab plate 141 , as is evident in fig2 . it should be noted that each side edge 144 is curved to fit a similarly - shaped curve 145 on the spacer 140 , thus acting as a stop and a locator to bring the land areas 146 into registry . fig2 and 28 show a variation of the tile in which the spacer 147 and the aperture 148 are provided with an enlargement 149 at each corner . in this variation of the invention , the tab plate 150 is provided with an edge recess 151 that defines a tab 152 which is shaped to fit a recess 153 between the enlargement 149 at the two adjacent corners of the spacer 147 thus bringing the adjacent edges of the main bodies of mating tiles together . in this version of the invention , the main body 155 is defined by the land areas 154 which are generally square in configuration . the tab plate 150 also has a square form and is larger than the main body . the spacer 147 is also generally square and is sandwiched between the main body ( as defined by the land areas 154 ) and the tab plate 150 . it lies , of course , in the similarly - shaped aperture 148 in the tab plate each edge of the tab plate is provided with a male shape adapted to fit snugly into a female shape or recess 153 formed on a corresponding edge of the spacer , so that the roadways on the two tiles will form a continuous roadway . fig2 and 30 show a modified form of the invention made up of a first main body 156 formed of sheet material , having a plurality of edges defining a plurality of corners . a second main body is fastened to the first main body and has the same general shape visual land areas 158 are associated with the non - facing surfaces of the main bodies , the land areas defining a roadway 159 within the confines of the main bodies 156 and 157 . means is provided to join the main bodies of the tile to the main bodies of a similar tile , thus bringing the edges into registry to form a continuous roadway between the tiles . each edge of the first main bodies is provided with a male shape 161 adapted to fit snugly in a female shape 162 formed on a corresponding edge of a main body of the similar tile . the said male shape 161 consists of a curved protuberance adjacent one corner of the first main body and a similar oppositely curved recess adjacent the other corner of a side , the recess and protuberance defining a straight edge between them . fig3 and 32 show a still further form of the invention in which the male shape 164 is trapezoidal in shape with rounded corners and the second main body prepares its female shape congruent with the male shape of the first main body and has its male shape congruent to the female shape of the first main body . when two tiles of this type are assembled to give the appearance shown in fig3 , the male shapes and the female shapes are alternated to lock the two tiles together and bring the straight edges of the bodies together to give a continuous roadway . fig3 and 34 show a variation of the invention in which the male and female shapes are generally semi - circular and each edge of each main body has two male shapes with a female shape adjacent it . for instance , the first main body of the tile 166 in fig3 has a semi - circular male shape 167 with a semi - circular recess 168 next to it . the other end of that side of the main body is provided with another male shape 169 and a recess 170 beside it . therefore , each male or female shape of the first main body is positioned with a shape of the opposite gender formed on the second main body so that , when a similar tile is brought into edge - to - edge relationship with the tile , the shapes take on an alternating over - and - under locking relationship . the variation of the invention shown in fig3 and 36 has a protuberance 171 and a recess 172 formed on the upper main body 173 of the tile 174 . the second main body 175 is provided with a protuberance 176 underlying the recess 172 , while a recess 177 underlies the protuberance 171 on the first main body . arranging these protuberances and recesses results in the edge 178 of the two main bodies engaging and registering to line up the roadways in the desired manner . fig3 and 38 show a still further variation of the invention in which the tile 179 is provided with alternate protuberances and recesses which serve to register the edges of the main bodies , so that they line up and make continuous the roadways on similar tiles brought into engagement with it . in fig3 and 40 the tile 180 is similarly a variation of the invention and includes a first main body 181 and a second main body 182 joined together . the main body 181 includes a protuberance 183 and a recess 184 formed along the edge 185 . similarly , the second main body 182 is provided with a protuberance 186 and a recess 187 formed along the edge 188 . extending between the main body 181 and the main body 182 is a square spacer 189 main bodies 181 and 182 consist solely of land areas whose individual sections are attached to the spacer 189 . spacer 189 functions as the roadway . referring to fig4 and 42 , it can be seen that the tile 189 has a protuberance 190 along an edge 192 , as well as a recess 191 . the protuberances and recesses engage to locate and lock the edges 192 together to provide continuous roadway structure to an adjacent similar tile . fig4 , 44 and 45 show a further variation of the invention including a tile 193 having a first main body 194 and a second main body 196 joined to a tab plate 195 . the upper surface of the first main body is provided with land areas 197 , lining a roadway 198 . normally , the second main body 196 is provided in its lower surface with land areas 199 defining a roadway 200 . as is best evident in fig4 , all of the edges 201 are provided with an inward bevel 202 , thus facilitating the slippage and entry of a tab plate of a similar tile between the main bodies 194 and 196 and the adjacent surfaces of the tab plate 195 . as is evident in fig4 , the main bodies 194 and 196 are cemented to the tab plate 195 in the central portion only by cement locations 203 and 204 respectively . fig4 shows a variation of a roadway pattern 205 on a tile 206 . the pattern is in the form of a straight roadway whose ends terminate on the centers of opposite edges of the tile . fig4 shows a roadway 207 on a tile 208 . the roadway 207 constitutes two arcs which merge together and have three terminals , each terminal being in the center of one of three edges of the tile 208 . fig4 shows a roadway 209 formed on the surface of the tile 210 , the roadway being in the form of a circle or cul - de - sac having one entry from the center of one side of the tile 210 . it can be seen , then , that the toy roadway tile in every case consists of a main body in sheet form having a plurality of straight side edges of equal length and a plurality of land areas on one surface of the main body . the land areas serve to define a pattern of roadways , including a roadway that terminates in the center of one side edge with the center line of the roadway perpendicular to the said side edge . the other surface of the tile is also provided with land areas defining a pattern of roadways , but the pattern is different from the pattern of land areas on the first surface . generally speaking , the configuration of the main body and the land areas is square . generally speaking , a first roadway pattern on a first side of the tile differs from the second roadway pattern on the other side of the tile , so that the first pattern of the tile matches the second pattern of another similar tile to provide a continuous pattern when the two tiles are placed together . in one version of the tile , the first pattern is in the shape of a cross and in a second version of the invention the pattern consists of non - contacting arcuate roadways , each joining the center of a side edge to the center of an adjacent side edge . the pattern could be a straight line of roadway joined the centers of both sides of the main body . it could also consist of two arcuate roadways that have ends that merge and terminate at the center of one side of the main body , the other end of each arcuate roadway terminating at the center of one of the sides adjacent the said one side of the main body . in one situation , the roadway pattern is a circle joined by a straight roadway to the center of one side of the main body . the operation and advantages of the invention will now be understood in view of the above description . to begin with , it is clear that the invention involves a toy which employes a mechanism for the temporary interconnection of its segments or tiles in such a way to provide a large number of potential configurations . in a preferred embodiment , an individual toy segment may be fitted to other square toy segments in eight orientations . each of these orientations may appear distinct as determined by the symmetry on the individual toy segment . the toy segments or tiles employ friction between the parts of their respective mechanisms to provide sufficiently stable interconnection while at the same time allowing disassembly without a requirement for the use of significant force . the present toy roadway tiles represent roads that have interconnecting mechanism which will not break easily , which are not difficult for a young child to assemble or disassemble , and which do not contain sharp protuberances or corners . furthermore , the roadway may be reconstructed without requiring either the use of separate pieces specifically for the purposes of fastening the toy segments together or having a framework which holds the toy segments in such a way that the perimeter of the toy is fixed and bounded . furthermore , multiple types of tiles are not necessary for the construction of varied patterns or roadways . the present invention alleviates the problems of the prior art by employing an interconnection mechanism which is integral to the toy or tile itself . this characteristic permits unbounded configurations without the possibility of the child losing ancillary or auxiliary toy parts . in addition , the mechanism permits the toy segments to be interconnected in such a way that either surface may be used , therefore , allowing for different ( but mating ) patterns to be placed on opposite surfaces of the tiles . the toy does not require any particular physical motor skills to assemble it , so that young children can use the toy . furthermore , a guiding mechanism is used to assist in the joining process . it is obvious that minor changes may be made in the form and construction of the invention without departing from the material spirit thereof it is not , however , desired to confine the invention to the exact form herein shown and described , but it is desired to include all such as properly come within the scope claimed . the invention having been thus described , what is claimed as new and desired to secure by letters patent is :
0 (Human Necessities)
referring first to fig1 and 2 , a choke ring structure 10 is integrated in the interior skin 12 of a fuselage of a mobile platform . multiple concentric circular ring segments 14 , 16 and 18 are coaxially disposed and project outwardly from a disk - shaped ground plane 11 having a center aperture 19 for placement of a mobile platform window 34 . note that the circular window 34 is exemplary , and the invention includes non - circular window configurations , e . g ., elliptical or rectangular . if the window 34 is non - circular , the ring structure 10 conforms substantially with the geometry of the window aperture , such that the window is encircled by or contained within the choke ring structure 10 . the ground plane 11 connects the ring segments 14 , 16 and 18 to a common surface , e . g . the interior skin 12 , although in alternate embodiments , an exterior skin or an intermediate surface ( not shown ) may be the common surface . the ground plane 11 is mounted on the interior skin 12 , with the ring segments 14 , 16 and 18 projecting generally perpendicularly to the ground plane 11 , inwards to the interior of the fuselage . adjacent ring segments 14 and 16 are separated by a groove 15 ; similarly , ring segments 16 and 18 are separated by a groove 17 . ring segments 14 , 16 and 18 have flat ridge surfaces 14 a , 16 a and 18 a . the grooves 15 , 17 provide dielectric gaps between ring segments 14 , 16 and 18 . the grooves are preferably air gaps , or alternately , may include a dielectric material , e . g ., ceramic , mica , glass , plastics , and oxides of various metals such as aluminum . the present invention includes almost limitless possibilities of cross sectional profiles — i . e ., surface contours 14 a , 16 a and 18 a are shown as flat ridges , however concave , convex , waveform , pointed , and other surface contours may be employed — and dielectric combinations for the choke ring structure 10 . the dimensions of the ridge surfaces 14 a , 16 a and 18 a in relation to the depth d of the adjacent grooves 15 , 17 is predetermined by the selected resonant frequency ω for the choke ring . the resonant frequency ω has a wavelength λ t . the depth d of the choke ring is approximately determined by the following equation : the width of the ridge surfaces 14 a , 16 a and 18 a and the grooves 15 and 17 are about one quarter of the depth ( d / 4 ) of the ring segments 14 , 16 and 18 . the quarter wavelength relationship may be more precisely optimized by iteratively adjusting the choke geometric parameters to achieve maximum coupling reduction , but the general relationship of one quarter of the wavelength is generally effective . further , the number of rings 14 , 16 and 18 affects the attenuation of coupled directional power . more or less ring segments may be used , however , in the example of fig1 , through the iterative adjustment process described above the inventors have determined that three ring segments are generally more effective than a single choke ring configuration ( not shown ). an even numbers of rings may be used as well . further , by varying the depth of the ring segments 14 , 16 and 18 , and the width of the grooves 15 , 17 and ridge surfaces 14 a , 16 a and 18 a , the choke ring structure 10 may achieve an increased bandwidth of signal attenuation . thus , the geometry of the choke ring structure 10 may be designed for greater bandwidth . referring next to fig3 , a simulated fuselage section 30 illustrates the principle of operation of the present invention . a source antenna 32 represents an exemplary ped as a source of emi . the source antenna is completely surrounded by the metal skin of the fuselage 30 . the fuselage has windows 34 at intervals along the length of the fuselage , which provide a path for emi to escape the interior of the fuselage . one or more external antennas 36 may be positioned on the exterior of the fuselage 30 . a normal passenger mobile platform includes a plurality of antennas 36 for various systems , e . g ., communication and navigation systems . the antennas 36 are typically located at various locations fore and aft , and are mounted on the top or bottom centerlines of the mobile platform . for clarity , fig3 illustrates just a segment of a fuselage , having a single source antenna 32 , a single victim antenna 36 and a single window 34 . however , it will be readily understood that the present invention is applicable to multi - antennas , multi - source and multi - window arrangements such as found in a typical passenger mobile platform . the choke ring structures 10 are positioned around each window 34 of the mobile platform . when emi signals are generated by the source antenna 32 — e . g ., peds located inside the fuselage 30 , the choke rings 10 attenuate emi radiating through the surface of the fuselage by forming a directional pattern that is directed generally at right angles to a vertical center plane through centerlines of the windows and orthogonal to fuselage 30 . in this way , the strongest emi is directed away from the victim antennas 36 , and the emi signals from the source 32 diminish in strength as they propagate from the orthogonal centerline through the window 34 . thus , while some portion of the emi signals are received by the victim antennas 36 , the received emi signals are greatly attenuated relative to the intended signals , and pose significantly less risk of interference with the electronics of the mobile platform than would be possible without the choke ring structures 10 . while the choke ring structure 10 is incorporated into the interior skin of the mobile platform fuselage in the example shown in fig1 and 2 , it will be understood that the crs 10 may be installed in either or both of the inside skin 12 or the exterior skin ( not shown ) of the fuselage , or alternately , may be placed between the interior 12 or exterior skin . the choke ring structure 10 is preferably formed of metallic , electromagnetically conductive material , such as copper beryllium , monel ®, tin plated copper clad steel , powder coated aluminum , stainless steel or similar antenna material . referring next to fig4 , a graph illustrates the results of an analysis designed to compare attenuation levels for various configurations of windows with and without choke ring structures 10 . in the configuration represented by fig3 , isolation results were determined for a cylinder or fuselage 30 having the following configuration : cylinder length ( l )= 80 in . ( approx .) cylinder radius ( r )= 42 in . ( approx .) flat section ( fs ) of body = 24 in . window ( 34 ) radius = 12 in . resonant frequency = 700 mhz choke ring ( 10 ) depth = d = λ t / 3 . 5 source antenna ( 32 )— dipole within cylinder victim antenna ( 36 )— simulated mobile platform blade at top centerline the broken line 100 represents a response for a window configuration without the choke ring structure 10 . a solid line 102 represents a response for a choke ring structure 10 having only a single ring segment . in the simplest form in which the choke ring structure 10 includes a singular ring , a lower level of signal reduction is provided ; in some instances , the single - ring configuration may be sufficient to achieve a desired level of signal attenuation . finally , a dotted line 104 represents a response for a choke ring structure 10 having three ring segments . as indicated in fig4 , a tuned response occurred at 660 mhz , a slightly lower frequency than the designed resonant frequency . attenuation of the emi for the 3 - ring choke ring structure 10 was approximately 20 db greater than the configuration without a choke ring structure . there was an obvious reduction in surface current on the fuselage 30 when the emi was predicted with the three - ring choke ring structure 10 installed around the window 34 , as opposed to when emi was predicted without a choke ring structure 10 around the window 34 . fig5 illustrates the current distribution in the skin of the simulated fuselage 30 without a choke ring structure . fig6 illustrates the current distribution in the skin of the simulated fuselage when a choke ring structure having three ring segments was used . fig5 and 6 were developed during the same simulation / analysis represented by fig4 . fig5 and 6 depict the current distribution that results on the surface of the simulated fuselage . in both fig5 and 6 , the stippled areas 106 represent areas of the fuselage surface 30 where current intensity was high . the clear regions 108 represent areas of the fuselage surface 30 having low current intensity . as is apparent from the graphic representations , the area of greater current intensity was significantly greater in the ring - less configuration than for the configuration with the three choke ring structure 10 . the results for the choke ring structure 10 having three rings 14 , 16 18 resulted in predominantly low current intensity levels except for minor sidelobe areas in the immediate proximity of the window . it is known that certain frequency bands are allocated for various aviation communications and navigation systems ( e . g ., gps ), and for various peds ( cellular phones , radio and uhf broadcasts , etc .) while such frequency bands are of concern for designing the various choke ring configurations , the choke ring structure may be designed to attenuate signals in all or some of the frequency bands , depending on cost considerations , the likelihood that some peds are used more than others , and various other combinations . table 1 provides a non - exclusive listing of some relevant frequency bands applicable to mobile platform communication and navigation systems . it should be noted that the square groove configuration shown in fig1 and 2 is exemplary , and that different profiles may be employed depending on the design criteria , for example , various frequencies that are sought to be attenuated . thus , the bottom of the groove may be rounded , i . e ., concave or convex , or may converge to a point , i . e ., a sawtooth profile . different profiles may be employed to increase the bandwidth of the response . similarly , surfaces 14 a , 16 a , 18 a can be modified for adjusting the bandwidth . each particular application involves the same iterative process described above , with analysis and testing . significant geometry and / or frequency changes may result in new profiles each of which follow the same iterative process . while the present invention is illustrated in the embodiment of a mobile platform window configuration to reduce emi associated with peds from interference with electronics systems , the choke ring structures may be used to prevent emi generated from peds in other circumstances too numerous to list here . for example , passenger trains are also susceptible to emi produced from internally operated peds , and would be within the scope of the present invention , as would a stationary communications station having a metal structure with windows adjacent to antennas placed outside of the communications station . thus , the present invention may be applied in various ground - based and non - transportation related applications , as well as in mobile platform applications . while the invention has been described with reference to a preferred embodiment , it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted for elements thereof without departing from the scope of the invention . in addition , many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the teachings of the invention without departing from the essential scope thereof . therefore , it is intended that the invention not be limited to the particular embodiment disclosed as the best mode contemplated for carrying out this invention , but that the invention will include all embodiments falling within the scope of the appended claims .
7 (Electricity)
the described embodiments are directed to a secure usb business and / or personal id card system ( inclusive of the card itself , fabrication , security software and architecture ) for allowing individuals such as patients , clients , etc ., to carry voluminous confidential records in his or her pocket , without risking tampering or invasion of privacy , and for allowing others to have access at a remote location to a full set of records via computer , in accordance with a hierarchical permissions policy . the system is herein disclosed in the context of a trusted medical record system to enable patients to carry their medical records on a business - card - sized flash memory that is shaped and adorned like a business card . however the secure usb business / id card system can also be utilized in other applications , such as : financial services cards , identity cards , and other portable record storage device applications . fig1 and 2a are a front view and back view , respectively , of the secure usb business / id card 100 which is substantially the same size as a standard transaction card or identification card and may be carried in a standard wallet . the size may range from half the size of a credit card or business card and be as large as 8 × 8 inches , the larger formats being used as identity badges . the data card 100 is a 128 megabyte to 1 terabyte wallet - sized flash memory device which can have magnetic strip or bar code capability . the data card 100 is a business - card size rectangular body including a front section ( fig1 ) bearing promotional information , and rear section ( fig2 ) bearing the functional features of the disk 100 . the card 100 is formed from plastic with a deployable usb plug 115 . the selectively deployable usb plug 115 lies within the profile of the card 100 and is selectively extendable to provide clearance for insertion into a complementary standard connector , such as a usb socket / receptacle . when the plug functionality is no longer required , the plug arrangement may be returned to a flush non - deployed state within the thin profile of the card 100 . the selective deployment of the plug arrangement is typically achieved by relative motion of the plug 115 within a channel 116 . various deployment mechanisms may be used . for example , the relative motion may be a scissor - type opening of the plug 115 relative to the plane of the card 100 . alternatively , the opening action may be by unfolding the plug 115 like a flap out of the channel 116 . still further , the relative motion may be a slide which advances the plug 115 relative to the channel 116 . the plug 115 interfaces embedded electronic circuitry in the card 110 which includes a flash memory component and control circuitry on a flexible pcb . fig2 b illustrates the usb token card embodiment with pullout usb plug 115 deployed . the plug ( or dongle ) 115 may be stored simply by sliding it into the alcove 116 in the card itself . the dongle 115 slides flush such that the card 100 maintains a traditional card form factor . when needed , the dongle 115 pulls out and can be plugged into any conventional computer usb port . the dongle 116 provides access to an embedded flex - film pc card with on - board memory of up to one terabyte of data . technology for producing pcbs sandwiched within housings of thickness less than 2 millimeters is well known in the art , and is used commercially in devices such as sd memory cards . the distal end of plug 115 carries the electrical contacts . most pcs and similar devices contain a usb port , and can thereby read and write information to / from a usb flash memory device . thus , the usb card 100 can be written , read , re - written or erased many times . business - card shaped usb tokens are relatively new but commonplace . what is not common is that the present data card 100 is flexible and is capable of bearing a magnetic strip 114 or bar code on its rear . the magnetic stripe 114 contains magnetically encoded patient id information that can be read by “ swiped ” current credit card or debit card verification readers at any location and transmitted to a server for authentication . the embedded flash memory contains up to one terabyte of digital information encrypted per permission - based content control software ( to be described ). in addition to the magnetic stripe 114 , the card 100 may include a paper strip or a specially coated strip 116 like a regular credit card to allow for a patient to sign . as an addition or alternative to the magnetic stripe 114 , the usb card 100 may be provided with a two - or three - dimensional barcode containing the same information . in this case , it is preferred that a two - or three - dimensional barcode be applied by an image transfer printed by modified large - format digital printer . the transfer is preferably applied by a selective release transfer process as set forth below . the patient &# 39 ; s partial medical records are stored on the usb readable portion of the memory , and the patient &# 39 ; s complete record is stored on a central server . when the patient presents his or her secure usb business / id card 100 , the provider &# 39 ; s office swipes the card to authenticate the user ( and preferably verifies the patient &# 39 ; s signature ), and then inserts the card in an ordinary desktop computer containing a conventional usb port . the desktop computer then asks for a password , and the user ( nurse , physician , resident , or other user ) will furnish their password . in one embodiment , the password is entered into the desktop computer , and in other embodiments it is entered twice for confirmation . the desktop computer sends an electronic “ key ” to a secure server . if the password has been recorded on the server , the key will be recognized and the secure server will respond by sending another , matching electronic key back to the desktop . when the exchange of matching keys is completed , the user will receive information that is decrypted at the individual user &# 39 ; s permitted level of access . the verification process is completed in a matter of a few seconds . it should be apparent that the card 100 offers four security measures : 1 ) passwords assigned locally according to local policy that must be known to gain access ; 2 ) central server - based security where the password must be recognized according to pre - determined rules ; 3 ) the magnetic stripe 114 is imprinted with a unique identity key to provide a third level of security ; and 4 ) a signature block for visual authentication . information is “ locked ” at some levels of access and is open at others , based on the user &# 39 ; s classification and assigned user - rights . some users will be allowed to read only parts of a record . some will be allowed to read everything . some users will be allowed to make changes to a file . some will be allowed to print and disseminate information . newly entered information is encrypted and recorded to the secure usb business / id card 100 on the spot . when a user reads , changes , or adds to a record , the transaction is recorded and it becomes part of an electronic audit trail on the permanent record . thus , if a user gives his or her password to an unauthorized party , that person &# 39 ; s entry to the system will be recorded and monitored . fig3 is a flow chart example illustrating the hierarchical security levels of the present invention . fig4 is a workflow chart illustrating an example admission sequence for a patient using the secure usb business / id card 100 . the example admission sequence will now be described with combined reference to fig3 and 4 . in this example there are four different users : admitting registrar , triage nurse , doctor , and psychiatrist . each of these users are permitted different levels of access to the information . some may be allowed to read only parts of a record , some will be allowed to read everything , some users will be allowed to make changes , and some will be allowed to print and disseminate information . specifically , the admitting registrar has access rights to basic patient information such as contact and insurance info . they are permitted to view data only to this extent as seen at # 1 . the triage nurse has access to basic patient information , admission history , and standard medical records as seen at # 2 , and has authority to view and print any of these records . the doctor has access to basic patient information , admission history , and standard as well as restricted psychiatric medical records as seen at # 3 , and is free to edit , view and print any of the foregoing as shown at # 3 . finally , the psychiatrist only has access to the restricted psychiatric medical records as seen at # 4 , but can view and print these . as seen in fig4 , patient kim klien goes to the emergency room with shoulder injuries . her first stop is the admitting registrar , where ms . klien hands her data card 100 to the registrar . the registrar verifies the datacard by checking the signature , swiping the magnetic stripe , and inserting into a computer usb port . the registrar then enters her own password , confirms it , and transfers the patient &# 39 ; s complete medical records from a central server to the on - site provider database . the workflow proceeds to the triage nurse , danielle defoe , where ms . klien hands her data card 100 to the triage nurse . the triage nurse again verifies the datacard by checking the signature , swiping the magnetic stripe , and inserting into a computer usb port . the triage nurse then enters her own password , confirms it , and proceeds to review the patient &# 39 ; s medical history . the triage nurse can access to basic patient information , admission history , and standard medical records , and has authority to view and print any of these records . the triage nurse completes her customary duties which include checking the patient &# 39 ; s vital signs . this information is keyed into the computer where it updates the provider database and is immediately written to the data card 100 . ms . klien next visits the er doctor francis field , who verifies the datacard by checking the signature , swiping the magnetic stripe , and inserting into a computer usb port . dr . field then enters his own password , confirms it , and makes an initial assessment and reviews the patient &# 39 ; s medical information , dr . field has access to basic patient information , admission history , and standard as well as restricted psychiatric medical records , and is free to edit , view and print any of the foregoing . he is alerted to a special note on the patient &# 39 ; s file . ms . klien next visits the psychiatrist doctor indra ivy , who verifies the datacard by checking the signature , swiping the magnetic stripe , and inserting into a computer usb port . dr . ivy then enters his own password , confirms it , and makes an initial assessment and reviews the patient &# 39 ; s medical information . dr . ivy has access to the restricted psychiatric medical records and can view and print these , but not the other records . he enters a new note on the patient &# 39 ; s file regarding adverse drug reactions . the workflow continues in this manner through to discharge , from station to station , with each attendant having only the information authority needed to complete their job properly . all along the workflow path an audit trail is being laid revealing who had what access to what data , and when . thousands of combinations of access policies can be set for the various users as a result of the hierarchical security software of the present invention . additionally , the encryption process allows records to be time limited . records can be programmed to expire or to become locked after the passage of time . users can be required to log on to the system for updates , thereby lessening the likelihood that a trusted medical record user will mistakenly rely on out of date information . the details of both the hardware and software will now be described in full . fig5 illustrates the distributed information protection and control system according to the invention . the information protection system includes an information system 200 accessible by a user 101 using a secure usb card 100 along with their password 162 according to the present invention . the information system 200 may be embodied using any computer apparatus that accepts data , processes the data in accordance with one or more stored software programs , generates results , and typically includes input , output , storage , arithmetic , logic , and control units , inclusive of a desktop computer , notebook computer , supercomputer , mainframe , minicomputer , workstation , server or the like . the information system 200 includes a number of standard computer components , including : non - persistent storage 210 , data readers 220 ( preferably a usb port plus a magnetic stripe reader ), processor 140 , keyboard 144 , mouse 146 , display 148 , printer 150 , adapter 152 , and communications interface 154 . the readers 220 retrieve persistent data storage from the data card 100 to the information system 200 . the non - persistent storage 210 comprises one or more storage devices used for volatile data storage accessible by the information system 200 . examples of the non - persistent storage 210 include : random access memory ( ram ), non - volatile random access memory ( n vram ), and read - only memory ( rom ). the information system 200 preferably also includes one or more information processors ( e . g ., central processing units , cpu ), keyboard , mouse , display and printer , and other standard computer peripherals as desired . the information system 200 is connected to a network 190 via a communications link . the network 190 comprises a number of computers and associated devices that are connected by communication facilities . the network 190 can involve permanent connections ( e . g ., cables ) or temporary connections ( e . g ., those made through telephone or other communication links ). examples of a network include : a local area network ( lan ); a wide area network ( wan ); a satellite link ; and a combination of networks , such as an internet and an intranet . the communications link can be established using any combination of well - known communications protocols , for example : x . 25 , atm , ssh , ssl , http , smtp , netbios , and / or tcp / ip . in accordance with the present invention , the network 190 is coupled to an authentication identification system 166 , art authentication certification system 168 , an audit server 170 , a directory service 180 , and a policy server 195 . the authentication identification system 166 comprises a system to authenticate the identity of the user 101 and patient to whom the data card 100 was issued . for the user 101 , the authentication identification system 166 can be an authentication service - type device capable of one or more types of challenge - response authentication protocols . examples of challenge - response authentication protocols include : username / password authentication , secret - question / secret - answer type authentication , or any other authentication techniques to verify the identity of user 101 . alternatively , the user 101 may identify themselves by means of a smartcard , a biometric reader ( e . g ., fingerprint reader or palm analyzer ), etc . any number of conventional authentication devices using any combination of authentication protocols may be used to augment or replace conventional username - password type authentication , as may be provided as part of the capabilities of the information system 200 . for the patient , the authentication identification system 166 verifies the identity of the patient as read from the magnetic stripe ( or barcode ) on data card 100 . the authentication certification system 168 comprises a system to generate , certify , and / or distribute cryptographic information , including cryptographic keys , to perform authentication , signing and / or other cryptological tasks to authenticate the identity of the user 101 . conventional public key cryptosystems are known and have associated cryptographic keys that can be used to encipher and decipher information . one or more cryptographic keys can also be used to authenticate the identity of the user 101 . the audit server 170 comprises a separate information system or storage device or devices accessible via the network 190 . the audit server 170 can be used for the collection , storage and analysis of auditing information obtained from one or more information systems , including any of the following exemplary systems : authentication identification 166 , authentication certification 168 , audit server 170 , directory service 180 , and policy server 195 . within the prior - art , the audit server 170 may also be referred to as a data logger or a system log . the directory service 180 comprises a system to share public and semi - public identity information regarding user 101 , as well as other known users , with those having access to network 190 . examples of the directory service 180 include : an http server , a lightweight directory access protocol ( ldap ) service , a relational database management system , and a microsoft exchange server . the directory service 180 can provide user - specific information , for example : personal information of the user 101 , such as name , addresses , telephone numbers , and email addresses and cryptographic keys used by the user . referring back to the non - persistent storage 210 , this includes an operating system 112 , and any number of concurrently running application processes including three in particular : application process 114 a is a word processor such as microsoft word . the operating system may be a conventional operating system such as microsoft windows ™ or linux ™, alone or in combination with a virtual operating system / virtual machine . a virtual operating system can host other operating systems . similarly , a virtual machine is a programming language interpreter ( such as java virtual machine ™ or python ™. these allow different operating systems to run on the same computer at the same time , and it prevents applications from interfering with each other . each virtual machine is like a “ machine within the machine ” and functions as if it owned the entire computer . the operating systems in each virtual machine partition are called “ guest operating systems ,” and they communicate with the hardware via a virtual machine control program called a “ virtual machine monitor ” ( vmm ). the vmm “ virtualizes ” the hardware for each virtual machine . with a virtual operating system / virtual machine the present software need not be dedicated to the microsoft operating system . a program application 116 runs within application process 214 c which runs , and enforcement agent 262 c is associated with application process 214 c . similarly , enforcement agent 262 b is associated with application process 214 b , within which os shell application 115 runs . generally , a command line interface or operating system shell or executive may be run as a type of application running in an application process , depicted as os shell 115 , examples of which include : “ command . com ” and “ explorer . exe ” for the microsoft windows operating system 112 , and the “ bash ” for the linux operating system 112 . examples of an application 116 running inside of application process 114 c include : microsoft word , adobe acrobat reader , netscape internet browser and the gnu image manipulation program . the enforcement agent 262 ( both b & amp ; c ) are instances of a software program that modifies the interface between the application process and operating system kernel , and permits additional non - discretionary access controls to be enforced without requiring changes to user application programs . in fig5 , enforcement agent 262 c is associated with application process 214 c within which program application 116 runs , and enforcement agent 262 b is associated with application process 2148 , within which os shell application 115 runs . each enforcement agent 262 controls access to the contents of secure files 240 by application 116 running within application process 214 . the access is controlled in accordance with a policy model that permits different classes of users different levels of access to the information , depending on predetermined authorization . for example , admission personnel will have access to insurance and selected personal information , however can only copy it to a selected file and nothing else . nurses , pharmacists and physicians would have policies that grant higher levels of access . individual users are granted access only to the information that they need for their specific roles in the health care process . the trusted medical record system &# 39 ; s multi - level policy capability can be custom - tailored to provide the high level of security required under the federal hippa laws , while allowing an extraordinary level of versatility and portability . if an unauthorized person tries to enter the system to read , copy or change a medical record , the trusted medical record system disallows the action and records the intrusion in an activity log and it notifies the responsible persons automatically . at the security policy server 290 , the user name , password and patient identifier are matched to a system - wide policy that is designed to comply with hippa . the system - wide policy is maintained as a data table at the security policy server 290 . fig6 is an exemplary policy data table . the policy table is arranged in rows by type of record / information , such as personal info , medical information , restricted medical information , medical records , etc . the policy table is arranged in columns by categorical status with respect to accessing the data , e . g ., patient , primary care physician , er triage nurse , resident , admitting nurse , radiologist , psychiatric , etc . defined user actions are specified in the second column , and these include view , change policy , copy / paste , modify , print , view , set date range . the security policy broker 260 implements this pre - defined policy . the security policy broker 260 interprets security policy within the context of information system 200 . there may be one or more security policy brokers 260 running in information system 200 . referring back to fig5 , one security policy broker 260 is assigned to enforcement agents 262 b and 262 c , the security policy broker 260 and the enforcement agents 262 run on the same information system 200 , and each enforcement agent 262 runs in different application processes 214 . in response to a query by the enforcement agent 262 , the security policy broker 260 determines whether sufficient authorization exists for the enforcement agent 262 to allow the requested action or actions initiated by user 101 . in other words , the enforcement agent 262 communicates with the security policy broker 260 to determine how specific user - actions should be enforced . the security policy broker 260 is also responsible for ensuring compliance with the correct security policy , whether this policy information is carried within the secure file 240 , maintained in the policy broker cache 264 , or retrieved from the security policy server 290 . each enforcement agent 262 controls access to the contents of secure files 240 by application 116 running within application process 214 , the enforcement agent 262 monitors , intercepts , and as needed , mitigates , the requested actions performed to and with the contents of secure files 240 . the enforcement agent 262 intercepts the flow of instructions between the operating system 112 and the application program 116 running in application process 214 . this interception can be accomplished in any number of ways . for example , the interception can use one or more existing application programming interfaces ( apis ) and other well - known programmatic conventions implemented by the operating system 112 . information on such interfaces and conventions can be obtained from the published documentation associated with the operating system 112 or obtained from by careful study and analysis of actual programs , or obtained using other conventional techniques . the specific design and implementation of the enforcement agent 262 depends on the operating system 112 , and includes measures to identify , detect , and as necessary , modify , the flow of instructions between the application program 116 and the kernel of the operating system 112 . by way of example , the enforcement agent 262 can be implemented on a process - by - process basis for all application processes 114 , or possibly as an enhancement to the programs and tools provided with the operating system 112 , or possibly even as an extension to the kernel of the operating system 112 . such an extension to the kernel can , for example , be implemented using a pseudo - device driver or other loaded module of the kernel executive of the operating system 112 ; or by enhancing the capabilities of the existing system - wide library routines , such as glibc or kernel32 . exe ; or by extending the capabilities of existing command level applications , such as bash , ash , or command . com , or by modifying the attributes of each application process 114 as it is created by the operating system 112 . the secure usb card 100 includes the data files for a patient which are read into the usb reader 220 upon insertion therein . these patient files include data files 130 , secure files 240 , policy broker caches 264 , and enforcement agent caches 268 . each secure file 240 contains both information to be secured ( e . g ., from a file 130 or generated by the user 101 ) and additional information according to the invention to maintain its security . the contents of a secure file 240 cannot be successfully accessed without the intercession of an enforcement agent 262 and a security policy broker 260 implementing the security policy under which the security policy broker 260 was configured . for example , the secure file 240 can contain a microsoft word file , which can be shared with others , but whose content is accessed through the use of a microsoft word application running in an application process 214 c associated with an enforcement agent 262 c . the details of the secure file 240 are discussed below in relation to fig3 . the policy broker cache 264 is used by the security policy broker 260 to retain and reuse information used to make enforcement decisions . the policy broker cache 264 can store additional information on the security policy , identity information about users of the invention , and / or other information . the policy broker cache 264 can be shared between multiple security policy brokers 260 , and / or there may be one policy broker cache 264 for each security policy broker 260 . the enforcement agent cache 268 is used by the enforcement agents 262 to store any temporary information created by applications protected by the enforcement agents 262 . information in the enforcement agent cache 268 is protected from unauthorized access . temporary information can include , for example , automated backups , automatically generated revisions , and others types of temporary files . the enforcement agent cache 268 is used to ensure that this temporary information is maintained in a protected state and that no unprotected copies of any temporary files are vulnerable to unauthorized access . the enforcement agent cache 268 may also temporarily store decrypted plaintext blocks of information otherwise contained within protected secure files 240 in an encrypted state . in other embodiments , the enforcement agent cache 268 may be shared between multiple enforcement agents 262 , and / or there may be one enforcement agent cache 268 for each enforcement agent 262 . the policy broker cache 264 and / or the enforcement agent cache 268 can include a time - to - live ( ttl ) interval , where the cached information remains authoritative for a specified interval of time . after the time - to - live interval ends , the cached information expires . the ttl interval may vary according to the specific security policy in place , and indeed , different ttl values may be used with different users , for different files , and / or with different information systems . with regard to fig5 , and in addition to the prior art connections via the network 190 , the information system is connected via the network 190 to an audit server 270 , a directory service 280 , and a security policy server 290 . the audit server 270 receives the detailed event data from the enforcement agents 262 and the security policy brokers 260 of various information systems coupled to the audit server 270 via network 190 . this event data indicates what users attempted what actions under what conditions , along with other security related information collected by enforcement agents 262 and security policy brokers 260 . the collection of these events can be directed by the security policy . in various embodiments of the invention , there may be one audit server 270 , multiple audit servers 270 , or no audit servers 270 . in the case of no audit server 270 , all information that would otherwise be sent to an audit server 270 may be stored in information system 200 . the directory service 280 contains additional information associated with users required for the operation of the information systems utilizing the current invention . such additional information includes , for example : identity records 510 ( see below ) and other configuration data for the enforcement agents 262 and security policy brokers 260 specific to users 101 of the invention . in various embodiments of the invention , there may be one directory service 280 , multiple directory service 280 , or no directory service 280 . in the case of no directory service 280 , all information that would otherwise be sent to a directory service 280 may be stored in information system 200 . the security policy server 290 provides updates to the security policy broker 260 on the security policy for the information system 200 . depending on the security policies of a given organization and the privileges of the user 101 , the information system 200 may be permitted to function for periods of time without a connection to the security policy server 290 , depending on information stored with the policy broker cache 264 and enforcement agent cache 268 . if such disconnected operation is permitted , the actions of the user 101 can be further restricted while the information system 200 is in a disconnected state . in addition to the initial activation of the information system 200 , the information system 200 at other times can access the security policy server 290 for additional security policy information . for example , the information system 200 can access the security policy server 290 periodically , non - periodically , and / or in response to rules established in the security policy itself . in various embodiments of the invention , there may be one security policy server 290 , multiple security policy servers 290 , or no security policy servers 290 . in the case of no security policy server 290 , all information that would otherwise be sent to a security policy server 290 may be stored in information system 200 . the security policy obtained from the security policy server 290 may be specific to a given person , a particular information system , or both . such person - specific information can include , for example : authentication - related credentials ( e . g ., passwords , cryptography keys , biometric attributes , and authentication tokens ); and references to various authenticated - related information located elsewhere via the network 190 ( e . g ., passwords , cryptography keys , biometric attributes , and authentication tokens ). the security policy information obtained from the security policy server 290 can be stored for an indefinite period of time in the policy broker cache 264 , a defined period of time in the policy broker cache 264 before needing refreshment by the security policy server 290 , or retrieved from the security policy server 290 each time it is required . in other embodiments , the security policy broker 260 can obtain authentication related information from the security policy server 290 , the authentication identification system 166 , authentication certification system 168 , and / or the directory service 280 . the security policy broker 260 can also make use of authentication mechanisms provided in the operating system 112 . fig7 illustrates a secure file 240 of the distributed information protection and control system of fig5 . the secure file 240 includes a header section 310 and a payload section 320 . conceptually , the secure file 240 can be considered a container in which files 130 are placed for safekeeping , where the header section 310 contains the information describing how the secure tile 240 is assembled and the payload section 320 contains the actual information being protected . the header section 310 includes secure file identification 312 , a security policy namespace 314 , a version 316 , and a manifest 318 . the secure file identification 312 includes a quasi - unique identifier to identify the secure file 240 without relying upon any operating system specific attributes ( e . g ., file name ). conventional techniques to generate a quasi - unique identifier include , for example : generating a sufficiently large pseudo random number which may be used as a quasi - unique identifier ; issuing sequentially numbered identifiers from some agreed upon location ; and generating identifiers in a relational database . the security policy namespace 314 includes an identifier specific to the security policy under which the secure file 240 is being managed . conventional techniques to assign such an identifier include , for example : using the fully qualified domain name of security policy server 290 , expressed as a string of ascii characters ; and the distinguished name ( dn ) of an ldap entry within the directory service 280 . the version 316 identifies the revision level of the format for the secure file 240 . for example : a pair of numerical values expressing a major and minor revision number ; and the url of a formal extensible markup language ( xml ) data type definition ( dtd ) describing the format of the secure file 240 . the manifest 318 provides details of the payload section 320 and includes one or more manifest records 330 ( illustrated in fig6 ), where each manifest record 330 further describes a payload 340 present in the payload section 320 . each manifest record 330 in the manifest 318 corresponds to a specific payload 340 in payload section 320 . for the exemplary secure file 240 in fig5 , the manifest 318 includes four manifest records 330 , where the first manifest record 330 corresponds to the directive payload 322 , the second manifest record 330 corresponds to the primary payload 324 , the third manifest record 330 corresponds to the ancillary payload 326 a , and the fourth manifest record 330 corresponds to the ancillary payload 326 b . fig8 illustrates a manifest record 330 . there is one manifest record 330 for each payload 340 in the payload section 320 of a secure file 240 . each manifest record 330 includes an offset 332 , a descriptor 334 , a security label 336 , and one or more crypto keys 338 . the offset 332 includes offset pointers and other bookkeeping attributes useful for randomly accessing individual blocks of information the payload section 320 associated with the manifest record 330 . information maintained within offset 332 may be advantageously used with information maintained within the crypto - keys 338 , thus permitting this same random access to encrypted payloads 340 in the payload section 320 . the descriptor 334 is used to at least differentiate between different types of payloads 340 in the payload section 320 ( e . g ., a directive payload 322 , a primary payload 324 , and an ancillary payload 326 a , 3268 ), and may also include additional descriptive information specific to the payload 340 . the descriptor 334 can include , for example , the same types of file - type information that are conventionally associated with files , or other types of file - system specific information were associated in the file 130 from which the payload 340 originated at the time when the secure file 240 was created . such file - type information can include , for example : a file name , a file extension type , a creation date , size of the file , and a character encoding method ( e . g ., unicode , utf / 8 , iso latin 1 ). the security label 336 includes an encoded representation of a security label 460 ( in fig1 ) associated with the corresponding payload 340 in the payload section 320 . the security label 336 can be cryptographically protected ( e . g ., digitally signed and / or encrypted ). the crypto keys 338 include the cryptographic information used to encrypt the secure file 240 . examples of information contained in the crypto keys 338 include : cipher modes , cipherkeys , public keys , private keys , and pki certificates . in various embodiments , some or all of the cryptographic information may be advantageously stored in other locations ( e . g ., a smartcard or fips - 140 type device connected to information system 200 ), and the crypto keys 338 contain one or more pointers or references to this remotely stored information . crypto keys 338 may themselves also be encrypted and protected , using any number of conventional ways used to protect similar types of cryptographic information . a frequent problem associated with many prior art cryptographic implementations is the requirement to decrypt the entire ciphertext of a file in order to access just a small section of the plaintext . just as most operating systems permit quasi - random access to a block within a given file , the invention advantageously provides a technique for the enforcement agent 262 to access and decipher any arbitrary payload block ( e . g ., 341 , 342 , 343 , 344 , or 349 ) of a payload 340 in the payload section 320 that may be encrypted . more specifically , the present invention permits the use of blocks cipher modes that allow cryptographic operations to be performed on arbitrary blocks within a secure file 240 , thus permitting random - access cryptologic operations to the underlying cleartext in each payload 340 within payload section 320 . this capability is the so - called random - access property associated with some block cipher modes . for example , cipher block chaining mode ( cbc ) ciphers permit parallelizable decryption , thus permitting random - access read operations to a file , and electronic code book ( ecb ) mode ciphers permit parallelizable encryption and decryption , thus permitting random - access read and write operations to a file . referring back to fig7 , the payload section 320 includes zero or more directive payloads 322 , a primary payload 324 , and zero or more ancillary payloads 326 ( illustrated as ancillary payload # 1 326 a , . . . , ancillary payload # n 326 b ). the directive payload 322 can include a security directive record 410 ( fig1 ) associated with a security label 460 ( fig1 ). the security label 460 can be , but need not be , the security label 336 associated with the manifest record 330 of payload 340 . the directive payload 322 can be cryptographically protected . to facilitate the enforcement of the security policy , the enforcement agent 262 provides the contents of the directive payload 322 to the security policy broker 260 . the security policy broker 260 can obtain information directly from other authoritative sources ( for example , the security policy server 290 and / or the directory service 280 ) to ascertain if the directive payload 322 remains current , and to verify the accuracy of any digital signature ( s ) associated with directive payload 332 , if present . the payload section 320 can include multiple directive payloads 322 in various embodiments , for example : one directive payload 332 for primary payload 324 and all ancillary payloads 326 ; one directive payload 332 corresponding to each primary payload 324 and ancillary payload 326 ; and zero or more directive payloads 332 corresponding to one or more primary payloads 324 and any ancillary payloads 326 . the primary payload 324 contains the exact same information contained in file 130 to be protected and controlled . the primary payload 324 can also contain information generated by the user to be protected and controlled . the primary payload 324 , as with the directive payload 322 and ancillary payloads 326 , may be cryptographically protected ( e . g ., digitally signed and / or encrypted ). the ancillary payloads 326 contain other types of information associated with the file 130 , or other information , to be protected and controlled . each ancillary payload 326 is composed of an ordered sequence of bytes , characters , or other atomic elements of storage in a fashion similar to that of the primary payload 324 and utilizes the same storage semantics dictated by the underlying file system . ancillary payloads 326 can also be used to distribute the information to be protected across multiple payloads , thus permitting different security directives to be associated with different sections of the secure file 240 . for example , if a file 130 to be protected is composed of both text and images , the text can be placed in the primary payload 324 and assigned one security label 336 , and the images can be placed in one or more ancillary payloads 326 and assigned the same and / or other security labels 336 . by way of example , this flexibility permits the invention to protect the contents of a complex html file composed of multiple mime blocks by distributing each of the mime blocks into their own ancillary payloads 326 within the secure file 240 . advantageously , this capability could also be used to apply security labels 336 and security directives to elements of information more granular than that of an entire file 130 , allowing each element to be protected and controlled differently . examples of such information elements include subsections of files , linked or embedded objects within a file , storage allocation within databases ( e . g ., tables , rows , columns , and cells ), or any other addressable element of digital or digitized information . this capability permits , for example , having a single version of a file , but different users having different views of it , based on which elements they were authorized to access . fig9 illustrates a typical payload 340 ( e . g ., a directive payload 322 , a primary payload 324 , or an ancillary payload 326 ) in the payload section 320 . each payload 340 is an ordered set of logical blocks . for example , the payload 340 includes payload block 1 341 , payload block 2 342 , payload block 3 343 , payload block 4 344 , and payload block n 349 as the last logical block . to ensure ongoing compliance with the security directives associated with the contents of secure file 240 , it is important that the information contained within the secure file 240 cannot be accessed through some means other than via the enforcement agent 260 and security policy broker 262 . however , it is still be possible to use other programs and utilities to act upon the secure file 240 as a whole , without explicitly taking action on its contents . for example , secure files 240 may be backed up to archival media , copied to floppy diskettes , and / or distributed by email . the invention uses cryptography to maintain the confidentiality and integrity of the information within secure files 240 , while still permitting these secure files 240 to be handled by the operating system 112 . thus , while a user may still use any “ discretionary ” abilities afforded to them by their information system 200 and distribute secure files 240 to others , the information within these secure files 240 still remains sacrosanct and the ciphertext within cannot be successfully be decrypted without proper authorization . further still , since proper authorization and decryption takes place under the supervision of the enforcement agent 262 and security policy broker 260 , the information contained within this redistributed secure file 240 remains under the protection and control of the security policy being enforced by the enforcement agent 262 and security policy broker 260 . any conventional cryptographic techniques can be used to digitally sign and / or encrypt the contents of secure file 240 , or any portion thereof . examples of conventional encryption techniques include : public key cryptosystems ; symmetric key cryptosystems , such as block ciphers and stream ciphers ; cryptographic hash algorithms , such as sha - 1 , md5 , and hmac algorithms ; and digital signing and verification . the cryptographic keys are stored and protected using conventional techniques . examples of conventional cryptographic key techniques include : passwords and passphrases for the protection of cryptographic keys ; and fips - 140 type storage devices . in various embodiments of the invention , any of the data structures used by the invention can be encrypted and / or digitally signed . for example , if security label 336 is digitally signed by the security policy server 290 , the security policy broker 260 verifies the validity of this digital signature before attempting to look up the corresponding security directive record 410 . fig1 illustrates a security directive 400 of the invention . the enforcement agent 262 and security policy broker 260 use security directive records 410 associated with each secure file 240 to determine how the security of each such secure file 240 is to be maintained . more specifically , security directive record 410 is associated with a specific payload 340 within a secure file 240 , and different payloads 340 may be associated with different security directive records 410 . the security label 336 , 460 is the mechanism through which a security directive record 410 is associated with the object it protects . however , in addition to protecting secure tiles 240 , the invention may also be used to protect different types of resources , including both hardware components within the information system ( e . g ., printer 150 , communication interface 154 ) and software constructs within the information system ( e . g ., files 130 , directories , named - pipes , communications protocols ). target 480 identifies a component of the information system 200 , and represents any hardware or software element within an information system 200 that the security policy broker 260 has been configured to protect . each target 480 has an associated security label 460 , which directs the security policy broker 260 to the security directive record 410 associated with the target . for example , the target 480 can identify : a secure file 240 ; a communications interface 154 ; a printer 150 ; usb reader 220 ; and a folder , a directory , or other file organization structure within usb reader 220 . the security label 460 is an electronically encoded representation of a humanly readable artifact ( e . g ., a text string , symbol , glyph , or other marking ) which can be made apparent to user 101 in any number of ways . for example , the security label can be made apparent to user 101 by being : shown on the display 148 ; rendered on hardcopy by the printer 150 ; or captured as part of the name of the secure file 240 placed in usb reader 220 . the security label 460 is not limited to simple text and may include any marking or indicia . this flexibility allows , for example , security labels 460 to be encoded in different languages , allowing meaningful country - specific word choices ; without incurring the administrative overhead of having to maintain a large number of identical security directives . for targets 480 that are within secure files 240 , security labels 460 and security directive records 410 are used to apply non - discretionary access controls to each payload 340 contained within the payload section 320 of secure file 240 . the enforcement agent 262 accessing the specific manifest record 330 associated with each payload 340 passes the security label 336 contained within manifest record 330 to a security policy broker 260 . the security policy broker 260 is then able to determine the security directive record 410 associated with that security label 336 under the current security policy . the mechanism used to associate a security directive records 410 with non - file targets varies depending upon the specific architecture of each operating system 112 ( or virtual operating system / virtual machine ), and the manner in which an enforcement agent 262 is configured . for example , unix and unix - type operating systems represent hardware devices and software constructs as file - like devices ( e . g ., / dev , / proc /), and a pseudo - device driver can be used to associate an enforcement agent 262 with these components . the security directive 400 is formed as a data structure and the relationships between the components of the data structure are illustrated in fig1 . the arrowheads in fig1 ( and in fig1 ) do not refer to directionality , but instead indicate the type of relationships between components . a single black arrowhead ( e . g ., between security directive record 410 and security classification record 470 ) indicates exactly one , and can be read as : “ security directive record 410 has exactly one security classification 470 .” a double black arrowhead ( e . g ., between security directive record 410 and security label 460 ) indicates one or more ( 1 +), and can be read as : “ security directive record 410 has one or more security labels 460 .” a double outline arrowhead ( e . g ., between rule record 412 and c - list record 434 ) indicates zero or more ( 0 + or 0 / 1 / 1 +), and can be read as : “ rule record 412 has zero or more c - lists 434 .” a single outline arrowhead ( e . g ., between security directive record 410 and crypto - flags 462 ) indicates zero or exactly one ( 0 / 1 ), and can be read as : “ security directive record 410 has zero or one crypto - flags 462 ”. the logical structure of security directive 400 begins with the security directive record 410 . the various components of the security directive record 410 can be referred to as records , although other types of data structures and / or formats can be used to implement this logical structure . for example , the logical structure can be implemented using : arrays , linked lists , data sets , b - trees , queues , and lookup tables . the security directive record 410 includes one or more rule - related records 416 , a security classification 470 , zero or more security labels 460 , and zero or one crypto - flags 462 . in other embodiments , instead of having both rule - related records 416 and a security classification 470 , the security directive record 410 includes one or more rules - related records 416 and zero or one security classification 470 , or the security directive record 410 includes zero or more rule related records 416 and a security classification 470 . the rule - related records 416 include rules that specify how specific actions and conditions are to be handled with respect to the payload 340 of a secure file 240 or other target 480 . any specified conditions must be satisfied before the application 116 is permitted to perform the specified actions . the rule - related records 416 include r - list records 414 , rule records 412 , a - list records 424 , c - list records 434 , e - list records 444 , s - list records 454 , action records 420 , condition records 430 , event records 440 , and subject records 450 . each r - list record 414 includes one or more rule records 412 . each rule record 412 includes zero or more a - list records 424 , zero or more c - list records 434 , zero or more e - list records 444 , and at least one s - list record 454 . each a - list record 424 includes at least one action record 420 . each c - list record 434 includes at least one condition record 430 . each e - list record 444 includes at least one event record 440 . each s - list record 454 includes at least one subject record 450 . the rule - related records 416 include elements referred to as lists , although other types of data structures and / or formats can be used , for example : arrays , linked lists , data sets , b - trees , queues , and lookup tables . an action record 420 comprises any activity performed upon the target 480 of a security directive record 410 . examples of actions include : opening and closing a payload 340 of a secure file 240 ; making changes to a payload 340 of a secure file 240 ; making a copy of a payload 340 of a secure file 240 ; making a copy of secure file 240 ; deleting a secure file 240 ; creating a new secure file 240 ; printing a payload 340 of a secure file 240 ; printing a screen capture of display 148 while payload 340 is visible ; unauthorized printing of unsecured files to secured printers ; transmitting a copy of a secure file 240 to another party through email or the network 190 ; transmitting unsecured files through a secured communications device to a destination outside of the local area network ; and placing copies of unsecured files on secured diskette drive . a condition record 430 comprises any condition or conditional expression that can be measured or evaluated within the context of the information system 200 . examples of conditions include : restrictions on time of day a payload 340 within a secure file 240 can be accessed ; the availability of a low - latency network connection to the network 190 ; and how the identity of a subject in the subject record 450 must be authenticated . an event record 440 ( also referred to as an auditing event record ) comprises an auditing - related activity associated with a given rule and causes an audit record to be written , depending upon the specifics of the event . examples of events include : the creation of auditable records when a given rule is evaluated by the security policy broker 260 ( i . e ., a rule - evaluated event ); when an action associated with a given rule is permitted to take place by the security policy broker 260 ( i . e ., a rule - allowed event ); and when a given action associated with a given action is not permitted to take place by the security policy broker 260 ( i . e ., a rule - denied event ). a subject record 450 comprises one or more users and / or processes against which the rule record 412 applies . examples of a subject record include : joe b . smith ; and all employees . different types of action records 420 , condition records 430 , and event records 440 can be applicable to different types of secure files 240 , depending on , for example , the nature of the secure file 240 , the format of the secure file 240 , the application being used to manipulate the secure file 240 , or how the secure file 240 is used . for example , a secure file 240 having auditory information can have an associated action record 420 of “ play - through - speaker ,” while this same action has no meaningful semantic equivalent for a secure file 240 having jpeg information . conversely , a secure file 240 having jpeg information can have an associated condition record 430 of “ black - and - white image ,” while this same condition has no meaningful semantic equivalent for a secure file 240 having auditory information . the security classification record 470 advantageously allows security classification of large numbers of targets 480 into compartments or categories in a manner that simplifies the management of the protections afforded by the invention . the security classification record 470 is a category or compartment to which confidential information is assigned to denote the degree of damage that unauthorized disclosure might cause . depending upon the specific security policy , any number of such categories can be defined . the security classification record 470 includes a security level 474 and zero or more security compartments 472 . the security level 474 comprises a hierarchical representation of the relative confidentiality associated with the security directive 400 , as exemplified by the policy table of fig6 . one or more security levels can be determined for the security policy . for example , a company or government agency may desire that information be hierarchically organized according three security levels of classified , secret , and top - secret . in some embodiments , security level 474 can be represented as a numerical value , where lower - valued security levels represent less confidential information , and higher - valued security levels represent more confidential information . each security compartment 472 is a non - hierarchical attribute of the security directive 400 . the security compartments 472 permit further compartmentalization ( which may also be referred to as compartmentization ) for a security level 474 . compartmentalization provides a technique to add additional security - related categories that allow information to be managed and shared between users only to the extent required for the performance of their individually assigned duties . in other words , compartmentalization may be conceptually thought of as a mechanism of dividing information into categories so that some users may be granted permission to access information in one category , and not another . the use of compartmentalization techniques provides a mechanism for implementing the “ need to know ” principle common to many secure environments . the crypto - flags 462 specify what cryptographic techniques , if any , are associated with the security directive record 410 . if no cryptographic techniques are to be used , the crypto - flags may indicate this condition , or the crypto - flags may be omitted . the crypto - flags 462 dictate the type of cryptography , if any , that the security policy requires for target 480 . examples of crypto - flags 462 include : specific algorithms that can or must be used ; allowed cryptographic key lengths ; specific requirements for crypto - key storage ( e . g ., only use fip - 140 type device ); and other crypto - related requirements or specifications . the crypto - flags 462 do not necessarily include a specific cryptographic state , such as an actual cryptographic cipher key but specify the mandated cryptographic techniques . the data structure of the security directive 400 can be stored in a variety of locations , including , for example : the policy server 280 ; the directory service 270 ; the policy broker cache 264 ; and a secure file 240 . in most cases , however , the canonical copy of any given security directive record 410 associated with security directive 400 is maintained by the security policy server 290 with copies of the these records temporarily stored in other locations for the convenience of processing without always requiring a networked connection to the policy server 290 . for example , a copy of the rule - related records 416 associated with the security directive record 410 can be part of the directive payload 322 of the secure file 240 . the rule - related records 416 can then be loaded and temporarily maintained within the policy broker cache 264 . in another embodiment , the rule - related records 416 can be retrieved as needed from the policy server 290 . in another embodiment , a portion of the rule - related records 416 can be stored as part of the directive payload 322 of the secure file 240 , and another portion of the rule - related records 416 can be retrieved as needed from the policy server 290 . by requiring retrieval from the policy server 290 , the security policy can be updated for secure files 240 that have previously been distributed to information systems . in other circumstances , for example for non - file targets 480 , the security directive record 410 associated with a target 480 may be implicitly specified as part of the initialization of the security policy broker 260 for the information system 200 . the security directive 400 can be dynamic . any of the components of the security directive 400 can be modified in any way , at any time , by an authorized party or process , and the resulting changes are honored by all subsequent enforcement decisions rendered by the security policy broker 260 . for example , if the rules - related records 416 are modified , upon retrieving the updated security directive record 410 , security policy broker 260 determines policy for targets 480 associated with security label 460 according to the modification . if a large number of secure files 240 have the same security label 460 , all of the secure files 240 are protected and controlled according to the modified rules of the security directive 400 . fig1 illustrates an identity 500 of the invention and its relationship to a user 101 and a security directive 400 . the security directive 400 of fig1 is the same as the security directive 400 of fig1 but is not depicted with all components for the sake of clarity . the identity 500 can be associated with a user 101 . examples of a user include : a person or persons ; a role or position ; an automated process ( e . g ., a software daemon , agent , or process ); a physical automated agent ( e . g ., as a robot or an unmanned aerial vehicle ); “ batch - type ” programs that run with other periodic interaction with real persons ; various system services which run in process context specific ( e . g ., “ mail daemon ” running under the pseudo - identity of “ mail ”); and programs the run on behalf of the system itself ( e . g ., “ telnet ” or “ sshd ”). the identities 500 are stored within the security policy server 290 and / or the directory service 280 . the identity 500 specifies the manner by which the security policy broker can authenticate user 101 and the security clearance that user 101 is authorized to bold . an identity 500 is created for user 101 by a competent authority . the relationship between the user 101 and the identity 500 is illustrated with a user - identity relationship 514 . the user - identity relationship 514 is verified via the authentication credentials 520 . the invention can utilize any number of prior art authentication methods and protocols to validate and verify the identity 500 of user 101 , and thus validate the user - identity relationship 514 . the logical structure of identity 500 begins with the identity record 510 , and the relationships between the components of the data structure are illustrated using the same relationship notations used in fig4 . the various components of the identity record 510 can be referred to as records , although other types of data structures and / or formats can be used to implement this logical structure within the invention . for example , the logical structure can be implemented with : arrays , linked lists , data sets , b - trees , queues , and lookup tables . the identity 510 includes one or more authentication credentials 520 , one or more security clearances 570 , and zero or more authorization directives 580 . each authentication credential 520 includes a password 522 , zero or more token 524 , zero or more biometric 526 , and zero or more crypto - keys 528 . in other embodiments , the authentication credential 520 can includes at least one of a password 522 , a token 524 , a biometric 526 , and crypto - keys 528 , or any combination of them . other prior art identity verification techniques can also be employed . the password 522 is a shared secret , known to both the authentication identification system 166 and the user 101 . the password 522 can be a conventional text string ( e . g ., alphanumeric ) or can be any information type determined by the user 101 as secret information to obtain access to the information system 200 . other embodiments may utilize any type of secret information that can be shared between user 101 and the security policy server 290 and readily provided by user 101 when requested . the token 524 contains information specific to the hardware authentication token permitted to be used to authenticate the identity of user 101 . examples of the token 524 include : the type of hardware authentication protocol being used ; the location of the authentication identification system 166 to be used ; and other types of hardware - specific authentication information that may necessary . the biometric 526 contains information specific to the biometric authentication device permitted to be used to authenticate the identity of user 101 . examples of the biometric 526 include : the type of hardware authentication protocol being used ; the location of the authentication identification system 166 to be used ; and other types of biometric hardware - specific authentication information that may necessary . the crypto - keys 528 contain cryptologic information necessary to authenticate the identity of user 101 based on one or more cryptographic keys . for example , if pki - based authentication is being used , crypto - keys may contain the public key of user 101 signed by a recognized certificate authority . all of the authentication credentials 520 , including password 522 , token 524 , biometric 526 , and crypto - keys 528 are based on well known and well established prior art authentication techniques and protocols . different embodiments may implement these various authentication credential records 520 in different ways . in some embodiments , the security policy broker 260 may also rely upon any authentication mechanisms provided as part of the operating system 112 in information system 200 . each clearance record 570 provides the security clearance authority given to the user 101 . each classification record 570 includes a security level 574 and zero or more security compartments 572 . the security clearance is a property associated with users , and the security classification is a property associated with targets . thus , the security compartments 572 and the security level 574 of the identity record 510 mirror the security compartments 472 and the security level 474 , respectively , in the security directive record 410 . the authorization directive 580 constrains what protections and controls user 101 may apply to information . the authorization directive 580 is used to apply non - discretionary controls that user 101 may be mandated to apply with regards to targets 480 of security directives 400 . the authorization directive 580 specifies what elements of the security policy ( e . g ., security labels 460 and security directives records 410 ) must and / or may be applied by user 101 . each authorization directive 580 has the same form as a security directive record 410 , can contain all of the information contained in a security directive record 410 , and further specifies the circumstances and conditions under which the included security directive record 410 applies . to determine if the user 101 can perform the requested action to a secure file 240 ( or other target 480 ), the security policy broker 260 performs a clearance - classification check 516 and an identity - subject check 518 . to perform the clearance - classification check 516 , the security clearances 570 of the identity record 510 and the security classification 470 of the security directive record 410 are compared . more specifically , the security compartments 572 and the security compartments 472 are compared , and the security level 574 and the security level 474 are compared . to pass the clearance - classification check 516 , the security clearances 570 of the identity record 510 must dominate ( e . g ., via the bell - lapadula domination rule ) the security classification 470 of the security directive record 410 . for this embodiment , to pass the clearance - classification check 516 , the security compartments 572 must include ( or be as large as ) the security compartments 472 , and the security level 574 must be at least as great as the security level 574 . to perform the identity - subject check 518 , the subject 450 associated with the security directive record 410 is used . the security policy broker 260 authenticates the identity 500 of user 101 using one or more of the authentication credentials 520 associated with the identity record 510 . based on the strength of the results from the identity - subject check 514 , the security policy broker 260 ascertains if user 101 satisfies the rule 412 . the identity - subject check 518 is performed when a subject record 450 is present in the security directive record 410 . fig1 illustrates a flowchart for creating a secure file 240 in relation to fig5 - 11 . in block 601 , the user 101 is enrolled in the distributed information protection and control system . an identity record 510 is created by / for the user 101 and stored in directory service 280 . the creation of the identity record 510 may require additional identity records 510 , a subset of such records , and / or appending additional data to existing records in the directory service 280 . in block 602 , the user 101 initializes the information system 200 . as part of the information system 200 initialization , the enforcement agent 262 b can be associated with operating system shell 115 in application process 214 b . additionally , the security policy broker 260 can be initiated to work with enforcement agent 262 b . in block 603 , the user 101 is authenticated . the information system 200 matches the user 101 with the identity 500 and associated identity records 510 . the matching is accomplished with the authentication credentials 520 . the user 101 may be required to reply correctly to authentication challenges by the information system 200 . if the user 101 provides the appropriate response ( s ) based on the authentication credentials 520 , the user 101 is matched with the identity 500 and associated identity records 510 . in other embodiments , the matching can occur using any conventional techniques . for example , the information system can match the user 101 based on authentication techniques implemented by the operating system 112 . once authenticated , the information system 200 matches the user 101 with identity 500 , and this user - identity relationship is illustrated in fig5 with the dotted line 514 . in block 604 , an application is loaded . the user 101 starts up the application 116 within the application process 214 c . in some embodiments , the invention is in either an active state or an inactive state . for the active state , when the operating system 112 loads application program 116 into non - persistent storage 210 , enforcement agent 262 c is associated with the application process 214 c . the enforcement agent 262 b associated with the operating system shell 115 monitors the application processes that the operating system shell 115 loads into the non - persistent storage 210 . when the operating system shell 115 loads the application process 114 c into the non - persistent storage 210 , the enforcement agent 262 b assigns the enforcement agent 262 c to the application process 114 c ( transforming it to application process 214 c ). for the inactive state , enforcement agent 262 b does not assign enforcement agent 262 b to application process 114 c , in which case secure files 240 can neither be created nor accessed by application 116 in application process 114 c . in other embodiments , various actions within this flow could cause enforcement agent 262 c to be assigned to application process 114 c . in block 605 , user 101 loads a file 130 using the application 116 . loading a file 130 can include , for example : creating content ; opening an existing file , 130 ; and manipulating the application 116 ( e . g ., a file manager ), which does not open and load a file 130 in the same manner as an application normally used to create and manipulate that type of file 130 , but which may take certain actions on the file 130 . in block 615 , the user 101 requests to save the file . enforcement agent 262 c intercepts the resulting data - saving request made by the application process 114 c to the operating system 112 . in block 620 , the security policy broker 260 determines , based upon the authorization directive 580 , that the user 101 must protect the file 130 and proceed on to block 630 . if authorization directive 580 does not require that user 101 protect file 130 or if an authorization directive 580 does not exist , the user 101 has an option to choose whether to protect the file 130 . if the user 101 chooses not to protect the file 130 , the flow ends at block 660 , and the application 116 conventionally saves the file 130 . in block 625 , the user 101 requests to protect the file . in some embodiments , this request can originate from the user 101 selecting this action via the title bar icon 804 ( fig1 ). in other embodiments , this request can be initiated through a separate application program or utility . in block 630 , user 101 selects a security label 460 to be associated with the secure file . the security label 460 is assigned as security label 336 with the manifest record ( s ) 330 of the payload ( s ) 340 within which the information contained in file 130 is to be stored . if the user 101 selects to assign a previously defined security label 460 , flow proceeds to block 635 . if the user 101 selects to create a new security directive 400 , flow proceeds to block 640 . only the security labels 460 that the user 101 is authorized to assign ( including the option to create a new security label 460 ), as specified in authorization directive 580 , are offered to the user 101 for selection in block 630 . in block 635 , the security policy broker 260 retrieves the security directive record 410 corresponding to the selected security label 460 . the security policy broker 260 can retrieve security directive records 410 from , for example : the policy broker cache 264 and / or the security policy server 290 . in block 640 , user 101 creates a new security directive 400 . creating a new security directive 400 entails creating a security directive record 410 . in block 645 , the security policy broker 260 validates that the user 101 is authorized to apply the selected security label 460 as the security label 336 of the manifest record 330 for the secure file 240 . if user 101 created a new security directive in block 640 , the new security directive is validated . the validation can include verification of the authentication credentials 520 , if required by security directive record 410 . if user 101 is authorized to apply security label 460 , flow proceeds to block 650 . if the user 101 is not authorized to apply the selected security label , flow returns back to block 630 or continues to block 655 . if , at block 620 , the user 101 was required to protect the file , but user 101 does not select an authorized security label 460 , user 101 is unable to save the file 130 as secure file 240 . in some embodiments , if in active state , user 101 is prohibited from saving file 130 . in block 650 , the enforcement agent 262 c generates the secure file 240 , with file 130 becoming the primary payload 324 , and applies the cryptographic techniques as required by the crypto - flags 462 of the security directive record 410 . the manifest record 330 of primary payload 322 contains security label 336 , as selected via blocks 630 , 635 , 640 , and 645 . the security policy broker 260 can require the user 101 to present authentication credentials 520 to perform acts of cryptographically signing one or more parts of the secure file 240 . the enforcement agent 262 c and the security policy broker 260 can communicate with the directory service 280 to determine various identity information on potential recipients of the file 130 , such as identity group resolution , contact details , and crypto - keys . if desired , enforcement agent 262 c can securely delete file 130 at step 650 . in block 655 , if required , the security policy broker 260 logs the creation of the new secure file 240 to the audit server 270 . if , at block 645 , user 101 was denied authorization to apply desired security label 260 , security policy broker 260 may log the attempted security label 260 to audit server 270 . logging may be required by the security directive record 410 associated with the selected security label 336 , as specified within the e - list 444 . in block 660 the flow ends , when the user 101 closes the file 130 , or when the user 101 closes the file 130 without saving or protecting the file 130 . in another embodiment , secure file 240 may not be physically created in usb reader 220 until user 101 chooses to save file 130 . fig1 illustrates a flow chart for accessing a secure file 240 in relation to fig5 - 11 . in block 700 , the information system 240 is running properly , and blocks 601 - 604 have been performed . in block 705 , the user 101 requests to access a secure file 240 via application 116 c in application process 214 c . enforcement agent 262 c intercepts the request made to the operating system 112 by the application process 214 c accessing the secure file 240 . in block 710 , the enforcement agent 262 c determines if the selected secure file 240 can be accessed . the enforcement agent 262 c checks the user - identity relationship 514 using the authentication credentials 520 . if the user 101 passes the check , the secure file 240 is accessed , and flow proceeds to block 715 . if the enforcement agent 262 c and security policy broker 260 are not available , the operating system 112 can start the enforcement agent 262 c and the security policy broker 260 . if the enforcement agent 262 c or the security policy broker 260 cannot be found or started , or if user 101 fails the check ( i . e ., cannot provide the required authentication credentials 520 to validate the user - identity relationship 514 ), flow proceeds to and ends at block 780 , and the user 101 cannot access the secure file 240 . in block 715 , the enforcement agent 262 c provides the security policy broker 260 with header section 310 of the secure file 240 . in block 720 , the security policy broker 260 obtains the security directive record 410 associated with the security label 336 for the primary payload 324 . the security directive record 410 can be contained , for example , within the directive payload 322 of the secure file 240 , within the policy broker cache 264 , and / or retrieved from the security policy server 290 . if the security directive record 410 is located within the directive payload 322 , the enforcement agent 262 c forwards the security directive record 410 to the security policy broker 260 . in other embodiments , the enforcement agent 262 c can provide callback functions to the security policy broker 260 to retrieve the directive payload 322 . in block 730 , the security policy broker 260 performs a clearance - classification check 516 and an identity - subject check 518 . to perform the checks , the security policy broker 260 accesses the security classification record 470 and the subject records 450 for the security directive record 410 . as discussed above , the clearance - classification check 516 is performed using the security clearance records 570 of the identity record 510 associated the user 101 and the security classification records 470 of the security directive record 410 associated with the security label 336 . as discussed above , the identity - subject check 518 is performed using the identity record 510 and the subject record 450 . if user 101 passes , flow passes to block 735 . if user 101 fails either the clearance - classification check 516 or the identity - subject cheek 518 , user 101 is denied access to the payload 340 of secure file 240 , and flow proceeds to block 770 . in block 735 , the enforcement agent 262 c determines whether the crypto - keys 338 from the manifest record 330 corresponding to the payload ( s ) 340 being accessed within the secure file 240 can be accessed . the crypto - keys 338 of the secure file are accessed via the crypto - keys 528 for the identity record 510 . crypto - keys 338 may be required in order to decrypt a payload 340 , but crypto - keys 338 may also be encrypted . in various embodiments , various mechanisms may be employed to provide enforcement agent 262 c with access to crypto - keys 338 to decrypt payload 340 of secure file 240 . for example , enforcement agent 262 c may communicate with policy server 290 to have crypto - keys 338 decrypted and re - encrypted in such a manner that crypto - keys 528 are able to access crypto - keys 338 . as another example , enforcement agent 262 c may retrieve crypto - keys 338 , which are stored on security policy server 290 rather than within manifest record 333 . as a further example , payload 340 may not be encrypted . if the crypto - keys 528 for the identity record 510 decrypt crypto - keys 338 , flow proceeds to block 740 . if the crypto - keys 528 cannot decrypt crypto - keys 338 , user 101 is not permitted access to payload 340 , and the flow proceeds to block 770 . in block 740 , the enforcement agent 262 c loads one or more payloads 340 from the payload section 320 of the secure file 240 into non - persistent storage associated with application process 214 c , provided that user 101 has the required authorization to access the desired payload blocks 341 , 342 , 343 , etc . it is possible that different payloads 340 ( e . g ., primary payload 324 and each ancillary payload 326 ) have different security labels 336 and , hence , different associated security directive records 410 , such that user 101 may be authorized to access one payload 340 but not another . any encrypted blocks can be decrypted by the enforcement agent 262 c using the accessed crypto - keys 338 . thus , application 116 within application process 214 c is able to reference primary payload 324 , just as if it were the original file 130 . in block 750 , the user 101 requests an action on the information in a payload 340 of the secure file 240 . the enforcement agent 262 c intercepts the request from the application 116 in application process 214 c to the operating system 112 . in block 755 , the security policy broker 260 evaluates the requested action by checking rule - related records 416 of the security directive records 410 to determine if the user 101 is permitted to perform the requested action . additionally , as an option , the security policy broker 260 can again verify the user - identity relationship 514 . for example , the user 101 can be required to provide and / or revalidate authentication credentials 520 prior to being authorized for the action . if the rule - related records 416 of the security directive records 410 has action records 420 , the security policy broker 260 notifies the enforcement agent 262 c that the user 101 is authorized for and / or prohibited from the actions of the action records 420 . if rule - related records 416 has condition records 430 , the security policy broker 260 determines if the condition records 430 are satisfied , and notifies the enforcement agent 262 c whether or not the association action should be permitted . if the action is permitted , flow proceeds to block 760 ; otherwise if the action is not permitted , flow proceeds to block 765 . in block 760 , user 101 is authorized , and the security policy broker 260 notifies the enforcement agent 262 c that the user 101 can continue with the request . enforcement agent 262 c passes the request made by application 116 c to the operating system 112 . in block 765 , user 101 is not authorized , and the security policy broker 260 notifies the enforcement agent 262 c that the user 101 cannot continue with the request . the enforcement agent 262 c prevents the action from occurring by not permitting the intercepted request made by the application process 214 c to proceed to the operating system 112 , and providing an appropriate response to the application 116 within application process 214 c . in other embodiments , this response may emulate operating system request - return values . in other embodiments , this response may include request - return values specific to the invention . the enforcement agent 262 c can also present an error message 825 ( see fig1 ) to the user 101 via the display 148 . in block 770 , the user 101 is denied access to the contents of secure file 240 , as a result of decisions made in blocks 730 or 735 . in block 775 , the result of previous block steps 760 , 765 , and 770 are audited , if required by security directive records 410 . if the security directive record 410 has event records 440 , the security policy broker 260 and / or the enforcement agent 262 c supplies a record audit of the events to the audit server 270 . such audit logs may , for example , contain information such as : the secure file identifier 312 of the secure file 240 ; the identity record 510 of the user 101 ; identification of the information system 200 ; the security label 460 ; the application 116 ; the action attempted ; the conditions , relating to condition records 430 ; and the success or failure of the requested action . in other embodiments , the enforcement agent 262 c can access the audit server 270 periodically , non - periodically and / or “ on demand ” when an event occurs . in some embodiments , auditable events may be temporarily stored in the enforcement agent cache 268 by enforcement agent 262 c , and in the policy broker cache 264 by the security policy broker 260 , prior to their being transmitted to audit server 270 . as long as the user 101 continues to access secure file 240 , flow proceeds from block 775 to block 750 . the enforcement agent 262 continues to intercept requested actions , and the security policy broker 260 continues to intercept these actions in the manner so described ( blocks 750 - 775 ). any additional files created in persistent storage by application 116 that are associated with the contents of secure file 240 ( e . g ., temporary files , earlier revisions of the file , and backups of the file ) are stored either within enforcement agent cache 268 or as other secure files . if the crypto - flags record 462 of security directive record 410 specifies that such information is to be encrypted , all such additional and / or temporary files are encrypted appropriately . the presence of the invention in the information system 200 can be indicated to the user 101 in a variety of ways ( e . g ., visual and / or audio ). for example , for operating systems 112 with a graphical user interface (“ gui ”), such as microsoft windows or x - windows , the presence of the invention can be shown visually , and user 101 can be provided with various gui elements for interacting with the invention . sound , and other acoustic indications , can also be used to facilitate user interaction in a manner appropriate to the operating system and user - interface . fig1 illustrates an exemplary user interface for the display 148 of the information system 200 . as an example , if the operating system 112 is microsoft windows , a task bar icon 802 can be displayed within the task bar 800 as a visual gui - based indication of the presence of the invention . this task bar icon 802 can also provide pictorial representations of the state of the enforcement agents 262 b , 262 c running within the application process 214 b , 214 c . the user may “ click on ” or otherwise select this task bar icon 802 to further reveal a task bar menu 805 with additional choices . with the menu , the user 101 can , for example : change the state of existing enforcement agents 262 ; change the state of all enforcement agents 262 ; and access other command and control functions provided by the invention . the task bar icon 802 and task bar menu 805 may be managed by the security policy broker 260 or by an independent software process created solely to provide these user - interface constructs . continuing with this example , if an enforcement agent 262 is assigned to an application process 214 having gui elements , a title bar icon 804 in the title bar 806 in the window 808 for the application process 214 can be provided . the title bar icon 804 indicates whether the information displayed in window 808 is contained in a secure file 240 , and displays the associated security label 460 ( i . e ., determined by the security label 336 associated with the manifest record 330 of the payload 340 containing the displayed information ) as application window label 820 . if information is being displayed from multiple payloads ( e . g ., both primary and ancillary payloads ), the label 820 of title bar 806 of the application window 808 is updated appropriately . if application process 214 has multiple application windows 808 , each title bar icon 804 and application window label 820 will reflect the security label associated with the information specific to that window . the title bar icon 804 of window 808 can further be selected to reveal a security policy broker menu 815 . for example , the user 101 can , if authorized : convert a file 130 to a secure file 240 ; view currently authorized actions on the payload 320 of secure file 240 ; and modify security directive records 410 . selecting one or more of these options may cause the security policy broker 260 to launch additional dialogs for user input and / or output , as required by the information being manipulated . within some application processes 214 , such as a file manager , menu 815 may be appended to a context menu , often associated with a secondary mouse button click , such that user 101 may select a file 130 and display security policy broker menu 815 . other informational messages 825 may be displayed as needed , in a fashion common to gui display , by the enforcement agent 262 or security policy broker 260 . in some embodiments , the graphical elements of the invention ( e . g ., title bar icon 804 , application window label 820 , menu 815 , and message 825 ) are implemented using conventional gui constructs provided by the operating system 112 that are outside of the direct control of application 116 displaying information within window 808 ( e . g ., within the window manager itself , and not the application ). thus , the graphical elements associated with the invention are unapparent to and exist outside the knowledge and control of application 116 . in general , an operating system graphical user interface ( e . g ., the desktop in microsoft windows ) is used for the operating system 112 , and an application graphical user interface ( e . g ., a window in microsoft windows ) is used for an application 116 . the operating system graphical user interface and / or the application graphical user interface can be adorned with additional elements to identify the enforcement agent 262 and / or the security policy broker 260 . further , a task bar icon 802 or equivalent of the operating system graphical user interface and / or a title bar icon 804 or equivalent of the application graphical user interface can be used to identify the enforcement agent 262 and / or the security policy broker 260 . other embodiments for operating systems 112 utilizing a gui may use similar techniques to allow the user to control and interact with the invention . in other embodiments without a conventional gui , other exemplary forms of interacting with the user may be used , depending upon the capabilities provided in the operating system . to illustrate the operation of the invention outside the medical records context , another example is provided . consider a company that establishes an information classification scheme with five security levels ( with values 0 to 4 ) and four security compartments ( called hr , fa , sm , and sm ). the five levels , in ascending order of confidentiality , along with their corresponding semantics are : public ( level 0 ), official - use only ( level 1 ), internal - use only ( level 2 ), company confidential ( level 3 ), and restricted ( level 4 ). the four compartments are associate with various aspects of the company &# 39 ; s business units : human resources ( fir ), finance and accounting ( fa ), sales and marketing ( sm ), and product development ( pd ). the company &# 39 ; s security directives 400 stipulate that in the absence of file - specific rules , a user may have read - only access to the payload 320 of a secure file 240 only if their individual security clearance level ( i . e ., security level 574 ) is greater than or equal to the classification level ( i . e ., security level 474 ) associated with the information contained in a secure file 240 . example users in the company include : bob , the vice - president of sales and marketing , with a non - compartmentalized security clearance 570 of “ restricted ” ( level 4 ), as well as security clearances 570 of sm - 4 and fa - 3 ; marie , bob &# 39 ; s assistant , with a non - compartmentalized security clearance 570 of level 2 ; and alice , a human resources manager with a non - compartmentalized security clearance 570 level 3 , as well as security clearances 570 of hr - 3 and fa - 2 . a security directive 400 of the company requires that only senior human resources personnel may create and share information related to employee salaries . an increasing number of regulations also require that the company protect personal and private data . the invention implements this security policy to ensure that an employee &# 39 ; s salary , which is deemed private , is not released to unauthorized individuals . to meet this security directive 400 , the company defines security directive record 410 with a security label 460 , salary , which has a security classification record 470 of hr - 3 ( i . e ., a security level 474 of 3 and a security compartment 472 of hr ). additionally , the security directive record 410 has a security classification record 470 of hr - 3 for actions other than read via an action record 420 . in other words , users with a general clearance record 570 having a security level 574 of 3 or higher can only read salary labeled secure files , unless the user also has a clearance record 570 having a security compartment 572 of fir at a security level 574 of 3 or higher . further , the rules 416 in the security directive record 410 for salary also permit only users who are members of the human resources department identified via a subject record 450 to label files as salary via an action record 420 and that any denied actions be audited via an event record 430 . alice creates a salary report for the company as a secure file 240 using , for example , microsoft excel and selects the security label 460 for the secure file 240 , which is incorporated as the security label 336 in the secure file 240 . alice sends the secure file 240 with the salary report as an email attachment to a distribution list via , for example , microsoft outlook . bob receives the secure file 240 and is permitted to open it , since he has a security level 574 of 4 . i however , when bob attempts to print the report or to copy its content to another document , the enforcement agent 262 prevents him from doing so , as he does not have a clearance record of iir - 3 . due to the enforcement agent 262 of marie &# 39 ; s information system 200 , marie , who has access to bob &# 39 ; s e - mail , is unable to open the secure file 240 because she has only a security level of 2 . bob &# 39 ; s denied attempt to print the secure file and marie &# 39 ; s denied attempt to read the secure file are captured in the audit logs of the audit server 270 for the company . on the other hand , tom , another human resources manager with a security clearance record with hr - 3 has full control over the salary report in the secure file and may copy , modify , or redistribute the secure tile according to the rules in the security directive record 410 for salary . if an authorized individual determines that bob should access to the salary report , a variety of techniques can provide bob with this ability . one option is to give the identity record 510 of bob a clearance record 570 with i - ir - 3 , which would allow him full control of the salary report in the secure file 240 as welt additional authorization on other secure files 240 which include a payload 320 with a security label 336 of hr - 3 . another option is to add a rule in the security directive record 410 for salary that permits printing by all individuals with a general clearance record 570 of level 4 . yet another option is to add a rule in the security directive record 410 for salary that allows anyone in the company with the title of vice - president or above to print secure files having a security label 336 of salary . if bob intentionally or unintentionally attempts to forward the secure file 240 with the salary report to a colleague , joe , at another company , joe may not receive the secure file 240 . for example , the rules 416 of the security directive record 410 for salary would likely not allow sharing such information with external entities . if joe did receive the secure file 240 , joe is unable to access the salary report . if joe does not have the invention ( i . e ., enforcement agent 262 and security policy broker 260 ) running on his information system , the received secure file 240 would be unintelligible to his information system 200 . if joe does have the invention running on his information system 200 , it is unlikely that he would have a security level 574 of 4 for a security clearance record 570 from bob &# 39 ; s company . additionally , a hacker who managed to pilfer the secure file 240 from alice , bob , marie , or joe would be unable to access the salary report of the secure file without being able to break the encryption and structure of the secure file 240 . in this example , all users are interacting only with their applications 116 , such as microsoft excel for manipulating spreadsheets and microsoft outlook e - mail client . the users do not need to leave their familiar environments . in alice &# 39 ; s case , an additional step is required to assign the security label 460 of salary to the salary report . she does not need to understand the complexities of the data classification scheme in the company and only needs to know that she must label secure files 240 containing salary data as salary . the recipients , such as bob and marie , of the email with attached secure file of the salary report open the attachment in the same manner as all other attachments are opened . if bob uses a different spreadsheet program than alice , for example openoffice or microsoft works , the invention behaves in an identical manner and enforces the security directive 400 of salary . the above - described secure usb business and / or personal id card according to the present invention bears full - color external text and / or graphics , including a unique two - or three - dimensional barcode applied by an image transfer printed by a modified large - format digital printer . the transfer is applied by a selective release transfer process in which the adhesive layer attaches only in the image area to the target surface and the adhesive layer is peeled off except for the image area which is left attached to the target surface . this produces a high - resolution four color graphic inclusive of white , which is used to apply the three - dimensional barcodes at potential volumes of upward of 200 , 000 per day . it is envisioned that the usb business and / or personal id card may contain any combination of : the name or logo of the company ; office address , individual name , telephone numbers , fax , and email address . the opposite side of the card could contain pertinent information concerning its use or other promotion materials . this card could be used as an identity card , driver license , insurance card , financial services card , credit card , prescription drug cards , medicaid card , and internet transaction card . the outside of the card could contain : a bar code , including 2 and 3 dimensional codes ; a photograph ; and other biometric information that can be printed on the outside of the card . the present invention therefore includes the digitally - printed transfer bearing a digitally created image that can be heat and / or pressure - applied to a target surface , and a method for transferring the digitally created images from film to a target surface via digital printing and heat and / or pressure transfer or printed directly on the card using conventional ink jet technologies . the heat transfer process employs a modified digital printer ( converted from a double sided fusing printing process to a back fusing web printing process ) to create an image on transfer film subsequently coated with adhesive that is then heat and / or pressure - applied to a substrate to yield a high - resolution four color graphic with white . the basic fabrication steps comprise 1 ) coating one side of a disposable base transfer film ( or carrier ) with a releasable coating ; 2 ) digitally printing one or more images overtop the base transfer film in reverse - image format ; and 3 ) applying an adhesive coating over the image . the result is a roll of pre - printed transfers . in accordance with the present method for transferring the digitally created images from film to a target surface , 4 ) the base transfer film is indexed over a target substrate ( image down and showing through the film ) and heat and / or pressure is applied to the base transfer film to adhere the image to the target substrate . the base transfer film is peeled from the target substrate and is discarded , leaving a high - resolution color graphic image on the target substrate . the method is described in detail below with various options , and in all cases the method is unique because when the image is transferred there is “ selective release ”, meaning that there is transfer to the target substrate only in a pre - determined area ( most commonly in the specific area of the print image , though for some applications it may be desirable to have a release that includes non - imaged areas ), despite the adhesive coating which may , and indeed , usually exceeds the borders of the printed image . this selective release improves the quality of the transfer because there are no unsightly borders or margins around the image , and holes and gaps in fairly complex images are not filled in . fig1 is an exploded diagram showing the layers of an exemplary image transfer 2 according to the present invention . the image transfer 2 includes a disposable base transfer film 11 . this can be any suitable transfer carrier formed of plastic or non - woven material and that is capable of being passed as a web through the production machinery . for example , the presently preferred transfer film 11 is polyester teraphthalate ( pet ). in accordance with one optional feature of the present invention , the transfer film 11 may be preformed with distinct surface patterns or texture to give the final transfer a textured aesthetic . an image release layer 12 is uniformly applied onto the base transfer film 11 . image release layer 12 may be , for example , a wax , lacquer , or combination of wax and lacquer , with or without specific additives . the application of the image release layer 12 may be attained by applying the wax and / or lacquer onto the base transfer film 11 in individual coats from either solvent or waterborne solutions or suspensions . it is known from experience that the final parameters of the coating can be adapted to any requirement by the changing coating weights , the addition or substitution of resins , waxes and wax solutions , and there are many conventional coating methods that can be used to achieving a desired coat weight . the appearance of the final coating can be full gloss or be matted down to the required level by the addition of matting agents . when applied the release layer 12 must be uniform , and free from all coating defects and application patterns ( except where a coating pattern is an intended aspect ). the presently - preferred release layer 12 comprises a lacquer mixture of commercially available polymethyl methacrylate resin with a commercially available wax suspension ( byk 151 ex - samual banner ). the ratio of resin to wax is on the order of 80 % to 95 % resin to 5 % to 20 % wax . these two components are provided in a 5 % to 15 % solid solution ( depending on method of application ) in a butanone and toluene solvent blend ( of which toluene is around 10 % of the total solvent ). the release layer coating is then forced air - dried giving a dry coat weight coat weight of 1 . 15 to 1 . 35 grams per square meter . the image 13 itself is then digitally printed with a four color graphic ( as will be described ) on the transfer film 11 ( overtop release layer 12 ). the digital printer may employ either electro - ink or dry powder toner , and otherwise conventional print techniques . preferably , a registration mark is printed at this same time , and when desired the four - color image 13 ( and registration mark ) is then overprinted with a white background 14 . finally , a pressure and / or heat activated adhesive layer 15 may be applied evenly over the whole of the web , both where there is image and no image , or may be selectively applied only in the image area . presently , the adhesive layer 15 is applied in line directly after the printing step using a 3 . 5 % to 4 % solution of commercially available polyamide ( lioseal v 7036 ex - flenkel ) in a solvent system , which is predominately isopropyl alcohol . this solution is then coated onto the image 13 and / or transfer film 11 by a wire wound rod at a dry coating weight of 0 . 2 to 0 . 3 grams per square meter , the applied coating being forced air - dried . to then transfer the digitally created image from the transfer film 11 to a target surface , the base transfer film 11 is placed on a target substrate and is indexed in position using the index lines ( image down and showing through the film ). the adhesive layer is then heat and / or pressure - fused to a subject material and the image itself 13 adheres more strongly to the material than does the image release layer 12 . thus , when the image transfer film 11 is applied image - down to a target substrate by application of pressure and / or heat ( as will be described ), the dried adhesive layer 15 attaches to the target substrate only in the image 12 area but is otherwise retained by the transfer film 11 (“ selective release ”). to then apply the transfer 2 , the image transfer film 11 is peeled off the target substrate together with the dried adhesive layer 15 except for the image area which is left attached to the target substrate by the pressure and / or heat activated adhesive layer 15 . for this to happen , the thickness of the non - printed areas of release layer 12 and adhesive layer 15 must be thinner than printed areas containing the release layer 12 , image 13 and adhesive layer 15 such that more pressure is exerted where there is image to the target substrate than where there is no image . the characteristics of the image release layer 12 , the adhesive layer 15 and the image layers 13 , 14 are selected so as to work with a wide variety of target substrates , including textured and porous materials such as leather to give this selectivity . fig1 is a block diagram of all necessary process steps for making and applying the above - described transfer 2 . this printer can be any conventional digital printer that uses either electroink ™ or dry powder toner , or other conventional print techniques . for example , a xeikon ™ large format digital printer is suitable . this and most other large format digital printers employ heater roller assemblies and fusers generally contained within a protective housing . a toner image is transferred to a sheet or web and is then fixed to the web by heat and / or pressure . typically the paper is transported in a nip between the fuser and pressure roller , which are rotating . thermal radiation from a lamp heats the fuser roller , causing the toner on the web to melt and press into the web fibers . in accordance with the present invention , the printer is modified to essentially convert it from a front and back fuser system to a back fusing web printing process . the modification initially entails disabling the heaters in the infeed module removal of the front fusers ( substep 22 ) and removal of the gem rollers 24 . specifically , for a xeikon digital printer , the front fusers and part nos . cns - 1262 - 015208 32d ( gem roller ) would be removed as seen in fig1 . in addition , the print color order is changed from the conventional cmyk to kmcy the current process uses a plastic web in roll form for the base transfer film 11 of fig1 and pre - coats this with the release layer 12 which may be a releasing lacquer , a wax , a release coating , or a combination of any of these as described above . at substep 42 it is necessary to mix the releasing layer ( lacquer , wax , coating , or combination of any of these ). the lacquer , wax and release coating are custom - mixed to create the correct release factor for a range of heat and pressure used . a suitable wax release can be mixed with a combined acrylic nitrocellulose overlacquer for this purpose . if desired , the release layer 12 may be texturized or mixed with specific additives , such as ultraviolet absorbers or biocides , to give the release layer specific properties . for example , the release layer 12 may be texturized with a distinct carrier surface pattern ( matte or scratch ). since the image is printed onto the release layer 12 and is then transferred , the net effect is to impart the surface pattern onto the surface of the transfer . most any texture or pattern that can be made to the surface of the release layer 12 , for example , embossing , etching or addition of a solid component , e . g . silica . in each ease this is transferred when it is applied to the target substrate . these changes can be aesthetic for example , matte , brushed effect , geometric pattern , regular pattern or random pattern . the effect can also be subtle such as wording , images or patterns that are only visible with light shining on the surface at a particular angle , thereby serving as a simple security device . as another example , the release layer 12 may contain a functional additive that confers a property to the transfer 2 that is not present in the transfer without the additive . for example the addition of 1 % of an anti - microbial additive such the transfer surface as applied to a target will inhibit bacteria . inorganic , silver - based antimicrobials are generally recognized as safe and are well suited for this purpose . the addition of a small percentage ( less than 10 %) of a uv absorber will protect the toner image from degradation in color intensity due to prolonged exposure to direct sunlight . the addition of a phosphorescent or fluorescent additive will make the transfer “ glow ” when uv light is shined onto it . this addition can be used in conjunction with the above - described surface pattern , making the effect easier to detect . the image is designed into a vector image file , or scanned into a raster image file , in both cases using four color cmyk pixilation . as seen at substep 32 , the emblem graphic design may be generated using computer drawing software . this is generally accomplished using graphics programs such as well - known adobe illustrator ™, photoshop ™, etc . such software is capable of calculating the image dimensions from the design , and colors are chosen from a selectable palette . photoshop software developed by adobe uses a palette technique in which the image data is coded and compressed to a prescribed number of colors ( a range of from 256 to 16m colors depending on the selected palette ). the image file can be manipulated as desired to resize / rescale , redraw or alter the coloration . the final image is then saved as a cmyk raster image file . given a prepared image , at substep 44 the image is printed directly from the raster image file and at substep 46 an additional toner drum of white toner ( w ) is used to print a white overprint . the process imprints electrostatically charged toner or inkjet images onto the base transfer film 11 . the process prints the desired image , laying on colors in registration patterns in the order black , magenta , cyan , yellow ( kmcy ), and finally white , instead of the cmyk patterns that are applied by an unmodified xeikon . the printing of a white layer of color at substep 66 is unique to the invention and this improves contrast by filling in blank areas . when working on the design computer white is seen as black . white cannot be seen on the screen . the black image ( the part we want to be white ) is given a specific reference , for example , pantone 100 . this specific reference number is added as a fifth color that the xeikon combines with the normal cmyk colors of the design , and yet printing this reference color as white as it has been programmed to do . next , at step 5 , the mixed release layer 12 is applied to the plastic transfer film 11 . the release layer 12 is applied over the whole surface of the base transfer film 11 using conventional coating machine . at step 6 a water or solvent based adhesive is applied over both the image ( with nor without white ) and the areas that do not contain a printed image . these areas may include parts of the image that have intentionally been left clear of print for example between numbers , backgrounds to let the substrate be seen through the print , etc . the transfer 2 is now complete . finally , at step 7 , the image transfer 2 may be applied to a wide variety of materials including rough and / or porous materials such as leather . at substep 72 the image 13 may be transferred to the substrate material by a roller - to - substrate process , or through a heat - stamping process , in both cases using conventional presses . in both cases the differential pressure of the transfer film 11 with toner versus the transfer film 11 without toner is the factor that controls the selective release according to the present invention . more specifically , at substep 74 the dried adhesive on the printed area of the image 13 encounters more pressure due to the additional thickness added by the toner , and thus the printed areas of image 13 attach to the target material . after the transfer film 11 contacts the target substrate , the transfer film 11 may be peeled away . the printed image 13 transfers to the target substrate as the web separates . the adhesive on the printed area attaches to the target surface and pulls the printed image off the transfer film 11 and onto the target substrate . the process does not leave a “ lacquer halo ” around the printed images as in conventional transfer processes . where a heat - stamping process is used , the stamping press may be used a second time directly onto the transferred image to imbed the printed image into the selected substrate . this differential pressure is obtained by the difference in thickness between the areas of the film that are imprinted with the image 13 and areas where there is no image . although it is imperceptible to the naked eye , the transfer 2 is thicker in the areas where the toner has been applied . the image is transferred selectively through the interaction of the release layer , image and adhesive and the target substrate . the release layer and adhesives being specifically formulated to exploit this differential pressure . the invention has generally been described for use in security of an information system . the invention can be used for other applications , for example : version control ; archiving and destruction ; monitoring and gathering usage metrics of various components of an information system ; indexing and retrieving files ; valuation ; resource allocation ; and ownership management . this written description uses examples to disclose the invention , including the best mode , and also to enable any person skilled in the art to practice the invention , including making and using any devices or systems and performing any incorporated methods . the patentable scope of the invention is defined by the claims , and may include other examples that occur to those skilled in the art . such other examples are intended to be within the scope of the claims if they have structural elements that do not differ from the literal language of the claims , or if they include equivalent structural elements with insubstantial differences from the literal languages of the claims .
6 (Physics)
it should be understood that in the following description , terms such as upper , lower , horizontal etc . are used merely for illustrative purposes . referring now to the drawings , a locking device constructed in accordance with this invention consists of two parts : a buckle and an insert . the buckle 10 has an upper member 12 shown in fig1 - 4 having a curved top wall 14 . at the center of the top wall there is a circular hole 16 with an enlarged or countersunk mouth as at 18 . as shown in fig2 - 4 , the upper member 12 is almost completely hollow , having a cavity 20 except for a portion 22 disposed at one longitudinal side of the member 12 . this portion 22 is provided with a horizontal slot 24 . portion 22 also has an indentation 26 substantially coextensive with slot 24 . the buckle 10 also has a lower member 28 shown in detail in fig5 - 8 . this member 28 is arranged and constructed to form an interference fit with upper member 12 when inserted into cavity 20 . the member 28 includes a concave wall 30 . at the center in wall 30 , there is a large circular hole 32 . the wall 30 also has two diametrically opposed horizontal sections 34 , 36 . a plurality of smaller holes 38 are provided at the four corners of the wall 30 as shown . the holes are countersunk as at 40 . as best seen in fig7 on the bottom , member 28 has a plurality of cylindrical bosses 42 corresponding to holes 38 for reinforcing the member . the member 28 is also provided with a substantially circular wall 44 following hole 32 , except at one of the edges of sections 34 , 36 . as seen in fig7 wall 44 has one wall portion 46 following one edge of section 34 , while along section 36 , wall 44 has a wall portion 48 diametrically opposite wall portion 46 . holes 38 , with walls 42 and countersinks 40 cooperate to accept and hold screws , such as a wood screw 50 , for securing the lower buckle member 28 to an object . furthermore , each of the sections 34 , 36 has a curved indentation as at 52 , 54 concentric with hole 32 . the locking device further includes an insert 56 , shown in detail in fig9 - 14 . the insert includes a cup - shaped insert portion 58 with a concentric indentation 60 . two keyways 62 , 64 are provided around the indentation , preferably spaced at an angle of about 90 ° as shown . a circular boss 66 is secured to the bottom of insert portion 58 extending downwardly . the boss is used to hold securely a paddle 68 with two arms 70 , 72 extending diametrically away from the boss and curving slightly downwardly . the cup - shaped insert portion 58 also has an outer flange 74 . the insert 56 is attached to the buckle upper member 12 as follows ( see fig1 a ). insert portion 58 is first placed into hole 16 with flange 74 resting on mouth 18 . paddle 68 is then inserted on boss 66 and is secured to insert portion 58 by gluing or other similar means . in this manner , the insert 56 is rotatably disposed in hole 16 . now , the locking device is ready for mounting . the upper member 12 of locking device 10 may be mounted in any known manner to a first object , which may be for example , a cover 76 . for example , an edge of cover 76 may be inserted into horizontal slot 24 as shown in fig1 a . member 12 then , may be secured to cover 76 by sewing , pressing , etc . member 28 is secured to a second object 78 , which may be a part of a hot tube enclosure , by inserting screws 50 through holes 38 . alternatively , member 28 may be seamed to the second object by other well - known means such as spikes with balls , rivets , etc ., the exact seaming means depending on the nature of object 78 . the first object ( i . e . the cover ) then may be fastened and / or secured to the second object ( i . e . the enclosure ) in two steps . first the upper member 12 of the buckle is snapped over the lower member 28 . in this step the paddle 68 is positioned so that it may be inserted between the two sections 34 , 36 as shown in fig1 . once the upper member is positioned properly over the lower member ( as shown in fig1 - 20 ), insert 56 is rotated by about 90 ° as shown in fig1 forcing paddle 68 under the sections 34 , 36 . preferably the members 12 , 26 and insert 56 are dimensioned so that as the insert is turned an interference fit is formed between the paddle and the section 34 , 36 . the rotation of the paddle is stopped when the paddle comes into contact with wall sections 46 , 48 . the insert may be rotated for example with a specially shaped tool adapted to engage at least one of the keyways 62 , 64 . the keyways may also be used to indicate whether the paddle is in the opened or closed position . in this manner the locking device can be used to firmly secure an object to another . the locking device can be opened and closed with relative ease , yet it will resist strong winds and is infant - proof . obviously numerous modifications may be made to the invention without departing from its scope as defined in the appended claims .
8 (General tagging of new or cross-sectional technology)
a user may create a schematic with a computer - aided design ( cad ) software , such as integrated computer aided design ( icad ) made by fujitsu . the term ‘ schematic ’ as used herein includes any data file generated or altered by a computer , such as , for example , component diagrams , circuit diagrams , printed wiring board ( pwb ) diagrams , signal timing diagrams , engineering diagrams , assembly diagrams , manufacturing drawings , graphics , photographs , images , charts , tables , lists and other figures . the schematic often has ‘ line art ’ text , which is inserted when the schematic is created and is considered a part of the schematic . in some cad programs , such as icad , the size , spacing and style of line art text in the schematic cannot be altered by a user . after creating the schematic , the user may convert the schematic into a portable document format ( pdf ) file with software , such as adobe distiller . the converted pdf schematic may be opened with adobe acrobat reader . when a user searches for text in the converted pdf schematic with software such as adobe acrobat reader , the software will not recognize line art text . [ 0028 ] fig1 a illustrates the difference between an exemplifying multi - spaced font 100 ( also called non - mono - spaced font or multi - width font ) and an exemplifying mono - spaced font 102 . in multi - spaced fonts , the width or horizontal space that each character occupies ( both text and assigned white space ) may be vary from character to character when typed , depending on the width of the character itself . for example , in the multi - spaced font 100 , the letters ‘ f ,’ ‘ l ’ and ‘ t ’ occupy less horizontal space , i . e ., have a different width , than the letters ‘ a ,’ ‘ g ,’ ‘ o ,’ ‘ e ’ and ‘ r .’ the multi - spaced font 100 compensates for letter differences to conserve space and improve legibility . most conventional fonts are multi - spaced fonts . if line art text in schematics created by a cad software is embedded with multi - spaced font , software such as adobe acrobat reader will treat some of the embedded multi - spaced font as separate words . for example , if a line art word ‘ flag ’ in a schematic is embedded with a multi - spaced font , and the schematic is converted to a pdf file , software such as adobe acrobat reader will not be able to find the word ‘ flag .’ instead , the software will read ‘ fl ’ and ‘ ag ’ as two separate words , and the search for the word ‘ flag ’ will be unsuccessful . [ 0030 ] fig1 b illustrates an example of horizontal spacings 106 a - 106 f of a mono - spaced font 104 . in contrast to multi - spaced fonts ( fig1 a ), each character in a mono - spaced font 104 , occupies the same amount of horizontal space or width 106 as other characters when typed , regardless of the actual width of the character itself . in fig1 b , the horizontal space or width 106 of each character is denoted as an imaginary box around each character . as a result , narrow characters like ‘ i ,’ ‘ l ,’ ‘.’ and ‘!’ occupy the same horizontal spaces as wide characters such as ‘ m ’ and ‘ w .’ [ 0031 ] fig1 c illustrates an example of courier font 110 , which is a mono - spaced font . in contrast to multi - spaced fonts , text embedded with mono - spaced fonts , such as the courier font 110 in fig1 c , in a schematic is searchable with software such as adobe acrobat reader . embedded courier font 110 in fig1 c and other embedded mono - spaced fonts may be used by the methods described below in accordance with the present invention . some mono - spaced fonts are difficult to read , especially when the mono - spaced fonts are used in large blocks of text or in compressed schematics . the present inventors experimented with fonts of various heights , widths , spacing and weights to improve on - screen legibility and printed legibility in various schematics . the inventors also tested the fonts &# 39 ; searchability , search accuracy , and compatibility with various types of software , such as icad , printer drivers and adobe distiller . [ 0034 ] fig2 illustrates one embodiment of a mono - spaced , embeddable , searchable font 200 in accordance with the present invention . the searchable font 200 in fig2 was created by the inventors with fontographer , a software developed by macromedia of san francisco , calif . in one embodiment , the searchable font 200 is compatible with various types of software , such as icad , adobe distiller , adobe acrobat reader , microsoft word and microsoft excel . the searchable font 200 in fig2 is mono - spaced to enable accurate searches once the font 200 is embedded in pdf schematics . the letters of the searchable font 200 in fig2 are narrower than the letters of other mono - spaced fonts , such as the courier font 110 of fig1 c . in one embodiment , the aspect ratio ( ratio of height to width ) of the font 200 in fig2 is about 2 to 1 . fonts with other aspect ratios may be used in accordance with the present invention . the spacing between letters of the mono - spaced font 200 ( fig2 ) may also be narrower than the spacing between letters of other mono - spaced fonts , such as the courier font 110 of fig1 c . thus , the searchable font 200 in fig2 uses horizontal space more efficiently than other mono - spaced fonts , such as the courier font 110 of fig1 c . for example , the letters a through z in the searchable font 200 in fig2 occupies less horizontal space than the letters a through z in courier font 110 of fig1 c . the searchable font 200 in fig2 could also advantageously fit into small areas or congested areas of a schematic , unlike other fonts . the searchable font 200 in fig2 is also taller and thicker than other mono - spaced fonts , such as the courier font 110 of fig1 c . in one embodiment , the font 200 is bolded , and the weight of the font 200 is about three times heavier than the standard , non - bolded courier font 110 in fig1 c . thus , the searchable font 200 in fig2 is more legible to users in both on - screen and printed schematics . one embodiment of the searchable font 200 is called ‘ pqschem ’ or ‘ pqschem2 ’ ( product quality schematic font , versions 1 and 2 ), which are shown in fig2 , 7 b , 7 f , 7 g , 7 i , 9 c , 10 a - 10 d and 12 a - 12 c . in general , a user creates a schematic containing line art text with cad software , such as icad . the user directs the cad software to use a searchable font , such as the searchable font 200 in fig2 in the schematic ( described in more detail below with reference to fig6 - 9 e ). the user uses a printer driver ( software ) to generate a postscript file based on the schematic . the user uses a software , such as adobe distiller , to convert the postscript file into a pdf file . when a converted pdf schematic is later opened with a software , such as adobe acrobat reader , the searchable font 200 is searchable to users . the searchable font 200 may be embedded in schematics for devices such as cameras , tvs , computers , dss and webtv products , vcrs , dvd players , stereo systems , receivers , camcorders , audio / visual equipment , printers , copiers and other mechanical or electrical devices . [ 0040 ] fig3 illustrates an exemplifying circuit schematic 300 created by a user using a cad software , such as icad , and converted into a pdf format by adobe distiller . in fig3 a user created the schematic 300 and inserted line art text with the cad software . there are no embedded fonts in the schematic 300 of fig3 . after the schematic is converted to a pdf file , the line art text cannot be accessed and is not searchable with a software such as adobe acrobat reader . fig4 a - 4 c illustrate the exemplifying circuit schematic 300 in fig3 after a user converts the schematics 400 a - 400 c into pdf files with adobe distiller and embeds various fonts in the schematics 400 a - 400 c with software , such as icad , a printer driver and adobe distiller ( described below ). the schematics 400 a - 400 c in fig4 a - 4 c may be opened with adobe acrobat reader . as a result of embedding the fonts and converting the schematics into pdf files , the spacing between the text and the components in fig4 a - 4 c may appear shifted and disorganized . as shown in fig4 a - 4 c , some of the embedded fonts interfere with the circuit components . for example , the text ‘ gnd ’ overlaps pins 48 and 49 in fig4 a - 4 c . the large widths of the embedded fonts in fig4 a - 4 c may also cause the schematics 400 a - 400 c to look disorganized . [ 0042 ] fig5 illustrates the circuit schematic 300 of fig3 with the searchable font 200 of fig2 embedded by software , such as icad , a printer driver and adobe distiller , and converted by adobe distiller into a pdf file . when the schematic 500 is viewed on - screen or printed with adobe acrobat reader , the embedded searchable font appears more organized than the fonts in fig4 a - 4 c . the embedded searchable font in fig5 does not interfere with the circuit components . for example , the text ‘ gnd ’ in fig5 is configured with the searchable font 200 of fig2 and does not overlap pins 48 and 49 . in addition , the embedded searchable font in fig5 is more legible than the fonts in fig4 a - 4 c . a searchable font , such as the font 200 of fig2 may be embedded in any line art text of a computer - generated schematic . the legibility and searchability of an embedded searchable font allows schematics to be distributed via the internet or an ethernet to a very large number of users , such as service personnel , at various locations around the world . [ 0045 ] fig6 illustrates one embodiment of a method for embedding a searchable font , such as the searchable font 200 of fig2 into a previously prepared schematic . in process block 600 of fig6 a user creates a schematic with a cad software and saves the schematic . as described above , the schematic may be created with icad , a software developed by fujitsu . in other embodiments , schematics created with other types of software may also use an embedded searchable font . fig7 a - 7 j illustrate an example of embedding a searchable font , such as the searchable font 200 of fig2 into a prepared schematic . fig7 a - 7 j illustrate a method that uses icad v30l35 - 00 , windows nt and adobe acrobat 3 . 0 or 4 . 0 . in other embodiments , other types of software and systems may be used to embed a searchable font . in process block 602 of fig6 the user modifies the cad software settings to use the searchable font 200 of fig2 for the line art text in the schematic . fig7 a illustrates a screen shot of a directory window 700 with a plurality of files used in a cad software , such as icad . in one embodiment , the user accesses the directory window 700 in fig7 a through a path ‘ c :\ cadpcb \ com \ bin \ plot2 .’ in fig7 a , the user double - clicks on a file icon labeled ‘ fontfile ’ 702 to open a fontfile ‘ notepad ’ window 704 shown in fig7 b . the user changes the font type that is currently listed to the right of the ‘ font ’ field 706 to ‘ pqschem2 ’ 708 , which is one embodiment of the searchable font 200 of fig2 . as mentioned above , courier font 110 ( fig1 c ) or other mono - spaced fonts may be used in accordance with the present invention . the user closes the fontfile ‘ notepad ’ window 704 and double - clicks on a file icon labeled ‘ card ’ 704 in the directory window 700 of fig7 a . the software opens a card notepad window 710 shown in fig7 c . the user inserts the name of a file or schematic 714 after a ‘ draw model =’ field 712 . the user may also specify a page number in the file or schematic 714 with a ‘ vs =’ field 716 in fig7 c where the software will embed the searchable font 708 ( fig7 b ). for example , a data file for a tv may have 15 - 20 boards or pages , where some of the pages have schematics and others do not . if the user wants to embed a searchable font in a schematic on page two , the user enters ‘ p2 ’ 718 next to the ‘ vs =’ field 716 in fig7 c . thereafter , the user may repeat the method describe herein for each page with a schematic . in process block 604 of fig6 the user modifies a ms - dos batch file called ‘ asd . bat ,’ which is part of the icad software . the user double - clicks on a file icon labeled ‘ asd . bat ’ 701 in the c :\ icadpcb \ com \ bin \ plot2 directory window 700 of fig7 a . the user uses an ‘ edit ’ command to open an asd . bat notepad window 720 shown in fig7 d . the user confirms that a ‘ set fonttable =’ field 722 is pointing to fontfile 724 . if ‘ set fonttable =’ field 722 is not pointing to fontfile 724 , the user changes the ‘ set fonttable =’ field 722 to point to fontfile 724 . the user also confirms that a ‘ set card =’ field 726 is pointing to the proper directory , which in this example is ‘ c :\ icadpcb \ com \ bin \ plot2 \ card ’ 728 . in process block 606 of fig6 the user installs or selects a printer driver ( software ) to generate a postscript file based on the computer - generated schematic ( e . g ., schematic 300 in fig3 ) with searchable font ( e . g ., the searchable font 200 in fig2 ) to be embedded . postscript is a sophisticated page description language that is used for high - quality printing on laser printers and other high - resolution printing devices . postscript is capable of describing an entire appearance of a richly - formatted page . [ 0051 ] fig7 e illustrates a ‘ printers ’ window 730 with a plurality of selectable printers . in one embodiment , the user selects a printer driver related to a ‘ hewlett packard design jet printer 1055cm postscript ( ps ) 3 ’ 732 in fig7 e . in other embodiments , the user may select any printer driver that can generate a suitable postscript file . in process block 608 of fig6 the user uses a software , such as adobe type manager ( atm ), to add or install the searchable font 200 of fig2 e . g ., ‘ pqschem . ttf ,’ into a ‘ font library ’ of a user workstation . adobe type manager is a font utility that enables computer users to display postscript type 1 fonts on - screen . postscript font is a scalable outline font that conforms to adobe &# 39 ; s software specifications for type 1 fonts , which use a postscript printer . if atm is unavailable , the user may place the searchable font 200 of fig2 into a workstation font file . fig7 f illustrates a ‘ c :\ winnt \ fonts ’ window 734 in windows nt with a plurality of selectable fonts . the user places the searchable font 200 , labeled as ‘ pqschem2 ’ 736 in fig7 f , into the c :\ winnt \ fonts &# 39 ; window 734 . after a printer driver is selected , the user may open a printer ‘ properties ’ window 740 in fig7 g that shows the properties of the selected printer 732 in fig7 e . in a ‘ device settings ’ file 744 , the user may confirm that the ‘ pqschem2 ’ searchable font 742 is properly installed . the user may open a default document properties window 750 shown in fig7 h that shows the default document properties of the selected printer 732 in fig7 e . in an “ advanced ’ file 752 , the user may confirm that a ‘ truetype font ’ field 754 is set to a ‘ substitute with device font ’ option 756 . the user may open a ‘ forprinter - job options ’ window 760 shown in fig7 i for the printer selected in fig7 e . the user selects a ‘ fonts ’ file 762 and selects ‘ truetype fonts ’ 768 in an ‘ embedding ’ box 764 . the user moves the ‘ pqschem2 ’ searchable font 766 to an ‘ always embed ’ box 770 . in process block 610 of fig6 the user sets a suitable postscript printer driver , such as the hp design jet printer 1055cm ps 3 732 shown in fig7 e , as the default printer to convert the schematic into a postscript file . the user clicks on an ‘ asd . bat ’ file icon 701 in the c :\ icadpcb \ com \ bin \ plot2 file 700 in fig7 a . the software opens a ‘ print to file ’ window 772 as shown in fig7 j . the user may enter any name followed by a ‘. ps ,’ such as ‘ c :\ temp \ test . ps ,’ to convert the icad schematic to a postscript file . in a block 612 of fig6 the user locates the ‘. ps ’ file according to the location specified by the user in block 612 ( e . g ., c drive , ‘ temp ’ directory , file name ‘ test . ps ’) and clicks on the ‘. ps ’ file . adobe distiller opens and converts the postscript ‘. ps ’ file into a pdf file with embedded ‘ pqschem2 ’ searchable font . after a pdf file is created for the schematic with ‘ pqschem2 ’ searchable font , the user who created the file or other users may print the pdf file or view the pdf file on - screen . in other embodiments , the process blocks 600 - 612 in fig6 may be performed in an order that is different than the order shown in fig6 . fig8 a - 8 d illustrate exemplifying configurable settings for a printer driver to configure a . ps file with embedded searchable font 200 ( fig2 ) for printing . fig8 a illustrates a plurality of configurable parameters in a ‘ general ’ file 800 of the ‘ forprinter - job options ’ window 760 shown in fig7 i . in fig8 a , the user may set a ‘ compatibility ’ box 802 to ‘ acrobat 3 . 0 ’ or ‘ 4 . 0 .’ the user may check an ‘ optimize pdf ’ box 804 . the user may set a ‘ resolution ’ box 806 to ‘ 600 .’ the user may set a ‘ binding ’ box 808 to ‘ left .’ [ 0059 ] fig8 b illustrates a plurality of configurable parameters in a ‘ compression ’ file 810 of the ‘ forprinter - job options ’ window 760 shown in fig7 i . in fig8 b , the user may not desire any compression for printed schematics in order to preserve a high resolution . [ 0060 ] fig8 c illustrates a plurality of configurable parameters in a ‘ color ’ file 812 of the ‘ forprinter - job options ’ window 760 shown in fig7 i . in fig8 c , the user may check a ‘ leave color unchanged ’ box 814 . [ 0061 ] fig8 d illustrates a plurality of configurable parameters in an ‘ advanced ’ file 816 of the ‘ forprinter - job options ’ window 760 shown in fig7 i . in fig8 d , the user may check an ‘ allow postscript file to override job options ’ box 818 and a ‘ preserve level 2 copypage semantics ’ box 820 . the user may set a ‘ width ’ box 822 to ‘ 17 . 0 ,’ a ‘ height ’ box 824 to ‘ 24 . 0 ’ and ‘ units ’ box 826 to ‘ inches .’ fig9 a - 9 e illustrate exemplifying configurable settings for a printer driver to configure a . ps file with embedded searchable font 200 ( fig2 ) for on - screen viewing . the . ps file may be transmitted via the internet or an ethernet to a plurality of users at various locations . [ 0063 ] fig9 a illustrates a plurality of configurable parameters in a ‘ general ’ file 900 of a ‘ servicemanual - job options ’ window 902 . in fig9 a , the user may set a ‘ compatibility ’ box 904 to ‘ acrobat 3 . 0 ’ or ‘ 4 . 0 .’ the user may check an ‘ optimize pdf ’ box 906 . the user may set a ‘ resolution ’ box 908 to ‘ 300 .’ the user may set a ‘ binding ’ box 912 to ‘ left .’ [ 0064 ] fig9 b illustrates a plurality of configurable parameters in a ‘ compression ’ file 914 of the ‘ servicemanual - job options ’ window 902 . in fig9 b , the user may check a ‘ color bitmap images compression ’ box 916 and a ‘ grayscale bitmap images compression ’ box 922 . the user may select ‘ jpeg ’ as the type of compression in boxes 918 , 924 and specify ‘ medium ’ in ‘ quality ’ boxes 920 , 926 . the user may also check a ‘ compress text and line art ’ box 928 . [ 0065 ] fig9 c illustrates a plurality of configurable parameters in a ‘ fonts ’ file 930 of the ‘ servicemanual - job options ’ window 902 . in fig9 c , the user may check an ‘ embed all fonts ’ box 932 and a ‘ subset all embedded fonts below ’ box 934 . the user may select ‘ 100 %’ in a box 936 and a ‘ warn and continue ’ option in a ‘ when embedding fails ’ box 938 . the user may select ‘ base 14 fonts ’ in an ‘ embedding ’ box 940 and a plurality of font types in an ‘ always embed ’ box 942 . [ 0066 ] fig9 d illustrates a plurality of configurable parameters in a ‘ color ’ file 950 of the ‘ servicemanual - job options ’ window 902 . in fig9 d , the user may check a ‘ leave color unchanged ’ box 952 . [ 0067 ] fig9 e illustrates a plurality of configurable parameters in an ‘ advanced ’ file 960 of the ‘ servicemanual - job options ’ window 902 . in fig9 e , the user may check an ‘ allow postscript file to override job options ’ box 962 and a ‘ preserve level 2 copypage semantics ’ box 964 . the user may set a ‘ width ’ box 966 to ‘ 8 . 5 ,’ a ‘ height ’ box 968 to ‘ 11 . 0 ’ and a ‘ units ’ box 970 to ‘ inches .’ fig1 a - 10 d illustrate exemplifying pdf schematics that may be included in a document , such as a service manual for a device . the schematics in fig1 a - 10 d may be on the same page or on different pages in a software such as adobe acrobat reader 3 . 0 or 4 . 0 . fig1 a illustrates an exemplifying board schematic diagram 1000 for a device . fig1 b illustrates an exemplifying printed wiring board ( pwb ) schematic 1010 related to the board schematic diagram 1000 of fig1 a . fig1 c illustrates an exemplifying schematic 1020 of a power switch related to the board schematic diagram 1000 of fig1 a . fig1 d illustrates another exemplifying schematic 1030 of the switch in fig1 c . fig1 a - 11 b illustrate exemplifying lists of parts in fig1 a - 10 d . the schematics in fig1 a - 10 d and the parts lists in fig1 a - 11 b may be on separate pages spread throughout a service manual . users , such as service technicians , may spend a lot of time trying to manually find particular components and cross - reference the components between schematics ( fig1 a - 10 d ) and parts lists ( fig1 a - 11 b ) on a computer or with hard copy manuals . moreover , users may have to repeatedly zoom in and zoom out of schematics to see particular components and how they function with other components . with a searchable font according to the present invention , users can quickly cross - reference text in one schematic on a computer , such as a desktop , a lap top , a kiosk or a pda , with text in other schematics . this cross - referencing feature is particularly useful if there are several schematics spread throughout a document , and each schematic has a large number of parts or circuit components . fig1 a - 12 c illustrate an example of using a searchable font in the pdf schematics of fig1 a - 10 d . fig1 a is a composite view of the schematics of fig1 a - 10 d . if a user wants to find a particular component in the schematics of fig1 a - 10 d , the user presses & lt ; ctrl & gt ;& lt ; f & gt ; on a keyboard or clicks on a find icon 1204 ( shaped as binoculars ) near the top of the screen in adobe acrobat reader to open a ‘ find ’ box 1200 ( fig1 a ). the user enters the name of a component , such as a resistor ‘ r1783 ,’ in the search field 1202 and clicks on the ‘ find ’ button 1206 or presses & lt ; enter & gt ;. if the schematics 1000 , 1010 , 1020 , 1030 in fig1 a - 10 d are configured with a searchable font as described above , acrobat reader automatically finds and highlights the first occurrence of resistor ‘ r1783 ’ in fig1 a , which is shown as ‘ r1783 ’ 1004 in fig1 b . the user may click on a zoom icon 1210 ( shaped as a magnifying glass ) near the top of the screen in acrobat reader and click on the ‘ r1783 ’ 1004 to zoom in on ‘ r1783 ’ 1004 , as shown in fig1 b . if the user presses & lt ; ctrl & gt ;& lt ; f & gt ; on a keyboard or clicks on the find icon 1204 ( fig1 b ) again , the ‘ find ’ box 1200 opens again with a ‘ find again ’ button 1208 . if the user clicks on the ‘ find again ’ button 1208 , acrobat reader automatically finds the next occurrence of ‘ r1783 ,’ which is shown as ‘ r1783 ’ 1002 in fig1 a and 12c . if the user presses & lt ; ctrl & gt ;& lt ; f & gt ; on a keyboard or clicks on the find icon 1204 ( fig1 c ) again , the ‘ find ’ box 1200 opens again with a ‘ find again ’ button 1208 . if the user clicks on the ‘ find again ’ button 1208 , acrobat reader automatically finds the next occurrence of ‘ r1783 ,’ which is shown as ‘ r1783 ’ 1100 in fig1 a . this assumes that the lists in fig1 a - 11 b are in the same pdf document as the schematics 1000 , 1010 , 1020 , 1030 in fig1 a - 10 d and that the lists in fig1 a - 11 b are configured with a searchable font as described above . thus , the user can quickly and automatically ‘ jump ’ from one schematic 1010 ( fig1 b and 12b ) to another schematic 1000 ( fig1 a and 12c ) to a parts list in fig1 a - 11 b without manually searching for a component . in addition , engineers can easily change , update and distribute schematics with searchable font , such as engineering drawings , to manufacturers and service personnel . for example , engineers often create a ‘ master ’ schematic that covers a plurality of product models , some of which will be marketed and some will not be marketed . once the engineers know which product model ( s ) will be marketed , the engineers can use the searchable font 200 to quickly find components in the master schematic to change or delete to match the specifications of product model ( s ) to be marketed . the above - described embodiments of the present invention are merely meant to be illustrative and not limiting . various changes and modifications may be made without departing from the invention in its broader aspects . the appended claims encompass such changes and modifications within the spirit and scope of the invention .
6 (Physics)

Patent Classification: a classification of Patents and abstracts (9 classes).

This dataset is intended for long context classification (non abstract documents are longer that 512 tokens).
Data are sampled from "BIGPATENT: A Large-Scale Dataset for Abstractive and Coherent Summarization." by Eva Sharma, Chen Li and Lu Wang

It contains 9 unbalanced classes, 35k Patents and abstracts divided into 3 splits: train (25k), val (5k) and test (5k).

Note that documents are uncased and space separated (by authors)

Compatible with run_glue.py script:

export MODEL_NAME=roberta-base
export MAX_SEQ_LENGTH=512

python run_glue.py \
  --model_name_or_path $MODEL_NAME \
  --dataset_name ccdv/patent-classification  \
  --do_train \
  --do_eval \
  --max_seq_length $MAX_SEQ_LENGTH \
  --per_device_train_batch_size 8 \
  --gradient_accumulation_steps 4 \
  --learning_rate 2e-5 \
  --num_train_epochs 1 \
  --max_eval_samples 500 \
  --output_dir tmp/patent
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