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15824604
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chevry%2C%20Manche
Chevry, Manche
Chevry () is a former commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. On 1 January 2016, it was merged into the new commune of Moyon Villages. See also Communes of the Manche department References Former communes of Manche
15824606
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pushmataha%20Area%20Council
Pushmataha Area Council
The Pushmataha Area Council is part of the Boy Scouts of America. It renders service to Scout units in ten counties of North Mississippi, providing skills training and character development to boys and girls between the ages of 5 and 18. The council also serves boys and girls between the ages of 14 and 21 through Venturing Crews and Explorer posts. In 2007, 24 Eagle Scout ranks were earned in the Pushmataha Area Council, and 20 Scouts earned the God and Country Award. History The Pushmataha Area Council (#691) was established by the Boy Scouts of America in June, 1925. The council was originally named the East Mississippi Council (#691), but this name was changed in 1929 to honor Chief Pushmataha of the Choctaw tribe. Chief Pushmataha once told a group of chiefs that he was not born, but instead stepped, full grown and dressed for battle, from the split in a tree that had been struck by lightning. This story has been incorporated into the Pushmataha Area Council Shoulder Patch shown above. The patch shows a full-grown Pushmataha emerging from a tree struck by lightning. Camp Seminole has a sign on its grounds noting the tree from which Pushmataha supposedly appeared. In 1925, the headquarters of the council was in West Point, Mississippi, on Main Street. In 1960s, the council office was moved to its current location at 420 31st Avenue North, Columbus, Mississippi. The Pushmataha Area Council is one of the smallest Boy Scout councils in America. It is not unusual for other councils to have districts larger than the entire Pushmataha Area Council. In 1950, the council erected a miniature Statue of Liberty in the middle of downtown Columbus, Mississippi, as part of a national effort in the Boy Scouts to erect 200 of these statues. Fewer than 100 of these statues still exist, and even fewer exist intact. The Pushmataha Area Council statue is one of the few intact ones that exist today. When fully staffed with professionals, the Pushmataha Area Council has a Scout Executive, two District Executives, and a full-time Camp Ranger. One District Executive resigned in 2007, and the Executive Board of the council did not hire a replacement for the position. The Camp Ranger resigned in the spring of 2009, and the camp is currently (2010) served by a part-time, volunteer, interim Camp Ranger. The second District Executive resigned in the early fall of 2009, and the council Executive Board did not hire anyone fill that position. The Scout Executive announced in November, 2009 that he was resigning, and as of April, 2010, the Scout Executive position is still vacant. The BSA Regional Director is acting as the official Scout Executive for the council until one is hired. The Regional Director is in another state, and is not present to oversee day-to-day operations of the council. The council is being operated by a small corps of volunteers, and the 2010 FOS campaigns are being run by volunteers with no professional guidance or assistance. The Council President, George Purnell, has been in office for six years. All previous council presidents (1925–2004) served a maximum of three years. Districts When the council began, each town with a Scout troop was its own District. For example, troops in Columbus, Mississippi were in the Columbus District. Later the council evolved into having three districts, the Running Bear District, the Talking Warrior District, and the Tombigbee District. In 1990s, these three districts were reorganized to create two new districts, the Choctaw District and the Chickasaw District. The Choctaw District covers five counties: Clay, Lowndes, Oktibbeha, Webster, and Noxubee. The Chickasaw District also covers five counties: Monroe, Winston, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Calhoun. Events The Pushmataha Area Council hosts numerous events each year. These include: Eagle Recognition Banquet (early spring) Council Pinewood Derby (spring) Summer Camp (June) Cub Scout Day Camp (June) Webelos Resident Camp (June) Cub Scout Leader Specific Training (September — March) Boy Scout Leader Training (late fall) Wood Badge Training (bi-annually) MSU Scout Football Day (fall) MSU Scout Baseball Day (spring) Cub Scout Family Weekend (semi-annually) Tiger Leader Training (fall) Funding The Pushmataha Area Council is funded by donations made by civic organizations, businesses, and individuals. Several different United Way groups contribute to the council, and most United way funding has remained strong. United way of Oktibbeha County is an exception, as they have cut their funding to the council by over half in recent years. The Pushmataha Area Council is a 501(c) non-profit organization. Service Through the Cub Scouting, Boy Scouting, and Venturing programs, the Pushmataha Area Council serves youth ages 6 through 21. The council offers Learning for Life, a character education program used by local schools. Explorer posts in the council offer vocation-oriented experience to teenage boys and girls in the council's ten county area. Camp Seminole The original council camp was Camp Pine Springs, in Monroe County, located along the Buttahatchie River north of Columbus, Mississippi. Camp Palila, located in Louisville, Mississippi, became the council camp in 1953. Camp Palila served as the council camp for thirty years prior to 1980. The state of Mississippi had leased the land to the council, but the legislature failed to complete the new lease before the original lease ended. The land used for Camp Palila reverted to control of the state, and is now Legion State Park. The current council camp for the Pushmataha Area Council is Camp Seminole, about five miles north of Starkville, Mississippi. Camp Seminole hosts, among other activities, council summer camps, Cub Scout campouts, leadership training sessions, Wood Badge courses, and Order of the Arrow events. Camp Seminole was named for Seminole Manufacturing of Columbus, Mississippi, which donated significant financial support toward the camp's construction. History Camp Seminole was built on of land purchased by the Pushmataha Area Council in 1982. The need for building the camp came about when the lease on the previous council camp (Camp Palila) expired, and the Mississippi legislature did not renew the lease. A Brownsea-22 training course was held on the grounds of the new camp in 1982, before any structures or other improvements had been made. Several council camporees were conducted on the grounds before Camp Seminole was fully operational. In June 1986, Camp Seminole was declared officially "open" when the Pushmataha Area Council summer camp was held there for the first time. Facilities Camp Seminole has a dining hall that seats 200 people, a lake, nine camp sites, a C.O.P.E. Lodge, an activity field, a shooting sports arena, an obstacle course, numerous open shelters, an environmental center, the Chakchiuma Nature Trail, a trading post, and the Nita Chito Scout Museum. Roads on the camp are mainly of red clay gravel construction. Activities Camp Seminole is primarily a Boy Scout camp, and is used for camporees, summer camps, Scout leader training, Cub Scout campouts, and other Boy scout related events. The camp is also used to house Habitat for Humanity volunteers, for land navigation training by local National Guard and R.O.T.C. units, for Mississippi Hunter Safety Education Training, for Red Cross CPR and First Aid Training sessions, and other community and civic events. Topography The grounds of Camp Seminole average above sea level. Climate The climate at Camp Seminole is considered temperate. Winter temperatures rarely drop below freezing, and summer temperatures reach their peak in July and August, when it can reach 95-100 degrees Fahrenheit (35-38 degrees Celsius). The rainy season is early December through late March. Rainfall averages 62" annually. Watonala Lodge The Order of the Arrow is represented by the Watonala Lodge. It supports the Scouting programs of the council through leadership, camping, and service. History On September 1, 1939, five adult Boy Scout leaders from the Pushmataha Area Council attended an Order of the Arrow Area Fellowship in Birmingham, Alabama, and learned about the purpose and mission of the Order. Upon returning to the Pushmataha Area Council, an application for a charter was submitted to the National Order of the Arrow office. The initial charter was issued in the latter part of September, 1939. When the initial charter was issued, it was issued in the name of the local council, as Pushmataha Lodge. In January, 1942, Pushmataha Lodge chose its Native American name, Watonala Lodge. In the Choctaw language, Watonala means "white egret", or "white water bird". The first lodge event was held in the spring of 1940 at the Natchez Trace Game Preserve, near Houston, Mississippi. Lodge membership began to grow, as new Arrowmen were inducted during each council camporee. Membership slowed considerably during World War II, but resumed its pre-war growth during the few years immediately following World War II. The founding of Watonala Lodge in 1939 is well documented, although there is an oral history that places the origin of the lodge ten years earlier, in 1929. Service Watonala Lodge devotes much of its service time to development and maintenance of their home camp, Camp Seminole, which is located five miles north of Starkville, Mississippi. The lodge also publishes an online "Where To Go Camping Guide" at www.Watonala.Org, aimed at helping other Boy Scouts and the general public find good places to camp, canoe, and hike. Memorabilia The dominant theme of most Watonala patches and memorabilia is its totem, the white egret. The totem is usually shown in profile, facing the viewer's left, and headed upward in flight. There are numerous variations of this design, with the totem image varying slightly with each new patch issue. The lodge issues a new lodge flap every two or three years, and sometimes issues specific patches for OA events, such as Conclave, National Order of the Arrow Conference (NOAC ), and service events. Compared to many OA lodges, Watonala Lodge has always been comparatively small in membership numbers. This is due largely to being in a rural council having only ten counties. Because of smaller membership, the quantity of Watonala memorabilia available is usually smaller than most OA lodges. See also Scouting in Mississippi Replicas of the Statue of Liberty References Watonala Lodge Home Page Watonala's Where To Go Camping Guide Watonala Documented History Pushmataha Area Council Unbound manuscripts, Nita Chito Scout Museum Scouting In Oktibbeha County, unpublished manuscript Local councils of the Boy Scouts of America Southern Region (Boy Scouts of America) Youth organizations based in Mississippi 1925 establishments in Mississippi
15824610
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clitourps
Clitourps
Clitourps () is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. See also Communes of the Manche department References Communes of Manche
15824614
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coigny
Coigny
Coigny () is a former commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. On 1 January 2016, it was merged into the new commune of Montsenelle. People linked to the commune Robert Jean Antoine de Franquetot de Coigny (1652–1704) François de Franquetot de Coigny (1670–1759), Marshal of France François-Henri de Franquetot de Coigny (1737–1821), Marshal of France See also Communes of the Manche department References External links Coigny's website Château de Franquetot Château de Coigny The Church of Coigny Former communes of Manche
15824618
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La%20Colombe%2C%20Manche
La Colombe, Manche
La Colombe () is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. See also Communes of the Manche department References Colombe
15824631
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward%20Sharpe%20and%20the%20Magnetic%20Zeros
Edward Sharpe and the Magnetic Zeros
Edward Sharpe and the Magnetic Zeros was an American folk rock band formed in Los Angeles, California, in 2005. The group was led by singer Alex Ebert. The band's name is based on a story Ebert wrote in his youth, about a messianic figure named Edward Sharpe. Drawing from roots rock, folk, gospel, and psychedelic music, the band's image and sound evoke the hippie movement of the 1960s and 1970s. The group's first show was played July 18, 2007, at The Troubadour in West Hollywood, California. Their first studio album, Up from Below, was released on July 7, 2009, on Community Records and featured the popular single "Home". The group released their second full-length album, Here, on May 29, 2012, and third album, Edward Sharpe and the Magnetic Zeros, on July 23, 2013. Their fourth studio album, PersonA, was released in April 2016. Since its founding, the band underwent several alterations. Most notably, singer Jade Castrinos left the band in 2014. The band's current members are Nicolo Aglietti, Mark Noseworthy, Orpheo McCord, Josh Collazo, Christian Letts, Seth Ford-Young, Mitchell Yoshida, Crash Richard, Stewart Cole, and Alex Ebert. The band also operated Big Sun, a non-profit focused on funding and developing co-ops and land trusts in urban areas around the world. Big Sun donated $100,000 to, "Avalon Village," in Highland Park, Michigan in 2016. History Origin and first studio album (Up from Below) After years of the Los Angeles party life and subsequent drug addiction, Ima Robot frontman Alex Ebert broke up with his girlfriend, moved out of his house, and spent time in rehabilitation. During this time, Ebert began to write a book about a messianic figure named Edward Sharpe who was "sent down to Earth to kinda heal and save mankind, but he kept getting distracted by girls and falling in love." Ebert adopted the Sharpe persona as his alter ego. He said, "I don't want to put too much weight on it, because in some ways it's just a name that I came up with. But I guess if I look deeper, I do feel like I had lost my identity in general. I really didn't know what was going on or who I was anymore. Adopting another name helped me open up an avenue to get back." Ebert began initial writing and recording completely alone, doing "the horn lines with [his] mouth or a kazoo on the demos" and "all the background vocals layering ... pretending that there were people there." After meeting singer Jade Castrinos outside a Los Angeles cafe, Ebert and Castrinos started writing music together, and became a part of the art and music collective The Masses, which was partially started by some seed money from actor Heath Ledger. Their fledgling group eventually swelled to more than ten members, some of whom had been Alex's friends since he was young. In mid-2009, Ebert, Castrinos, and a group of musicians toured the country by bus as Edward Sharpe & the Magnetic Zeros. The first show they played in 2009 was at the Marfa Film Festival in Marfa, Texas. The band recorded their debut album, Up from Below, in Laurel Canyon. Produced by Nicolo Aglietti and Aaron Older, it was released on July 14, 2009. Up from Below is also the name of one of the songs in this album, in which Alex states "I was only five/when my dad told me I'd die/I cried as he said son/ was nothing could be done". Says Alexander, "My dad would be doing therapy in his office upstairs and I'd hear screamings, because they'd be role-playing and he'd be acting as his patient's father and they'd get upset and hit him and all this stuff. When he wasn't working, I'd go up there to draw and one day the music he was playing, Beethoven I think, delivered to me the idea of life and death. The information was bequeathed to me by the music. It was sonic and emotional. I tapped my dad on the shoulder and asked him if I was going to die and he said, 'Yeah.'" On April 12, 2009, the band released "Desert Song", a music video and the first of a 12-part feature-length musical called SALVO!. Part 2, "Kisses Over Babylon", was released November 24, 2009 through Spinner.com. Part 3, "40 Day Dream", was uploaded to YouTube by the band on May 19, 2011. Big Easy Express and second studio album (Here) In April 2011, the band joined Mumford & Sons and Old Crow Medicine Show on the Railroad Revival Tour. According to American Songwriter, the tour stopped in six cities, playing alternative venues such as an Austin, Texas high school where Mumford & Sons taught the marching band how to play their hit "The Cave". The tour was also the subject of Grammy-nominated director Emmett Malloy's latest documentary Big Easy Express, which strove to capture "the pure joy of music" through Americana folk imagery. The documentary went on to win in the category for Best Long Form Music Video at the 2013 Grammy Awards. In 2011, Railroad Revival Tour bands Mumford & Sons, Edward Sharpe and the Magnetic Zeros, and Old Crow Medicine Show together closed their shows at every stop with "This Train". The group's second album, Here, was released on May 29, 2012. Third studio album (Edward Sharpe & The Magnetic Zeros) The band's self-titled third studio album, Edward Sharpe and the Magnetic Zeros, was released in 2013. This was followed by tours of North America, UK, Europe, and Australia which included headlining concert dates as well as major festivals. The band became known for taking people onstage with them, including a former patient they had previously met in a hospital performance, and a disabled man in a wheelchair. Fourth studio album (PersonA) The band's fourth studio album, PersonA, was released April 15, 2016 through Community Music. Recording the music almost entirely in one room together in New Orleans, their approach was a far cry from their ramshackle, come-one-come-all production audible on recordings of their previous albums. In an in-depth interview with Transverso Media, Ebert explained his desire to evolve on PersonA, stating, "In a lot of ways this album does things that are missing." He went on to discuss why the name Edward Sharpe is crossed out on the cover, saying, "There was no character to begin with, so why not kill him? He never really was there. If anything, and at most, Edward Sharpe was a vehicle for me to get to slough off whatever I had become up until that point, and to get back to or sort of allow my pure self to come forth into sort of a clean slate." Members Alex Ebert – vocals, guitar, percussion, piano Nicolo Aglietti – guitar and co-producer; synthesizer, keyboards, vocals Stewart Cole – trumpet, percussion, keyboards, tenor ukulele, vocals Josh Collazo – drums, percussion, saxophone, vocals Orpheo McCord – drums, percussion, marimba, didgeridoo, vocals Christian Letts – guitar, vocals, mandolin Seth Ford-Young – bass, vocals Mark Noseworthy – guitar, vocals, banjo, mandolin, charango, ronroco Crash Richard – vocals, percussion As of marketing on the band's Facebook page in 2013: Mitchell Yoshida – piano, clavinet, vocals Additional, touring and/or recording personnel As listed in the iTunes LP for the most recent album, Edward Sharpe and the Magnetic Zeros, 2013, or present tour: Aaron Arntz – piano; previously also clavinet, vocals as a main band member Aaron Embry – piano, organs; previously keyboards, piano, vocals, harmonica as a main band member Roger Joseph Manning Jr – piano Nathaniel Markman – fiddler Fred Bows – violin Susie Bows – violin Hippos August – humming, moaning, Surbahar Former personnel In addition to Arntz and Embry: Aaron Older – co-producer, bass, vocals, banjo, percussion Tay Strathairn – piano, harmonica, vocals Jade Castrinos – vocals, guitar, percussion, keyboard Nora Kirkpatrick – accordion, keyboard, vocals Past touring/ additional personnel Odessa Jorgensen – fiddle, vocals during 2012-2013 tour Anna Bulbrook – viola, vocals Tyler James – piano, vocals Felix Bloxsom – drums Adam Privitera – penny whistler Ryan Richter – guitar, lap steel Discography Studio albums EPs Here Comes EP (2009) Singles Notes Other charted songs References External links 2005 establishments in California American country rock groups American indie folk groups Dew Process artists Folk rock groups from California Grammy Award winners Musical groups established in 2005 Musical groups from Los Angeles Rough Trade Records artists Vagrant Records artists
15824641
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colomby
Colomby
Colomby () is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. See also Communes of the Manche department References External links Communes of Manche
15824645
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cond%C3%A9-sur-Vire
Condé-sur-Vire
Condé-sur-Vire (, literally Condé on Vire) is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. On 1 January 2016, the former commune of Le Mesnil-Raoult was merged into Condé-sur-Vire. On 1 January 2017, the former commune of Troisgots was merged into Condé-sur-Vire. Geography Climate Condé-sur-Vire has a oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb). The average annual temperature in Condé-sur-Vire is . The average annual rainfall is with December as the wettest month. The temperatures are highest on average in July, at around , and lowest in January, at around . The highest temperature ever recorded in Condé-sur-Vire was on 5 August 2003; the coldest temperature ever recorded was on 17 January 1985. Population Heraldry People Among well known people born here is Father Jean de Brébeuf, a martyr and since 1930 a Catholic saint. Twinning In the late 1970s, arrangements were made for the twinning of Condé-sur-Vire with Bordon in Hampshire. For several years, parties of civic leaders and school teachers would arrive in Bordon, accompanying 70 or more school children for a week of activities. See also Communes of the Manche department References Condesurvire
15824648
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contri%C3%A8res
Contrières
Contrières () is a former commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. On 1 January 2019, it was merged into the commune Quettreville-sur-Sienne. See also Communes of the Manche department References Former communes of Manche
15824649
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosqueville
Cosqueville
Cosqueville () is a former commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. On 1 January 2016, it was merged into the new commune of Vicq-sur-Mer. See also Communes of the Manche department References Former communes of Manche Populated coastal places in France
15824653
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coudeville-sur-Mer
Coudeville-sur-Mer
Coudeville-sur-Mer (, literally Coudeville on Sea) is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. See also Communes of the Manche department References Coudevillesurmer Populated coastal places in France
15824657
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coulouvray-Boisben%C3%A2tre
Coulouvray-Boisbenâtre
Coulouvray-Boisbenâtre () is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. Geography Climate Coulouvray-Boisbenâtre has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb). The average annual temperature in Coulouvray-Boisbenâtre is . The average annual rainfall is with December as the wettest month. The temperatures are highest on average in August, at around , and lowest in January, at around . The highest temperature ever recorded in Coulouvray-Boisbenâtre was on 5 August 2003; the coldest temperature ever recorded was on 7 February 1991. See also Communes of the Manche department References Coulouvrayboisbenatre
15824664
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Courcy%2C%20Manche
Courcy, Manche
Courcy () is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. See also Communes of the Manche department References Communes of Manche
15824667
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Courtils
Courtils
Courtils is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. See also Communes of the Manche department References Communes of Manche
15824673
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Couvains%2C%20Manche
Couvains, Manche
Couvains () is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. See also Communes of the Manche department References Communes of Manche
15824678
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Couville
Couville
Couville () is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. See also Communes of the Manche department References Communes of Manche
15824681
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crasville%2C%20Manche
Crasville, Manche
Crasville () is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. See also Communes of the Manche department References Communes of Manche
15824688
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cr%C3%A9ances
Créances
Créances () is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. Population See also Communes of the Manche department References Communes of Manche
15824695
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Les%20Cresnays
Les Cresnays
Les Cresnays () is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. See also Communes of the Manche department References Cresnays
15824699
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretteville
Cretteville
Cretteville () is a former commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. On 1 January 2016, it was merged into the commune of Picauville. World War II After the liberation of the area by Allied Forces in 1944, engineers of the Ninth Air Force IX Engineering Command began construction of a combat Advanced Landing Ground outside of the town. Declared operational on 4 July, the airfield was designated as "A-14", it was used by the 358th Fighter Group which flew P-47 Thunderbolts until mid-August when the unit moved into Central France. The 406th Fighter Group took its place at the airfield and continued to fly P-47s until early September. Afterward, the airfield was closed. See also Communes of the Manche department References Former communes of Manche
15824705
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protection%20of%20Animals%20Act%201934
Protection of Animals Act 1934
The Protection of Animals Act 1934 (24 & 25 Geo. 5. c. 21) was an act of the British parliament effectively making rodeo, as it then existed, illegal in England, Scotland and Wales. The law was based upon the perceived cruelty to animals exhibited at western rodeos brought by promotions such as Tex Austin's 1924 "King of the Rodeo" exhibition at Wembley Stadium in 1924, the first such program in England. The act was repealed and replaced by the Animal Welfare Act 2006 and the Animal Health and Welfare (Scotland) Act 2006 respectively. Analysis The first section provided that roping any unbroken horse or untrained bull was illegal. This was followed by prohibitions on "wrestling, fighting, or struggling with any untrained bull", and on stimulating a horse or bull to buck. This last provision would exclude cinch straps specifically designed to irritate the animal or a strap cinched around its genitals. The prohibitions applied not only to the riders and the stock contractors preparing the animals, but to any promoter of the contests or exhibitions. The penalties were fines of up to 100 pounds, or up to three months in gaol, per violation. Geographic scope The last section of the act provided that it was not effective for Northern Ireland. See also Animal welfare in the United Kingdom Notes References Protection of Animals Act 1934, Chapter 21 Geo. 5 External links United Kingdom Acts of Parliament 1934 Animal welfare and rights legislation in the United Kingdom
15824706
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crollon
Crollon
Crollon () is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. It had 283 inhabitants as of 2014. Historically, Crollon has ranged in size from a maximum of 500 inhabitants in 1821 to a minimum of 183 in 1982. Christian Pacilly became mayor of Crollon in 2008, replacing Arsène Bouteloup, who had been mayor for the previous 32 years. See also Communes of the Manche department References External links Detailed statistics about the population of Crollon from the 2014 census Communes of Manche
15824709
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%85bo%20Svenska%20Teater
Åbo Svenska Teater
Åbo Svenska Teater () is a Finland-Swedish theatre in the city of Turku in Finland and the oldest theatre in the country, founded in 1839. The building itself is also the oldest still functioning theatre house in Finland. The name means "The Swedish theatre of Åbo"; Åbo is the Swedish name of the city of Turku. History Turku was the capital city of Finland during Finland's epoch as a part of Sweden, and Swedish theatre companies visited Finland during the 18th-century, the first of whom was the Stenborg Troupe in 1761 and the company of Carl Seuerling in the 1780s. There where however, no proper theatre building until the Bonuviers Teater was erected in the 1810s. When the old theatre was destroyed during the Great Fire of Turku in 1827, there was a need of a new theater house. 1839-1894 The theatre has been located in its present building since 1839, when it was opened by a local amateur society with the play Gubben i Bergsbygden the 21 January 1839. Later that same year, the theatre house was used by its first professional theatre company, that of Ulrik Torsslow, and its first professional concert singer, Betty Boije. In 1843, concerts by Johanna von Schoultz and Jenny Lind where both performed on its stage. Prior to 1894, the theatre did not have a permanent staff, as Finland did not have any native actors at this point, and during the 19th-century the theatre house was used by travelling theatre companies from Sweden. The most notable of these were the company of Pierre Deland, which visited the theatre regularly from 1840 to 1861, as well as the so called "Finnish Company" of Edvard Stjernström, which enjoyed theatre monopoly in Southern Finland in 1850-53. In the 1870s and 1880s, the famed Swedish company of Thérèse Elfforss frequnelty visited the theatre. The first native theatre company performed in the theatre was the company of August Westermark in 1872, though it was not to be until 1894, that the first performance was given by a permanent native ensemble at the theatre. Activity The theatre building is owned by Stiftelsen för Åbo Akademi and it is run by Åbo Svenska Teaterförening. The theatre has three formal stages; Stora Scenen, with 365 seats, Studioscenen with 136 seats, and Tiljan-scenen, with a maximum of one hundred seats, as well as local activity. References External links and sources Nordensvan, Georg, Svensk teater och svenska skådespelare från Gustav III till våra dagar. Förra delen, 1772-1842, Bonnier, Stockholm, 1917 Nordisk familjebok / Uggleupplagan. 8. Feiss - Fruktmögel Theatres in Finland Buildings and structures in Turku Tourist attractions in Turku Theatres completed in 1839 1839 establishments in Europe 19th century in Turku
15824710
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crosville-sur-Douve
Crosville-sur-Douve
Crosville-sur-Douve (, literally Crosville on Douve) is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. See also Communes of the Manche department References Crosvillesurdouve
15824713
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuves%2C%20Manche
Cuves, Manche
Cuves () is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. See also Communes of the Manche department References Communes of Manche
15824716
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dangy
Dangy
Dangy () is a commune in the Manche department in north-western France. See also Communes of the Manche department References Communes of Manche
15824721
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denneville
Denneville
Denneville () is a former commune in the Manche department in north-western France. On 1 January 2019, it was merged into the new commune Port-Bail-sur-Mer. Heraldry See also Communes of the Manche department References Former communes of Manche Populated coastal places in France
15824724
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digosville
Digosville
Digosville () is a commune in the Manche department in north-western France. See also Communes of the Manche department References Communes of Manche
15824726
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digulleville
Digulleville
Digulleville () is a former commune in the Manche department in north-western France. On 1 January 2017, it was merged into the new commune La Hague. See also Communes of the Manche department References Former communes of Manche
15824733
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domjean
Domjean
Domjean () is a commune in the Manche department in north-western France. See also Communes of the Manche department References Communes of Manche
15824739
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donville-les-Bains
Donville-les-Bains
Donville-les-Bains () is a commune in the Manche department, northwestern France. Introduction Donville-les-Bains is located just outside Granville, a port on the Norman coast noted for ferry traffic to the Channel Islands. Rail service is available from Granville to Paris on a regular basis provided by SNCF, the French National Railway. The town is also the origin of the English language surname Dunville/Dumville (originally Donville), which is found throughout the UK and former British colonies. People descended from this Norman line can be found in concentrations around Toronto, Thunder Bay, Chicago, Detroit, St. Louis, and South Carolina. (However, Dunville, Newfoundland was not named after Donville-les-Bains; Dunville was named after the founding Dunphy family.) Population Heraldry See also Communes of the Manche department References Donvillelesbains Populated coastal places in France
15824740
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doville
Doville
Doville () is a commune in the Manche department in north-western France. See also Communes of the Manche department References Communes of Manche
15824746
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dragey-Ronthon
Dragey-Ronthon
Dragey-Ronthon () is a commune in the Manche department in north-western France. See also Communes of the Manche department References Drageyronthon
15824786
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stick%20Against%20Stone
Stick Against Stone
Stick Against Stone is a post-punk / no wave band from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, that later resided in Brooklyn, New York, Eugene, Oregon, and San Francisco, California. They remained active (in no less than six incarnations) between 1981 and 1990. The group returned to performing in 2011 and currently resides in the New York City area. Since their founding, the band went through several line-up changes, but never released a full album until 2010 – and it wasn't until the 2014 release of The Oregon Bootleg Tapes - Live (a live recording from 1985) that critical attention finally arrived in the form of positive reviews in New York Magazine, Vibe, Wax Poetics, Cuepoint (Robert Christgau) and Pitchfork, where writer Miles Raymer remarked about the group: “They had their eyes on the 'there and then', but they were playing 20 years into the future.” Discography Releases MediaGroove Music: The Index of Directions - (MG-001 - 2010) (digital) Live At Danny's Pub - (MG-002 - 2012) (digital) Get It All Out (as Stick Against Stone Orchestra) - (MG-003 - 2013) (CD, LP & digital) The Oregon Bootleg Tapes - LIVE - (MG-004 - 2014) (CD, digital) Leonard / The Hopping Frog (MG-005 - 2014) (7" vinyl single) INSTANT (MG-006 - 2015) (CD, digital) The Rippel Tapes (MG-008 - 2018) (digital) Eponymous 4 song cassette - released on their own label (SAS - 1985). T.M.I. Records: Body Motion - (TMI-015 - 1982) (1 track on a vinyl compilation LP) References External links Official Discogs page Official Bandcamp page Official Setlist.fm page Official Musicbrainz page Other links Press reviews of "The Oregon Bootleg Tapes" Pittsburgh Music History (1980s) site on Yahoo! Groups Panic 13 (Eugene, OR '80s Music History site) on Yahoo! Groups Gigposters.com - Concert Posters of Stick Against Stone from Pittsburgh-area shows and the Rock Against Reagan tour show in Los Angeles, CA "Re-Punk Throwdown" - article in Pittsburgh Post-Gazette on the August 2006 reunion concerts of Pittsburgh-area Punk, Post-punk, New Wave and Rock bands from the 80s. Yinzer.net - : Collection of Pittsburgh, PA Punk, Post-punk, New Wave and Rock bands from the years 1978-1986 David Soule (bass player and songwriter in group) American post-punk music groups No wave groups Musical groups from Pittsburgh Musical groups from Pennsylvania Musical groups from Brooklyn Musical groups from Eugene, Oregon Musical groups from San Francisco Musical groups established in 1981
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zweibr%C3%BCcker
Zweibrücker
The Zweibrücker (pl. Zweibrücken) is a type of German warmblood horse bred in Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland. Traditionally, the breeding of Zweibrücken was centered on the onetime Principal Stud of Zweibrücken but since 1977 has been under the jurisdiction of the Horse Breeders' Association of Rhineland-Palatinate-Saar (PRPS). The modern Zweibrücker is an elegant, large-framed, correct sport horse with powerful, elastic gaits suitable for dressage, show jumping, eventing and combined driving. State Stud of Zweibrücken The Rhineland-Palatinate state-owned stud facilities of Zweibrücken house the smallest number of state stallions in Germany, but the region's horse-breeding history is rich. The modern city of Zweibrücken, meaning "two bridges", was a county throughout the Middle Ages and then later on became a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire. The state stud was founded in 1755 by Duke Christian IV following a visit to England. While abroad he admired the refined, spirited English Thoroughbreds, as a breed less than 100 years old at the time. When Christian IV returned to Zweibrücken, he financed the establishment of "royal facilities" throughout the region, populating them with noble stallions and mares. Christian IV's successor, Charles II August, continued to improve horse-breeding in politically influential Zweibrücken by decreeing that the horses bred there ought to be "good, handsome and useful". This goal was achieved to the effect of gaining the admiration of the King of Prussia, who purchased over 150 Zweibrücken stallions. These sires were sent to the Principal Stud of Trakehnen where the Trakehner was bred for use by the Prussian nobles. In 1801, Zweibrücken was annexed by France, and the noble horses were moved to Rosiers aux Salines. However, Napoleon saw the stallion and mare herds at Zweibrücken Principal Stud re-established in 1806. The central facility and its many outposts and stallion depots were populated with more than 250 stallions and a herd of over 100 mares purchased from notable German breeding outfits, as well as fashionable Spanish horses and products of the formidable Austro-Hungarian empire. Less than a decade later, Zweibrücken was given to Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, and Zweibrücken was retitled in 1890 as the Principal Royal Bavarian State Stud. During this period, large numbers of Anglo-Normans - Thoroughbred-influenced agricultural horses from France - and Arabians were stationed in Zweibrücken. The first organized breeding of Anglo-Arabian horses occurred at Zweibrücken during this time period. The region became widely known for its refined cavalry horses which combined the size and speed of the Thoroughbred with the more tractable temperament of the Arabian. By 1900, the Principal Stud of Zweibrücken comprised more than 250 head of breeding stock and young horses, 74 of which were state-owned stallions. The first half of the 20th century was marked by increasing demands for a heavier all-purpose farm horse, which were used extensively in the first World War for pulling artillery wagons. Consequently, the refined riding horses were replaced by heavy warmbloods from Oldenburg. During World War II, the entire city was evacuated and the horses brought to Bavaria. Much of the city was destroyed, and the state stud facilities came under the jurisdiction of the newly formed German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Nearly a quarter of the 58 stallions standing at Zweibrücken were draft horses. Zweibrücken lost the status of Principal Stud - which keeps a herd of mares in addition to standing stallions - in 1960. As the demand for an athletic riding horse blossomed, the draft horse stallions were replaced by Trakehners. From 1966 to 1976, Trakehner stallions comprised half the stallion roster. Unlike most of the State Studs of Germany, the period for which Zweibrücken stood heavy warmblood stallions was brief; the chief focus of this region has been steadily focused on an elegant riding horse since its construction. Gradually, sires from Hanoverian and Holsteiner bloodlines joined the noble Trakehners, accelerating the local horse-breeding efforts towards the production of a warmblood riding horse. Today many of the stallion depots and outposts lie in France, while others were purchased by separate entities. Most notable among these was the facility at Birkhausen, which was bought by the Trakehner verband and from which Abiza, dam of the Canadian-born Trakehner Abdullah, was sold. The grounds of the state stud host stallion parades and the month-long stallion performance test for the regional breeding association. Breeding Organized breeding through much of the history of Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland was managed by the State Stud. The Horse Breeders' Association of Rhineland-Palatinate-Saar (PRPS) was formed in 1977 and directs the breeding of almost all horse breeds within the region. The breed with the largest population within the studbooks is the German Riding or Sport Horse, called the Zweibrücker. The PRPS cooperates with similar associations in Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg, Saxony and Thuringia, collectively licensing and approving breeding stock. Like other German Warmbloods, the breeding of Zweibrücken is characterized by stringent inspection criteria. Foals do not receive their papers until they are presented at a local foal show, at which judges may exclude any foal if it is markedly off-type. Along with their papers, the foals receive a brand on the left hind leg, just behind the stifle. Foal inspections also give an early indication of the quality of the sire, as well as which mares match best with him. At the age of 3, fillies may be upgraded from the foal register to the herd book through a process called Stutbuchaufnahmen or "Marebook Recording". There are several levels of mare book based on the quality of the mare and the completeness of her pedigree, which allows mares of unorthodox breeding to eventually become part of the breeding program. To be written into the herd book and thereby have registered foals, the mare is evaluated on her conformation and gaits. Mares which fail to meet the criteria may be placed in a lower mare book, or be denied altogether. Only mares in the highest mare books can produce breeding stallion sons. While mares can be entered into the studbook at local shows, the process of having a young stallion approved for breeding is lengthy. Stallion candidates are often identified as foals, and at the age of 2 and a half the best colts attend the licensing in Munich, Bavaria. There they are evaluated along with stallion hopefuls - köraspirants - branded Bavarian Warmblood, Württemberger and Saxony-Thuringian, along with some representatives from other regions. As all of these regions have a common goal in warmblood breeding, they are judged to the same standard. They are evaluated in terms of their conformational correctness, type, gaits and ability free-jumping. The best young stallions receive a temporary license which is accepted by all of the south-German breeding associations. The stallion has a period of a few years during which he must prove himself in performance, and in this way he earns full approval. This process is common to all German Warmbloods, and is quite similar to the studbook selection process used for other Warmbloods, as well. Characteristics The best way to identify a Zweibrücker is by the brand on the left hind leg. It features the two bridges of the city of Zweibrücken topped by a representation of the duke's crown. Otherwise, it is not possible to distinguish a Zweibrücker from a German Warmblood bred elsewhere based solely on appearance. All German Warmblood registries exchange genetic material in an effort to continuously improve their own horses. Most Zweibrücken are middle-weight horses with "old style" examples heavier set than those deemed "modern" in type. The ideal height is 160 to 170 cm or 15.3 to 16.3hh at the age of 3, but deviations in either direction are not uncommon nor are they disqualifying. The most common colors are bay, chestnut, gray, and black, however several breeders of colored warmbloods have chosen to register their horses as Zweibrücken, so there are tobiano pintos and colors such as palomino, buckskin, and cremello. The Anglo-Arabian ancestry of the Zweibrücker is found primarily in what remains of its old female families. Today, the Horse Breeders' Association of Rhineland-Palatinate-Saar is known for its liberal pedigree policies, accepting breeding stock from most other warmblood studbooks which are members of the World Breeding Federation for Sport Horses. The breeding objective, based on market demands, is currently a horse suitable for dressage, jumping, and eventing, though combined driving is also mentioned. In North America, the breeding objective includes suitability for show hunter competition, as well. Zweibrücken share the standard of German Riding or Sport Horse with their parallels in other regions. Ideally, the horse is characterized by a noble expression, with long-lined and correct conformation. The head is dry, expressive, and aesthetically appealing though need not have out of the ordinary refinement. The topline is long, generous, and slightly curved featuring a medium-length neck set on rather high, a stark, laid-back wither and long sloping shoulder. The loin is well-muscled, the croup is long, slightly tilted, and muscular. The horse stands on a foundation of dry, large joints and correct limbs ending in correct, hard hooves of sufficient size. In motion the gaits are correct - no deviations when viewed from the front or rear - and expansive with a pure rhythm and suggestive of great work ethic. The qualities of freedom, elasticity, and power are paramount. The walk swings through the neck and back, while the trot is cadenced and powerful. Suspension and elasticity are effects of the ability of the horse's joints to store energy and absorb shock, thus are influential in soundness. The canter is important as an indicator of jumping suitability, and should be cadenced, balanced and powerful. Zweibrücken, especially stallions, are typically evaluated over fences through free jumping, where the horse is let loose in a chute with specifically measured obstacles. This allows judges to draw conclusions about the horse's jumping abilities without pushing them too fast under saddle. Judges look for a horse which is capable of jumping, having an appearance of ease and confidence as he jumps, without any carelessness. The rhythm of the canter should remain unchanged while the horse adjusts his stride length to leave the ground from the correct place. The fore and hind limbs should be drawn up close to the body, which should pass close to the obstacle, while the spine forms a convex arc over the jump called "bascule". As part of the approval process, stallions and often mares are evaluated in controlled conditions on their personality traits or "interior qualities". This information allows breeders to choose mates properly. The horses with the best marks for interior qualities have kind, personable temperaments, are uncomplicated to ride, strong-nerved and reliable but alert and intelligent. Another quality, called "rideability", is a measure of how comfortable and simple the horse is to ride. High rideability is coveted by amateur riders in particular. See also Warmblood List of horse breeds References Horse breeds Horse breeds originating in Germany Warmbloods Western Palatinate
15824795
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert%20Dailey
Albert Dailey
Albert Preston Dailey (June 16, 1939 – June 26, 1984) was an American jazz pianist. Early life Dailey was born in Baltimore, Maryland. His parents were Albert Preston Dailey Sr, and Gertrude Johnson Dailey. He began studying piano as a child, and his first professional appearances were with the house band of the Baltimore Royal Theater in the early 1950s. Later in the decade, he studied at Morgan State University and the Peabody Conservatory. Later life and career He backed Damita Jo DuBlanc on tour from 1960 to 1963, and following this briefly put together his own trio in Washington, D.C., playing at the Bohemian Caverns. In 1964, he moved to New York City, where he played with Dexter Gordon, Roy Haynes, Sarah Vaughan, Charles Mingus, and Freddie Hubbard. In 1967, he played with Woody Herman at the Monterey Jazz Festival, and played intermittently with Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers from 1968 to 1969. In the 1970s, Dailey played with Sonny Rollins, Stan Getz, Elvin Jones, and Archie Shepp. In the 1980s, he undertook concerts at Carnegie Hall and was a member of the Upper Manhattan Jazz Society with Charlie Rouse, Benny Bailey, and Buster Williams. Dailey died in Denver on June 26, 1984, aged 45. Dailey is survived by his 3 children, 5 grandchildren, and 4 great-grandchildren. Discography As leader/co-leader As sideman With Ray Alexander Cloud Patterns (Nerus Records, 1983) - live at Eddie Condon's With Gary Bartz Libra (Milestone, 1968) With Art Blakey Backgammon (Roulette, 1976) With Junior CookGood Cookin' (Muse, 1979) With Larry CoryellComin' Home (Muse, 1984) With Eddie "Lockjaw" DavisThe Heavy Hitter (Muse, 1979) With Walt Dickerson To My Queen Revisited (SteepleChase, 1978) With Art Farmer The Time and the Place: The Lost Concert (Mosaic, 1966 [2007]) With Ricky FordTenor for the Times (Muse, 1981)Future's Gold (Muse, 1983) With Frank Foster Fearless Frank Foster (Prestige, 1965) With Stan Getz The Best of Two Worlds (Columbia, 1975) The Master (Columbia, 1975 [1982]) Poetry (Elektra/Musician, 1983) With Bunky GreenTransformations (Vanguard, 1977)Places We've Never Been (Vanguard, 1979) With Slide Hampton World of Trombones (West 54, 1979) With Tom Harrell Play of Light (1982) With Freddie Hubbard Backlash (Atlantic, 1966) With Budd JohnsonOff the Wall (Argo, 1964) with Joe Newman With Elvin Jones Summit Meeting (Vanguard, 1976) with James Moody, Clark Terry, Bunky Green and Roland Prince The Main Force (Vanguard, 1976) With Lee Konitz Figure & Spirit (Progressive, 1976) With Oliver Nelson Encyclopedia of Jazz (Verve, 1966) The Sound of Feeling (Verve, 1966) With Dizzy Reece Manhattan Project (1978) With Charlie RouseThe Upper Manhattan Jazz Society (Enja, 1981 [1985]) with Benny Bailey Social Call (Uptown, 1984) with Red Rodney With Archie Shepp Ballads for Trane (Denon, 1977) With Malachi ThompsonSpirit (Delmark, 1983) With Harold Vick The Caribbean Suite (RCA Victor, 1966) Straight Up'' (RCA Victor, 1967) References 1939 births 1984 deaths American jazz pianists American male jazz pianists Musicians from Baltimore SteepleChase Records artists Muse Records artists Columbia Records artists 20th-century American pianists Deaths from pneumonia in Colorado Jazz musicians from Maryland 20th-century American male musicians American male jazz musicians
15824796
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List%20of%20Adventures%20of%20Superman%20episodes
List of Adventures of Superman episodes
This is a list of Adventures of Superman episodes. The first two seasons, comprising 52 episodes and half of the series' whole, were filmed in black and white. In 1954, series producer Whitney Ellsworth insisted on filming in color, as some home viewers were beginning to purchase color television sets. However, these episodes were still transmitted in black and white. Also beginning with season three, the series began to take on the lighthearted, whimsical tone of the Superman comic books of the 1950s. The villains were often caricatured, Runyonesque gangsters played with tongue in cheek. Violence on the show was toned down further. The only gunfire that occurred was aimed at Superman, and of course the bullets bounced off. Superman was less likely to engage in fisticuffs with the villains. On occasions when Superman did use physical force, he would take crooks out in a single karate-style chop or, if he happened to have two criminals in hand, banging their heads together. More often than not, the villains were likely to knock themselves out fleeing Superman. By then very popular to viewers, Jimmy Olsen was now being played as the show's comic foil to Superman. Many of the plots featured him and Lois Lane being captured, only to be rescued at the last minute by Superman. Scripts for the last season did not always hit the campy lows of the previous two years and reestablished a bit of the seriousness of the show, often with science fiction elements such as a Kryptonite-powered robot (a left-over prop from "The Bowery Boys Meet the Monsters"), atomic explosions, and impregnable metal cubes. In one of the last episodes, "The Perils of Superman" (a takeoff on The Perils of Pauline), there was indeed deadly peril straight out of the movie serials: Lois gagged and tied to a set of railroad tracks with a speeding train bearing down on her, Perry White nearly sawed in half while tied to a log, Jimmy in a runaway car headed for a cliff, and Clark Kent immersed in a vat of acid. This was one of three episodes directed by George Reeves himself in an attempt to inject some new life into the series. Noel Neill's hair was dyed a bright red for this season, though the color change was not apparent in the initial black-and-white broadcasts. Although Reeves's efforts did not save the series from cancellation, "The Perils of Superman" is regarded by some as one of the best episodes. The numbering scheme in the following list is derived from the purely consecutive numbering used in Superman: Serial to Cereal. Series overview All six seasons of this series have been released on four DVD box sets by Warner Bros. Home Video. Episodes The following list of episodes is compiled from the websites IMDb.com (Internet Movie Database), Supermanhomepage.com, Answers.com, and Fandango.com. Season 1 (1952–53) Season 2 (1953–54) Season 3 (1955) Season 4 (1956) Season 5 (1957) Season 6 (1958) References Sources Superman: Serial to Cereal, by Gary H. Grossman, 1976 Adventures of Superman. Complete series DVD. Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. 2006, 2007. Lists of American fantasy television series episodes Superman television series episodes Lists of DC Comics television series episodes
15824799
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle%20of%20Ridgefield
Battle of Ridgefield
The Battle of Ridgefield was a series of American Revolutionary War skirmishes in Danbury, Connecticut and Ridgefield, Connecticut. History On April 25, a British force under the command of the Royal Governor of the Province of New York, Major General William Tryon, landed between Fairfield and Norwalk in what is present-day Westport, and marched from there to Danbury. There, they destroyed Continental Army supplies after chasing off a small garrison of troops. Connecticut militia leaders Major General David Wooster, Brigadier General Gold S. Silliman, and Brigadier General Benedict Arnold raised a combined force of roughly 700 Continental Army regular and irregular local militia forces to oppose the British, but could not reach Danbury in time to prevent the destruction of the supplies. Instead, they set out to harass the British on their return to the coast. On April 27, the company led by Wooster twice attacked Tryon's rear guard during their march south. In the second encounter, Wooster was mortally wounded and died five days later. The main encounter then took place at Ridgefield, where several hundred militia under Arnold's command confronted the British and were driven away in a running battle down the town's main street, but not before inflicting casualties on the British. The expedition was a tactical success for the British forces, but their actions in pursuing the raid galvanized Patriot support in Connecticut. While the British again made raids on Connecticut's coastal communities, they made no more raids that penetrated far into the countryside. Background The state of Connecticut was not a scene of conflict during the first two years of the American Revolutionary War, even though the war had begun in neighboring Massachusetts in April 1775, and New York City had been taken by the British in the New York and New Jersey campaign in the fall of 1776. Major General William Howe commanded the British forces in New York, and he drafted a plan for 1777 in which the primary goal was to take the American capital at Philadelphia. Troops left to defend New York were to include a brigade of 3,000 provincial troops under the command of New York's former royal governor William Tryon, who was given a temporary promotion to "major general of the provincials" in spring 1777. Howe's plan included authorizing Tryon to operate on the Hudson River or to "enter Connecticut as circumstances may point out." Tryon was given one of the early operations of the season, a raid against a Continental Army depot at Danbury, Connecticut. Howe had learned of the depot's existence through a spy working for British Indian agent Guy Johnson, and he had also met with some success in an earlier raid against the Continental Army outpost at Peekskill, New York. A fleet was assembled consisting of 12 transports, a hospital ship, and some small craft, all under the command of Captain Henry Duncan. The landing force consisted of 1,500 regulars drawn from the 4th, 15th, 23rd, 27th, 44th, and 64th regiments, 300 Loyalists from the Prince of Wales American Regiment led by Montfort Browne, and a small contingent of the 17th Light Dragoons, all led by Generals Sir William Erskine and James Agnew. Command of the entire operation was given to General Tryon, and the fleet sailed from New York on April 22, 1777. The Danbury depot had been established in 1776 by order of the Second Continental Congress, and it primarily served forces located in the Hudson River valley. In April 1777, the army began mustering regiments for that year's campaigns, and there were about 50 Continental Army soldiers and 100 local militia at Danbury under the command of Joseph Platt Cooke, a local resident and a colonel in the state militia. Danbury The British fleet was first spotted when it passed Norwalk. When the troops landed messengers were dispatched to warn Danbury and local militia leaders of the movements. Generals Wooster and Arnold were in New Haven when messengers reached them on April 26. Wooster immediately sent the local militia to Fairfield. When he and Arnold reached Fairfield, they learned that General Silliman had already departed for Redding, with orders that any militia raised should follow as rapidly as possible; they immediately moved in that direction. The forces assembled at Redding moved toward Danbury in a pouring rain, but had only reached Bethel, about short of Danbury by 11 pm, where they decided to spend the night rather than press on to Danbury with wet gunpowder. The forces consisted of about 500 regular militia members and about 200 volunteers. See also List of American Revolutionary War battles References Bibliography Further reading 1777 in Connecticut 1777 in the United States Ridgefield Ridgefield Ridgefield Ridgefield Conflicts in 1777 Events in Fairfield County, Connecticut Ridgefield, Connecticut
15824807
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altri%20Libertini
Altri Libertini
Altri Libertini is the first book by the Italian writer, Pier Vittorio Tondelli. It was published in 1980 by Feltrinelli and features a collection of six stories which are loosely related to one another: Postoristoro, Mimi e istrioni, Viaggio, Senso contrario, Altri libertini, and Autobahn. The stories present the lives and exploits of young men and women caught up in the 1980s, and Tondelli, through his writings, depicts their dreams, pains, emotional outbursts, ingenuity and, at times, their irreparable mistakes. The book received considerable attention upon publication and was censored by the authorities for obscenities only twenty days after its appearance in bookstores in Italy as it was being prepared for its third edition. While the book is a series of short stories, the author preferred to describe the work as a romanzo a episodi (serial novel), in order to emphasise the thread that connected all of the stories to each other. Footnotes External links Altri Libertini article from Liber Liber Altri Libertini article from Centro di Documentazione Pier Vittorio Tondelli Italian books
15824823
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puerto%20Rico%20Highway%2053
Puerto Rico Highway 53
Puerto Rico Highway 53 (PR-53) or unsigned Interstate PR3 is a main tollway that is parallel to Puerto Rico Highway 3, which goes from Fajardo to Salinas. Some segments are still in planning, but when finished it will be about in length. Two tunnels, about 0.6 mi (1 km) long each, in the towns of Yabucoa and Maunabo were completed in . It will connect the cities of Fajardo, Ceiba, Naguabo, Humacao, Yabucoa, Maunabo, Patillas, Arroyo, Guayama and Salinas, thus bordering the entire eastern and southeastern coasts of Puerto Rico. Its northern terminus is at PR-3 and PR-194 in Fajardo, and its south terminus is at PR-52 in Salinas. Route description The highway consists of five toll plazas; these are at Ceiba Norte, Humacao Norte, Humacao Sur (near Palmas del Mar), Guayama and Salinas. All toll plazas have AutoExpreso lanes. Three phases of the tollway have been completed: the first one was from Salinas to Guayama, which is about long (milepost 83 to 95 km), the second from Fajardo to Yabucoa at (This includes an incomplete bridge in Yabucoa that does not fall into the high-speed highway classification in the interstate system as it is only one lane per direction and will require the addition of an additional bridge or constructing a bridge over the existing bridge, as it lies in a main corn and plantain field.) Recently , between Yabucoa and Maunabo, includes the last tunnel, Vicente Morales, was opened in October 2008. The total constructed highway at this time is , leaving nearly to be constructed in Yabucoa (including the other additional tunnel) and from Maunabo to Guayama which is the longest to-be-built segment. The lanes in the Yabucoa segments were divided by painted yellow lines and no-passing zone boards, but a concrete median barrier had to be installed because some cars still passed others going slower, resulting in deadly head-on collisions; illegal night races also had deadly consequences. PR-53 is the tollway with the lowest traffic in Puerto Rico, and very few congestion jams have been reported. PR-53 does not enter highly populated towns (none of them are over 100,000; the largest are Fajardo, Humacao and Guayama) and is not close to increase its traffic due to the fact that most of the population in the east part of Puerto Rico live in the San Juan metro area, Caguas and Cayey, cities where PR-53 makes no appearance; and the main traffic in Humacao is mostly located on the PR-30 and PR-60 highways. The center/business area of Humacao is accessed via PR-30 and PR-60, not by PR-53. Because of this, PR-53 has no more than two lanes per direction in the constructed segments and will probably have no more than two lanes per direction in the entire length. PR-53 is also prone to flooding in the areas near Naguabo and Fajardo: during heavy rains, it is sometimes closed to traffic. There are current proposals to convert PR-3 from Rio Grande to Fajardo into a freeway to provide a controlled-access route between PR-53's northern terminus and the second phase of PR-66. At the rate of construction, the entire PR-53 corridor might be completed within the next ten years. The first segment of PR-53 was opened in 1994; from Fajardo to Ceiba, in 1994, and from Ceiba to Humacao, in 1997, except between exit 13 and 17 in summer 2002. Tolls Exit list See also Interstate Highways in Puerto Rico José Celso Barbosa References External links Hawaii Highways: Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico Interstate Photographs (2002) 053 53 53 Tolled sections of Interstate Highways
15824828
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pouce%20Coupe%20River
Pouce Coupe River
The Pouce Coupe River is a major tributary of the Peace River in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. Its name is officially spelled Pouce Coupé River, but it is commonly written without the acute accent. Originating in Alberta's Saddle Hills County, it flows into British Columbia's Peace River Regional District, then returns in Alberta in Saddle Hill County, where it empties into the Peace River. The region of Pouce Coupe Prairie, from which the river and village of Pouce Coupe take their names, was called that for a Beaver Indian Chief named 'Pouscapee'. The first European settler in the region was Hector Tremblay, who built a cabin there in 1898. Tremblay, of French origin, translated 'Pouskapee's Prairie' into the nearest French words of similar sound (, meaning "cut thumb" or "cut-off thumb"). Course The Pouce Coupe originates in a small lake in northern Alberta, at an elevation of , in the Pouce Coupe Prairie of the southern Peace River Country, west of Spirit River and Woking, between Saddle Hills and Blueberry Hill. It flows west and receives the waters of Boone Creek before reaching the British Columbia–Alberta border. The river then turns northwest to the village of Pouce Coupe. The Pouce Coupe Regional Park is established on the banks of the river east of the village and Highway2, at the confluence with Bissette Creek. It receives the waters of Dawson Creek east of the city of Dawson Creek, then turns northeast, entering once again the province of Alberta, north of Highway 49. The course runs through a canyon that reaches depths of in this section. Ammonite fossils harvested from the geological formations opened in the canyon can be found in the Dawson Creek Northern Alberta Railways Park museum. The river continues north and empties into the Peace River, south of Highway 64, at an elevation of . Tributaries and crossings From its origin to its mouth, Pouce Coupe River encounters the following tributaries and crossings: See also List of rivers of British Columbia List of rivers of Alberta References Rivers of British Columbia Rivers of Alberta Peace River Country Peace River Regional District
15824829
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish%20Abroad%20Unit
Irish Abroad Unit
The Irish Abroad Unit was established in 2004 following an announcement by Brian Cowen TD, then Irish Minister of Foreign Affairs. The Irish Abroad Unit is a dedicated Unit within the Department of Foreign Affairs and coordinates the provision of services to Irish emigrants across the globe and administers financial support to organizations in the voluntary sector engaged in the delivery of services to Irish emigrants. Grants are extended to groups in the voluntary sector who provide advice and support to Irish people abroad, particularly those that help migrants access their rights and entitlements in their host countries. Priority is given to organizations that support the most vulnerable and marginalized, such as the older Irish community in Great Britain and undocumented Irish in the United States. Smaller grants have also been allocated to Irish groups in Australia, Canada, Argentina, South Africa, Zimbabwe, New Zealand, Singapore, France and Mexico as well as to a number of organizations in Ireland who provide pre-departure information and also advice to those emigrants who may be considering returning to Ireland. In 2007, the Irish Abroad Unit awarded grants of €14.165 million to organizations in eleven different countries. Following increases in funding, the program has expanded to include a number of capital projects, as well as culture and heritage projects that support community networks and build on the interest of citizens abroad in their Irish heritage. In general, recipients of Emigrant Services funding are Irish community organizations who have a functioning board of management, show clear objectives and have an accounting framework in place. The payment of grants to individual Irish citizens’ resident abroad is beyond the remit of the Irish Abroad Unit. References External links Department of Foreign Affairs Emigrant Advice Network Federation of Irish Societies, Great Britain Coalition of Irish Immigration Centers, USA Overseas Irish organisations Department of Foreign Affairs (Ireland) Foreign relations of Ireland
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis%20Yancey
Lewis Yancey
Captain Lewis Alonzo Yancey (September 16, 1895 – March 2, 1940) was an American aviator and air navigator who toured America, Central America, and the Caribbean in a Pitcairn autogyro. Biography Born in Chicago, Yancey enlisted in the United States Navy in 1911 and was made a lieutenant during World War I. He left the Navy in 1921 and became a ship's officer for the Isthmian Steamship Company. With continued study, he achieved master mariner status and the title of Captain. Yancey joined the United States Coast Guard in April 1925 and became interested in aviation and the science of navigation then. His knowledge of air navigation put him in demand with pilots in the late 1920s and early 1930s. In 1927, he made his first transcontinental flight as co-pilot. History-making flights In 1929, Yancey and Roger Q. Williams made their historic flight from Old Orchard Beach, Maine to Rome. En route, their Bellanca monoplane "The Pathfinder", hit fog and was forced to fly blind for most of their first day. However, due to Yancey's navigational calculations, once able to see their way, the team found themselves still exactly on course. Their one emergency stop, in Santander, Spain, occurred thirty-one hours and thirty minutes into the flight. Upon arriving in Rome, Yancey and Williams were met with crowds "almost as fervent" as those greeting Lindbergh in Paris. In 1930, Yancey, William H. Alexander, and Zeh Bouck made the first-ever flight from New York to Bermuda in a Stinson monoplane equipped with pontoons. Forced down, the plane spent the night at sea but was able to take off again under its own power the next morning; the first plane ever to do so. The crew made the flight in about eight and a half hours of flying time. In 1938, Yancey flew with Richard Archbold to New Guinea for the American Museum of Natural History. Death, tributes, and legacy Yancey died unexpectedly of a cerebral hemorrhage at his home in Yonkers, New York. He was 44. In his lifetime, Yancey received decorations from Albert I of Belgium, Pope Pius XI, Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and Benito Mussolini. From the U.S. Navy, Yancey received a medal for his work on meteorology during World War I. Yancey was the author of several books on aviation including Aerial Navigation and Meteorology (1929). He frequently contributed stories about his flights to The New York Times, once sending a story via radio from 3,500 feet in the air. Yancey advocated making radio communication a regular function of flying. He advised that a radio operator be part of a flight crew so the pilot would not have to divide his attention while flying. Considered a celebrity for his accomplishments, in New York City Yancey's likeness was captured in caricature for Sardi's, the theater district restaurant. The picture is now part of the collection of the New York Public Library. Yancey is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. See also 1932 in aviation List of caricatures at Sardi's restaurant Notes References Heinmuller, John Paul Virgil. Man's Fight to Fly; Famous World-Record Flights and a Chronology of Aviation. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Co, 1944. Roseberry, Cecil. The Challenging Skies; The Colorful Story of Aviation's Most Exciting Years, 1919-1939. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966.. "Flights and Fliers" Time Magazine, June 17, 1929 "Wives of Fliers Happy", The New York Times, July 11, 1929 "Yancey Reaches Bermuda", The New York Times, April 3, 1930 "President of Peru Welcomes Yancey" The New York Times, June 13, 1930 "Yancey Talks by Radiophone to New York From Plane 4,500 Feet Above Buenos Aires" The New York Times, July 16, 1930 "Capt. Yancey Dies; Air Navigator, 44" The New York Times, March 4, 1940 "Milestones" Time Magazine, March 11, 1940 External links Old Orchard Beach Airfield Hangar 9 Aeroworks Pitcairn PCA-2 Autogiro at the Air Venture Museum 1895 births 1940 deaths Aviators from Illinois United States Navy officers Burials at Arlington National Cemetery The New York Times writers Military personnel from Chicago Journalists from Illinois 20th-century American journalists American male journalists United States Navy personnel of World War I
15824855
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark%20Humphrey%20%28actor%29
Mark Humphrey (actor)
Mark Adrian Humphrey (born December 27, 1960) is a Canadian actor best known for the role of Jake Antonelli in the Canadian television series E.N.G. In 1988 he made his feature film debut in the film Iron Eagle II as Captain Matt Cooper, Doug Masters' (Jason Gedrick) best friend. Humphrey has been featured in other films and in several television movies. In 2005 he starred in Living With the Enemy with Sarah Lancaster. In 2006 he starred in The Wives He Forgot with Molly Ringwald as a handsome amnesiac. In 2007 he appeared in Still Small Voices with Catherine Bell. Humphrey has also appeared in numerous television series. Life and career Humphrey was born in Vancouver, British Columbia, to Sidney and Jack Humphrey. His family relocated to Toronto, Ontario in 1967, where his father worked as a producer for CBC Radio and Television. After graduating from high school, Humphrey moved to New York City to study acting at the Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute. Humphrey spent five years in New York, later returning to Toronto, and eventually relocating to California. Humphrey has four siblings. His three brothers, John, Paul, and Andy, are professional musicians. His sister, Lesley, is a former Ford model. In 2009 Humphrey appeared in the Canadian dramatic series Paradise Falls, and the television movies Encounter with Danger with Shannen Doherty, and Hostile Makeover with Maggie Lawson. He appeared in the 2010 feature film Summer Eleven. In 2015 Humphrey joined the cast of the Hallmark Channel series When Calls the Heart as mysterious preacher Frank Hogan. Humphrey appeared in the 2005 independent film Cruel But Necessary with his ex-wife Wendel Meldrum and their son Luke Humphrey. References External links Official website E.N.G. Cast Photo Link at the Broadcast History Site 1960 births Living people Male actors from Vancouver Actors Studio alumni Canadian male film actors Canadian male television actors Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute alumni
15824856
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caml%20Lights
Caml Lights
Caml Lights may refer to: Camel Lights, a brand of cigarette. See Camel (cigarette). Caml Light, a functional programming language.
15824880
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trapline
Trapline
In the fur trade, a trapline is a route along which a trapper sets traps for their quarry. Trappers traditionally move habitually along the route to set and check the traps, in so doing become skilled at traversing remote terrain, and become experts in the geography of the local area. Because of this traditional knowledge, traplines are not only of interest to trappers themselves but to researchers and others (governments, corporations) interested in local history, biology, and topography. The assignment of particular trapline territories to individuals in band societies was traditionally handled by group consensus, and occasionally violence and warfare. In the present-day trapline assignment is typically formalized and controlled by the state. Formalized trapline territory boundaries now form the basis for many major land-use projects in fur-rich regions. One of the entitlements that goes along with possessing a trap territory is the right to erect a trapper's cabin: a simple shelter in which a trapper can stay while moving around his territory. Trappers' cabins are a cultural icon of fur regions, and an important part of the national mythos of countries and regions such as Canada and Alaska, and among groups such as the Métis. Pre-treaty indigenous governance of trapping and other harvesting Before European colonisation, determining where a particular family or band could hunt, fish, and gather without encroaching on others to the point of over-harvesting was the main preoccupation of indigenous governance in the subarctic and other non-farming regions. Councils were convened to reconcile disputes and warfare was always a possibility. When European traders began exporting bulk amounts of fur to Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the trapping territories of the subarctic became much more commercially valuable and disputes intensified. Registered traplines In Canada formal trapping territories assigned by the state are typically called "registered traplines" (RTLs), though each province administers its own system; they have been common across Canada since the 1930s. Alberta's registered traplines were once exactly that: lines which followed a creek or other feature, but in the 1960s they were switched to a system of trapping territories. In British Columbia "the registered trapline system continues to be the primary system for setting harvest guidelines and managing furbearing animals". It is an offence to trap an animal on a registered trapline that does not belong to you in BC. Manitoba has had registered traplines since 1940; they were brought in at that time to stop a wave of new arrivals in Northern Manitoba from trapping out an area that was already overharvested by the local, mostly First Nations, population. The system is administered under the province's Wildlife Act. Lines cannot be sold, inherited, or handed down, but are awarded through a points system, where preference is given to people with a close family relationship to the previous lineholder, a history of using that trapline with the permission of the previous lienholder, and residency near the territory. Ontario has more than 2,800 registered traplines on Crown land. Since the 2001 Paix des braves agreement, trapline territories have been used as the basis for forestry and mining planning in the Eeyou Istchee territory, in Quebec. Indigenous land claims Indigenous peoples have not always welcomed the regulation of the fur industry by provincial authorities, and the assignment of trapping territories by the provincial Crown implies that the land is ultimately the property of the province, to be disposed of at its will, rather than subject to comanagement under the terms of the treaties. Furthermore, having to apply to provincial authorities to distribute traplines removes control of the process from local Indigenous forms of governance, and institutionalizes a non-Indigenous presence on traditional lands. Nevertheless, as registered traplines provide Aboriginal peoples with legal rights to a piece of land off-reserve, a potential economic livelihood, and a connection to a traditional lifestyle, registered traplines are considered of the utmost importance for many First Nations and Metis communities. References Notes Sources Fur trade Traditional knowledge Political geography Natural resource management Indigenous self-government in Canada
15824896
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper%20Mountains
Copper Mountains
The Copper Mountains is a minor north–south trending mountain range, only 8 miles long in southwestern Arizona in the southwestern Sonoran Desert. The Copper Mountains lie east of Yuma, Arizona and east of the Yuma Desert; also east of the Gila and Tinajas Altas Mountains. It lies on an extensive north-sloping desert plain that drains into the Gila River floodplain close to its confluence and outlet into the southern Colorado River in the Lower Colorado River Valley. The Lechuguilla Desert and Coyote Wash lie west of the mountains; the Tule Desert lies east. The highest point is Coyote Peak at . The communities just north at about 10 miles in the Gila River agricultural valley, are Wellton, Noah, Roll, and Tacna, Arizona. The Copper Mountains lie in the western portion of the Barry M. Goldwater Air Force Range which is used by the MCAS, the Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma; also 3 miles north of the western end of the Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge. See also Valley and range sequence-Southern Yuma County List of mountain ranges of Yuma County, Arizona List of mountain ranges of Arizona List of LCRV Wilderness Areas (Colorado River) Mountain ranges of the Sonoran Desert Mountain ranges of the Lower Colorado River Valley Mountain ranges of Yuma County, Arizona Mountain ranges of Arizona
15824922
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2004%20Bosnian%20municipal%20elections
2004 Bosnian municipal elections
Municipal elections were held in Bosnia and Herzegovina on 2 October 2004 to elect mayors and assemblies in 143 municipalities. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Republika Srpska Assembly of Brčko District References External links Official Results of Local Elections 2004 Official Results of Local Elections 2004 Elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina 2004 elections in Europe Municipal Municipal elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina
15824924
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big%20Knife
Big Knife
Big Knife may refer to: The Big Knife, 1955 American film The Big Knife (play), 1949 American play by Clifford Odets Big Knife Provincial Park, a small provincial park in central Alberta, Canada Osla Big Knife, an Anglo-Saxon King of Kent, 6th century Sami knife, Sami for big knife, a long, wide blade traditionally used by the Sami people See also Big Knives The Small Knives
15824941
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacrificium
Sacrificium
Sacrificium is a Christian death metal band from Stuttgart, Germany, formed in 1993. The band made its breakthrough in the metal scene with its 2002 album Cold Black Piece of Flesh. The second album Escaping the Stupor was released on Black Lotus Records. Their music combines melodic passages with old school death metal, and their lyrics deal with personal experiences and opinions from Christian point of view. Biography Sacrificium has its roots in a band called Hardway, formed by Sebastian Wagner and Oliver Tesch. Musically, the band was pop rock oriented. That changed in 1991, when the session drummer Markus Hauth took the direction more towards a hard rock sound. In 1992, Hardway performed at the reputive Steiger 14 club in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The band name was changed to Corpus Christi (not to be confused with Corpus Christi from Ohio) in 1993 and they began playing thrash metal. The style developed to death metal, and in 1994, after recording a demo, the name was changed to Sacrificium. After a few line up changes in 1996, Sacrificium recorded its second demo and in 1998 another demo titled Mortal Fear was released. Although the demos were well-received, the vocalist Roman Wagner left Sacrificium in 2000. After that, the band played concerts with bands such as Extol, Dismember, Unleashed, The Black Dahlia Murder or My Darkest Hate. The second guitarist, Claudio Enzler, started performing vocals, and the guitarist position was taken by Ulrike Uhlmann. In 2002 Sacrificium was signed to Whirlwind Records, who published the band's debut Cold Black Piece of Flesh. The album caught the attention of the press, and received positive reviews. For example, Rock Hard gave it 7.5/10 in its February 2004 issue. Afterwards they toured Europe with the band Brain[Faq]. On November 28, 2005, Sacrificium released its second album Escaping the Stupor on the Greek metal label Black Lotus Records. The album features guest performances by Karl Walfridsson of Pantokrator and Simon Rosén of Crimson Moonlight. Escaping the Stupor was well-received: Rock Hard gave it 7.5/10, Legacy 10/15 and Metalnews.de 6/7. The band is currently working on new material and is updating its Facebook bulletin with pre-production demo takes and news. Founding guitarist Oliver Tesch left the band in 2012, and was replaced by Wolfgang Nillies. Guitarist Matthias Brandt and bass player Thorsten Brandt left the band on October 30, 2015 and have been replaced later on by Fred Berger and former member Ulrike Uhlmann. On January 6, 2019, it was announced that longtime drummer Mario Henning was departing from the band. They therefore had to cancel their Mexico tour which would have been in April 2019. At the same time the band announced to release an EP The Avowal of the Centurion in early 2019 and a full-length record in 2020. On March 16, 2019, it was announced that former bassist Thorsten Brandt would take over Henning's position on drums. On March 18, the band revealed that The Avowals of the Centurion would be released via Nordic Mission on April 19, 2019. Discography Studio albums Cold Black Piece of Flesh (2002) Escaping the Stupor (2005) Prey for Your Gods (2013) Oblivion (2023) Members Current Claudio Enzler – vocals (2000–present), guitar (1994–2000) Wolfgang Nillies – guitars (2012–present) Frederik “Fred” Berger – guitars (2017–present) Ulrike Uhlmann – bass (2017–present), guitars (1993–2010) Martin Epp – drums (2021–present) Former Oliver Tesch – guitars (1991–2012) Sebastian Wagner – bass, vocals (1991–1993) Markus Hauth – drums (1991–1995) Roman Wagner – vocals (1993–2000) Manuel Iwansky – bass (1993–1997) Manuel Kerkow – bass (1997) Samuel Herbrich – bass (1997–2008) Thorsten Brandt – drums (2019–2021), bass (2008–2017) Matthias Brandt – guitars (2010–2015) Daniel Maucher – guitars (2015–2017) Mario Henning – drums (1995–2019) Timeline References External links Sacrificum at Metal-Archives German Christian metal musical groups German death metal musical groups Musical groups established in 1993
15824942
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alex%20Mann%20%28bobsleigh%29
Alex Mann (bobsleigh)
Alex Mann (born 11 November 1980) is a German bobsledder who has competed since 2007. He won two medals at the 2008 FIBT World Championships in Altenberg, Germany with a gold in the mixed team event and a bronze in the four-man event. Mann finished seventh in the four-man event at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. References 1980 births Bobsledders at the 2010 Winter Olympics German male bobsledders Living people Olympic bobsledders for Germany
15824969
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dementia%20caregiving
Dementia caregiving
As populations age, caring for people with dementia has become more common. Elderly caregiving may consist of formal care and informal care. Formal care involves the services of community and medical partners, while informal care involves the support of family, friends, and local communities. In most mild-to-medium cases of dementia, the caregiver is a spouse or an adult child. Over a period of time, more professional care in the form of nursing and other supportive care may be required medically, whether at home or in a long-term care facility. There is evidence to show that case management can improve care for individuals with dementia and the experience of their caregivers. Furthermore, case management may reduce overall costs and institutional care in the medium term. Millions of people living in the United States take care of a friend or family member with Alzheimer’s disease or a related dementia. Family caregivers The role of family caregivers is becoming increasingly important; care in the familiar surroundings of home may delay the onset of some symptoms and postpone or eliminate the need for more professional and costly levels of care. However, home-based care may entail tremendous economic and emotional costs. Family caregivers often give up time from work and forego pay in order to spend an average of 47 hours per week with an affected loved one, especially if they cannot be left alone. In a 2006 survey of patients with long-term care insurance, the direct and indirect costs of caring for an Alzheimer's disease patient averaged $77,500 per year in the United States. Caregivers themselves are subject to an increased incidence of depression, anxiety, and, in some cases, physical health issues. According to UK-based research, almost two out of three caregivers of those with dementia feel lonely. Most of the caregivers in the study were family members or friends. Research shows that African Americans face a more significant burden in Alzheimer’s care management and will face more negative life changes and health outcomes due to providing care. African Americans are twice as likely to be diagnosed with dementia as other ethnic groups, and caregivers often materialize as secondary patients due to the severe impact of caregiving on their health and well-being. Additionally, according to the Alzheimer’s Association and NAC/AARP, 60% of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia caregivers are typically female and are 55 or older. This data emphasizes that African Americans are disproportionately affected by Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. In addition, the Hispanic population tends to experience a higher prevalence of caregiver burden. Hispanic/Latino family caregiving can differ significantly from other populations for various reasons. The majority of Hispanic/Latino family caregivers are women in their 40s who provide care for a parent-in-law or other older individuals in the household. They are less inclined to use professional caregiving services compared to other populations, even though their caregiving situations are often highly intensive. According to a study, 63% of Hispanic/Latino caregivers reported their situations as high-burden, whereas 51% of non-Hispanic/Latino caregivers were facing similarly challenging circumstances. Furthermore, a substantial number of Hispanic/Latino caregivers revealed limited support, placing them at a higher risk of experiencing burnout and distress. Additionally, existing studies lack a tailored and focused approach to the needs of Hispanic/Latino caregivers. According to a US study "the transition to institutional care is particularly difficult for spouses, almost half of whom visit the patient daily and continue to provide help with physical care during their visits. Clinical interventions that better prepare the caregiver for a placement transition and treat their depression and anxiety following placement may be of great benefit to these individuals." Thommessen et al. found in a Norwegian study that the most common stressors reported were "disorganization of household routines, difficulties with going away for holidays, restrictions on social life, and the disturbances of sleep..." and that this was common to caregivers for dementia, stroke, and Parkinson's disease patients. In a Japanese study, Hirono et al. assessed that the patients' functional and neuropsychiatric impairments were the main patient factors that increased the caregiver's burden." Activities are important for the dementia patient because they keep their cognitive functioning. The caregiver should aid them in their activities but should not do it for them. An Italian study by Marvardi et al. found "that patients' behavioral disturbances and disability were the major predictors of the time-dependent burden; the psychophysical burden was explained mainly by caregiver anxiety and depression." Caregivers may experience anticipatory grief and ambiguous loss, and research shows that African American caregivers are less likely to seek help for grief and depression than their Caucasian counterparts. Furthermore, physiological changes such as increased cortisol levels, the body’s primary stress hormone, contribute to impaired cognitive function, perpetuating the problem of Alzheimer’s disease within the African American community since stress is a known causal factor. While family caregivers often care for patients with dementia at home, they also provide a helpful function within nursing or residential aged care facilities. Caregivers of these patients in nursing homes with dementia usually do not have sufficient tools or clinical guidance for helping to manage multiple interventions, such as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and medication use. Nurses should provide information to the caregiver on how to take care of the dementia patient, so the caregiver does not neglect them. Respite or day care Caring for someone with dementia is accompanied by many emotional and physical challenges. Respite care is designed to give rest or relief to caregivers and can take place in many different settings, depending on the needs of those involved. Respite services are offered at adult daycare facilities, nursing homes, or in-home. There is a lack of evidence regarding the potential benefits or drawbacks of these interventions. Respite services provided to family members or friends caring for someone with dementia have positive effects such as stress reduction, increased time for relaxation, socialization, and focusing on personal tasks. Respite services provided by a nursing home (or other similar facility) might increase the likelihood of the patient being transferred into an institution, while early utilization of in-home help services can delay institutionalization. Environmental design Architects in designs for aging in place can consider the relationship of the built environment to the functioning and well-being of seniors and create safe and stimulating environments for dementia. The environment that a person with dementia lives in is very important. Nurses should help provide a healthy environment for people with dementia. A negative, frustrated atmosphere from the nurses could lead to emotional neglect for the patients. Nursing home managers do not understand how to take care of their dementia patients either, which could lead to a chaotic and hostile environment. The environment should be conducive to relaxation, stimulating, and engaging. This can result in to both the nurses and the residents being less stressed. Nurses who work in a calm environment have decreased stress levels. The environment in which those with dementia live should foster their ability to be participants and not just observers in their lives and include opportunities for independence. Their environment should allow them to keep their identity. Including things that are personal to them and that serve as reminders of their identity is important and meaningful. This personal environment should also be a place where, if needed, they can have privacy. The areas should also be well lit with minimal items on the ground to reduce the risk of falling or injury. The environment where those with dementia eat their meals should be inviting and foster conversation and socialization. Items designed specifically to help individuals with dementia can also be helpful, such as industrial designer Sha Yao's tableware, which has both a colorful and unique design that stimulates people with dementia and other features that address cognitive, motor, and physical impairments that often arise. Things to do for people with dementia would be: Try to keep a routine, such as bathing, dressing, and eating, at the same time each day. Help the person write down to-do lists, appointments, and events in a notebook or calendar. Plan activities that the person enjoys and try to do them at the same time each day. Consider a system or reminders for helping those who must take medications regularly. When dressing or bathing, allow the person to do as much as possible. Buy loose-fitting, comfortable, easy-to-use clothing, such as clothes with elastic waistbands, fabric fasteners, or large zipper pulls, instead of shoelaces, buttons, or buckles. Use a sturdy shower chair to support a person who is unsteady and to prevent falls. You can buy shower chairs at drug stores and medical supply stores. Be gentle and respectful. Tell the person what you are going to do, step by step, while you help them bathe or get dressed. Serve meals in a consistent, familiar place, and give the person enough time to eat. Communicating Caring for someone with dementia is especially challenging due to the fact that dementia patients soon lose the ability to speak or otherwise communicate and seem unable to understand what's said to them. Since dementia patients have trouble communicating their needs, this can be frustrating for the nurse. Nurses may have a hard time making relationships with their dementia patients because of the communication barrier. How the dementia patient feels is based on their social interactions, and they may feel neglected because of this barrier. Nurses feel pain and helplessness when caring for a dementia patient. Care approaches known variously as patient-centered care or comfort-centered care attempt to address the difficulty in communication between caregiver and patient. These terms are used in reference to all patient populations, not just dementia patients. To communicate with dementia patients who have lost their ability to communicate in traditional ways, nontraditional forms of communication are used. Paying attention to eye movements, facial expressions, and body movements can help caregivers understand them a little better. As each person is affected by dementia differently, a unique form of communication may need to be established. Nurses must use therapeutic communication while talking to patients. Therapeutic lying is a tool that nurses use to reassure patients that they are okay, and it's used in situations that would not harm the patient in any way. Even though they may be nonverbal, that does not always mean they no longer wish to participate in the world around them. Memory strategies Some studies have demonstrated emotional memory enhancement in Alzheimer's patients, suggesting that emotional memory enhancement might be used in the daily management of Alzheimer's patients. One study found that objects are recalled significantly better in Alzheimer's patients if they are presented as birthday presents. Assistive technology There is a lack of high-quality evidence to determine whether assistive technology effectively supports people with dementia to manage memory issues. Thus, it is not presently certain whether or not assistive technology is beneficial for memory problems. Psychological and psychosocial therapies Offering personally tailored activity sessions to people with dementia in long-term care homes may help manage challenging behavior. No evidence supports the idea that activities were better if they match the individual interests of people. At the same time, a program showed that simple measures like talking to people about their interests can improve the quality of life for care home residents living with dementia. The program showed that such simple measures reduced residents' agitation and depression. They also needed fewer GP visits and hospital admissions, which also meant that the program was cost-saving. Nursing In the acute care setting, a fair number of individuals diagnosed with dementia suffer from hip fractures. For that reason, nurses are in high demand to care for this population. When taking care of the elderly who are cognitively impaired, it is challenging to assess if one is experiencing pain. Missed nursing care is common when taking care of patients with dementia. Some nurses may prioritize other patients based on the stage of their dementia and their age. Missed care could lead to complications such as falls, infections, and incontinence. Pain is commonly defined as a subjective feeling that is best understood by the patient. Because of this, nurses tend to rely on verbal statements from patients to detect whether one is hurting. Due to diminished verbal skills in this population, it can increase the risk of inadequately assessing one's needs, including if they are in pain. Research has shown that patients not being able to express themselves is the number one barrier when it comes to caring for the elderly. As the population continues to age, the number of patients in hospital settings with dementia will most likely increase. To prevent the elderly with dementia from receiving inadequate recognition of pain, nurses should use common sense to aid in assessments. Interpreting body language has been shown to be effective in relieving discomfort. Another way to improve perceptions of pain is to get to know the patient better through family members’ eyes. Obtaining further information about the patient from family members helps make the connection to normal behaviors. Although some of these pain-relieving strategies are beneficial, there is still a lack of research focused on dementia patients in the acute care setting. Unfortunately, many nurses are not taught how to take care of patients with dementia. There are many programs that nurses go through that are provided by their facilities, but a little less than half of nurses do not feel comfortable actually using that training on their patients. As a result, this puts an increased risk of strain on nurses and patients. In general, however, the unfamiliar environment and routine practices of the acute care setting can be particularly challenging for people living with dementia. The absence of family and familiar surroundings, on top of the physical issue leading to the admission, heightens anxieties, confusion, and distress. Challenges in communication not only impact effective pain medication but also affect hydration, nutrition, and all aspects of physical and emotional care. While these challenges have long been recognized, they remain an ongoing issue and have been further impacted by the COVID19 pandemic. A person-centered care approach helps alleviate some of the unfamiliar stress of being in an acute care environment and can also benefit those caring for people with dementia in this setting. Implementing best practices in dementia care needs a hospital-wide approach. Increases in workforce capacity, physical environments that support familiarization, social interaction and activities, inclusive caregiver policies, and cultures of sharing knowledge have all shown promise in improving dementia care in the acute-care setting. Incontinence care People with dementia are more likely to have problems with incontinence; they are three times more likely to have urinary and four times more likely to have fecal incontinence compared to people of similar ages. This can have a profound impact on the dignity and quality of life of people with dementia and their caregivers. There is a general lack of understanding and stigma around incontinence. Professionals also lack knowledge and training when it comes to incontinence in people with dementia. Poorly managed incontinence also has a severe negative impact physically, psychologically, economically, and socially on people with dementia living at home and their informal caregivers. Guidelines suggest that treatment should always be preferred to containment, as pads and catheterization can be uncomfortable and negatively affect the person's dignity. However, the continence problems of people with dementia are different than those of those without, and the care strategy should take their and their caregivers' different perspectives into account. There are guidelines for the continence care needs of people with complex health conditions, such as the Continence Care Framework. At home A research program looked at how to improve care for people with dementia living at home. They identified priorities for action: the importance of early clinical assessment (rather than using pads); promoting continence through a balanced diet, exercise, and hand hygiene; encouraging and helping toilet use; and a sensitive management of incontinence to secure the person's dignity. In care homes Among people with dementia living in care homes, the rates of fecal incontinence are between 30% and 50%. This generally occurs alongside urinary incontinence, but around 30% of people in care homes have only urinary incontinence. According to research in the UK, continence care should be individualized with the aim of promoting personal dignity. New measures should take into account the preferences and personal history of the affected person. Appropriate diet and mobility can help, and prompts to go to the toilet should be preferred over using pads. To support and encourage toilet use, staff need practical training and an understanding of how dementia affects continence. In hospitals In a hospital context, the care of continence is often poor. This can lead to worse clinical outcomes for people with dementia, a higher risk of infection, and the development of urinary and fecal incontinence. After a clinical assessment, a personalized continence plan should be created, which includes identifying reversible causes and contributing factors. Continence problems in people with dementia are at the same time communication challenges. Staff need to be sensitive to the affected people's specific verbal and non-verbal cues, as they might have difficulties expressing their needs around continence. The language used should respect dignity and shouldn't cause embarrassment. An ethnographic study in the UK pointed out the existence of "pad culture", which means that the main care strategy was the use of continence pads even in cases where people were continent. The main reasons for this strategy were fears about safety and falls, which kept people in their beds and did not support independence. This mode of caring often leads to undignified situations and the use of demeaning language. See also Clinical geropsychology Carers rights movement Direct support professional Personal Care Assistant References Further reading Dementia Alzheimer's disease Elderly care Dementia
15825012
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academia%20Mexicana%20de%20la%20Lengua
Academia Mexicana de la Lengua
The Academia Mexicana de la Lengua (variously translated as the Mexican Academy of Language, the Mexican Academy of the Language, the Mexican Academy of Letters, or glossed as the Mexican Academy of the Spanish Language; acronym AML) is the correspondent academy in Mexico of the Royal Spanish Academy. It was founded in Mexico City on 11 September 1875 and, like the other academies, has the principal function of working to ensure the purity of the Spanish language. Academy members have included many of the leading figures in Mexican letters, including philologists, grammarians, philosophers, novelists, poets, historians and humanists. The Academia Mexicana organized the first Congress of the Spanish Language Academies that was celebrated at Mexico City in April 1951. This gave birth, through its Permanent Commission, to the Association of Spanish Language Academies, confirmed in the second Congress, celebrated in Madrid five years later. Objectives According to its statutes, approved in the plenary session of 2 December 1931, and what is disposed in the text of constitution as a civil association, from 1952, the objectives of the Academy are as follows: To watch over the conservation, the purity and the improvement of the Spanish language. To keep constant communication of scientific or literary nature with the similar academies and institutions. To form and increase its library, especially with those scientific and literary works that best favor the achievements of the purposes of the Academia. To promote and propagate the study of the Spanish language though periodic private sessions; public sessions and conferences; congresses and any other acts typical of the institute, being able to send delegates from its heart to achieve this ends. To attend consultations by public institutions and private individuals. To promote before the authorities or institutions or private individuals all that favors the conservation, the purity and the improvement of the Castilian language. To achieve its objectives, the Academy takes abroad several studies and activities related to its competence, in plenary form as well as though its assigned especialized commissions. Composition and operation Originally, the Academy was created with 12 members, but now has 36 full members (académicos de número) and 35 correspondent members (académicos correspondientes) based outside Mexico City. It may also have up to an additional five honorary members (académicos honorarios), who may be either Mexican citizens or foreigners. It has a Board made up by a Director, a Secretary, a Censor, a Librarian-Archivist and a Treasurer, all chosen among the académicos de número by absolute majority of votes from the academics that attend the session in which they are to be elected, in secret voting. The labour of the Academy is performed in a meeting, that celebrates its sessions twice or more monthly. The sessions are private or public, the first ones can be ordinary or extraordinary, and the public ones have the characteristic of solemnity when the Academy agrees it. The nature of the jobs that are analyzed and discussed in the heart of the meeting are of lexicographic, linguistic and literary importance. The Academy owns a wide library. Its initial fund comes from the acquisition of the former library of the academic Don Alejandro Quijano. With the years the number of works with relevant contributions has been growing, such as the one of the prestigious jurist and intellectual Alberto Vázquez del Mercado (1893–1980), who bestowed the institution with a huge and valuable collection of historic and literary works. In addition the books published donated by the academics, there are to be found those sent by the Real Academia Española, the other Spanish-language academies, some publishing companies and book stores, as well as those sent by official and private cultural organizations. Activities and projects From its creation, the work of the academy has been documented with the publication of the Memories and a Yearbook. In the Memories appear the works read by the members of the Academy in the meetings and others that, according to their judgement, are worth of publishing. Each volume starts with a review of the most relevant happenings that have occurred since the publication of the previous one and the indication of the number of attendance to the meetings of each academic, and concludes with general and alphabetic indexes. The Academy publishes a Yearbook where it communicates the changes in academics and also all sort of works related to the institute. Likewise, it is concerned with the research of the use of the Spanish language in Mexico, which has crystallized in the publication of different works of reference. Among them, the most important are: The Universal Dictionary of Geography (1997), that contains the names in Spanish of several geographical entities from around the world and their demonyms. It includes, for information purposes, the names in the language or languages of the country they are talking about, if they are normally written in Latin alphabet, or Latinized if in their region it is used a different writing system. The Mexican Book of Sayings (2004), that has its origins in an extensive project that the Academy started to commemorate its 125th anniversary. After some hard work, they finally published the Index of Mexicanisms (2000), a wide collection of sayings used in Mexico from the beginnings of the 19th century until nowadays and that has become a fundamental reference book to the study of the Spanish spoken in the country. This Index, generated two works: the Short Dictionary of Mexicanisms (2001), with 6,200 lexicographical articles that include words, phrases and even certain lexical elements, by Guido Gómez de Silva, and the Mexican Book of Sayings, product of the work of several Academic researches. Because of its vocation of constantly adaptation with the new technologies and in harmony with the new communications society, the Academia Mexicana de la Lengua has included the forementioned works in its webpage so that they can be consulted in an interactive manner, belonging to the Association of Spanish Language Academies. See also List of members of the Mexican Academy of Language External links Academia Mexicana de la Lengua, official site Mexican culture Language regulators Spanish language academies Cultural heritage of Mexico 1875 establishments in Mexico Organizations established in 1875
15825018
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redrup%20v.%20New%20York
Redrup v. New York
Redrup v. New York, 386 U.S. 767 (1967), was a May 8, 1967 ruling by the Supreme Court of the United States, widely regarded as the end of American censorship of written fiction. Robert Redrup was a Times Square newsstand clerk who sold two of William Hamling's Greenleaf Classics paperback pulp sex novels, Lust Pool and Shame Agent, to a plainclothes police officer. He was tried and convicted in 1965. With financial backing from Hamling, Redrup appealed his case to the Supreme Court where his conviction was overturned by 7–2. The court's final ruling affirmed that written materials that were neither sold to minors nor foisted on unwilling audiences were constitutionally protected, thereby de facto ending American censorship of written material. After this decision, the Supreme Court systematically and summarily reversed, without further opinion, scores of obscenity rulings involving paperback sex books. "Redrupping" The Court's decision came at a time when the Justices were unable to agree upon a single, workable test regarding what would constitute obscenity. For example, Justice Stewart's belief that hard-core pornography should be covered by obscenity law, even if he was unable to state a clear definition for what exactly constituted "hard-core" material, was summed up with his notorious expression: "I know it when I see it." Accordingly, the Court adopted a process by which each justice would review the material in question and determine, according to their own understanding, whether or not it constituted obscenity. To do this, the Justices would gather in a conference room in the U.S. Supreme Court Building to watch the films being challenged by obscenity cases. This process was referred to in lawyer's slang as "redrupping." Justices Douglas and Black did not attend these screenings; both men took an absolutist, anti-censorship approach towards the First Amendment and did not believe that any films should be banned. Justice Burger also preferred not to go. Justice Harlan, whose eyesight was deteriorating in old age, would sit closest to the screen in order to see the outlines of what was happening on-screen, and often required clerks or fellow Justices to describe the action. The "redrupping" era came to an end with the 1973 decision Miller v. California, which laid down the three-prong standard known as the Miller test for obscenity. See also List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 386 List of United States Supreme Court cases by the Warren Court List of United States Supreme Court cases involving the First Amendment Roth v. United States, Miller v. California, References Further reading External links United States Supreme Court cases United States Supreme Court cases of the Warren Court United States obscenity case law 1967 in United States case law History of literature in the United States
15825037
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jenni%20Hucul
Jenni Hucul
Jenni Hucul (born May 17, 1988) is a Canadian bobsledder who has competed since 2007. She won the silver medal in the mixed bobsleigh-skeleton team event at the 2008 FIBT World Championships in Altenberg, Germany. Jenni was also a star track & field athlete. She is the Canadian Youth (17 and under) record holder in the 100m, which she set when she won the Canadian Junior Championships with a time of 11.54 +1.4 m/s in Saskatoon on July 4, 2003, running in a higher age category. She also won the Canadian Junior championships in the 100m Hurdles in 2007. References FIBT profile Athletics Canada: Rankings for 100 Metre Youth Girls Outdoor 1988 births Living people Canadian female bobsledders 21st-century Canadian women
15825060
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Les%20Corts%20%28district%29
Les Corts (district)
Les Corts () is one of the ten districts into which Barcelona, Spain has been divided up since 1984, numbered IV. It was created in 1897 out of two former municipalities: Les Corts de Sarrià and some parts of Sarrià (the remaining of which went to become the current district of Sarrià-Sant Gervasi). It had 82,588 inhabitants in the 2005 census, which makes it the least populous district of the city. It is located in the western part of the city, next to three other districts of Barcelona : Sarrià-Sant Gervasi, Eixample as well as Sants-Montjuïc, and two municipalities of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona: L'Hospitalet de Llobregat and Esplugues de Llobregat. Etymology The name is not derived from courts, but developed from the Latin cohors, cohortes (meaning "rural houses"), as a reference to the local Roman villas and masies which stood there before the 20th-century urbanisation of the area. Neighbourhoods It is further divided into the following neighbourhoods: Les Corts Pedralbes La Maternitat i Sant Ramon See also Avinguda de Josep Tarradellas, Barcelona Street names in Barcelona Urban planning of Barcelona References External links Les Corts Official Website Districts of Barcelona
15825071
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIO2
DIO2
Type II iodothyronine deiodinase (iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase, iodothyronine 5'-monodeiodinase) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DIO2 gene. Function The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the iodothyronine deiodinase family. It activates thyroid hormone by converting the prohormone thyroxine (T4) by outer ring deiodination (ORD) to bioactive 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3). It is highly expressed in the thyroid, and may contribute significantly to the relative increase in thyroidal T3 production in patients with Graves' disease and thyroid adenomas. This protein contains selenocysteine (Sec) residues encoded by the UGA codon, which normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of Sec-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure, the Sec insertion sequence (SECIS), which is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Interactions DIO2 has been shown to interact with USP33. See also Deiodinase References Further reading Selenoproteins
15825091
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American%20Hardware%20Manufacturers%20Association
American Hardware Manufacturers Association
The American Hardware Manufacturers Association (AHMA), founded in 1901, was a trade association headquartered in Schaumburg, Illinois, serving U.S. manufacturers who produced goods in the "hardlines" industry, including the product categories of household hardware, tools, lawn and garden, paint and decor, major appliances, sports, and toys. After years of dwindling membership, the AHMA dissolved in 2017. Any international firm or corporation engaged in the manufacture or marketing of products for the hardware channel was eligible to become a non-voting associate member. Manufacturers' agents and industry trade publications could also join as non-voting associate members. AHMA served the hardlines industry in many ways, including cost savings and educational programs. The association provided industry conferences, events and workshops; legislative representation in Washington; domestic and international marketing support; technology initiatives; cost-saving programs; targeted publications; networking opportunities; and many other industry-directed services. References External links Official AHMA website AMERICAN HARDWARE MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION vs. REED ELSEVIER, INC. 1901 establishments in the United States Trade associations based in the United States Organizations based in Schaumburg, Illinois Organizations established in 1901
15825114
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frances%20Ellen%20Watkins%20Harper%20House
Frances Ellen Watkins Harper House
The Frances Ellen Watkins Harper House is a historic row house at 1006 Bainbridge Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Of uncertain construction date, it was the home of Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825-1911) from 1870 until her death. Harper was a prominent African-American abolitionist, women's rights and civil rights activist, and author. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976. Description and history The Frances Ellen Watkins Harper House stands in the Bella Vista neighborhood of South Philadelphia, at the southwest corner of Bainbridge and Alder Streets. It is the end unit of three rowhouses between Alder and Warnock Streets. It is a three-story masonry structure with no discernible architecture style. Its front is finished in brick, and the side wall facing Alder is stuccoed. The main facade is two bays wide, except the ground floor, where the main entrance is set in the leftmost of three bays. The ground floor brickwork shows evidence (supported by building documentation) of having been refaced after a commercial storefront had been installed. City building records do not give an indication of when this rowhouse was built. Map and title research indicates that it was here that Frances Harper lived from 1870 until her death in 1911. Harper's life spanned a great variety of activist causes, from abolition prior to the American Civil War to the quest for women's suffrage and African American civil rights in the wake of post-Reconstruction Jim Crow laws. She was a widely printed writer on these subjects, and traveled throughout the North before the Civil War, and in the South as well afterward, speaking on behalf of all of these causes. She also wrote fictional works depicting the conditions of African Americans in the South. See also List of National Historic Landmarks in Philadelphia National Register of Historic Places listings in South Philadelphia References National Historic Landmarks in Pennsylvania African-American history in Philadelphia Houses completed in 1870 South Philadelphia Houses on the National Register of Historic Places in Philadelphia
15825115
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uza
Uza
Uza may refer to: Places Uza, Landes, a village in the department of Landes in France Uza, Israel, a moshav in Israel Horvat Uza (Uza ruins), archaeological site in the Negev desert, Israel Horbat 'Uza (Uza ruins), archaeological site east of Acre in northwestern Israel Other uses "Uza" (song), a 2012 song by AKB48 UzA may refer to: Uzbekistan National News Agency UZA may refer to: Abbreviation for "urbanized area" in metropolitan planning organizations Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, the university hospital of Antwerp University
15825116
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tommy%20Kirkham
Tommy Kirkham
Tommy Kirkham is a Northern Ireland loyalist political figure and former councillor. Beginning his political career with the Democratic Unionist Party, he was then associated with the Ulster Defence Association (UDA) and the Ulster Political Research Group although he has since been expelled from both groups. He was a former deputy mayor of Newtownabbey and sat on Newtownabbey Borough Council as an Independent Loyalist. DUP Councillor Kirkham entered politics in 1989 when he was elected to Newtownabbey Borough Council as a DUP councillor representing the Antrim Line district electoral area. However he lost his seat at the 1993 local elections when, following boundary changes, he was one of three candidates not elected to the council from Antrim Line. UPRG activity From his base in Rathcoole, Kirkham then became a member of the Ulster Democratic Party and stood as the party's candidate in a February 1995 by-election in Rathcoole but was unsuccessful. In 1996 he was an unsuccessful candidate in the Northern Ireland Forum election in East Antrim. He returned to the council at the 1997 local elections in the Macedon electoral area. In 2001, when the UDP was dissolved and the UDA Inner Council decided to bring back the UPRG, they chose Kirkham as one of the new faces to front the group. He became a leading spokesman for the UPRG whilst also serving as an independent on Newtownabbey Borough Council (with the UPRG not registered as a political party). He is registered as the leader of the Ulster Protestant League, although it is unclear whether or not this organisation exists beyond Kirkham, who is labelled as an Independent Unionist in Newtownabbey. As a member of the council, Kirkham was twice deputy mayor of Newtownabbey, the first time in 1999 with the support of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) and again in 2010 with support from the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP). Kirkham's appointment was condemned by councillors representing that UUP and Alliance Party of Northern Ireland, who accused the DUP of blocking their access to leading posts by appointing an independent. In 2006, the DUP had initially intimated their support for a plan to endorse Kirkham as mayor of the town before abandoning the plan. He lost his seat in the 2011 elections. Along with Frank McCoubrey and Frankie Gallagher, Kirham was one of the UPRG's three leading spokesmen and had been responsible for delivering statements from the UDA. As part of this three-man group he met with Irish Taoiseach Bertie Ahern in 2004, along with UDA leader Jackie McDonald and prisoners' spokesman Stanley Fletcher, in a meeting he described as 'historic, productive and amicable'. He was also involved in an initiative to move loyalism away from racism, joining David Ervine in backing the Loyalist Commission-led scheme that started up in response to allegations of links between the UDA and Combat 18 and the involvement of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) in attacks on Belfast's Chinese community. During the internal struggles within the UDA in late 2002 with regards to the attempts to expel Johnny Adair, Kirkham followed the orthodox anti-Adair line as espoused by his close friend John 'Grug' Gregg. As a consequence of this position, his Carnmoney home was targeted for a gun attack by Adair's supporters over Christmas 2002, although no one was injured in the assault. He remained an important spokesman for the UPRG, particularly following the removal of Johnny Adair in early 2003, and in February of that year it was Kirkham who was chosen to read a statement from the UDA leadership in which they announced an indefinite extension to their ceasefire. Split and Beyond Conflict Kirkham eventually split from the UPRG and made his power base in South East Antrim with one of the UDA's six brigades, the South East Antrim Brigade where the UDA had drifted from the leadership. Kirkham became head of a new group which he called Beyond Conflict and, as leader of this group, asked for £8 million of government money to transform the group into a development agency. However whilst the government did eventually pledge money to the UPRG no funding was extended to Kirkham's group. Kirkham's split from the mainstream of the UPRG and UDA would be widened in 2007. The UDA faced a potential feud over the activities of renegade brigadier Andre Shoukri, who was, ironically given Kirkham's previous position, an associate of Johnny Adair, until the movement expelled him in 2007. Kirkham however, as leader of the south-east Antrim brigade of the UDA, supported Shoukri in his struggles with the UDA leadership and a stand-off between Kirkham and the leaders developed. This came to a head in March 2007 when the expulsion was extended to Kirkham and his associate Gary Fisher. Kirkham reacted to the move by vowing to remain in his area. Later that same year Kirkham's assistant Jon McDowell outed himself as a Special Branch agent. Kirkham remains as head of Beyond Conflict and has argued that the group has undertaken eight steps towards demilitarisation, including ending paramilitary activity in his area, working with the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning and working on cultural diversity programmes. In December 2010 Kirkham gave evidence at a historical murder trial of a Catholic killed in Belfast in 1973. Kirkham was threatened with arrest if he did not appear at the trial. See also Ulster Political Research Group UDA South East Antrim Brigade Ulster Defence Association Shoukri brothers References External links Beyond Conflict site Members of Newtownabbey Borough Council Leaders of political parties in Northern Ireland Living people Politicians from County Antrim Ulster Defence Association Ulster Democratic Party politicians Year of birth missing (living people) 20th-century politicians from Northern Ireland 21st-century politicians from Northern Ireland
15825140
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotyledon%20%28disambiguation%29
Cotyledon (disambiguation)
A cotyledon is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant. Cotyledon may also refer to: Cotyledon (genus), a plant genus in the family Crassulaceae Cotyledon (placenta), a part of the anatomy of mammals Saxifraga cotyledon, a species of saxifrage, a plant
15825143
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Det%20som%20varit%20%C3%84R
Det som varit ÄR
Det som varit ÄR is a Viking rock album, released by Hel in 2003, from the label Hel Records. Track listing Doften av ångest Spikar i mitt hjärta För evigt farväl Vildjursjakt Moders barm Skrivet i mitt blod Två världar Den frälste Timglas Fria Norr 2003 albums
15825179
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middlebury%20Township
Middlebury Township
Middlebury Township may refer to the following places in the United States: Middlebury Township, Elkhart County, Indiana Middlebury Township, Michigan Middlebury Township, Knox County, Ohio Middlebury Township, Pennsylvania Township name disambiguation pages
15825185
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List%20of%20North%20Carolina%20hurricanes%20%281900%E2%80%931949%29
List of North Carolina hurricanes (1900–1949)
The list of North Carolina hurricanes between 1900 and 1949 encompasses 75 tropical cyclones or their remnants that affected the U.S. state of North Carolina. Collectively, cyclones in North Carolina during that time period resulted in 53 total fatalities, as well as about $328 million in damage in 2008 USD. Tropical cyclone affected the state in all but nine seasons. In the 1916 season, five storms affected the state, which makes it the season with the most storms impacting the state. The strongest hurricanes to affect the state during the time period were the 1933 Outer Banks hurricane and the 1944 Great Atlantic Hurricane, which produced winds of Category 3 status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale within the state. The 1933 Outer Banks hurricane was the deadliest hurricane in the state during the time period, which killed 21 people. The remnants of a hurricane in 1940 dropped heavy rainfall in the state, which caused over $150 million in damage (2008 USD) from flooding and landslides. Most storms affected the state in September, though in the first half of the 20th century, cyclones impacted the state between May and December. 1900s October 13, 1900 – The remnants of a tropical storm parallel the coastline. July 11, 1901 – A hurricane strikes the Outer Banks from the northeast, producing gusty winds but no serious damage. September 18, 1901 – A tropical storm brushes the coastline. June 16, 1902 – A tropical storm moves across the state. October 11, 1902 – The remnants of a tropical storm pass through the state. September 15, 1903 – A storm known as the Vagabond Hurricane passes just east of the Outer Banks, producing gusty winds but little damage. September 14, 1904 – After striking South Carolina, a hurricane causes heavy damage and one death while crossing the state. October 11, 1905 – The extratropical remnants of a tropical storm track along the Tennessee/North Carolina border. September 17, 1906 – Making landfall on South Carolina, a hurricane produces light damage near Wilmington. June 29, 1907 – A tropical storm parallels the coastline just inland. September 23, 1907 – The remnants of a tropical storm dissipate after crossing the state. May 29, 1908 – A hurricane passes just east of the Outer Banks, though its strongest winds remain offshore. July 31, 1908 – Heavy rainfall accompanies a hurricane moving across the state, which causes severe flooding near the coastline. Damage is locally heavy, but no casualties are reported. September 1, 1908 – A tropical storm moves across the Outer Banks, producing flooding and high tides. 1910s August 28, 1910 – A former tropical storm brings heavy rainfall to the coastline. October 20, 1910 – Unusual high tides accompany a tropical storm paralleling the coastline. August 6, 1911 – The first storm of the season brushes the coastline. August 31, 1911 – The remnants of a tropical storm dissipate in the state. June 14, 1912 – The extratropical remnants of a tropical storm pass through the state with gusty winds. September 4, 1912 – A tropical storm brushes the coastline while tracking southwestward just offshore. October 5, 1912 – An offshore hurricane drops of rainfall in Cape Hatteras. September 3, 1913 – A hurricane makes landfall in the state, causing great damage to crops and property from winds and high tides. Several bridges are washed away, and for a time it is feared that the entire population of Ocracoke island is killed in the storm. The hurricane causes $3 million in damage (1913 USD, $65 million 2008 USD) and five deaths. October 11, 1913 – A former hurricane dissipates in the southern portion of the state. August 3, 1915 – A tropical depression crosses the state. September 15, 1915 – Moderate rainfall accompanies a tropical cyclone moving northward from the Gulf of Mexico through the Ohio Valley. May 16, 1916 – A tropical storm weakens while crossing the eastern portion of the state. July 10, 1916 – A former hurricane dissipates over Tennessee after dropping rainfall in western North Carolina. July 15, 1916 – The remnants of a tropical storm drop of rainfall in a 24‑hour period in Highlands, which was the highest 24‑hour rainfall total in the entire United States. The rainfall causes landslides and flooding, which results in 11 fatalities. July 20, 1916 – An offshore hurricane produces gusty winds along the coastline. September 7, 1916 – A weak tropical storm dissipates after crossing the state. August 24, 1918 – A minimal hurricane crosses the eastern portion of the state, causing locally heavy damage. 1920s September 22, 1920 – A strong tropical storm moves ashore near Wilmington, which damages or destroys several buildings; one person is killed. October 23, 1923 – The extratropical remnants of a tropical storm bring severe gales to the Outer Banks as it moves inland. August 25, 1924 – A hurricane passes a short distance east of Hatteras, with its storm surge flooding portions of Ocracoke Island; two people drown during the storm. September 17, 1924 – The coastline is brushed by a tropical storm. September 30, 1924 – A former tropical storm crosses the eastern portion of the state. December 2, 1925 – The Outer Banks are struck by a post-season tropical storm, reporting gusty winds but little damage. August 24, 1927 – A hurricane brushes the Outer Banks. October 3, 1927 – A weakening tropical storm crosses through the state. August 13, 1928 – The remnants of a hurricane cause crop and structural damage from winds and heavy rainfall. August 17, 1928 – A second tropical cyclone produces further rainfall in the western portion of the state, which causes severe flooding that destroys several houses; property damage totals over $1 million (1928 USD, $12.6 million 2008 USD). Six people are killed in the state, of which four due to flooding. September 18, 1928 – The former Okeechobee Hurricane causes heavy rainfall and severe river flooding in the southeastern portion of the state. The flooding closes several roads and washes out a few bridges. October 29, 1929 – A former Florida hurricane produces heavy precipitation in the state, which causes severe flooding. The Cape Fear River rises 41 feet (12.5 m) in a 24‑hour period, and the storm results in damage to roads, crops, and businesses. 1930s September 12, 1930 – The coastline receives minor damage from an offshore hurricane. September 16, 1932 – A tropical storm brushes the Outer Banks. October 16, 1932 – The remnants of a tropical storm bring moderate rainfall to the western portion of the state. August 23, 1933 – The Chesapeake Potomac Hurricane makes landfall along the northeastern portion of the state, causing locally heavy damage and high tides; damage is estimated at $250,000 (1933 USD, $4 million 2008 USD). September 15, 1933 – The Outer Banks hurricane produces heavy rainfall, strong winds, and high tides. Several homes are destroyed, leaving about 1,000 people homeless, and damage amounts to $4.5 million (1933 USD, $74.6 million 2008 USD). A total of 21 people are killed in the state. May 29, 1934 – A tropical storm moves ashore along South Carolina, and produces light wind damage in the Piedmont Triad area. July 21, 1934 – A developing tropical cyclone brushes the coastline while tracking southwestward. September 8, 1934 – The Outer Banks are affected by a hurricane transitioning into an extratropical cyclone, with heavy rainfall and gusty winds reported. September 6, 1935 – The remnants of the Great Labor Day Hurricane cross through the state with little impact. September 18, 1936 – Hatteras is struck by a hurricane, where it is described as one of the most severe on record. Strong winds destroy crops near the coastline, while high tides result in beach erosion; no deaths are reported. July 31, 1937 – A tropical storm brushes the coastline. August 6, 1937 – A tropical storm passes east of the Outer Banks. September 21, 1938 – The New England Hurricane of 1938 passes a short distance east of the Outer Banks, causing heavy rainfall and gusty winds. October 24, 1938 – A former tropical storm crosses the eastern portion of the state. August 18, 1939 – A tornado spawned by a weakening tropical depression kills a person in the state. 1940s August 15, 1940 – The extratropical remnants of a former hurricane dissipate in the state, dropping heavy rainfall which peaks at in Swansboro. The precipitation causes severe river flooding, as well as flash flooding and mudslides, and thousands are left homeless. Over 20 people are killed, many due to mudslides, and damage amounted to over $10 million (1940 USD, $154 million 2008 USD). September 1, 1940 – A hurricane brushes the Outer Banks. September 23, 1941 – A tropical storm brushes the Outer Banks with light winds and rainfall. October 12, 1942 – Heavy rainfall is reported in association with a weak tropical storm hitting the state. August 1, 1944 – A hurricane moves ashore south of Wilmington, causing heavy damage in a small area along its path. Damage amounts to $2 million (1944 USD), primarily through crop damage, and no casualties are reported. September 14, 1944 – The Great Atlantic Hurricane passes just east of the Outer Banks, setting records, at the time, for strongest winds and the lowest pressure at Hatteras. The storm destroys 108 buildings and damages 667 more along the coast, resulting in $1.45 million in damage (1944 USD, $17.8 million 2008 USD). One person is killed in the state. October 20, 1944 – A former hurricane crosses the eastern portion of the state, causing power outages and coastal flooding. June 26, 1945 – Gusty winds and heavy rainfall accompany a tropical storm moving across the Outer Banks, which disrupts coastal communications and forces evacuations in two cities. September 17, 1945 – Torrential precipitation from a tropical storm crossing the state causes major river flooding across eastern North Carolina. A few dams break in the flooding, and there are reports of localized heavy damage. July 6, 1946 – A tropical storm crosses the eastern portion of the state, bringing heavy rainfall but little damage to the immediate coastline. October 9, 1946 – A former hurricane becomes extratropical over the state, dropping heavy rains along its path. August 24, 1947 – The extratropical remnants of a tropical storm cross the state. October 15, 1947 – A hurricane striking near Savannah, Georgia produces flooding and locally heavy rainfall in southeastern North Carolina. August 31, 1948 – High tides are reported in association with an offshore hurricane. November 11, 1948 – A late season hurricane becomes extratropical a short distance offshore the Outer Banks, causing high winds and waves. August 24, 1949 – A cyclone brushes the Outer Banks with moderate rainfall and hurricane-force winds, which results in two deaths. August 28, 1949 – Crossing the western portion of the state, a tropical storm brings several tornadoes and heavy rainfall, which causes severe river flooding. Monthly statistics Deadly storms The table lists hurricanes by death tolls. See also List of North Carolina hurricanes Geography of North Carolina References North Carolina 1900 1900 North Carolina 1900 Hurricanes 1900
15825201
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martyrs%20of%20Abitinae
Martyrs of Abitinae
The Martyrs of Abitinae (or Abitinian Martyrs) were a group of 49 Christians found guilty, in 304, during the reign of the Emperor Diocletian, of having illegally celebrated Sunday worship at Abitinae, a town in the Roman province of Africa. The town is frequently referred to as Abitina, but the form indicated in the Annuario Pontificio (and elsewhere) is Abitinae. The plural form Abitinae is that which Saint Augustine of Hippo used when writing his De baptismo in 400 or 401. On February 24 of the year before, Diocletian had published his first edict against the Christians, ordering the destruction of Christian scriptures and places of worship across the Empire, and prohibiting Christians from assembling for worship. Though Fundanus, the local bishop in Abitinae, obeyed the edict and handed the scriptures of the church over to the authorities, some of the Christians continued to meet illegally under the priest Saturninus. They were arrested and brought before the local magistrates, who sent them to Carthage, the capital of the province, for trial. The trial took place on February 12 before the proconsul Anullinus. One of the group was Dativus, a senator. He was interrogated, declared that he was a Christian and had taken part in the meeting of the Christians, but even under torture at first refused to say who presided over it. During this interrogation, the advocate Fortunatianus, a brother of Victoria, one of the accused, denounced Dativus of having enticed her and other naive young girls to attend the service; but she declared she had gone entirely of her own accord. Interrupting the torture, the proconsul again asked Dativus whether he had taken part in the meeting. Dativus again declared that he had. Then, when asked who was the instigator, he replied: "The priest Saturninus and all of us." He was then taken to prison and died soon after of his wounds. The priest Saturninus was then interrogated and held firm even under torture. His example was followed by all the others, both men and women. They included his four children. One of the responses of the accused has been frequently quoted. Emeritus, who declared that the Christians had met in his house, was asked why he had violated the emperor's command. He replied: "Sine dominico non possumus" - we cannot live without this thing of the Lord. He was referring to the celebration of the Holy Eucharist that the emperor had declared illegal, but in which they had chosen to participate even at the cost of being tortured and sentenced to death. Saint Restituta is sometimes considered one of the Martyrs of Abitinae. List of the Martyrs of Abitinae The feast of the Martyrs of Abitinae is on February 12. Under that date the Roman Martyrology records the names of all forty-nine: Saturninus, Presbyter Saturninus, son of Saturninus, Reader Felix, son of Saturninus, Reader Maria, daughter of Saturninus Hilarion, infant son of Saturninus Dativus, also known as Sanator Felix another Felix Emeritus, Reader Ampelius, Reader Benignus, infant son of Ampelius Rogatianus Quintus Maximianus or Maximus Telica or Tazelita another Rogatianus Rogatus Ianuarius Cassianus Victorianus Vincentius Caecilianus Restituta Prima Eva yet another Rogatianus Givalius Rogatus Pomponia Secunda Ianuaria Saturnina Martinus Clautus Felix junior Margarits Maior Honorata Regiola Victorinus Pelusius Faustus Dacianus Matrona Caecilia Victoria, a virgin from Carthage Berectina Secunda Matrona Ianuaria References External links St. Saturninus Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D., with an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies. Santi Martiri di Abitina 304 deaths Saints from Roman Africa (province) 4th-century Christian martyrs 4th-century Romans Groups of Christian martyrs of the Roman era
15825237
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fabyan%20Windmill
Fabyan Windmill
The Fabyan Windmill is an authentic, working Dutch windmill dating from the 1850s located in Geneva, Kane County, Illinois, just north of Batavia, Illinois, off Illinois Route 25. The five-story wooden smock mill with a stage, which stands tall, sits upon the onetime estate of Colonel George Fabyan, but is now part of the Kane County Forest Preserve District. In 1979, the windmill was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Dutch Mill. The following year, the windmill was selected to be on a U.S. postage stamp, as part of a series of five windmills in a stamp booklet called "Windmills USA." It originally operated as a custom grinding mill. History During the mid-19th century, the Fabyan Windmill was constructed by German craftsmen, Louis Blackhaus, and his brother-in-law Freidrick Brockmann, on a site at Meyers Road near 16th Street in York Township between Elmhurst and Oak Brook, Illinois (now Lombard, Illinois). By the early 20th century, the windmill had fallen into a state of disrepair. In 1914, George Fabyan purchased the disused windmill for approximately $8,000 from Mrs. Fred Runge. He then had it moved to its present location in Geneva Township on the east side of the Fox River, close to Illinois Route 25 in July 1915. Fabyan spent an estimated $75,000 to have it moved, reconstructed, and restored. The Edgar E. Belding Company of West Chicago was contracted by Fabyan to move the windmill from York Center. It was slowly dismantled piece by piece, with Roman numerals carved into the beams and braces to facilitate correct reconstruction. Some of the largest beams had to be hauled by a team of mules. The windmill was reassembled on its present site by a Danish millwright named Rasmussen, with the assistance of John Johnson and six others from the Wilson Bros. Construction Co. After nineteen months, the relocation and reconstruction were completed. The mill was a wonder in its day, because it is thought to be the only fully automatic wind-driven mill of its type. George Fabyan died in 1936, and his wife died two years later. The estate was then sold by the executors of the will to the Kane County Forest Preserve District for $70,500. Structure The giant cypress wood beams, trimmed with black walnut, are all hand joined and doweled with wood dowels. In fact, there are no metal nails used inside the structure. Even the original gearing was handmade of hickory and maple, with all five floors containing different mechanisms. The windmill was a functioning mill used by the Fabyans for grinding several types of grain, including corn, wheat, rye, and oats. It also served as a grain mill for Fabyan's herd of prized Jersey cattle. At the mill's top, or cap, is a huge cogged wheel called the brake wheel, which was turned by wind blowing against the sails. The sails are covered with canvas sailcloths to help catch the wind. The sails had to be entirely reconstructed by Rasmussen and John Johnson, because they were missing when Fabyan bought the mill. The sails span 74 feet 4 inches. The brake wheel, located in the cap, rotates an upright shaft running the height of the mill. This shaft supplied power to all of the mill's operations. There is a set of belt-driven elevators, remarkable for its time, that moved the grains from chutes to hoppers, and even from floor to floor, making the mill almost fully automatic. Most other mills required workers to hand shovel materials between operations. During its reconstruction, the Colonel had a new foundation poured, which created a basement. In the basement, he had ovens installed whose vents and chimney extended underground beneath Route 25 to a structure that once stood on the other side. In addition to the ovens, marble slabs and cooling racks were also installed. It is thought that at one time, the windmill basement was an operating bakery. During the flour rationing of World War I, the bakery supposedly produced bread for the Fabyan family and even for their two bears, Tom and Jerry. However, the extent of use of the mill's bakery is debatable due to an inadequate oven draft. Significance The wind-powered mill is a type that was rarely built in the United States, where grist mills are usually powered by water. Its wooden gears and nail-less construction techniques are of interest both technically and architecturally. The mill is also an example of an America folly, a structure built primarily to enhance the landscape or view. In this case, George Fabyan, a wealthy merchant, purchased and moved the by-then inoperative mill to beautify his estate, but maintained it as a private mill with no commercial value. Today Kane County considered the windmill's demolition as early as 1990 when it became structurally unsafe for public inspection. However, local citizens began fighting to keep the mill intact. In 1997, the Forest Preserve District contracted third-generation Dutch windmill maker Lucas Verbij to fully restore the windmill for a cost of over $900,000. It made its public debut in June 2005. The grinding mechanisms to make flour have been restored and are in use today by mill volunteers who do demonstrations to the public. Even now, the varnish from 1915 is in near perfect condition because the climate inside the mill varies little from season to season due to its superior construction, and the Roman numeral markings carved into the beams used in original reconstruction are still visible. References External links Virtual visit of the Windmill: https://goo.gl/maps/dC2oLDQ59yL2 Towers completed in 1860 Windmills completed in 1860 Industrial buildings completed in 1860 Buildings and structures in Kane County, Illinois Dutch-American culture in Illinois Geneva, Illinois Grinding mills in Illinois Mill museums in the United States Museums in Kane County, Illinois National Register of Historic Places in Kane County, Illinois Nature reserves in Illinois Smock mills in the United States Grinding mills on the National Register of Historic Places in Illinois Octagonal buildings in the United States Windmills in Illinois Protected areas of Kane County, Illinois Riverbank Laboratories Windmills on the National Register of Historic Places
15825267
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HLA-B54
HLA-B54
HLA-B54 (B54) is an HLA-B serotype. B54 is a split antigen from the B22 broad antigen, sister serotypes are B55 and B56. The serotype identifies the more common HLA-B*55 gene products. Serotype Allele distribution See also HLA-serotype tutorial References 5
15825292
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89mile%20Moreau%20%28politician%29
Émile Moreau (politician)
Émile Moreau (20 June 1877 – 28 January 1959) was a Francophone Canadian politician of the Quebec Liberal Party. He was elected member of the Legislative Assembly of Quebec for Lac-Saint-Jean (1919–1931) and then Roberval (1931–1935), at the 15th, 16th and 18th Assemblies. He was also Legislative Councillor for Lauzon (6 June 1935 – 1959). References 1877 births 1959 deaths Quebec Liberal Party MNAs Quebec Liberal Party MLCs
15825299
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Work%20in%20Fishing%20Convention%2C%202007
Work in Fishing Convention, 2007
Work in Fishing Convention (2007) C 188, was adopted at the 96th International Labour Conference (ILC) of the International Labour Organization ILO in 2007. The objectives of the Convention is to ensure that fishers have decent conditions of work on board fishing vessels with regard to minimum requirements for work on board; conditions of service; accommodation and food; occupational safety and health protection; medical care and social security. It applies to all fishers and fishing vessels engaged in commercial fishing operations. It supersedes the old Conventions relating to fishermen. Subject area covered The following subject areas, among others, are addressed: the responsibilities of fishing vessel owners and skippers for the safety of the fishers on board and the safety of the vessels; minimum age for work on board fishing vessels and for assignment to certain types of activities; medical examination and certification required for work on fishing vessels, with the possibility of exceptions for smaller vessels or those at sea for short periods; manning and hours of rest; crew lists; fishers’ work agreements; repatriation; recruitment and placement of fishers, and use of private employment agencies; payment of fishers; on board accommodation and food; medical care at sea; occupational safety and health; social security; and protection in the case of work-related sickness, injury or death (through a system for fishing vessel owners’ liability or compulsory insurance, workers’ compensation or other schemes). Responsibility Article 8 of the convention provided the liability of owners of fishing vessels. The owner of the fishing vessel had the full responsibility for the master is possessing the resources and equipment necessary to fulfil the obligations of the convention. Recommendation Work in Fishing Recommendation 2007 (No. 199) provides additional guidance on the matters covered by the Convention. Ratifications and force The convention could come into force 12 months after it had been ratified by 10 states, eight of which had to be coastal countries. Following Lithuania's ratification of the convention on 16 November 2016, the convention had come into force on 17 November 2017. As of February 2023, the convention has been ratified by 20 states: References External links Text. Ratifications. ILO, Work in Fishing Convention. Work in Fishing Convention Summary ICSF Guidebook: Understanding the Work in Fishing Convention, 2007 International Labour Organization conventions Treaties concluded in 2007 Treaties entered into force in 2017 Admiralty law treaties Fisheries treaties Treaties of Angola Treaties of Argentina Treaties of Bosnia and Herzegovina Treaties of the Republic of the Congo Treaties of Estonia Treaties of France Treaties of Morocco Treaties of Norway Treaties of South Africa 2007 in labor relations
15825317
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midland%20Township
Midland Township
Midland Township may refer to: Midland Township, Lyon County, Iowa Midland Township, Michigan Midland Township, St. Louis County, Missouri, in St. Louis County, Missouri Midland Township, Gage County, Nebraska Midland Township, Merrick County, Nebraska Midland Township, Bergen County, New Jersey Midland Township, Pembina County, North Dakota, in Pembina County, North Dakota Midland Township, Hand County, South Dakota, in Hand County, South Dakota Township name disambiguation pages
15825336
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag%20of%20Gloucestershire
Flag of Gloucestershire
The Gloucestershire flag, also known as the Severn Cross, was the winning entry in a competition held by the then High Sheriff of Gloucestershire, Jonathan Carr, to commemorate the 1000th anniversary of the county in March 2008. Prior to 2008, the banner of arms for Gloucestershire County Council was used as the de facto flag for the county. The new flag is coloured blue, cream and green, representing the River Severn, Cotswold stone and the Golden Valley, Stroud respectively. History Prior to 2008, there was a flag of Gloucestershire available, but was actually the banner of arms for Gloucestershire County Council and therefore not the county flag. The new flag was registered in March 2008, and is named the Severn Cross. The design was the winning entry in a 2008 competition, judged by High Sheriff of Gloucestershire, Jonathan Carr, in celebration of a millennium of the county's existence. In addition, Carr stated that many counties of the West Country had their own flags and this anniversary presented the opportunity to add Gloucestershire's flag. In addition, the winner would take home a prize of £250. The competition had over 1000 entries, and the winning entry was designed by Jeremy Bentail, a mental health worker. The 80 best entries were then displayed at the Shire Hall. Once the winner had been chosen, the first thirty flags produced were flown by district councils and University of Gloucestershire. Design The flag comprises a cross of mid-blue, outlined in cream, against an apple green background. The blue represents the River Severn, the green represents the Golden Valley, Stroud and the cream represents Cotswold stone. See also List of English flags List of British flags References Gloucestershire Gloucestershire Gloucestershire Gloucestershire Gloucestershire
15825353
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard%20Maponya
Richard Maponya
Richard John Pelwana Maponya, GCOB, (24 December 1920 – 6 January 2020) was a South African entrepreneur and property developer best known for building a business empire despite the restrictions of apartheid and his determination to see the Soweto township develop economically. Early career Born in Maponya Hill north of Limpopo, attended his primary school in Spitzkop and went to complete his Matric in Ga- Mamabolo. At the age of 24, during World War II, he moved to Alexandra township in Johannesburg to take up a teaching post. When he got to Joburg, he met his relative who told him there is a Department Store in Johannesburg CBD that is looking for a well educated black South African. He then took a job as a merchandiser in a department store. After three months into the job, he got promoted as a buyer for the store. He worked closely with his white manager in selecting clothes for black consumers. The clothes was selling at a fast pace, subsequently his manager became top sales man in the department store. He was later promoted as a CEO of the company. Due to joint efforts of reaching such a high position, his white manager couldn't promote him as operational manager due to racial discrimination laws in South Africa. In gratitude, the manager sold Maponya soiled clothing and offcuts, which he resold in Soweto. With the capital acquired he attempted to open a clothing retailer in Soweto, but was blocked by the government's refusal to grant him a licence, despite intervention by the law firm created by Oliver Tambo and Nelson Mandela. Instead, in the early 1950s, Maponya and his wife Marina (a cousin of Nelson Mandela) established the Dube Hygienic Dairy, which employed a fleet of boys on bicycles to deliver milk to customers in Soweto who had no access to electricity or refrigeration. By the 1970s the retail empire had grown to include several general stores, car dealerships and filling stations. Political activity During the 1960s and 1970s Maponya was a member of the Urban Bantu Council. He resigned in 1977, shortly after youth affiliated with the African National Congress (ANC) requested that he do so, and shortly before the council offices were burnt to the ground. In the 1960s he was a founding member and the first president of the National African Federated Chamber of Commerce (Nafcoc) and likewise the founder and chairman of the African Chamber of Commerce. But some consider his boldest political move to have been his choice of horse-racing colors. As the first black person to be granted such colors in South Africa, Maponya chose green, gold and black, the colors of the ANC. Maponya Mall On 27 September 2007 Richard Maponya opened the Maponya Mall in Soweto. It holds more than 200 stores and a cinema complex. Maponya acquired the land where the mall is situated in 1979, at first as a 100-year lease. In 1994, after several attempts, he acquired it outright. Various attempts to finance construction failed until Maponya's holding company entered into a joint venture with Zenprop Property Holdings. Death He died of old age on 6 January 2020 at the age of 99. He was laid to rest at the Westpark Cemetery on Tuesday 14 January 2020. Awards Grand Counselor of the Baobab, April 2007 Honorary Doctorate, Durban University of Technology, April 2015. Pioneer Award, South African Council of Shopping Centres, 2013. See also Soweto References 1920 births 2020 deaths South African businesspeople People from Greater Tzaneen Local Municipality Burials at Westpark Cemetery Recipients of the Order of the Baobab
15825405
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa%20Ana%20del%20Yacuma
Santa Ana del Yacuma
Santa Ana del Yacuma (also Santa Ana) is a town in the Beni Department in north-eastern Bolivia. History The Jesuit mission of Santa Ana was founded in 1719. Movima Indians resided at the mission. Today, the Movima language is still spoken in and around the town. Location Santa Ana is the capital of the Yacuma Province and the Santa Ana del Yacuma Municipality, located at an elevation of 144 m above sea level, where the Yacuma River meets the Mamoré River. Santa Ana is located 150 Kilometer north-west of Trinidad, the department's capital. The city has an Airport, the Santa Ana del Yacuma Airport, which is located just outside the city. Population The town population has decreased from 14,788 (census 1992) to 12,944 (census 2001) and 12,783 (2008 estimate). Climate The yearly precipitation of the region is 1,700 mm, with a distinct dry season from May to September. Monthly average temperatures vary from 24 °C und 29 °C over the year. According to the Köppen classification system Santa Ana del Yacuma has a Tropical savanna climate, abbreviated "Aw", bordering on a Tropical monsoon climate. Notable residents Saul Farrah, boxer Roberto Suarez Gomez, drug lord References External links Populated places in Beni Department Jesuit Missions of Moxos it:Santa Ana del Yacuma
15825439
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betty%20Deland
Betty Deland
Hedvig Kristina Elisabeth "Betty" Deland (14 November 1831 in Örebro – 1 April 1882 in Stockholm) was a Swedish stage actress. She was a principal of the Royal Dramatic Training Academy and belong to the elite of Swedish 19th-century actors. She was known as Betty Deland until 1857 and then as Betty Almlöf. Life Early career Betty Deland was the daughter of the actors Pierre Deland and Charlotta Deland. She was born into two famous Swedish theatrical families: her father was the director of the famous travelling Deland theater company, and her mother was the daughter of Isaac de Broen, director of the Djurgårdsteatern. She was the niece of Louis Deland. Deland made her debut in the Royal Dramatic Theatre in 1836, the age of five, as a child actor in a boy's breeches role, Otto in Johanna of Montfaucon. The following years, she made a success in children's roles. Stage career Deland was engaged in her father's travelling Deland theater company from 1847 until 1861. She often performed a dance at the end of the performances of the Deland theater "with a cachucha, performed in a Spanish costume in a very delightful way and with some of her father's French grace". She made her formal debut as an actress of her father's company in Uppsala in 1847. The travelling Deland theater was one of the most famed in both Sweden and Finland during its existence between 1833 and 1861: it performed in the theaters of smaller cities and towns in Sweden and Finland, which seldom had a permanent staff at this time, and inaugurated several of the new theaters which was erected during this time, when many small cities built their first permanent theater buildings to house the travelling theater companies. In Stockholm, they often performed in the Djurgårdsteatern, and in Finland, the Deland company regularly performed in the Åbo Svenska Teater, and they formed the first staff of the first national theater, the Swedish Theatre in Helsinki, which was inaugurated in the 1860–61 season. Deland was a significant member of the Deland theater and well known in Sweden and Finland, and during her years there, she performed 300 roles in comedy and vaudeville. In 1857, she married the actor Knut Almlöf, and was henceforth known as Betty Almlöf. Her spouse was also from a theatrical family, son of Nils Almlöf and Brita Catharina Cederberg and stepson of Charlotta Almlöf. In 1861, Almlöf was at the Mindre teatern in Stockholm with her spouse. When the theater was incorporated to the Royal Dramatic Theatre in 1863, they were invited to stay. In 1866, she was contracted as a premier actress. She enjoyed great respect and came to have a successful career at the royal theater. She was active on the stage until the year of her death, in 1882. Being previously known for comedy and vaudeville, her career shifted in the 1860s: At Mindre teatern and even more after her engagement at the royal stage, she evolved to the character roles, where she with equal ability performed the most shifting types. The same truth, the same balance, the same striking strength of line and the same direction toward realism, which signified the art of her husband, was also found in her, fostered as she was in the strict school of her genius father. She was praised for her expressive mimicry, her nuances of voice and her character acting, though her most popular roles mentioned in theater history remained those girls' roles and comic parts of the first half of her career. Almlöf was an instructor and principal of the Royal Dramatic Training Academy jointly with her husband between 1874 and 1877. Roles Among her parts were Madame de Maintenon in Ludvig den fjortonde och markisinnan Maintenon (Louis XIV and Madame de Maintenon), Mrs Serpentier in Den gifta mannen i staden och på landet (The married man in the city and in the country), Emilia in Othello, the queen dowager Hedwig Eleonora in Carl den elfte (Charles XI) by Teodor Hagberg, Belise in Lärdt folk i stubb (The precieuses) by Molière, Mrs Dupuis in Ett hem (A home) by Feuillet, Fadette in Syrsan (Le petite Fadette) by George Sand, Dorine in Tartuffe, the Duchess of Marlborough in Ett glas vatten (A glass of water), Frosine in Den girige (The greedy one) by Molière, Madam Rundholmen in De ungas förbund (The union of the young) by Ibsen and the Duchess in Sällskap där man har tråkigt (Company where one is bored) by Pailleron. References Svenskt biografiskt handlexikon Österberg, Carin et al., Svenska kvinnor: föregångare, nyskapare ['Swedish women. Predecessors, Pioneers'] Lund: Signum 1990. () Berättelser ur svenska historien / Elfte bandet. Oscar I. Carl XV. Oscar II. Per Anders Fogelström, Komikern Roman om en teaterfamilj [Familjen Deland], Bonniers 1989 Nordisk familjebok / Uggleupplagan. 8. Feiss – Fruktmögel [Nordic family dictionary] Nordensvan, Georg, Svensk teater och svenska skådespelare från Gustav III till våra dagar. Andra delen, 1842-1918 ['Swedish theatre and Swedish actors from the days of Gustav III to our days. Second Book 1842–1918'] Bonnier, Stockholm, 1918 Georg Nordensvan: Svensk teater och svenska skådespelare från Gustav III till våra dagar. Andra bandet 1842–1918 (Swedish theatre and Swedish actors from Gustav III to our days 1842–1918) (1918) 1831 births 1882 deaths 19th-century Swedish actresses Swedish stage actresses Swedish child actresses Drama teachers
15825453
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tinajas%20Altas%20Mountains
Tinajas Altas Mountains
The Tinajas Altas Mountains (O'odham: Uʼuva:k or Uʼuv Oopad) are an extremely arid northwest–southeast trending mountain range in southern Yuma County, Arizona, approximately 35 mi southeast of Yuma, Arizona. The southern end of the range extends approximately one mile into the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora on the northern perimeter of the Gran Desierto de Altar. The range is about 22 mi in length and about 4 mi wide at its widest point. The highpoint of the range is unnamed and is above sea level and is located at 32°16'26"N, 114°02'48"W (NAD 1983 datum). Aside from the portion of the range in Mexico, the entirety of the range lies within the Barry M. Goldwater Air Force Range. They lie at the heart of the traditional homeland of the Hia C-eḍ O'odham people. Geology and geography Geologically, the Tinajas Altas Mountains are a southeastward extension of the block faulted Gila Mountains, and what are now the Tinajas Altas Mountains were actually considered part of the Gila Mountains until about the middle of the 20th century. The two ranges are separated by Cipriano Pass, also referred to as "Smugglers Pass," about two miles northwest of Raven Butte, which is a notable dark-colored volcanic feature on the eastern flank of the otherwise light-colored granitic range. The range is named for the Tinajas Altas ("High Tanks"), which are a series of perched waterholes on the range's eastern side approximately four miles north of the international boundary. The waterholes figured prominently in the history of the area as they were for many years the only reliable source of water for many miles. Native Americans, principally the Hia C-eḍ O'odham, also utilized the waterholes as an important camp prior to European settlement. The range lies in the Lower Colorado subdivision of the Sonoran Desert. This subdivision is sometimes referred to as the Colorado Desert and encompasses much of southeastern California, southwestern Arizona, northwestern Sonora, and northeastern Baja California. The subdivision is characterized by minimal precipitation, and the area around the Tinajas Altas Mountains averages only about three inches of rainfall per year. Mexican topographic maps and United States Geological Survey (USGS) maps of the region disagree on the name of an adjacent range lying to the southeast of the Tinajas Altas Mountains. In the United States this small range is referred to as the Sierra de la Lechuguilla, but in Mexico they are called the Sierra Tinajas Altas which would suggest that they are a longer extension of the Tinajas Altas Mountains into Mexico. The two ranges, however, share no surface connection so they are not the same. The Sierra de la Lechuguilla/Sierra Tinajas Altas range are instead on a parallel alignment to the southeast of the Tinajas Altas Mountains proper. The closest community to the Tinajas Altas Mountains is Fortuna Foothills in the east of the Yuma Valley adjacent to the Gila Mountains. Ecology The Tinajas Altas Mountains exhibit a variety of flora and fauna species. Among the notable flora present is the elephant tree, (Bursera microphylla), which species exhibits a contorted multi-furcate architecture. See also Cabeza Prieta Mountains El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve Lechuguilla Desert List of LCRV Wilderness Areas (Colorado River) List of mountain ranges of Arizona List of mountain ranges of Yuma County, Arizona Pinacate Peaks Sierra Pinta Tinajas Altas (High Tanks) Tule Desert (Arizona) Valley and range sequence-Southern Yuma County Yuma Desert References Further reading Border Patrol: Along the Devil's Highway Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge - Arizona Vehicle Trails Associated with Illegal Border Activities on Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge – July 2011 History of Yuma County, Arizona Mountain ranges of Arizona Mountain ranges of the Lower Colorado River Valley Mountain ranges of the Sonoran Desert Mountain ranges of Yuma County, Arizona Mountain ranges of Mexico Landforms of Sonora
15825455
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigrid%20Comb%C3%BCchen
Sigrid Combüchen
Sigrid Combüchen (born 16 January 1942) is a Swedish novelist, essayist, literary critic and journalist. Career Sigrid Combüchen was born in Solingen, Germany in the Ruhr territory. Shortly after the War her family moved to Sweden. Sigrid Combüchen made her debut at the age of eighteen with the novel (1960). She worked in journalism and on her academic degree before she returned to fiction seventeen years later with the novel (In Northern Europe) and then (Warmth) in 1980. Her first internationally renowned novel is Byron, published in 1988. The book paints a picture of the English poet through a compositional change between present and past, where Byron is partly illustrated by a group of Byron enthusiasts of today and partly through the environment in his own time. It was translated into other languages including English, German, French, Spanish and Dutch the following years. Over a period of twenty years Combüchen has written three novels studying the change of mentality in national life. She has used themes of saga, as well as fantasy in i.e. (1998), a dystopian novel drawing on the medieval story. Her novel (Scraps. A Lady's novel) 2010, was translated into many languages and awarded several prizes, most importantly the Swedish August Prize for best novel of the year. Her latest novel (2017) is a story of two French refugees surviving in the Swedish countryside during 1944–45. It is soon to be presented in a stage version. She has also written a few biographies, among them an essayistic account of the life and work of Knut Hamsun. She was one of the editors of the magazine for a number of years and has been a contributor to several other literary magazines and to several newspapers on a regular basis. Between 2004 and 2017 she was a teacher of creative writing at Lund University. She has served on several boards and committees in Swedish, as well as Nordic literary and academic organisations. Awards She received the 2004 Selma Lagerlöf Prize and in 2007 she received an Honorary Doctorate in Literature at Lund University, Sweden, for her literary merits. In 2010, she received the August Prize for the novel (Scraps. A Lady's novel). Bibliography , 1960 , 1977 , 1980 Byron, 1988 , 1992 , 1995 , 1998 , 2003 , 2006 Spill: En damroman, 2010 , 2014 , 2017 References External links 1942 births Living people 20th-century Swedish novelists 21st-century Swedish novelists 21st-century Swedish writers Swedish literary critics Swedish women literary critics Selma Lagerlöf Prize winners Dobloug Prize winners August Prize winners Swedish women writers Swedish women novelists Swedish essayists Swedish women essayists Swedish women biographers Swedish journalists Swedish women journalists Swedish biographers
15825487
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capture%20of%20Savannah
Capture of Savannah
The Capture of Savannah, sometimes the First Battle of Savannah (because of the siege of 1779), or the Battle of Brewton Hill, was an American Revolutionary War battle fought on December 29, 1778 pitting local American Patriot militia and Continental Army units, holding the city, against a British invasion force, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Campbell. The British capture of the city led to an extended occupation and was the opening move in the British southern strategy to regain control of the rebellious Southern provinces by appealing to the relatively strong Loyalist sentiment there. General Sir Henry Clinton, the Commander-in-Chief, North America, dispatched Campbell and a 3,100-strong force from New York City to capture Savannah, and begin the process of returning Georgia to British control. He was to be assisted by troops under the command of Brigadier General Augustine Prevost that were marching up from Saint Augustine in East Florida. After landing near Savannah on December 23, Campbell assessed the American defenses, which were comparatively weak, and decided to attack without waiting for Prevost. Taking advantage of local assistance he flanked the American position outside the city, captured a large portion of Major General Robert Howe's army, and drove the remnants to retreat into South Carolina. Campbell and Prevost followed up the victory with the capture of Sunbury and an expedition to Augusta. The latter was occupied by Campbell only for a few weeks before he retreated to Savannah, citing insufficient Loyalist and Native American support and the threat of Patriot forces across the Savannah River in South Carolina. The British held off a Franco-American siege in 1779, and held the city until late in the war. Background In March 1778, following the defeat of a British army at Saratoga and the consequent entry of France into the American Revolutionary War as an American ally, Lord George Germain, the British Secretary of State for the Colonies, wrote to General Sir Henry Clinton that capturing the southern colonies was "considered by the King as an object of great importance in the scale of the war". Germain's instructions to Clinton, framed as recommendations, were that he should abandon Philadelphia and then embark upon operations to recover Georgia and the Carolinas; whilst making diversionary attacks against Virginia and Maryland. British preparations In June and July 1778 Clinton removed his troops from Philadelphia back to New York. In November, after dealing with the threat of a French fleet off New York and Newport, Rhode Island, Clinton turned his attention to the South. He organized a force of about 3,000 men in New York and sent orders to Saint Augustine, the capital of East Florida, where Brigadier General Augustine Prevost was to organize all available men and Indian agent John Stuart was to rally the local Creek and Cherokee warriors to assist in operations against Georgia. Clinton's basic plan, first proposed by Thomas Brown in 1776, began with the capture of the capital of Georgia, Savannah. Clinton gave command of the detachment from New York to Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Campbell. The force consisted of two battalions (the 1st and 2nd) of the 71st Regiment of Foot, the Hessian regiments von Wöllwarth and von Wissenbach, and four Loyalist units: one battalion from the New York Volunteers, two from DeLancey's Brigade, and one from Skinner's Brigade. Campbell sailed from New York on November 26 and arrived off Tybee Island, near the mouth of the Savannah River, on December 23. American defenses The State of Georgia was defended by two separate forces. Units of the Continental Army were under the command of Major General Robert Howe, who was responsible for the defense of the entire South, and the state's militia companies were under the overall command of Georgia Governor John Houstoun. Howe and the Georgia authorities had previously squabbled over control of military expeditions against Prevost in East Florida, and those expeditions had failed. These failures led the Continental Congress to decide in September 1778 to replace Howe with Major General Benjamin Lincoln, who had negotiated militia participation in events surrounding the British defeat at Saratoga. Lincoln had not yet arrived when word reached Howe that Clinton was sending troops to Georgia. In November 1778, British raids into Georgia became more and more threatening to the state's population centers. Despite the urgency of the situation, Governor Houstoun refused to allow Howe to direct the movements of the Georgia Militia. On November 18, Howe began marching south from Charleston, South Carolina with 550 Continental Army troops, arriving in Savannah late that month. He learned that Campbell had sailed from New York on December 6. On December 23, sails were spotted off Tybee Island. The next day, Governor Houstoun assigned 100 Georgia militia to Howe. A council of war decided to attempt a vigorous defense of Savannah although it was thought that they were likely to be significantly outnumbered by the British and hoped to last until Lincoln's troops arrived. The large number of potential landing points forced Howe to hold most of his army in reserve until the British had actually landed. Order of battle Continentals Commanding Officer, Major General Robert Howe 4th Georgia Regiment 500–550 Georgia and South Carolina Militia led by Brigadier General Isaac Huger British Commanding Officer, Lieutenant Colonel Sir Archibald Campbell 71st Regiment of Foot (Highland Scots/Fraser's Highlanders) 4 Battalions of German Mercenaries North Carolina Royalist Battalion South Carolina Royalist Battalion New York Volunteers Artillery, commanded by Lieutenant Ralph Wilson Detachments from No. 1 Company, 4th Battalion, Royal Artillery No. 2 Company, 4th Battalion, Royal Artillery Detachments from No. 3 Company, 4th Battalion, Royal Artillery Detachments from No. 4 Company, 4th Battalion, Royal Artillery Detachments from No. 8 Company, 4th Battalion, Royal Artillery Battle The place Campbell selected for landing was Girardeau's Plantation, located about below the city. When word reached Howe that the landing had started on December 29, he sent a company of Continentals to occupy the bluffs above the landing site. Campbell realized that the bluffs would need to be controlled before the majority of his forces could land, and dispatched two companies of the 71st Regiment to take control of them. The Continentals opened fire at about . The British, rather than returning fire, advanced rapidly with bayonets fixed, denying the Continentals a second shot. The Continentals retreated after they had killed four and wounded five at no cost to themselves. By noon, Campbell had landed his army and began to proceed cautiously toward the city. Howe held a council that morning and ground was chosen at which to make a stand. About one-half-mile (0.7 km) south of the city he established a line of defense in the shape of an open V, with the ends anchored by swampy woods. On the left, Howe placed Georgia Continentals and militia under Samuel Elbert, while on the right, he put South Carolina Continentals and militia under Isaac Huger and William Thomson. The line was supported by four pieces of field artillery, and light infantry companies guarded the flanks. Most of Howe's troops, including the Continentals, had seen little or no action in the war. When Campbell's advance companies spotted Howe's line around 2:00 pm, the main body stopped short of the field and Campbell went to see what he was up against. He viewed Howe's defenses as essentially sound, but a local slave told him that there was a path through the swamp on Howe's right. Campbell ordered Sir James Baird to take 350 light infantry and 250 New York Loyalists and follow the slave through the swamp, while he arrayed his troops just out of view in a way that would give the impression he would attempt a flanking maneuver on Howe's left. One of his officers climbed a tree to observe Baird's progress. True to the slave's word, the trail came out near the Continental barracks, which had been left unguarded sice the Continentals were unaware they had been flanked. When they reached position, the man in the tree signaled by waving his hat, and Campbell ordered the regulars to charge. The first sounds of battle Howe heard were musket fire from the barracks, but these were rapidly followed by cannon fire and the appearance of charging British and German troops on his front. He ordered an immediate retreat, but it rapidly turned into a rout. His untried troops hardly bothered to return fire, some throwing down their weapons before attempting to run away through the swampy terrain. Campbell reported, "It was scarcely possible to come up with them, their retreat was rapid beyond Conception." The light infantry in the Continental rear cut off the road to Augusta, the only significant escape route, which forced a mad scramble of retreating troops into the city itself. The Georgia soldiers on the right attempted to find a safe crossing of Musgrove Creek, but one did not exist, and many of the troops were taken prisoner. Soldiers who did not immediately surrender were sometimes bayoneted. Colonel Huger managed to form a rear-guard to cover the escape of a number of the Continentals. Some of Howe's men managed to escape to the north before the British closed off the city, but others were forced to attempt swimming across Yamacraw Creek; an unknown number drowned in the attempt. Aftermath Campbell gained control of the city at the cost to his forces of seven killed and seventeen wounded; including the four men killed and five wounded during preliminary skirmishing. Campbell took 453 prisoners, and there were at least 83 dead and 11 wounded from Howe's forces. The number of men who drowned during the retreat has been estimated at about 30. When Howe's retreat ended at Purrysburg, South Carolina he had 342 men left, less than half his original army. Howe would receive much of the blame for the disaster, with William Moultrie arguing that he should have either disputed the landing site in force or retreated without battle to keep his army intact. He was exonerated in a court martial that inquired into the event, but the tribunal pointed out that Howe should have made a stand at the bluffs or more directly opposed the landing. General Prevost arrived from East Florida in mid-January and soon sent Campbell with 1,000 men to take Augusta. Campbell occupied the frontier town against minimal opposition, but by then General Lincoln had begun to rally support in South Carolina to oppose the British. Campbell abandoned Augusta on February 14, the same day a Loyalist force en route to meet him was defeated in the Battle of Kettle Creek. Although Patriot forces following the British were defeated at the March 3 Battle of Brier Creek, the Georgia backcountry remained in Patriot hands. Campbell wrote that he would be "the first British officer to [rend] a star and stripe from the flag of Congress." Savannah was used as a base to conduct coastal raids which targeted areas from Charleston, South Carolina to the Florida coast. In the fall of 1779, a combined French and American siege to recapture Savannah failed and suffered significant casualties. Control of Georgia was formally returned to its royal governor, James Wright, in July 1779, but the backcountry would not come under British control until after the 1780 Siege of Charleston. Patriot forces recovered Augusta by siege in 1781, but Savannah remained in British hands until 11 July 1782. Notes References Savannah (1778) Savannah (1778) Savannah (1778) History of Savannah, Georgia Savannah (Capture of) Conflicts in 1778 1778 in the United States 1778 in Georgia (U.S. state)

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