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7ba1e8f4261d3170fcf42e84a81dd749116fae95
Brain
Another approach to brain function is to examine the consequences of damage to specific brain areas. Even though it is protected by the skull and meninges, surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood–brain barrier, the delicate nature of the brain makes it vulnerable to numerous diseases and several types of damage. In humans, the effects of strokes and other types of brain damage have been a key source of information about brain function. Because there is no ability to experimentally control the nature of the damage, however, this information is often difficult to interpret. In animal studies, most commonly involving rats, it is possible to use electrodes or locally injected chemicals to produce precise patterns of damage and then examine the consequences for behavior.
What sare the benifts of the blood brain barrir?
{ "text": [ "isolated from the bloodstream" ], "answer_start": [ 195 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
5ec5ef305a259311596e85d811ade30bd68b079d
Brain
Another approach to brain function is to examine the consequences of damage to specific brain areas. Even though it is protected by the skull and meninges, surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood–brain barrier, the delicate nature of the brain makes it vulnerable to numerous diseases and several types of damage. In humans, the effects of strokes and other types of brain damage have been a key source of information about brain function. Because there is no ability to experimentally control the nature of the damage, however, this information is often difficult to interpret. In animal studies, most commonly involving rats, it is possible to use electrodes or locally injected chemicals to produce precise patterns of damage and then examine the consequences for behavior.
What is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid?
{ "text": [ "brain" ], "answer_start": [ 280 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
7cb230edfb15ad1fda8d157af1f2b574cbb02b4c
Brain
Another approach to brain function is to examine the consequences of damage to specific brain areas. Even though it is protected by the skull and meninges, surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood–brain barrier, the delicate nature of the brain makes it vulnerable to numerous diseases and several types of damage. In humans, the effects of strokes and other types of brain damage have been a key source of information about brain function. Because there is no ability to experimentally control the nature of the damage, however, this information is often difficult to interpret. In animal studies, most commonly involving rats, it is possible to use electrodes or locally injected chemicals to produce precise patterns of damage and then examine the consequences for behavior.
What does the skull protect?
{ "text": [ "brain" ], "answer_start": [ 280 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
e1850f2a48b8f7c2231cec41ed63c1b638a8e2c7
Brain
Another approach to brain function is to examine the consequences of damage to specific brain areas. Even though it is protected by the skull and meninges, surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood–brain barrier, the delicate nature of the brain makes it vulnerable to numerous diseases and several types of damage. In humans, the effects of strokes and other types of brain damage have been a key source of information about brain function. Because there is no ability to experimentally control the nature of the damage, however, this information is often difficult to interpret. In animal studies, most commonly involving rats, it is possible to use electrodes or locally injected chemicals to produce precise patterns of damage and then examine the consequences for behavior.
What has been injected into rats to produce precise patterns of damage?
{ "text": [ "chemicals" ], "answer_start": [ 723 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
7bc0ae1a8a24ea4f3398b5236ab9569bbc3e820b
Brain
Another approach to brain function is to examine the consequences of damage to specific brain areas. Even though it is protected by the skull and meninges, surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood–brain barrier, the delicate nature of the brain makes it vulnerable to numerous diseases and several types of damage. In humans, the effects of strokes and other types of brain damage have been a key source of information about brain function. Because there is no ability to experimentally control the nature of the damage, however, this information is often difficult to interpret. In animal studies, most commonly involving rats, it is possible to use electrodes or locally injected chemicals to produce precise patterns of damage and then examine the consequences for behavior.
What can cause issues with how the brain works?
{ "text": [ "brain damage" ], "answer_start": [ 409 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
3132661a88eac605390b245464f792c0303e7e6a
Brain
Another approach to brain function is to examine the consequences of damage to specific brain areas. Even though it is protected by the skull and meninges, surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood–brain barrier, the delicate nature of the brain makes it vulnerable to numerous diseases and several types of damage. In humans, the effects of strokes and other types of brain damage have been a key source of information about brain function. Because there is no ability to experimentally control the nature of the damage, however, this information is often difficult to interpret. In animal studies, most commonly involving rats, it is possible to use electrodes or locally injected chemicals to produce precise patterns of damage and then examine the consequences for behavior.
What is isolated from the bloodstream by the blood-brain barrier?
{ "text": [ "the brain" ], "answer_start": [ 276 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
1f5281c99d347abd9ea6adb50947e3ee2b997676
Brain
Another approach to brain function is to examine the consequences of damage to specific brain areas. Even though it is protected by the skull and meninges, surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood–brain barrier, the delicate nature of the brain makes it vulnerable to numerous diseases and several types of damage. In humans, the effects of strokes and other types of brain damage have been a key source of information about brain function. Because there is no ability to experimentally control the nature of the damage, however, this information is often difficult to interpret. In animal studies, most commonly involving rats, it is possible to use electrodes or locally injected chemicals to produce precise patterns of damage and then examine the consequences for behavior.
What is vulnerable to numerous diseases?
{ "text": [ "the brain" ], "answer_start": [ 276 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
714baa7634b045b2da0b041d07ae3cbecd8140ca
Brain
Another approach to brain function is to examine the consequences of damage to specific brain areas. Even though it is protected by the skull and meninges, surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood–brain barrier, the delicate nature of the brain makes it vulnerable to numerous diseases and several types of damage. In humans, the effects of strokes and other types of brain damage have been a key source of information about brain function. Because there is no ability to experimentally control the nature of the damage, however, this information is often difficult to interpret. In animal studies, most commonly involving rats, it is possible to use electrodes or locally injected chemicals to produce precise patterns of damage and then examine the consequences for behavior.
If you can't stop damage to the brain, you can help what?
{ "text": [ "the nature of the damage" ], "answer_start": [ 536 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
a384703455235c03dc047d499e9543c32dd15b17
Brain
Another approach to brain function is to examine the consequences of damage to specific brain areas. Even though it is protected by the skull and meninges, surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood–brain barrier, the delicate nature of the brain makes it vulnerable to numerous diseases and several types of damage. In humans, the effects of strokes and other types of brain damage have been a key source of information about brain function. Because there is no ability to experimentally control the nature of the damage, however, this information is often difficult to interpret. In animal studies, most commonly involving rats, it is possible to use electrodes or locally injected chemicals to produce precise patterns of damage and then examine the consequences for behavior.
What acts as a protective barrier for the brain?
{ "text": [ "skull and meninges" ], "answer_start": [ 136 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
649668bace7cc098d05c23dc0286d5765788392a
Brain
Another approach to brain function is to examine the consequences of damage to specific brain areas. Even though it is protected by the skull and meninges, surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood–brain barrier, the delicate nature of the brain makes it vulnerable to numerous diseases and several types of damage. In humans, the effects of strokes and other types of brain damage have been a key source of information about brain function. Because there is no ability to experimentally control the nature of the damage, however, this information is often difficult to interpret. In animal studies, most commonly involving rats, it is possible to use electrodes or locally injected chemicals to produce precise patterns of damage and then examine the consequences for behavior.
What is an advantage of testing brain function in animals?
{ "text": [ "it is possible to use electrodes or locally injected chemicals to produce precise patterns of damage" ], "answer_start": [ 670 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
fa60d6eedf15b0af1e6c2525db27b6a428996db2
Brain
Another approach to brain function is to examine the consequences of damage to specific brain areas. Even though it is protected by the skull and meninges, surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood–brain barrier, the delicate nature of the brain makes it vulnerable to numerous diseases and several types of damage. In humans, the effects of strokes and other types of brain damage have been a key source of information about brain function. Because there is no ability to experimentally control the nature of the damage, however, this information is often difficult to interpret. In animal studies, most commonly involving rats, it is possible to use electrodes or locally injected chemicals to produce precise patterns of damage and then examine the consequences for behavior.
What is used for testing brain functions after it has been harmed?
{ "text": [ "animal" ], "answer_start": [ 624 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
9206aa824850bd283a4887d52938834b3f298850
Brain
Another approach to brain function is to examine the consequences of damage to specific brain areas. Even though it is protected by the skull and meninges, surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood–brain barrier, the delicate nature of the brain makes it vulnerable to numerous diseases and several types of damage. In humans, the effects of strokes and other types of brain damage have been a key source of information about brain function. Because there is no ability to experimentally control the nature of the damage, however, this information is often difficult to interpret. In animal studies, most commonly involving rats, it is possible to use electrodes or locally injected chemicals to produce precise patterns of damage and then examine the consequences for behavior.
What is easy to effect the brain?
{ "text": [ "diseases and several types of damage" ], "answer_start": [ 318 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
936a8460bfffe437b54cf3ec1e825a3b7b5627a1
Brain
Motor systems are areas of the brain that are directly or indirectly involved in producing body movements, that is, in activating muscles. Except for the muscles that control the eye, which are driven by nuclei in the midbrain, all the voluntary muscles in the body are directly innervated by motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain. Spinal motor neurons are controlled both by neural circuits intrinsic to the spinal cord, and by inputs that descend from the brain. The intrinsic spinal circuits implement many reflex responses, and contain pattern generators for rhythmic movements such as walking or swimming. The descending connections from the brain allow for more sophisticated control.
What do you think with?
{ "text": [ "brain" ], "answer_start": [ 467 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
b068197b43d8cd865596b32d5bba76ac76eeaa77
Brain
Motor systems are areas of the brain that are directly or indirectly involved in producing body movements, that is, in activating muscles. Except for the muscles that control the eye, which are driven by nuclei in the midbrain, all the voluntary muscles in the body are directly innervated by motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain. Spinal motor neurons are controlled both by neural circuits intrinsic to the spinal cord, and by inputs that descend from the brain. The intrinsic spinal circuits implement many reflex responses, and contain pattern generators for rhythmic movements such as walking or swimming. The descending connections from the brain allow for more sophisticated control.
If you're looking at a body part and conclude that it isn't under the control of motor systems in the brain, what part are you looking at?
{ "text": [ "the eye" ], "answer_start": [ 175 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
0f12be8fe0bf9dd30ae26be24b8703bf90fe7d3e
Brain
Motor systems are areas of the brain that are directly or indirectly involved in producing body movements, that is, in activating muscles. Except for the muscles that control the eye, which are driven by nuclei in the midbrain, all the voluntary muscles in the body are directly innervated by motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain. Spinal motor neurons are controlled both by neural circuits intrinsic to the spinal cord, and by inputs that descend from the brain. The intrinsic spinal circuits implement many reflex responses, and contain pattern generators for rhythmic movements such as walking or swimming. The descending connections from the brain allow for more sophisticated control.
How are the movements for swimming created?
{ "text": [ "pattern generators" ], "answer_start": [ 549 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
99083f3c24d22176a59048d64b128c69734d7029
Brain
Motor systems are areas of the brain that are directly or indirectly involved in producing body movements, that is, in activating muscles. Except for the muscles that control the eye, which are driven by nuclei in the midbrain, all the voluntary muscles in the body are directly innervated by motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain. Spinal motor neurons are controlled both by neural circuits intrinsic to the spinal cord, and by inputs that descend from the brain. The intrinsic spinal circuits implement many reflex responses, and contain pattern generators for rhythmic movements such as walking or swimming. The descending connections from the brain allow for more sophisticated control.
What is another term for the production of movements?
{ "text": [ "activating muscles" ], "answer_start": [ 119 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
132b2ecd41f543c7e1f494936c028a5d622dacf5
Brain
Motor systems are areas of the brain that are directly or indirectly involved in producing body movements, that is, in activating muscles. Except for the muscles that control the eye, which are driven by nuclei in the midbrain, all the voluntary muscles in the body are directly innervated by motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain. Spinal motor neurons are controlled both by neural circuits intrinsic to the spinal cord, and by inputs that descend from the brain. The intrinsic spinal circuits implement many reflex responses, and contain pattern generators for rhythmic movements such as walking or swimming. The descending connections from the brain allow for more sophisticated control.
Nuclei in the midbrain are to the eye muscles as motor systems are to what?
{ "text": [ "voluntary muscles in the body" ], "answer_start": [ 236 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
64348100863d112cc28ad16526a9473c7d00563b
Brain
Motor systems are areas of the brain that are directly or indirectly involved in producing body movements, that is, in activating muscles. Except for the muscles that control the eye, which are driven by nuclei in the midbrain, all the voluntary muscles in the body are directly innervated by motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain. Spinal motor neurons are controlled both by neural circuits intrinsic to the spinal cord, and by inputs that descend from the brain. The intrinsic spinal circuits implement many reflex responses, and contain pattern generators for rhythmic movements such as walking or swimming. The descending connections from the brain allow for more sophisticated control.
What is built while working out at the gym?
{ "text": [ "muscles" ], "answer_start": [ 130 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
f4fad3cd08f097b35870fb9abdd03e41b71ead36
Brain
Motor systems are areas of the brain that are directly or indirectly involved in producing body movements, that is, in activating muscles. Except for the muscles that control the eye, which are driven by nuclei in the midbrain, all the voluntary muscles in the body are directly innervated by motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain. Spinal motor neurons are controlled both by neural circuits intrinsic to the spinal cord, and by inputs that descend from the brain. The intrinsic spinal circuits implement many reflex responses, and contain pattern generators for rhythmic movements such as walking or swimming. The descending connections from the brain allow for more sophisticated control.
What exactly do motor systems do to create body movements, such as lifting a cup or walking?
{ "text": [ "activating muscles" ], "answer_start": [ 119 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
e82f58c374d18ab7793b071cfc75b3ca07c5b459
Brain
Motor systems are areas of the brain that are directly or indirectly involved in producing body movements, that is, in activating muscles. Except for the muscles that control the eye, which are driven by nuclei in the midbrain, all the voluntary muscles in the body are directly innervated by motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain. Spinal motor neurons are controlled both by neural circuits intrinsic to the spinal cord, and by inputs that descend from the brain. The intrinsic spinal circuits implement many reflex responses, and contain pattern generators for rhythmic movements such as walking or swimming. The descending connections from the brain allow for more sophisticated control.
What muscles are the exception to the rule when it comes to motor neurons?
{ "text": [ "the muscles that control the eye" ], "answer_start": [ 150 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
b628d91391c77ccf182c2b9147ed9c6658831b37
Brain
Motor systems are areas of the brain that are directly or indirectly involved in producing body movements, that is, in activating muscles. Except for the muscles that control the eye, which are driven by nuclei in the midbrain, all the voluntary muscles in the body are directly innervated by motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain. Spinal motor neurons are controlled both by neural circuits intrinsic to the spinal cord, and by inputs that descend from the brain. The intrinsic spinal circuits implement many reflex responses, and contain pattern generators for rhythmic movements such as walking or swimming. The descending connections from the brain allow for more sophisticated control.
What do intrinsic spinal circuits contain that might help with actions beyond simple rhythmic movements?
{ "text": [ "descending connections from the brain" ], "answer_start": [ 624 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
de0a8bc331b0062d402ddff3319c47db9a0097e1
Brain
Motor systems are areas of the brain that are directly or indirectly involved in producing body movements, that is, in activating muscles. Except for the muscles that control the eye, which are driven by nuclei in the midbrain, all the voluntary muscles in the body are directly innervated by motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain. Spinal motor neurons are controlled both by neural circuits intrinsic to the spinal cord, and by inputs that descend from the brain. The intrinsic spinal circuits implement many reflex responses, and contain pattern generators for rhythmic movements such as walking or swimming. The descending connections from the brain allow for more sophisticated control.
One factor controlling spinal motor neurons is related to the spine while the other factor is related to what area?
{ "text": [ "the brain" ], "answer_start": [ 463 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
935df591c8db0ba73ea2adfe5bb2d1e44707851b
Brain
Motor systems are areas of the brain that are directly or indirectly involved in producing body movements, that is, in activating muscles. Except for the muscles that control the eye, which are driven by nuclei in the midbrain, all the voluntary muscles in the body are directly innervated by motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain. Spinal motor neurons are controlled both by neural circuits intrinsic to the spinal cord, and by inputs that descend from the brain. The intrinsic spinal circuits implement many reflex responses, and contain pattern generators for rhythmic movements such as walking or swimming. The descending connections from the brain allow for more sophisticated control.
What type of voluntary function is controlled by the circuits?
{ "text": [ "rhythmic movements such as walking or swimming" ], "answer_start": [ 572 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
462c3bcbe29c2d17db3b5b474b9e80549effe115
Brain
Motor systems are areas of the brain that are directly or indirectly involved in producing body movements, that is, in activating muscles. Except for the muscles that control the eye, which are driven by nuclei in the midbrain, all the voluntary muscles in the body are directly innervated by motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain. Spinal motor neurons are controlled both by neural circuits intrinsic to the spinal cord, and by inputs that descend from the brain. The intrinsic spinal circuits implement many reflex responses, and contain pattern generators for rhythmic movements such as walking or swimming. The descending connections from the brain allow for more sophisticated control.
What are in the spinal cord that help direct voluntary movements?
{ "text": [ "neural circuits" ], "answer_start": [ 385 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
e40737d487964dbcd26a223f2799cf56390a98a8
Brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain; diffuse or localised nerve nets are present instead. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the primary sensory organs for such senses as vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a typical human, the cerebral cortex (the largest part) is estimated to contain 15–33 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells.
How are neurons connected?
{ "text": [ "synapses" ], "answer_start": [ 602 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
6aaf8437d9400a4bd209505b3393fedc93f75a3e
Brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain; diffuse or localised nerve nets are present instead. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the primary sensory organs for such senses as vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a typical human, the cerebral cortex (the largest part) is estimated to contain 15–33 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells.
the main part of the brain is
{ "text": [ "the cerebral cortex" ], "answer_start": [ 498 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
0ae1a46c965a07c7371af729df01ec6be85d2321
Brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain; diffuse or localised nerve nets are present instead. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the primary sensory organs for such senses as vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a typical human, the cerebral cortex (the largest part) is estimated to contain 15–33 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells.
the brain is what
{ "text": [ "an organ" ], "answer_start": [ 13 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
b88b119703a6733dfcef56e9a22bcebb4b617bbf
Brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain; diffuse or localised nerve nets are present instead. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the primary sensory organs for such senses as vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a typical human, the cerebral cortex (the largest part) is estimated to contain 15–33 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells.
Which of the following doesn't have a brain, starfish or human?
{ "text": [ "starfish" ], "answer_start": [ 194 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
401841c30cc27d105320c03fc6a13e1cdc9ed310
Brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain; diffuse or localised nerve nets are present instead. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the primary sensory organs for such senses as vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a typical human, the cerebral cortex (the largest part) is estimated to contain 15–33 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells.
Which of the following is always present in invetebrates, a nerve or a brain?
{ "text": [ "nerve" ], "answer_start": [ 245 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
9dd9725e4f37605c9d286b8186b0a29aee1da587
Brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain; diffuse or localised nerve nets are present instead. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the primary sensory organs for such senses as vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a typical human, the cerebral cortex (the largest part) is estimated to contain 15–33 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells.
what sense do the eyes have
{ "text": [ "vision" ], "answer_start": [ 374 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
8a778335ad5e58ba2b12ee1ad82921cf785438f0
Brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain; diffuse or localised nerve nets are present instead. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the primary sensory organs for such senses as vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a typical human, the cerebral cortex (the largest part) is estimated to contain 15–33 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells.
What kind of pulses target recipient cells?
{ "text": [ "action potentials" ], "answer_start": [ 783 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
624290df2362b45696050c0e236f2a6c7a1e2e8b
Brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain; diffuse or localised nerve nets are present instead. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the primary sensory organs for such senses as vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a typical human, the cerebral cortex (the largest part) is estimated to contain 15–33 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells.
Through what organic material do neurons signal each other?
{ "text": [ "axons" ], "answer_start": [ 733 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
737a562c59f8a2c4805dabf439e83ae95f4c9eac
Brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain; diffuse or localised nerve nets are present instead. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the primary sensory organs for such senses as vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a typical human, the cerebral cortex (the largest part) is estimated to contain 15–33 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells.
what sense does the tongue have
{ "text": [ "taste" ], "answer_start": [ 400 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
60710332dfc68aca05e271e7c01dfba336ca2dbb
Brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain; diffuse or localised nerve nets are present instead. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the primary sensory organs for such senses as vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a typical human, the cerebral cortex (the largest part) is estimated to contain 15–33 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells.
neurons talk each other through
{ "text": [ "axons" ], "answer_start": [ 733 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain; diffuse or localised nerve nets are present instead. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the primary sensory organs for such senses as vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a typical human, the cerebral cortex (the largest part) is estimated to contain 15–33 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells.
Which of the following never lacks a brain: invetebrates or vetebrates?
{ "text": [ "vertebrate" ], "answer_start": [ 77 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain; diffuse or localised nerve nets are present instead. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the primary sensory organs for such senses as vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a typical human, the cerebral cortex (the largest part) is estimated to contain 15–33 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells.
What are the sensing types listed in the article?
{ "text": [ "vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell" ], "answer_start": [ 374 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain; diffuse or localised nerve nets are present instead. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the primary sensory organs for such senses as vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a typical human, the cerebral cortex (the largest part) is estimated to contain 15–33 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells.
What do the signal pulses target?
{ "text": [ "recipient cells" ], "answer_start": [ 858 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain. Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma.
The body's central biological clock is contained where in the brain?
{ "text": [ "SCN" ], "answer_start": [ 4 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain. Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma.
What repeated phrase suggests that it is critical?
{ "text": [ "reticular formation" ], "answer_start": [ 177 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain. Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma.
what is the first part of the brain mentioned in the text
{ "text": [ "SCN" ], "answer_start": [ 4 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain. Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma.
Which part of the brain operates as a clock mechanism and rythm provider
{ "text": [ "SCN" ], "answer_start": [ 4 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain. Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma.
What part communicates what energy amount to use?
{ "text": [ "thalamus" ], "answer_start": [ 320 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain. Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma.
What is the small structure located above the brainstem?
{ "text": [ "thalamus" ], "answer_start": [ 320 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain. Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma.
How do the reticular neurons communicate with the thalamus?
{ "text": [ "send signals" ], "answer_start": [ 300 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain. Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma.
What part of the brain receives messages from the reticular neurons?
{ "text": [ "thalamus" ], "answer_start": [ 320 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain. Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma.
What part of the brain has the important group of neuron-clusters involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles?
{ "text": [ "the core of the lower brain" ], "answer_start": [ 253 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain. Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma.
What is the reticular formation composed of?
{ "text": [ "neuron-clusters" ], "answer_start": [ 209 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain. Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma.
What part of the brain handles sleep
{ "text": [ "thalamus" ], "answer_start": [ 320 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain. Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma.
What ultimately controls how long you sleep?
{ "text": [ "The SCN" ], "answer_start": [ 0 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain. Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma.
What is another name for the suprachiasmatic nucleus?
{ "text": [ "SCN" ], "answer_start": [ 4 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain. Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma.
Where is the suprachiasmatic nucleus lococated in the brain?
{ "text": [ "hypothalamus" ], "answer_start": [ 42 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain. Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma.
What do the signals sent by the thalamus control?
{ "text": [ "activity-level" ], "answer_start": [ 350 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain. Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma.
What part of the system receives messages from the reticular formation and then passes them on?
{ "text": [ "thalamus" ], "answer_start": [ 320 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The brain contains several motor areas that project directly to the spinal cord. At the lowest level are motor areas in the medulla and pons, which control stereotyped movements such as walking, breathing, or swallowing. At a higher level are areas in the midbrain, such as the red nucleus, which is responsible for coordinating movements of the arms and legs. At a higher level yet is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue located at the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord, through the pyramidal tract. This direct corticospinal projection allows for precise voluntary control of the fine details of movements. Other motor-related brain areas exert secondary effects by projecting to the primary motor areas. Among the most important secondary areas are the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
What is at the highest level?
{ "text": [ "the primary motor cortex" ], "answer_start": [ 386 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The brain contains several motor areas that project directly to the spinal cord. At the lowest level are motor areas in the medulla and pons, which control stereotyped movements such as walking, breathing, or swallowing. At a higher level are areas in the midbrain, such as the red nucleus, which is responsible for coordinating movements of the arms and legs. At a higher level yet is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue located at the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord, through the pyramidal tract. This direct corticospinal projection allows for precise voluntary control of the fine details of movements. Other motor-related brain areas exert secondary effects by projecting to the primary motor areas. Among the most important secondary areas are the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
How does the primary motor cortex allow us to fine tune our movements?
{ "text": [ "sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord" ], "answer_start": [ 506 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The brain contains several motor areas that project directly to the spinal cord. At the lowest level are motor areas in the medulla and pons, which control stereotyped movements such as walking, breathing, or swallowing. At a higher level are areas in the midbrain, such as the red nucleus, which is responsible for coordinating movements of the arms and legs. At a higher level yet is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue located at the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord, through the pyramidal tract. This direct corticospinal projection allows for precise voluntary control of the fine details of movements. Other motor-related brain areas exert secondary effects by projecting to the primary motor areas. Among the most important secondary areas are the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
What pathway does the motor cortex transfer projections to the spinal chord?
{ "text": [ "pyramidal tract" ], "answer_start": [ 633 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The brain contains several motor areas that project directly to the spinal cord. At the lowest level are motor areas in the medulla and pons, which control stereotyped movements such as walking, breathing, or swallowing. At a higher level are areas in the midbrain, such as the red nucleus, which is responsible for coordinating movements of the arms and legs. At a higher level yet is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue located at the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord, through the pyramidal tract. This direct corticospinal projection allows for precise voluntary control of the fine details of movements. Other motor-related brain areas exert secondary effects by projecting to the primary motor areas. Among the most important secondary areas are the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
What area of the brain tells us how to move our limbs?
{ "text": [ "midbrain" ], "answer_start": [ 256 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The brain contains several motor areas that project directly to the spinal cord. At the lowest level are motor areas in the medulla and pons, which control stereotyped movements such as walking, breathing, or swallowing. At a higher level are areas in the midbrain, such as the red nucleus, which is responsible for coordinating movements of the arms and legs. At a higher level yet is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue located at the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord, through the pyramidal tract. This direct corticospinal projection allows for precise voluntary control of the fine details of movements. Other motor-related brain areas exert secondary effects by projecting to the primary motor areas. Among the most important secondary areas are the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
What area of the brain controls functions of the body required for life?
{ "text": [ "the lowest level" ], "answer_start": [ 84 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The brain contains several motor areas that project directly to the spinal cord. At the lowest level are motor areas in the medulla and pons, which control stereotyped movements such as walking, breathing, or swallowing. At a higher level are areas in the midbrain, such as the red nucleus, which is responsible for coordinating movements of the arms and legs. At a higher level yet is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue located at the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord, through the pyramidal tract. This direct corticospinal projection allows for precise voluntary control of the fine details of movements. Other motor-related brain areas exert secondary effects by projecting to the primary motor areas. Among the most important secondary areas are the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
What areas of the brain communicate to the primary motor cortex?
{ "text": [ "premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum" ], "answer_start": [ 905 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The brain contains several motor areas that project directly to the spinal cord. At the lowest level are motor areas in the medulla and pons, which control stereotyped movements such as walking, breathing, or swallowing. At a higher level are areas in the midbrain, such as the red nucleus, which is responsible for coordinating movements of the arms and legs. At a higher level yet is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue located at the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord, through the pyramidal tract. This direct corticospinal projection allows for precise voluntary control of the fine details of movements. Other motor-related brain areas exert secondary effects by projecting to the primary motor areas. Among the most important secondary areas are the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
What level of the brain controls walking?
{ "text": [ "the lowest" ], "answer_start": [ 84 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The brain contains several motor areas that project directly to the spinal cord. At the lowest level are motor areas in the medulla and pons, which control stereotyped movements such as walking, breathing, or swallowing. At a higher level are areas in the midbrain, such as the red nucleus, which is responsible for coordinating movements of the arms and legs. At a higher level yet is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue located at the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord, through the pyramidal tract. This direct corticospinal projection allows for precise voluntary control of the fine details of movements. Other motor-related brain areas exert secondary effects by projecting to the primary motor areas. Among the most important secondary areas are the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
What non-primary areas also sends projections to the primary motor areas?
{ "text": [ "the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum" ], "answer_start": [ 901 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The brain contains several motor areas that project directly to the spinal cord. At the lowest level are motor areas in the medulla and pons, which control stereotyped movements such as walking, breathing, or swallowing. At a higher level are areas in the midbrain, such as the red nucleus, which is responsible for coordinating movements of the arms and legs. At a higher level yet is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue located at the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord, through the pyramidal tract. This direct corticospinal projection allows for precise voluntary control of the fine details of movements. Other motor-related brain areas exert secondary effects by projecting to the primary motor areas. Among the most important secondary areas are the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
What areas does the primary motor cortex communicate to?
{ "text": [ "The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord" ], "answer_start": [ 481 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The brain contains several motor areas that project directly to the spinal cord. At the lowest level are motor areas in the medulla and pons, which control stereotyped movements such as walking, breathing, or swallowing. At a higher level are areas in the midbrain, such as the red nucleus, which is responsible for coordinating movements of the arms and legs. At a higher level yet is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue located at the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord, through the pyramidal tract. This direct corticospinal projection allows for precise voluntary control of the fine details of movements. Other motor-related brain areas exert secondary effects by projecting to the primary motor areas. Among the most important secondary areas are the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
What type of movements are the lowest motor areas responsible for?
{ "text": [ "walking, breathing, or swallowing" ], "answer_start": [ 186 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The brain contains several motor areas that project directly to the spinal cord. At the lowest level are motor areas in the medulla and pons, which control stereotyped movements such as walking, breathing, or swallowing. At a higher level are areas in the midbrain, such as the red nucleus, which is responsible for coordinating movements of the arms and legs. At a higher level yet is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue located at the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord, through the pyramidal tract. This direct corticospinal projection allows for precise voluntary control of the fine details of movements. Other motor-related brain areas exert secondary effects by projecting to the primary motor areas. Among the most important secondary areas are the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
What is the job of the primary motor cortex?
{ "text": [ "sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord" ], "answer_start": [ 506 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The brain contains several motor areas that project directly to the spinal cord. At the lowest level are motor areas in the medulla and pons, which control stereotyped movements such as walking, breathing, or swallowing. At a higher level are areas in the midbrain, such as the red nucleus, which is responsible for coordinating movements of the arms and legs. At a higher level yet is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue located at the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord, through the pyramidal tract. This direct corticospinal projection allows for precise voluntary control of the fine details of movements. Other motor-related brain areas exert secondary effects by projecting to the primary motor areas. Among the most important secondary areas are the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
What is located at the rear of the frontal lobe?
{ "text": [ "primary motor cortex" ], "answer_start": [ 390 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Brain
The brain contains several motor areas that project directly to the spinal cord. At the lowest level are motor areas in the medulla and pons, which control stereotyped movements such as walking, breathing, or swallowing. At a higher level are areas in the midbrain, such as the red nucleus, which is responsible for coordinating movements of the arms and legs. At a higher level yet is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue located at the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord, through the pyramidal tract. This direct corticospinal projection allows for precise voluntary control of the fine details of movements. Other motor-related brain areas exert secondary effects by projecting to the primary motor areas. Among the most important secondary areas are the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
What pathway allows direct corticospinal projections?
{ "text": [ "the pyramidal tract" ], "answer_start": [ 629 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Devise Minority Party Strategies. The minority leader, in consultation with other party colleagues, has a range of strategic options that he or she can employ to advance minority party objectives. The options selected depend on a wide range of circumstances, such as the visibility or significance of the issue and the degree of cohesion within the majority party. For instance, a majority party riven by internal dissension, as occurred during the early 1900s when Progressive and "regular" Republicans were at loggerheads, may provide the minority leader with greater opportunities to achieve his or her priorities than if the majority party exhibited high degrees of party cohesion. Among the variable strategies available to the minority party, which can vary from bill to bill and be used in combination or at different stages of the lawmaking process, are the following:
How might a strategy for a minority party member vary?
{ "text": [ "visibility or significance of the issue and the degree of cohesion within the majority party" ], "answer_start": [ 271 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Devise Minority Party Strategies. The minority leader, in consultation with other party colleagues, has a range of strategic options that he or she can employ to advance minority party objectives. The options selected depend on a wide range of circumstances, such as the visibility or significance of the issue and the degree of cohesion within the majority party. For instance, a majority party riven by internal dissension, as occurred during the early 1900s when Progressive and "regular" Republicans were at loggerheads, may provide the minority leader with greater opportunities to achieve his or her priorities than if the majority party exhibited high degrees of party cohesion. Among the variable strategies available to the minority party, which can vary from bill to bill and be used in combination or at different stages of the lawmaking process, are the following:
What is one thing the minority leader can do to advance minority causes and issues.
{ "text": [ "Devise Minority Party Strategies" ], "answer_start": [ 0 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Devise Minority Party Strategies. The minority leader, in consultation with other party colleagues, has a range of strategic options that he or she can employ to advance minority party objectives. The options selected depend on a wide range of circumstances, such as the visibility or significance of the issue and the degree of cohesion within the majority party. For instance, a majority party riven by internal dissension, as occurred during the early 1900s when Progressive and "regular" Republicans were at loggerheads, may provide the minority leader with greater opportunities to achieve his or her priorities than if the majority party exhibited high degrees of party cohesion. Among the variable strategies available to the minority party, which can vary from bill to bill and be used in combination or at different stages of the lawmaking process, are the following:
The minority party may have a better chance of advancing its objectives if the majority party lacks this
{ "text": [ "high degrees of party cohesion" ], "answer_start": [ 654 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Devise Minority Party Strategies. The minority leader, in consultation with other party colleagues, has a range of strategic options that he or she can employ to advance minority party objectives. The options selected depend on a wide range of circumstances, such as the visibility or significance of the issue and the degree of cohesion within the majority party. For instance, a majority party riven by internal dissension, as occurred during the early 1900s when Progressive and "regular" Republicans were at loggerheads, may provide the minority leader with greater opportunities to achieve his or her priorities than if the majority party exhibited high degrees of party cohesion. Among the variable strategies available to the minority party, which can vary from bill to bill and be used in combination or at different stages of the lawmaking process, are the following:
Which party does the minority leader belong to?
{ "text": [ "minority party" ], "answer_start": [ 170 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Devise Minority Party Strategies. The minority leader, in consultation with other party colleagues, has a range of strategic options that he or she can employ to advance minority party objectives. The options selected depend on a wide range of circumstances, such as the visibility or significance of the issue and the degree of cohesion within the majority party. For instance, a majority party riven by internal dissension, as occurred during the early 1900s when Progressive and "regular" Republicans were at loggerheads, may provide the minority leader with greater opportunities to achieve his or her priorities than if the majority party exhibited high degrees of party cohesion. Among the variable strategies available to the minority party, which can vary from bill to bill and be used in combination or at different stages of the lawmaking process, are the following:
What actions by the minority leader depends on the visibility of an objective?
{ "text": [ "strategic options" ], "answer_start": [ 115 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Devise Minority Party Strategies. The minority leader, in consultation with other party colleagues, has a range of strategic options that he or she can employ to advance minority party objectives. The options selected depend on a wide range of circumstances, such as the visibility or significance of the issue and the degree of cohesion within the majority party. For instance, a majority party riven by internal dissension, as occurred during the early 1900s when Progressive and "regular" Republicans were at loggerheads, may provide the minority leader with greater opportunities to achieve his or her priorities than if the majority party exhibited high degrees of party cohesion. Among the variable strategies available to the minority party, which can vary from bill to bill and be used in combination or at different stages of the lawmaking process, are the following:
What is one common practice the minority party leader and his or her colleagues can use
{ "text": [ "Devise Minority Party Strategies" ], "answer_start": [ 0 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Devise Minority Party Strategies. The minority leader, in consultation with other party colleagues, has a range of strategic options that he or she can employ to advance minority party objectives. The options selected depend on a wide range of circumstances, such as the visibility or significance of the issue and the degree of cohesion within the majority party. For instance, a majority party riven by internal dissension, as occurred during the early 1900s when Progressive and "regular" Republicans were at loggerheads, may provide the minority leader with greater opportunities to achieve his or her priorities than if the majority party exhibited high degrees of party cohesion. Among the variable strategies available to the minority party, which can vary from bill to bill and be used in combination or at different stages of the lawmaking process, are the following:
Is the minority leader limited as to the strategies he or she can do to advance the party's agenda?
{ "text": [ "variable strategies available" ], "answer_start": [ 696 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Devise Minority Party Strategies. The minority leader, in consultation with other party colleagues, has a range of strategic options that he or she can employ to advance minority party objectives. The options selected depend on a wide range of circumstances, such as the visibility or significance of the issue and the degree of cohesion within the majority party. For instance, a majority party riven by internal dissension, as occurred during the early 1900s when Progressive and "regular" Republicans were at loggerheads, may provide the minority leader with greater opportunities to achieve his or her priorities than if the majority party exhibited high degrees of party cohesion. Among the variable strategies available to the minority party, which can vary from bill to bill and be used in combination or at different stages of the lawmaking process, are the following:
When does the minority leader have more power?
{ "text": [ "a majority party riven by internal dissension" ], "answer_start": [ 379 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Devise Minority Party Strategies. The minority leader, in consultation with other party colleagues, has a range of strategic options that he or she can employ to advance minority party objectives. The options selected depend on a wide range of circumstances, such as the visibility or significance of the issue and the degree of cohesion within the majority party. For instance, a majority party riven by internal dissension, as occurred during the early 1900s when Progressive and "regular" Republicans were at loggerheads, may provide the minority leader with greater opportunities to achieve his or her priorities than if the majority party exhibited high degrees of party cohesion. Among the variable strategies available to the minority party, which can vary from bill to bill and be used in combination or at different stages of the lawmaking process, are the following:
Who names minority party strategies?
{ "text": [ "minority leader, in consultation with other party colleagues" ], "answer_start": [ 38 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Devise Minority Party Strategies. The minority leader, in consultation with other party colleagues, has a range of strategic options that he or she can employ to advance minority party objectives. The options selected depend on a wide range of circumstances, such as the visibility or significance of the issue and the degree of cohesion within the majority party. For instance, a majority party riven by internal dissension, as occurred during the early 1900s when Progressive and "regular" Republicans were at loggerheads, may provide the minority leader with greater opportunities to achieve his or her priorities than if the majority party exhibited high degrees of party cohesion. Among the variable strategies available to the minority party, which can vary from bill to bill and be used in combination or at different stages of the lawmaking process, are the following:
What is the party that is not the minority party?
{ "text": [ "the majority party" ], "answer_start": [ 345 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Devise Minority Party Strategies. The minority leader, in consultation with other party colleagues, has a range of strategic options that he or she can employ to advance minority party objectives. The options selected depend on a wide range of circumstances, such as the visibility or significance of the issue and the degree of cohesion within the majority party. For instance, a majority party riven by internal dissension, as occurred during the early 1900s when Progressive and "regular" Republicans were at loggerheads, may provide the minority leader with greater opportunities to achieve his or her priorities than if the majority party exhibited high degrees of party cohesion. Among the variable strategies available to the minority party, which can vary from bill to bill and be used in combination or at different stages of the lawmaking process, are the following:
Which party was in the majority in the early 1900s?
{ "text": [ "Republicans" ], "answer_start": [ 492 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Second, Democrats have always elevated their minority floor leader to the speakership upon reclaiming majority status. Republicans have not always followed this leadership succession pattern. In 1919, for instance, Republicans bypassed James R. Mann, R-IL, who had been minority leader for eight years, and elected Frederick Gillett, R-MA, to be Speaker. Mann "had angered many Republicans by objecting to their private bills on the floor;" also he was a protégé of autocratic Speaker Joseph Cannon, R-IL (1903–1911), and many Members "suspected that he would try to re-centralize power in his hands if elected Speaker." More recently, although Robert H. Michel was the Minority Leader in 1994 when the Republicans regained control of the House in the 1994 midterm elections, he had already announced his retirement and had little or no involvement in the campaign, including the Contract with America which was unveiled six weeks before voting day.
Why did the member of the Republican party didn't get elected as speaker by the end of the 20th century?
{ "text": [ "had already announced his retirement and had little or no involvement in the campaign" ], "answer_start": [ 779 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Second, Democrats have always elevated their minority floor leader to the speakership upon reclaiming majority status. Republicans have not always followed this leadership succession pattern. In 1919, for instance, Republicans bypassed James R. Mann, R-IL, who had been minority leader for eight years, and elected Frederick Gillett, R-MA, to be Speaker. Mann "had angered many Republicans by objecting to their private bills on the floor;" also he was a protégé of autocratic Speaker Joseph Cannon, R-IL (1903–1911), and many Members "suspected that he would try to re-centralize power in his hands if elected Speaker." More recently, although Robert H. Michel was the Minority Leader in 1994 when the Republicans regained control of the House in the 1994 midterm elections, he had already announced his retirement and had little or no involvement in the campaign, including the Contract with America which was unveiled six weeks before voting day.
Why did the party symbolized by an elephant ignore for promotion a type of leader which their opponents normally promote, in the early 20th Century when they outnumbered their opponents in a specific branch of the US government?
{ "text": [ "Mann \"had angered many Republicans by objecting to their private bills on the floor" ], "answer_start": [ 355 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Second, Democrats have always elevated their minority floor leader to the speakership upon reclaiming majority status. Republicans have not always followed this leadership succession pattern. In 1919, for instance, Republicans bypassed James R. Mann, R-IL, who had been minority leader for eight years, and elected Frederick Gillett, R-MA, to be Speaker. Mann "had angered many Republicans by objecting to their private bills on the floor;" also he was a protégé of autocratic Speaker Joseph Cannon, R-IL (1903–1911), and many Members "suspected that he would try to re-centralize power in his hands if elected Speaker." More recently, although Robert H. Michel was the Minority Leader in 1994 when the Republicans regained control of the House in the 1994 midterm elections, he had already announced his retirement and had little or no involvement in the campaign, including the Contract with America which was unveiled six weeks before voting day.
Which election was the Contract with America unveiled closest to?
{ "text": [ "the 1994 midterm elections" ], "answer_start": [ 748 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Second, Democrats have always elevated their minority floor leader to the speakership upon reclaiming majority status. Republicans have not always followed this leadership succession pattern. In 1919, for instance, Republicans bypassed James R. Mann, R-IL, who had been minority leader for eight years, and elected Frederick Gillett, R-MA, to be Speaker. Mann "had angered many Republicans by objecting to their private bills on the floor;" also he was a protégé of autocratic Speaker Joseph Cannon, R-IL (1903–1911), and many Members "suspected that he would try to re-centralize power in his hands if elected Speaker." More recently, although Robert H. Michel was the Minority Leader in 1994 when the Republicans regained control of the House in the 1994 midterm elections, he had already announced his retirement and had little or no involvement in the campaign, including the Contract with America which was unveiled six weeks before voting day.
What member of the Republican party wasn't elected as speaker by the end of the 20th century?
{ "text": [ "Robert H. Michel" ], "answer_start": [ 645 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Second, Democrats have always elevated their minority floor leader to the speakership upon reclaiming majority status. Republicans have not always followed this leadership succession pattern. In 1919, for instance, Republicans bypassed James R. Mann, R-IL, who had been minority leader for eight years, and elected Frederick Gillett, R-MA, to be Speaker. Mann "had angered many Republicans by objecting to their private bills on the floor;" also he was a protégé of autocratic Speaker Joseph Cannon, R-IL (1903–1911), and many Members "suspected that he would try to re-centralize power in his hands if elected Speaker." More recently, although Robert H. Michel was the Minority Leader in 1994 when the Republicans regained control of the House in the 1994 midterm elections, he had already announced his retirement and had little or no involvement in the campaign, including the Contract with America which was unveiled six weeks before voting day.
Which party had the majority in 1918?
{ "text": [ "Democrats" ], "answer_start": [ 8 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Second, Democrats have always elevated their minority floor leader to the speakership upon reclaiming majority status. Republicans have not always followed this leadership succession pattern. In 1919, for instance, Republicans bypassed James R. Mann, R-IL, who had been minority leader for eight years, and elected Frederick Gillett, R-MA, to be Speaker. Mann "had angered many Republicans by objecting to their private bills on the floor;" also he was a protégé of autocratic Speaker Joseph Cannon, R-IL (1903–1911), and many Members "suspected that he would try to re-centralize power in his hands if elected Speaker." More recently, although Robert H. Michel was the Minority Leader in 1994 when the Republicans regained control of the House in the 1994 midterm elections, he had already announced his retirement and had little or no involvement in the campaign, including the Contract with America which was unveiled six weeks before voting day.
How did Republicans feel about Mann in 1919?
{ "text": [ "angered" ], "answer_start": [ 365 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Second, Democrats have always elevated their minority floor leader to the speakership upon reclaiming majority status. Republicans have not always followed this leadership succession pattern. In 1919, for instance, Republicans bypassed James R. Mann, R-IL, who had been minority leader for eight years, and elected Frederick Gillett, R-MA, to be Speaker. Mann "had angered many Republicans by objecting to their private bills on the floor;" also he was a protégé of autocratic Speaker Joseph Cannon, R-IL (1903–1911), and many Members "suspected that he would try to re-centralize power in his hands if elected Speaker." More recently, although Robert H. Michel was the Minority Leader in 1994 when the Republicans regained control of the House in the 1994 midterm elections, he had already announced his retirement and had little or no involvement in the campaign, including the Contract with America which was unveiled six weeks before voting day.
What is the difference between Republicans and Democrats concerning the election of speaker once they aren't the minority in the house anymore?
{ "text": [ "Democrats have always elevated their minority floor leader to the speakership upon reclaiming majority status" ], "answer_start": [ 8 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Second, Democrats have always elevated their minority floor leader to the speakership upon reclaiming majority status. Republicans have not always followed this leadership succession pattern. In 1919, for instance, Republicans bypassed James R. Mann, R-IL, who had been minority leader for eight years, and elected Frederick Gillett, R-MA, to be Speaker. Mann "had angered many Republicans by objecting to their private bills on the floor;" also he was a protégé of autocratic Speaker Joseph Cannon, R-IL (1903–1911), and many Members "suspected that he would try to re-centralize power in his hands if elected Speaker." More recently, although Robert H. Michel was the Minority Leader in 1994 when the Republicans regained control of the House in the 1994 midterm elections, he had already announced his retirement and had little or no involvement in the campaign, including the Contract with America which was unveiled six weeks before voting day.
Why did the party symbolized by an elephant ignore for promotion a type of leader which their opponents normally promote, in the late 20th Century when they outnumbered their opponents in a specific branch of the US government?
{ "text": [ "he had already announced his retirement and had little or no involvement in the campaign" ], "answer_start": [ 776 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Second, Democrats have always elevated their minority floor leader to the speakership upon reclaiming majority status. Republicans have not always followed this leadership succession pattern. In 1919, for instance, Republicans bypassed James R. Mann, R-IL, who had been minority leader for eight years, and elected Frederick Gillett, R-MA, to be Speaker. Mann "had angered many Republicans by objecting to their private bills on the floor;" also he was a protégé of autocratic Speaker Joseph Cannon, R-IL (1903–1911), and many Members "suspected that he would try to re-centralize power in his hands if elected Speaker." More recently, although Robert H. Michel was the Minority Leader in 1994 when the Republicans regained control of the House in the 1994 midterm elections, he had already announced his retirement and had little or no involvement in the campaign, including the Contract with America which was unveiled six weeks before voting day.
Who was the Speaker in 1909?
{ "text": [ "Joseph Cannon, R-IL" ], "answer_start": [ 485 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Second, Democrats have always elevated their minority floor leader to the speakership upon reclaiming majority status. Republicans have not always followed this leadership succession pattern. In 1919, for instance, Republicans bypassed James R. Mann, R-IL, who had been minority leader for eight years, and elected Frederick Gillett, R-MA, to be Speaker. Mann "had angered many Republicans by objecting to their private bills on the floor;" also he was a protégé of autocratic Speaker Joseph Cannon, R-IL (1903–1911), and many Members "suspected that he would try to re-centralize power in his hands if elected Speaker." More recently, although Robert H. Michel was the Minority Leader in 1994 when the Republicans regained control of the House in the 1994 midterm elections, he had already announced his retirement and had little or no involvement in the campaign, including the Contract with America which was unveiled six weeks before voting day.
Who did the party symbolized by an elephant pass over for promotion in the early 20th Century when they outnumbered their opponents in a specific branch of the US government?
{ "text": [ "James R. Mann" ], "answer_start": [ 236 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Second, Democrats have always elevated their minority floor leader to the speakership upon reclaiming majority status. Republicans have not always followed this leadership succession pattern. In 1919, for instance, Republicans bypassed James R. Mann, R-IL, who had been minority leader for eight years, and elected Frederick Gillett, R-MA, to be Speaker. Mann "had angered many Republicans by objecting to their private bills on the floor;" also he was a protégé of autocratic Speaker Joseph Cannon, R-IL (1903–1911), and many Members "suspected that he would try to re-centralize power in his hands if elected Speaker." More recently, although Robert H. Michel was the Minority Leader in 1994 when the Republicans regained control of the House in the 1994 midterm elections, he had already announced his retirement and had little or no involvement in the campaign, including the Contract with America which was unveiled six weeks before voting day.
Which party had the majority in 1992?
{ "text": [ "Democrats" ], "answer_start": [ 8 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Second, Democrats have always elevated their minority floor leader to the speakership upon reclaiming majority status. Republicans have not always followed this leadership succession pattern. In 1919, for instance, Republicans bypassed James R. Mann, R-IL, who had been minority leader for eight years, and elected Frederick Gillett, R-MA, to be Speaker. Mann "had angered many Republicans by objecting to their private bills on the floor;" also he was a protégé of autocratic Speaker Joseph Cannon, R-IL (1903–1911), and many Members "suspected that he would try to re-centralize power in his hands if elected Speaker." More recently, although Robert H. Michel was the Minority Leader in 1994 when the Republicans regained control of the House in the 1994 midterm elections, he had already announced his retirement and had little or no involvement in the campaign, including the Contract with America which was unveiled six weeks before voting day.
Who did the party symbolized by an elephant choose for promotion in the early 20th Century when they outnumbered their opponents in a specific branch of the US government?
{ "text": [ "Frederick Gillett" ], "answer_start": [ 315 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Second, Democrats have always elevated their minority floor leader to the speakership upon reclaiming majority status. Republicans have not always followed this leadership succession pattern. In 1919, for instance, Republicans bypassed James R. Mann, R-IL, who had been minority leader for eight years, and elected Frederick Gillett, R-MA, to be Speaker. Mann "had angered many Republicans by objecting to their private bills on the floor;" also he was a protégé of autocratic Speaker Joseph Cannon, R-IL (1903–1911), and many Members "suspected that he would try to re-centralize power in his hands if elected Speaker." More recently, although Robert H. Michel was the Minority Leader in 1994 when the Republicans regained control of the House in the 1994 midterm elections, he had already announced his retirement and had little or no involvement in the campaign, including the Contract with America which was unveiled six weeks before voting day.
What type of person did the party symbolized by a donkey promote when they outnumbered their opponents in a specific branch of the US government?
{ "text": [ "minority floor leader" ], "answer_start": [ 45 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Provide Campaign Assistance. Minority leaders are typically energetic and aggressive campaigners for partisan incumbents and challengers. There is hardly any major aspect of campaigning that does not engage their attention. For example, they assist in recruiting qualified candidates; they establish "leadership PACs" to raise and distribute funds to House candidates of their party; they try to persuade partisan colleagues not to retire or run for other offices so as to hold down the number of open seats the party would need to defend; they coordinate their campaign activities with congressional and national party campaign committees; they encourage outside groups to back their candidates; they travel around the country to speak on behalf of party candidates; and they encourage incumbent colleagues to make significant financial contributions to the party's campaign committee. "The amount of time that [Minority Leader] Gephardt is putting in to help the DCCC [Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee] is unheard of," noted a Democratic lobbyist."No DCCC chairman has ever had that kind of support."
What does the D in "DCCC" stand for?
{ "text": [ "Democratic" ], "answer_start": [ 971 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Provide Campaign Assistance. Minority leaders are typically energetic and aggressive campaigners for partisan incumbents and challengers. There is hardly any major aspect of campaigning that does not engage their attention. For example, they assist in recruiting qualified candidates; they establish "leadership PACs" to raise and distribute funds to House candidates of their party; they try to persuade partisan colleagues not to retire or run for other offices so as to hold down the number of open seats the party would need to defend; they coordinate their campaign activities with congressional and national party campaign committees; they encourage outside groups to back their candidates; they travel around the country to speak on behalf of party candidates; and they encourage incumbent colleagues to make significant financial contributions to the party's campaign committee. "The amount of time that [Minority Leader] Gephardt is putting in to help the DCCC [Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee] is unheard of," noted a Democratic lobbyist."No DCCC chairman has ever had that kind of support."
What does the second C in "DCCC" stand for?
{ "text": [ "Campaign" ], "answer_start": [ 996 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Provide Campaign Assistance. Minority leaders are typically energetic and aggressive campaigners for partisan incumbents and challengers. There is hardly any major aspect of campaigning that does not engage their attention. For example, they assist in recruiting qualified candidates; they establish "leadership PACs" to raise and distribute funds to House candidates of their party; they try to persuade partisan colleagues not to retire or run for other offices so as to hold down the number of open seats the party would need to defend; they coordinate their campaign activities with congressional and national party campaign committees; they encourage outside groups to back their candidates; they travel around the country to speak on behalf of party candidates; and they encourage incumbent colleagues to make significant financial contributions to the party's campaign committee. "The amount of time that [Minority Leader] Gephardt is putting in to help the DCCC [Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee] is unheard of," noted a Democratic lobbyist."No DCCC chairman has ever had that kind of support."
Minority leaders worked to keep party holders from not doing what?
{ "text": [ "to retire or run for other offices so as to hold down the number of open seats the party would need to defend" ], "answer_start": [ 429 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Provide Campaign Assistance. Minority leaders are typically energetic and aggressive campaigners for partisan incumbents and challengers. There is hardly any major aspect of campaigning that does not engage their attention. For example, they assist in recruiting qualified candidates; they establish "leadership PACs" to raise and distribute funds to House candidates of their party; they try to persuade partisan colleagues not to retire or run for other offices so as to hold down the number of open seats the party would need to defend; they coordinate their campaign activities with congressional and national party campaign committees; they encourage outside groups to back their candidates; they travel around the country to speak on behalf of party candidates; and they encourage incumbent colleagues to make significant financial contributions to the party's campaign committee. "The amount of time that [Minority Leader] Gephardt is putting in to help the DCCC [Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee] is unheard of," noted a Democratic lobbyist."No DCCC chairman has ever had that kind of support."
What does the second C in "DCCC" stand for?
{ "text": [ "Campaign" ], "answer_start": [ 996 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
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Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Provide Campaign Assistance. Minority leaders are typically energetic and aggressive campaigners for partisan incumbents and challengers. There is hardly any major aspect of campaigning that does not engage their attention. For example, they assist in recruiting qualified candidates; they establish "leadership PACs" to raise and distribute funds to House candidates of their party; they try to persuade partisan colleagues not to retire or run for other offices so as to hold down the number of open seats the party would need to defend; they coordinate their campaign activities with congressional and national party campaign committees; they encourage outside groups to back their candidates; they travel around the country to speak on behalf of party candidates; and they encourage incumbent colleagues to make significant financial contributions to the party's campaign committee. "The amount of time that [Minority Leader] Gephardt is putting in to help the DCCC [Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee] is unheard of," noted a Democratic lobbyist."No DCCC chairman has ever had that kind of support."
Who is a strong worker for party represented by the donkey?
{ "text": [ "Gephardt" ], "answer_start": [ 930 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
69abf2b037bca162e368f7ed1e229319ce60c9ba
Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Provide Campaign Assistance. Minority leaders are typically energetic and aggressive campaigners for partisan incumbents and challengers. There is hardly any major aspect of campaigning that does not engage their attention. For example, they assist in recruiting qualified candidates; they establish "leadership PACs" to raise and distribute funds to House candidates of their party; they try to persuade partisan colleagues not to retire or run for other offices so as to hold down the number of open seats the party would need to defend; they coordinate their campaign activities with congressional and national party campaign committees; they encourage outside groups to back their candidates; they travel around the country to speak on behalf of party candidates; and they encourage incumbent colleagues to make significant financial contributions to the party's campaign committee. "The amount of time that [Minority Leader] Gephardt is putting in to help the DCCC [Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee] is unheard of," noted a Democratic lobbyist."No DCCC chairman has ever had that kind of support."
What does the D in "DCCC stand for?
{ "text": [ "Democratic" ], "answer_start": [ 971 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
815c3c8cd5a86c107723b95636d1e4022158f5b8
Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Provide Campaign Assistance. Minority leaders are typically energetic and aggressive campaigners for partisan incumbents and challengers. There is hardly any major aspect of campaigning that does not engage their attention. For example, they assist in recruiting qualified candidates; they establish "leadership PACs" to raise and distribute funds to House candidates of their party; they try to persuade partisan colleagues not to retire or run for other offices so as to hold down the number of open seats the party would need to defend; they coordinate their campaign activities with congressional and national party campaign committees; they encourage outside groups to back their candidates; they travel around the country to speak on behalf of party candidates; and they encourage incumbent colleagues to make significant financial contributions to the party's campaign committee. "The amount of time that [Minority Leader] Gephardt is putting in to help the DCCC [Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee] is unheard of," noted a Democratic lobbyist."No DCCC chairman has ever had that kind of support."
Who do the leaders talk about and for?
{ "text": [ "party candidates" ], "answer_start": [ 750 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
6ace7f0a1d6ca12f1a82aa4b6ed9b880c4d22154
Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Provide Campaign Assistance. Minority leaders are typically energetic and aggressive campaigners for partisan incumbents and challengers. There is hardly any major aspect of campaigning that does not engage their attention. For example, they assist in recruiting qualified candidates; they establish "leadership PACs" to raise and distribute funds to House candidates of their party; they try to persuade partisan colleagues not to retire or run for other offices so as to hold down the number of open seats the party would need to defend; they coordinate their campaign activities with congressional and national party campaign committees; they encourage outside groups to back their candidates; they travel around the country to speak on behalf of party candidates; and they encourage incumbent colleagues to make significant financial contributions to the party's campaign committee. "The amount of time that [Minority Leader] Gephardt is putting in to help the DCCC [Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee] is unheard of," noted a Democratic lobbyist."No DCCC chairman has ever had that kind of support."
What does the first C in "DCCC" stand for?
{ "text": [ "Congressional" ], "answer_start": [ 982 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
6ace7f0a1d6ca12f1a82aa4b6ed9b880c4d22154
Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Provide Campaign Assistance. Minority leaders are typically energetic and aggressive campaigners for partisan incumbents and challengers. There is hardly any major aspect of campaigning that does not engage their attention. For example, they assist in recruiting qualified candidates; they establish "leadership PACs" to raise and distribute funds to House candidates of their party; they try to persuade partisan colleagues not to retire or run for other offices so as to hold down the number of open seats the party would need to defend; they coordinate their campaign activities with congressional and national party campaign committees; they encourage outside groups to back their candidates; they travel around the country to speak on behalf of party candidates; and they encourage incumbent colleagues to make significant financial contributions to the party's campaign committee. "The amount of time that [Minority Leader] Gephardt is putting in to help the DCCC [Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee] is unheard of," noted a Democratic lobbyist."No DCCC chairman has ever had that kind of support."
What does the first C in "DCCC" stand for?
{ "text": [ "Congressional" ], "answer_start": [ 982 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
80e9279e714dcd5baa7d6eda8618328a96eb9444
Party_leaders_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
Provide Campaign Assistance. Minority leaders are typically energetic and aggressive campaigners for partisan incumbents and challengers. There is hardly any major aspect of campaigning that does not engage their attention. For example, they assist in recruiting qualified candidates; they establish "leadership PACs" to raise and distribute funds to House candidates of their party; they try to persuade partisan colleagues not to retire or run for other offices so as to hold down the number of open seats the party would need to defend; they coordinate their campaign activities with congressional and national party campaign committees; they encourage outside groups to back their candidates; they travel around the country to speak on behalf of party candidates; and they encourage incumbent colleagues to make significant financial contributions to the party's campaign committee. "The amount of time that [Minority Leader] Gephardt is putting in to help the DCCC [Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee] is unheard of," noted a Democratic lobbyist."No DCCC chairman has ever had that kind of support."
What does it mean to be forceful?
{ "text": [ "aggressive" ], "answer_start": [ 74 ] }
{ "split": "train", "model_in_the_loop": "Combined" }
End of preview (truncated to 100 rows)

Dataset Card for adversarialQA

Dataset Summary

We have created three new Reading Comprehension datasets constructed using an adversarial model-in-the-loop.

We use three different models; BiDAF (Seo et al., 2016), BERTLarge (Devlin et al., 2018), and RoBERTaLarge (Liu et al., 2019) in the annotation loop and construct three datasets; D(BiDAF), D(BERT), and D(RoBERTa), each with 10,000 training examples, 1,000 validation, and 1,000 test examples.

The adversarial human annotation paradigm ensures that these datasets consist of questions that current state-of-the-art models (at least the ones used as adversaries in the annotation loop) find challenging. The three AdversarialQA round 1 datasets provide a training and evaluation resource for such methods.

Supported Tasks and Leaderboards

extractive-qa: The dataset can be used to train a model for Extractive Question Answering, which consists in selecting the answer to a question from a passage. Success on this task is typically measured by achieving a high word-overlap F1 score. The RoBERTa-Large model trained on all the data combined with SQuAD currently achieves 64.35% F1. This task has an active leaderboard and is available as round 1 of the QA task on Dynabench and ranks models based on F1 score.

Languages

The text in the dataset is in English. The associated BCP-47 code is en.

Dataset Structure

Data Instances

Data is provided in the same format as SQuAD 1.1. An example is shown below:

{
  "data": [
    {
      "title": "Oxygen",
      "paragraphs": [
        {
          "context": "Among the most important classes of organic compounds that contain oxygen are (where \"R\" is an organic group): alcohols (R-OH); ethers (R-O-R); ketones (R-CO-R); aldehydes (R-CO-H); carboxylic acids (R-COOH); esters (R-COO-R); acid anhydrides (R-CO-O-CO-R); and amides (R-C(O)-NR2). There are many important organic solvents that contain oxygen, including: acetone, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, furan, THF, diethyl ether, dioxane, ethyl acetate, DMF, DMSO, acetic acid, and formic acid. Acetone ((CH3)2CO) and phenol (C6H5OH) are used as feeder materials in the synthesis of many different substances. Other important organic compounds that contain oxygen are: glycerol, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, citric acid, acetic anhydride, and acetamide. Epoxides are ethers in which the oxygen atom is part of a ring of three atoms.",
          "qas": [
            {
              "id": "22bbe104aa72aa9b511dd53237deb11afa14d6e3",
              "question": "In addition to having oxygen, what do alcohols, ethers and esters have in common, according to the article?",
              "answers": [
                {
                  "answer_start": 36,
                  "text": "organic compounds"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "id": "4240a8e708c703796347a3702cf1463eed05584a",
              "question": "What letter does the abbreviation for acid anhydrides both begin and end in?",
              "answers": [
                {
                  "answer_start": 244,
                  "text": "R"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "id": "0681a0a5ec852ec6920d6a30f7ef65dced493366",
              "question": "Which of the organic compounds, in the article, contains nitrogen?",
              "answers": [
                {
                  "answer_start": 262,
                  "text": "amides"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "id": "2990efe1a56ccf81938fa5e18104f7d3803069fb",
              "question": "Which of the important classes of organic compounds, in the article, has a number in its abbreviation?",
              "answers": [
                {
                  "answer_start": 262,
                  "text": "amides"
                }
              ]
            }
          ]
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}

Data Fields

  • title: the title of the Wikipedia page from which the context is sourced
  • context: the context/passage
  • id: a string identifier for each question
  • answers: a list of all provided answers (one per question in our case, but multiple may exist in SQuAD) with an answer_start field which is the character index of the start of the answer span, and a text field which is the answer text.

Note that no answers are provided in the test set. Indeed, this dataset is part of the DynaBench benchmark, for which you can submit your predictions on the website.

Data Splits

The dataset is composed of three different datasets constructed using different models in the loop: BiDAF, BERT-Large, and RoBERTa-Large. Each of these has 10,000 training examples, 1,000 validation examples, and 1,000 test examples for a total of 30,000/3,000/3,000 train/validation/test examples.

Dataset Creation

Curation Rationale

This dataset was collected to provide a more challenging and diverse Reading Comprehension dataset to state-of-the-art models.

Source Data

Initial Data Collection and Normalization

The source passages are from Wikipedia and are the same as those used in SQuAD v1.1.

Who are the source language producers?

The source language produces are Wikipedia editors for the passages, and human annotators on Mechanical Turk for the questions.

Annotations

Annotation process

The dataset is collected through an adversarial human annotation process which pairs a human annotator and a reading comprehension model in an interactive setting. The human is presented with a passage for which they write a question and highlight the correct answer. The model then tries to answer the question, and, if it fails to answer correctly, the human wins. Otherwise, the human modifies or re-writes their question until the successfully fool the model.

Who are the annotators?

The annotators are from Amazon Mechanical Turk, geographically restricted the the USA, UK and Canada, having previously successfully completed at least 1,000 HITs, and having a HIT approval rate greater than 98%. Crowdworkers undergo intensive training and qualification prior to annotation.

Personal and Sensitive Information

No annotator identifying details are provided.

Considerations for Using the Data

Social Impact of Dataset

The purpose of this dataset is to help develop better question answering systems.

A system that succeeds at the supported task would be able to provide an accurate extractive answer from a short passage. This dataset is to be seen as a test bed for questions which contemporary state-of-the-art models struggle to answer correctly, thus often requiring more complex comprehension abilities than say detecting phrases explicitly mentioned in the passage with high overlap to the question.

It should be noted, however, that the the source passages are both domain-restricted and linguistically specific, and that provided questions and answers do not constitute any particular social application.

Discussion of Biases

The dataset may exhibit various biases in terms of the source passage selection, annotated questions and answers, as well as algorithmic biases resulting from the adversarial annotation protocol.

Other Known Limitations

N/a

Additional Information

Dataset Curators

This dataset was initially created by Max Bartolo, Alastair Roberts, Johannes Welbl, Sebastian Riedel, and Pontus Stenetorp, during work carried out at University College London (UCL).

Licensing Information

This dataset is distributed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Citation Information

@article{bartolo2020beat,
    author = {Bartolo, Max and Roberts, Alastair and Welbl, Johannes and Riedel, Sebastian and Stenetorp, Pontus},
    title = {Beat the AI: Investigating Adversarial Human Annotation for Reading Comprehension},
    journal = {Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics},
    volume = {8},
    number = {},
    pages = {662-678},
    year = {2020},
    doi = {10.1162/tacl\_a\_00338},
    URL = { https://doi.org/10.1162/tacl_a_00338 },
    eprint = { https://doi.org/10.1162/tacl_a_00338 },
    abstract = { Innovations in annotation methodology have been a catalyst for Reading Comprehension (RC) datasets and models. One recent trend to challenge current RC models is to involve a model in the annotation process: Humans create questions adversarially, such that the model fails to answer them correctly. In this work we investigate this annotation methodology and apply it in three different settings, collecting a total of 36,000 samples with progressively stronger models in the annotation loop. This allows us to explore questions such as the reproducibility of the adversarial effect, transfer from data collected with varying model-in-the-loop strengths, and generalization to data collected without a model. We find that training on adversarially collected samples leads to strong generalization to non-adversarially collected datasets, yet with progressive performance deterioration with increasingly stronger models-in-the-loop. Furthermore, we find that stronger models can still learn from datasets collected with substantially weaker models-in-the-loop. When trained on data collected with a BiDAF model in the loop, RoBERTa achieves 39.9F1 on questions that it cannot answer when trained on SQuAD—only marginally lower than when trained on data collected using RoBERTa itself (41.0F1). }
}

Contributions

Thanks to @maxbartolo for adding this dataset.

Models trained or fine-tuned on adversarial_qa