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[ { "user": "Question: What do respiration and combustion give out\nChoices:\nA. Oxygen\nB. Carbon dioxide\nC. Nitrogen\nD. Heat\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: From the given food web, name any two herbivores?\nChoices:\nA. coyote, bobcat\nB. dingo, jack rabbit\nC. dingo, bobcat\nD. roadrunner&jack rabbit\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the given food web, which are the organism that only eaten roadrunner?\nChoices:\nA. dingo, jack rabbit\nB. coyote, bobcat\nC. dingo, bobcat\nD. snake, jack rabbit\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Name a herbivore from the given food web?\nChoices:\nA. cactus\nB. kangaroo rat\nC. snake\nD. bobcat\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Name a producer from the given food web?\nChoices:\nA. bobcat\nB. snake\nC. road runner\nD. barrel cactus\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Name an omnivore from the given food web?\nChoices:\nA. dingo\nB. bobcat\nC. cactus\nD. kangaroo\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is a predator of the roadrunner?\nChoices:\nA. kangaroo\nB. coyote\nC. dingo\nD. cactus\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What will happen if kangroo rats goes extinct?\nChoices:\nA. Cactus count will decrease\nB. Dessert plants growth will decresse\nC. Snake population will increase\nD. Snake population will decrease\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What would be most affected if the cactus all died?\nChoices:\nA. coyote\nB. dingo\nC. kangaroo rat\nD. snake\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which among the below is a producer in the food chain diagram shown?\nChoices:\nA. Kangaroo rat\nB. Roadrunner\nC. Dessert grass\nD. Snake\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which is a producer?\nChoices:\nA. Coyote\nB. Desert Grass\nC. Kangaroo\nD. Dingo\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Who would suffer without kangaroo rats?\nChoices:\nA. Desert Grass\nB. Snake\nC. Cactus\nD. Roadrunner\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: desert grasses are known as\nChoices:\nA. consumer\nB. herbivores\nC. omnivores\nD. producer\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Anatomy One of a series of long curved bones occurring in 12 pairs in humans is called.\nChoices:\nA. diaphram\nB. lung\nC. none\nD. ribs\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What process does this diagram portray?\nChoices:\nA. Erosion\nB. Water Cycle\nC. Photosynthesis\nD. Moon Phases\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which solar body is portrayed in this diagram?\nChoices:\nA. Moon\nB. Black Hole\nC. Sun\nD. Nebula\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: If the Termites in the community below were destroyed, which population would be most directly affected?\nChoices:\nA. Dingoes\nB. Mice\nC. Northern brown bandicoot\nD. none of above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: If there were a sudden decrease in the number of mice and rats, which would be most affected?\nChoices:\nA. Gould's goanna\nB. Northern brown bandicoot\nC. Termites\nD. none of above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What do dingoes feed on?\nChoices:\nA. lion\nB. elephant\nC. mice and rats\nD. none of the above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What do mice and rats feed on?\nChoices:\nA. spear grass\nB. eucalyptus\nC. termites\nD. none of the above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which of these is the highest in the food chain in this diagram?\nChoices:\nA. crocodiles\nB. mice and rats\nC. spear grass\nD. termites\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which of these is the lowest in the food chain in this diagram?\nChoices:\nA. crocodiles\nB. mice and rats\nC. spear grass\nD. termites\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Which type of rock consists of molten rock?\nChoices:\nA. Igneous Rocks\nB. Metamorphic Rocks\nC. Prehistoric Rocks\nD. Sedimentary Rocks\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which type of rock is formed by the weathered remains of rocks?\nChoices:\nA. Sedimentary Rocks\nB. Igneous Rocks\nC. Metamorphic Rocks\nD. Prehistoric Rocks\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is formed by the deposition of either the weathered remains of other rocks?\nChoices:\nA. Lava\nB. Rock\nC. Sedimentary Rock\nD. Igneous Rock\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: what does the 2nd picture show?\nChoices:\nA. offset tidal gravity\nB. the solar system\nC. tidal mass centered\nD. synchronous orbit\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, what will happen if all the fish were taken out\nChoices:\nA. producer decrease\nB. none\nC. secondary consumer starve\nD. decomposer increase\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the diagram of the food web shown, the jaguar plays what role?\nChoices:\nA. banana tree\nB. fruit\nC. producer\nD. carnivore\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the diagram of the food web shown, which of these are carnivores?\nChoices:\nA. fish\nB. snails\nC. jaguar\nD. parrots\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Refer the diagram and choose the herbivore?\nChoices:\nA. Jagar\nB. Tiger\nC. Alligator\nD. Parrot\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What feeds on the frog?\nChoices:\nA. macaw\nB. parrot\nC. snake\nD. trees\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What will happen if bamboo becomes scarce or disappears?\nChoices:\nA. The chimp and monkey population will decrease\nB. Small bird populations will increase\nC. Fish populations will decrease\nD. Small bird populations will decrease\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What would decrease parrots?\nChoices:\nA. Removing river insects\nB. Removing tigers\nC. Removing banana trees\nD. Removing chimps\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What would you classify the tree frog as?\nChoices:\nA. scavenger\nB. carnivore\nC. producer\nD. herbivore\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which will NOT happen if coconut trees disappear\nChoices:\nA. Monkey populations will decrease\nB. Fish populations will decrease\nC. Bird populations will decrease.\nD. Fruit bat populations will decrease\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Who would suffer if fruits were removed?\nChoices:\nA. Frogs\nB. Fish\nC. Jaguars\nD. Monkeys\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: In which stage is a mosquito most mature?\nChoices:\nA. egg\nB. pupa\nC. adult\nD. larva\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What stage in the life cycle of a mosquito comes after larva?\nChoices:\nA. waxing\nB. adult\nC. pupa\nD. egg\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is directly above the epidermis?\nChoices:\nA. Cortex\nB. Phloem\nC. Pericycle\nD. Root Hair\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What month produces the Winter Solstice?\nChoices:\nA. December\nB. April\nC. June\nD. March\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is formed when magma cools and hardens?\nChoices:\nA. metamorphic\nB. none of the above\nC. sedimentary\nD. igneous\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is this a cycle of?\nChoices:\nA. igneous\nB. none of the above\nC. rock\nD. sedimentary\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What stage shows the caterpillar going through metamorphosis?\nChoices:\nA. Larva\nB. Egg\nC. Chrysalis\nD. Butterfly\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: How many phases does the moon go through in this diagram?\nChoices:\nA. 5\nB. 8\nC. 2\nD. 7\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What process is shown in this diagram?\nChoices:\nA. Water cycle\nB. Erosion\nC. Moon phases\nD. Rock cycle\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is pictured in the diagram?\nChoices:\nA. Fish fins\nB. Mammal feet\nC. Frog leg\nD. Bird feet\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is the outermost layer of the earth?\nChoices:\nA. crust\nB. outer core\nC. mantle\nD. inner core\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Which flower is the longest?\nChoices:\nA. 8\nB. 9\nC. 7\nD. 5\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which flower resembles a test tube?\nChoices:\nA. 8\nB. 7\nC. 5\nD. 9\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: A food web is shown. Grass and Seeds are ?\nChoices:\nA. Producers\nB. Secondary Consumer\nC. Tertiary Consumer\nD. Primary Consumer\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: A food web is shown. If there were a sudden decrease in the amount of grass, which would be most affected?\nChoices:\nA. Rabbits will starve\nB. None will starve\nC. Wolf will starve\nD. Owl will starve\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Choose the correct herbivore:\nChoices:\nA. Owl\nB. Fox\nC. Acorn\nD. Rabbit\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Given the food web listed and your knowledge of science, name a predator in this food web.\nChoices:\nA. Acorns\nB. Mouse\nC. Owl\nD. Rabbit\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Given the food web listed and your knowledge of science, name a producer in this food web.\nChoices:\nA. Eagle\nB. Owl\nC. Acorns\nD. Fox\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: If all foxes will be removed\nChoices:\nA. Grass will increasse\nB. Owls will increase\nC. Rabbit will increase\nD. none of above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: If rabbits were removed from this ecosystem, which population would probably decrease?\nChoices:\nA. Mouse\nB. Grass\nC. Fox\nD. Acorns\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Imagine that the rabbits disappeared from this system. What is the most likely result?\nChoices:\nA. Mice decrease\nB. Foxes decrease\nC. No more acorns\nD. Owls decrease\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Using the food web above, what would happen to the other organisms if the number of mouse were decreased?\nChoices:\nA. Rabbits will increase\nB. Grass will decrease\nC. Owls will decrease\nD. None of above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What feeds on the rabbit?\nChoices:\nA. grass\nB. owl\nC. acorn\nD. mouse\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What would happen to the mice if the owls decreased?\nChoices:\nA. can't predict\nB. decrease\nC. stay the same\nD. increase\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which of the following terms applies to the fox?\nChoices:\nA. Decomposer\nB. Carnivore\nC. Herbivore\nD. Producer\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: A food web for a ecosystem is shown above. Which of the organisms in this food web gets energy from both producers and consumers?\nChoices:\nA. Mysid Shrimp\nB. Muscles\nC. Sand Shrimp\nD. Algae\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, if all the algae dies then\nChoices:\nA. mussels decrease\nB. crab increase\nC. mussels increase\nD. no change\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, which of the species compete for mysid shrimp\nChoices:\nA. crab and mussels\nB. anchovy and sand shrimp\nC. none of this\nD. algae and shrimp\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the energy flow diagram, which is the correct direction of flow of energy?\nChoices:\nA. Anchovy to Shrimps\nB. Mud Crab to Mussels\nC. Algae to Shrimps\nD. Weakfish to Atlantic croaker\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the food chain diagram shown below, which organism is at the top of energy flow?\nChoices:\nA. Weakfish\nB. Shrimps\nC. Algae\nD. Mud Crab\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the diagram what is the stage before mud crab?\nChoices:\nA. Mussels\nB. weakfish\nC. Atlantic croaker\nD. anchovy\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Jim made a simple food web of some animals that live in the Ocean. Based on Jim's food web, which organism is the main source of energy for the Mud Crab?\nChoices:\nA. Mussels\nB. Anchovy\nC. Weakfish\nD. Algae\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Part of an oceanic food web has been provided. Of the provided animals, which one eats Atlantic Croaker? A) Weakfish B)Mussels C)Algae D) Sand Shrimp\nChoices:\nA. Weakfish\nB. sand shrimp\nC. mussels\nD. algae\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Please refer to the food web provided when answering, if the web does not answer question then please use your knowledge of biology to answer question. If there were to be a decrease in available algae, which animal would have the MOST decrease in available energy? A) Sand Shrimp B) Mud Crab C) Mussels D) Anchovy\nChoices:\nA. Mud Crab\nB. Sand Shrimp\nC. Anchovy\nD. Mussels\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: From the above food chain diagram, which species eat insects\nChoices:\nA. mammals\nB. reptiles\nC. plants\nD. decomposer\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, if there is decrease in amount of plants then\nChoices:\nA. insects increases\nB. insects decreases\nC. reptiles decreases\nD. reptiles increases\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, which species increases if plants number increases\nChoices:\nA. insects\nB. mammal\nC. reptiles\nD. birds\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Fungi represents what?\nChoices:\nA. producer\nB. prey\nC. predator\nD. decomposer\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Name a producer.\nChoices:\nA. Rainforest plant\nB. mammal\nC. insect\nD. amphibian\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is an decomposer?\nChoices:\nA. mammal\nB. fungi\nC. amphibian\nD. insect\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What relationship do insects and birds have?\nChoices:\nA. competition\nB. host-parasite\nC. prey-predator\nD. mutualism\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which describes what is most likely to happen if there are no more plants?\nChoices:\nA. fewer insects\nB. more reptiles\nC. more decomposers\nD. more mammals\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which of the following is a predator?\nChoices:\nA. plant\nB. fungi\nC. mammal\nD. decomposer\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is the lowermost section of a vertebrate brain?\nChoices:\nA. Optic chiasm\nB. Pineal gland\nC. Medulla oblongata\nD. Occipital lobe\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which controls body temperature?\nChoices:\nA. Pons\nB. Central sulcus\nC. Pineal gland\nD. Hypothalamus\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: which is the innermost part\nChoices:\nA. epidermis\nB. pith\nC. none\nD. vascular bundle\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is the insulating envelope of myelin that surrounds the core of a nerve fiber or axon and facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses?\nChoices:\nA. nucleus\nB. soma\nC. myelin sheath\nD. axon\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is the name of the process that conducts impulses away from the body of the nerve cell?\nChoices:\nA. axon\nB. myelin sheath\nC. dendrite\nD. soma\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Which of the above things are the largest?\nChoices:\nA. Saturn\nB. Jupiter\nC. The Sun\nD. The Earth\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which planet is largest?\nChoices:\nA. Saturn\nB. Jupiter\nC. Earth\nD. Mars\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is the layer above the upper mantle?\nChoices:\nA. core\nB. mouth\nC. magma chamber\nD. crust\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What phase is shown above\nChoices:\nA. photosynthesis\nB. darkness\nC. plants\nD. light\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Where is food made?\nChoices:\nA. green plant cells\nB. fruits\nC. roots\nD. soil\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What comes after Pupa?\nChoices:\nA. Baby\nB. Adult\nC. Eggs\nD. Teenager\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: How many different types of leaves were shown above in the diagram?\nChoices:\nA. 7\nB. 6\nC. 9\nD. 8\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: The exterior part of the earth is called\nChoices:\nA. crust\nB. outer core\nC. inner core\nD. mantle\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which is the deepest part of earth?\nChoices:\nA. inner core\nB. mantle\nC. outer core\nD. crust\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Which is the largest planet?\nChoices:\nA. Uranus\nB. Jupiter\nC. Mars\nD. Venus\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Which stage does an insect move to after eggs?\nChoices:\nA. Adult\nB. Nymph\nC. Insect\nD. Larva\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Based on the food web, a decrease in the squirrel population will result in a decrease in the available energy to the\nChoices:\nA. Snake\nB. Deer\nC. Owl\nD. Rabbit\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Based on the given diagram name the carnivorous animals.\nChoices:\nA. Owl and Snake\nB. None\nC. Grasshopper and Rabbit\nD. Squirrel and Deer\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Based on the given diagram, which of the following are primary consumers?\nChoices:\nA. Bird and Frog\nB. Fox and Snake\nC. Grasshopper and Rabbit\nD. None of these\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: How many herbivores on in the forest food web?\nChoices:\nA. one\nB. six\nC. four\nD. ten\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: How many preys does the owl have in the forest food web?\nChoices:\nA. three\nB. two\nC. one\nD. five\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: If Frog's were removed from this food web, who would be affected the most?\nChoices:\nA. deer\nB. rabbit\nC. snake\nD. wolf\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Imagine you have planted a plant in a forest. You draw a food chain depicting the animals found in the forest. If the grasshoppers were removed from the forest, which is the organism that is most likely to experience a decrease in it's population in the forest?\nChoices:\nA. Frog\nB. Squirrel\nC. Plant\nD. Wolf\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Looking at this diagram of a forest food web, what is the role of the plant?\nChoices:\nA. A decomposer of dead material\nB. A predator of other living organisms\nC. A source of energy for deer\nD. Used as a shelter for other organisms\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What organism is supplying the energy in the food web?\nChoices:\nA. Plant\nB. Grasshopper\nC. Snake\nD. Deer\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What would decrease if there were more snakes?\nChoices:\nA. frogs\nB. foxes\nC. wolves\nD. plants\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What would happen if all the plants were removed?\nChoices:\nA. frogs would thrive\nB. squirrels would starve\nC. snakes would flee\nD. deer would have more babies\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Varieties of what mineral include: agate, chalcedony, chert, flint, opal, and rock crystal?\nChoices:\nA. calcite\nB. quartz\nC. halite\nD. limonite\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What mineral is colorless, white, or yellowish in color, and is used in the manufacture of plaster of Paris, various plaster products, and fertilizers?\nChoices:\nA. gypsum\nB. calcite\nC. olivine\nD. amphibole\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: According to the diagram shown, what might happen if the insect population were to decrease?\nChoices:\nA. Birds will have fewer sources for food\nB. Owls will have more to eat\nC. Foxes will starve\nD. the bird population will increase\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Base your answers on the food web below and on your knowledge of biology. Which organisms are carnivores?\nChoices:\nA. wolves, snake, and eagle\nB. grass and trees\nC. mouse, rabbit, and cricket\nD. deer and mountain lion (A) deer and mountain lion (B) wolves, snake, and eagle (C) grass and trees\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, what would happen to birds population if all owls dies\nChoices:\nA. none\nB. increases\nC. decreases\nD. remains the same\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, what would leads to increase in number of insects\nChoices:\nA. increase in plants\nB. decrease in fox\nC. increase in fod\nD. decrease in plants\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, which species will directly get affected if all the birds dies\nChoices:\nA. insects\nB. plants\nC. owls\nD. none\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the Diagram which element is considered the producer?\nChoices:\nA. Black Spruce\nB. Wolves\nC. Lynx\nD. birds\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the above diagram, which are the animals mentioned as Tertiary consumer ?\nChoices:\nA. Insects, Bird and Mice\nB. Wolves and Lynx\nC. Both A and B\nD. Birds, Owls andFox\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Name an organism that is a carnivore and is also food for carnivores using the diagram below.\nChoices:\nA. Moose\nB. Insects\nC. Fox\nD. Lynx\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: The food web shows the energy transfer between organisms in an ecosystem. How will it most likely affect the ecosystem if the population of Moose decreases?\nChoices:\nA. The available energy for the Lynx decreases.\nB. The available energy for the Fox decreases.\nC. The available energy for the Black Spruce decreases.\nD. The available energy for the Wolves decreases.\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: The wolves in the ecosystem can be considered:\nChoices:\nA. Decomposers\nB. Producers\nC. Herbivores\nD. Consumers\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is on top of the plant?\nChoices:\nA. leaf sheath\nB. stem\nC. leaf blade\nD. crown\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Where does the leaf blade grow out of?\nChoices:\nA. leaf sheath\nB. crown\nC. roots\nD. stem\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Which cell has flagella?\nChoices:\nA. bacteria cell\nB. plant cell\nC. animal cell\nD. typical cell\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is the system above the soil?\nChoices:\nA. flower\nB. leaf\nC. shoot system\nD. none of the above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is the system below the soil?\nChoices:\nA. flower\nB. none of the above\nC. root system\nD. shoot system\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Considering the above food web, which is not directly consumed by small birds?\nChoices:\nA. Caterpillar\nB. Fox\nC. Ladybug\nD. Aphid\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, small birds represents\nChoices:\nA. scavenger\nB. herbivore\nC. producer\nD. carnivore\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, what happen if grasshopper increases\nChoices:\nA. bug increases\nB. plants decreases\nC. bug decreases\nD. plants increases\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, what would happen to small birds if all ladybug are removed\nChoices:\nA. remains the same\nB. increase\nC. decrease\nD. NA\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, which species has the most prey\nChoices:\nA. small bird\nB. grasshopper\nC. fox\nD. bug\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the food cycle diagram shown below, which animals are most directly affected if the number of plants is on a decline?\nChoices:\nA. Foxes\nB. Ladybug and Small Birds\nC. Caterpillars and Grasshoppers\nD. Foxes and Birds\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the food cycle shown in the diagram, which organisms are correctly classified from their roles in the food chain?\nChoices:\nA. Grasshoppers and Caterpillars -consumers; Birds and Foxes -producers\nB. Plants - consumers; Foxes -producers\nC. Foxes and birds -consumers; Plants - producers\nD. Caterpillars and Aphid - consumers; Plants - producers\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Name animals that are secondary consumers in the above ecosystem.\nChoices:\nA. Small birds, grasshoppers, and foxes.\nB. Ladybugs and foxes.\nC. Only aphids.\nD. Small birds and caterpillars.\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is \"fox\" considered?\nChoices:\nA. predator\nB. plant\nC. herbivore\nD. producer\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is one thing that might happen in the above system that would cause the fox population to increase?\nChoices:\nA. A new predator like a mountain lion moving into the area.\nB. Less ladybugs living in the area.\nC. Increase in the small bird population.\nD. The plant population shrinking.\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which of the insects from the given food chain does not consume plants?\nChoices:\nA. Aphid\nB. Ladybug\nC. Grasshopper\nD. Caterpillar\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which would be most affected if the ladybugs all died?\nChoices:\nA. fox\nB. grasshopper\nC. aphid\nD. caterpillar\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Based on the diagram, which of the following can be considered producers?\nChoices:\nA. Sugar Cane Plants, Wild Plants\nB. Beetle, Grasshopper\nC. Sugar Cane Plants, Snail\nD. Weevil, Mouse\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the diagram of the food web shown if the snail population died off tragically, what would likely happen to the cane toad population?\nChoices:\nA. increases\nB. decreases\nC. stays the same\nD. NA\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the diagram of the food web shown, if the number of grasshoppers were to decrease, the wild plant population would?\nChoices:\nA. stay the same\nB. decrease\nC. increase\nD. can't tell\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the diagram shown, which is the primary producer?\nChoices:\nA. snails\nB. weevil\nC. sugar cane plants\nD. cane toad\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In this food web, which animal is an herbivore?\nChoices:\nA. Grasshopper\nB. Mouse\nC. Cane Toad\nD. None of the above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: The food web displays energy transfer between several organisms within an ecosystem. What is most likely to happen if a drought caused the population of Sugar Cane Plants to decrease?\nChoices:\nA. The population of mice will decrease\nB. The population of wild plants will decrease\nC. The population of weevils will decrease\nD. The population of grasshoppers will increase\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What do cane toads feed on?\nChoices:\nA. beetle\nB. mouse\nC. human\nD. weevil\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What do mouse feed on?\nChoices:\nA. human\nB. cane toads\nC. grasshopper\nD. none of the above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What do snails feed on/\nChoices:\nA. sugar cane plants\nB. mouse\nC. weevil\nD. none of the above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is a primary producer shown here?\nChoices:\nA. wild plants\nB. snail\nC. mouse\nD. none of the above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which organism is the grasshopper's main source of energy, according to the food web?\nChoices:\nA. Beetle\nB. Cane Toad\nC. Sugar Cane Plants\nD. Wild Plants\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: According to the food web, if the grasses would disappear a result might be\nChoices:\nA. A decrease in hawks.\nB. An increase in musk oxes.\nC. An increase in lemmings.\nD. A decrease in musk oxes.\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: According to the food web, the musk ox is a\nChoices:\nA. Predator\nB. Decomposer\nC. Consumer\nD. Parasite\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Based on the food web, an increase in the population of arctic hare will do what to the population of hawks?\nChoices:\nA. Decrease\nB. Not enough information\nC. Remain the same\nD. Increase\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Based on the food web, what might lead to an increase of wolves over time?\nChoices:\nA. An increase in hawks.\nB. A decrease in musk ox.\nC. An increase in grass.\nD. An increase in caribou.\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Identify the producers from the diagram below.\nChoices:\nA. Polar bear, wolf, hawk\nB. Lichen, arctic hare, hawk\nC. Lichen, grasses, arctic wildflower\nD. Musk ox, caribou, lemming\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the diagram above which is the producer of the following below-\nChoices:\nA. Hawk\nB. Arctic Hare\nC. Polar Bear\nD. Grasses\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the food web shown below, the rabbit gives energy to which of the following?\nChoices:\nA. Wolf\nB. Deer\nC. Grass\nD. Sun\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is an herbivore?\nChoices:\nA. musk ox\nB. wolf\nC. hawk\nD. polar bear\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is the top predator?\nChoices:\nA. caribou\nB. grass\nC. polar bear\nD. musk ox\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What organism represents the producer in the above food chain?\nChoices:\nA. Lichen\nB. Arctic Hare\nC. Polar Bear\nD. Musk Ox\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What would happen if the sun disappeared?\nChoices:\nA. grasses would die\nB. arctic hares would star to eat licen\nC. wolves would increase\nD. polar bears would increase\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which of the following is a producer on the food web?\nChoices:\nA. Grasses\nB. Sun\nC. Musk Ox\nD. Lemming\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: According to the given food chain, if the population of clam increases\nChoices:\nA. Blue crab will increase in number.\nB. Grass will dry up.\nC. Croaker will die.\nD. Crabs will decrease.\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Besides the croaker and striped bass, who eats the copepods?\nChoices:\nA. striped bass\nB. clam\nC. menhaden\nD. NA\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, how does energy flow\nChoices:\nA. grass to fish\nB. grass to frog\nC. grass to crab\nD. grass to clam\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, if all widgeon grass dies clam will\nChoices:\nA. remains the same\nB. increase\nC. decrease\nD. NA\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, if copepods dies then which species directly get affected\nChoices:\nA. crab\nB. fish\nC. clam\nD. grass\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, what happen if all copepods are removed\nChoices:\nA. clam population increases\nB. grass population increases\nC. fish population decreases\nD. crab population increases\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, which species is producer\nChoices:\nA. fish\nB. grass\nC. crab\nD. clam\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, which statement is correct\nChoices:\nA. crab are decomposer\nB. crab are secondary consumer\nC. crab are producer\nD. crab are primary consumer\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: How is the clam related to the blue crab? Is it its' predator or prey?\nChoices:\nA. producer\nB. predator\nC. prey\nD. NA\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: If Widgeon Grass in the ecosystem was destroyed, which organism population would most directly be affected?\nChoices:\nA. Crab\nB. Clam\nC. Striped Bass\nD. Dinoglagellates\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: If croakers became more scarce, the population of copepods would most likely...\nChoices:\nA. remain the same\nB. decrease\nC. increase\nD. NA\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: If the number of blue crab decrease, the population of clams will most likely do what?\nChoices:\nA. decrease\nB. increase\nC. remain the same\nD. NA\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Menhaden is consumed by ...\nChoices:\nA. widgeon grass\nB. croaker\nC. striped bass\nD. NA\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: The clam is (a) __________ to the blue crab.\nChoices:\nA. producer\nB. prey\nC. predator\nD. NA\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: The number of clams will probably ______ if the number of blue crabs decreases.\nChoices:\nA. increase\nB. remain the same\nC. decrease\nD. NA\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: The population of copepods will probably _____ if the croaker population decreases.\nChoices:\nA. remain the same\nB. increase\nC. decrease\nD. NA\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What do menhadens and croakers eat?\nChoices:\nA. copepods\nB. dinoflagellates\nC. striped bass\nD. NA\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What fish is menhaden food for?\nChoices:\nA. widgeon grass\nB. croaker\nC. striped bass\nD. NA\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is eaten by the croaker and menhaden?\nChoices:\nA. copepods\nB. striped bass\nC. dinoflagellates\nD. NA\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which of the following creatures shown in the diagram is the highest organism in the food chain?\nChoices:\nA. Clam\nB. Croaker\nC. Striped Bass\nD. Menhaden\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which of the following organisms in the food web shown are both predator and prey?\nChoices:\nA. Croaker\nB. Dinoflagellates\nC. Blue Crab\nD. Striped Bass\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which other animal other than croaker and striped bass can eat copepods?\nChoices:\nA. clam\nB. striped bass\nC. menhaden\nD. NA\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: When is summer solstice?\nChoices:\nA. march 20\nB. september 22\nC. june 21\nD. december 21\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: When is winter solstice?\nChoices:\nA. March 20\nB. september 22\nC. December 21\nD. December 20\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Which plant is comprised of verticils arranged as a spike?\nChoices:\nA. thyrse\nB. catkin\nC. raceme\nD. verticilaster\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What covers over 70% of Earth's surface?\nChoices:\nA. Magma\nB. Volcanic Arc\nC. Ocean\nD. Lithosphere\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Based on the diagram below, what preys on snakes?\nChoices:\nA. toad\nB. alligator\nC. crayfish\nD. eagle\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Based on the diagram below, which animal group consumes algae?\nChoices:\nA. alligator\nB. snail\nC. slug\nD. fish\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, what happen if algae increases\nChoices:\nA. lichen increases\nB. snails decreases\nC. snails increases\nD. lichen decreases\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, which species get mostly affected if all snails dies\nChoices:\nA. algae\nB. toad\nC. fish\nD. crayfish\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: If the population of the crayfish increased, what would happen to the snails?\nChoices:\nA. stay the same\nB. increase\nC. can't predict\nD. decrease\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What change would increase the amount of algae?\nChoices:\nA. fewer snails\nB. less snake\nC. more lichen\nD. more toads\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is a predator?\nChoices:\nA. alligator\nB. snail\nC. algae\nD. slug\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is a producer?\nChoices:\nA. crayfish\nB. fish\nC. algae\nD. snake\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is alligator?\nChoices:\nA. prey\nB. producer\nC. host\nD. predator\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What would happen to the toad population if the slugs were removed?\nChoices:\nA. increase\nB. decrease\nC. can't predict\nD. stay the same\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What's the relationship between fish and crayfish?\nChoices:\nA. competition\nB. host-parasite\nC. predator-prey\nD. mutualism\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Which organ is responsible for producing bile?\nChoices:\nA. liver\nB. pancreas\nC. stomach\nD. appendix\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: The lower jaw of a vertebrate animal is called\nChoices:\nA. mandible\nB. hypopharynx\nC. labrum\nD. palp\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: bottom part of the pharynx, the part of the throat that connects to the esophagus is called\nChoices:\nA. labrum\nB. hypopharynx\nC. palp\nD. mandible\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is a small sac or cyst, usually containing fluids?\nChoices:\nA. ribosomes\nB. nucleolus\nC. vesicle\nD. membrane\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What kind of cycle is shown in the diagram?\nChoices:\nA. oxygen cycle\nB. none of the above\nC. rock cycle\nD. water cycle\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Which part is responsible for sensory?\nChoices:\nA. elytra\nB. leg\nC. antenna\nD. pronotum\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: In the life cycle of a Butterfly which stage is before it becomes an adult ?\nChoices:\nA. larva hatching\nB. larva\nC. egg\nD. pupa\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the life cycle of a Butterfly which stage is before it becomes an pupa ?\nChoices:\nA. Adult\nB. larva\nC. larva hatching\nD. egg\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Are the leaves of the plant at the letter C, on the diagram above, closely packed together?\nChoices:\nA. No\nB. Yes\nC. There are no leaves on the plant\nD. That is not a plant\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which of the above depicted plants has large closely-packed leaves?\nChoices:\nA. D\nB. C\nC. A\nD. B\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What happens to the male after mating?\nChoices:\nA. death\nB. remains in colony as a worker\nC. becomes queen of colony\nD. becomes king of colony\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is the tallest?\nChoices:\nA. pistillate flower\nB. both\nC. staminiate flower\nD. neither\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which is the more open flower?\nChoices:\nA. pistilate flower\nB. staminate flower\nC. neither\nD. both\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: When does the summer solstice occur?\nChoices:\nA. June 21/22\nB. March 21/22\nC. Sept 22/23\nD. Dec 21/22\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: When does the vernal equinox occur?\nChoices:\nA. June 21/22\nB. Dec 21/22\nC. Sept 22/23\nD. March 21/22\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: what is the outermost part\nChoices:\nA. vacuole\nB. nucleus\nC. cilia\nD. plasma\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Choose the option that best describes a zone of the earth's mantle that lies beneath the lithosphere and consists of several hundred kilometers of deformable rock.?\nChoices:\nA. crust\nB. lithosphere\nC. sedimentary\nD. asthenosphere\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which is the outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle?\nChoices:\nA. continental\nB. asthenosphere\nC. sedimentary\nD. lithosphere\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: A food chain is given here. Which of the following comes as primary consumer in the food web?\nChoices:\nA. grass\nB. small birds\nC. fox\nD. beetles\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Based on the food chain diagram given here, the population of foxes are likely to increase/decrease or remain the same when the population of mice increases\nChoices:\nA. increase\nB. remain the same\nC. decrease\nD. decrease and increase\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, beetles represents\nChoices:\nA. producer\nB. none\nC. primary consumer\nD. decomposer\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, which of the species is producer\nChoices:\nA. slugs\nB. mice\nC. badger\nD. grass\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the diagram of the food web shown, what do rabbits consume, of these choices?\nChoices:\nA. grass\nB. hedgehog\nC. earthworm\nD. fox\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the diagram of the, food web shown, what does the shrew consume as food, given these choices\nChoices:\nA. beetle\nB. earthworm\nC. rabbits\nD. grass\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What competes with small birds for slugs?\nChoices:\nA. woodlice\nB. shrew\nC. badger\nD. fox\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is both predator and prey?\nChoices:\nA. woodlice\nB. fox\nC. grass\nD. small bird\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is the top of the food chain?\nChoices:\nA. grass\nB. earthworm\nC. fox\nD. dead grass\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What would you classify the fox as?\nChoices:\nA. energy source\nB. prey\nC. producer\nD. predator\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: a food web is given below. Find out the correct pair of predator?\nChoices:\nA. fox and rabbit\nB. hawk and fox\nC. Slugs and mice\nD. grass and mice\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What \"adult\" means in this figure?\nChoices:\nA. Plural form of nymph.\nB. Variant of metamorphic.\nC. A fully grown, mature organism.\nD. Egg Cell.\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: In the cycle as shown, what process occurs between the cloud and the trees shown?\nChoices:\nA. evapotranspiration\nB. condensation\nC. precipitation\nD. snowmelt\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is the outer part of the seed?\nChoices:\nA. embryo\nB. Store\nC. Root\nD. Seed coat\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: which of these have longest beak\nChoices:\nA. saddle-billed stork\nB. hammerhead\nC. none\nD. shoebill\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: which of these have shortest beak\nChoices:\nA. saddle-billed stork\nB. shoebill\nC. hammerhead\nD. none\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is the B part indicates in the diagram?\nChoices:\nA. root\nB. leaf\nC. stem\nD. flower\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is between the reticulum and the abomasum?\nChoices:\nA. Intestine\nB. Omasum\nC. Stomach\nD. Rumen\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: How many stages are in this diagram?\nChoices:\nA. 3\nB. 7\nC. 4\nD. 6\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is the 3rd stage of the diagram?\nChoices:\nA. larval\nB. adult\nC. Pupae\nD. eggs\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What stage takes the greatest amount of time to reach?\nChoices:\nA. Shrub stage\nB. Bare field\nC. Pine forest stage\nD. Hardwood forest stage\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: According to the food web, if killer whales were hunted and killed by people which organism will increase?\nChoices:\nA. snakes\nB. cods\nC. herring\nD. hawks\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: According to the food web, what is the correct flow of energy?\nChoices:\nA. hawk - flower\nB. Snake - mouse\nC. hawk- snake\nD. flower - grasshopper\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: According to the food web, what will happen if there is a decrease of flowers and phytoplanktons?\nChoices:\nA. Hawks will increase\nB. Snakes will decrease\nC. Whales will suffer\nD. Zooplankton and grasshoppers will decrease\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: According to the given food web, what are the consequences of eradicating snakes out of the community?\nChoices:\nA. Mouse population will increase.\nB. Flowers will increase.\nC. Grasshopper will die.\nD. None of the above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the diagram of the food web shown, an example of a producer is a ?\nChoices:\nA. hawk\nB. mouse\nC. snake\nD. flower\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the terrestrial food chain side, Grasshoppers are referred to as primary consumers because they\nChoices:\nA. release energy to tertiary consumers\nB. conserve energy\nC. release energy to secondary consumer\nD. consume energy directly from the producer\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is a producer?\nChoices:\nA. flower\nB. killer whale\nC. cod\nD. herring\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is a secondary consumer?\nChoices:\nA. snake\nB. hawk\nC. mouse\nD. flower\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: which of these show many leafs\nChoices:\nA. opposite\nB. none\nC. basal rosettle\nD. simple\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: which of these show single leaf\nChoices:\nA. compound\nB. simple\nC. opposite\nD. none\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Carbon dioxide and water are required for what process in this cycle?\nChoices:\nA. Cellular respiration\nB. Photosynthesis\nC. Mitochondria\nD. Animal cell\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What structure in the plant cell is required for photosynthesis?\nChoices:\nA. Chloroplast\nB. Glucose\nC. ATP\nD. Animal cell\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What serves as the site of assembly for polypeptides encoded by messenger RNA?\nChoices:\nA. Nucleus.\nB. Ribosome.\nC. Chloroplast.\nD. Mitochondria.\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What shape is the nucleus of a cell most often?\nChoices:\nA. Amorphous.\nB. Conical.\nC. Trapezoidal.\nD. Spherical.\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is at the center of the nucleus?\nChoices:\nA. nucleolus\nB. cytoplasm\nC. none of the above\nD. ribosome\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is the outermost layer called?\nChoices:\nA. cell wall\nB. cytoplasm\nC. golgi apparatus\nD. none of the above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What contains water and food?\nChoices:\nA. Ribosome\nB. Golgi apparatus\nC. Vacuole\nD. Lysosome\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What encloses the cytoplasm?\nChoices:\nA. Nucleus\nB. Cell membrane\nC. Lysosome\nD. ribosome\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: To which category does the zebra belong?\nChoices:\nA. none of the above\nB. carnivore\nC. wild animal\nD. herbivore\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What does the zebra eat?\nChoices:\nA. {}\nB. grass\nC. lion\nD. none of the above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Which of these leaves has the simplest edge pattern?\nChoices:\nA. entire\nB. jagged\nC. lobed\nD. straight\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: The earth moves around the sun in _______ .\nChoices:\nA. Triangular orbit.\nB. Rectangular orbit.\nC. Elliptical orbit.\nD. Circular orbit.\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: At what temperature does water freeze in Celsius?\nChoices:\nA. 0\nB. -17\nC. 100\nD. 144\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: How many stages are shown in the diagram?\nChoices:\nA. 4\nB. 6\nC. 1\nD. 3\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: How many stages are shown in the lifecycle?\nChoices:\nA. 6\nB. 9\nC. 7\nD. 0\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: The sun rises from what direction?\nChoices:\nA. North\nB. South\nC. West\nD. East\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Name a decomposer in the food web.\nChoices:\nA. Fox\nB. Worm\nC. Human\nD. None of the above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What does the owl feed on in the web?\nChoices:\nA. mouse\nB. rabbit\nC. chicken\nD. none of the above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is at the highest of the food chain in this diagram?\nChoices:\nA. mouse\nB. human\nC. chicken\nD. rabbit\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is at the lowest of the food chain in this diagram?\nChoices:\nA. human\nB. grass\nC. rabbit\nD. chicken\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is the producer in the web?\nChoices:\nA. owl\nB. fish\nC. plant\nD. none of the above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Who is the top predator in the food web shown?\nChoices:\nA. Worm\nB. Chicken\nC. Human\nD. None of the above\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: In the diagram shown to us, what position is the moon in during a neap tide?\nChoices:\nA. third quarter\nB. new\nC. full\nD. first quarter\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the illustration shown, spring tide occurs when the moon is in what position?\nChoices:\nA. first quarter\nB. full\nC. third quarter\nD. new\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is the outermost Layer\nChoices:\nA. nucleus\nB. lysosome\nC. golgi\nD. plasma membrane\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What surrounds the Nucleolus?\nChoices:\nA. lysosome\nB. Nucleus\nC. vacuole\nD. golgi\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: According to the food web shown here, which of these animals is a herbivore?\nChoices:\nA. Cod\nB. Leopard seal\nC. Killer Whale\nD. Elephant seal\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, decrease in algae will decrease the energy for\nChoices:\nA. krill\nB. seal\nC. leopard seal\nD. squid\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, which of the following is omnivore\nChoices:\nA. algae\nB. cod\nC. killer whale\nD. protists\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Name the animal that is at the top of the food chain.\nChoices:\nA. algae\nB. elephant seal\nC. killer whale\nD. crabeater seal\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: The diagram below shows some of the organisms in a water ecosystem. Which of the following organisms shown in the diagram is the highest organism in the food chain?\nChoices:\nA. elephant seal\nB. killer whale\nC. crabeater seal\nD. squid\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is a tertiary consumer?\nChoices:\nA. krill\nB. penguin\nC. algae\nD. killer whale\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What is the beginning of life?\nChoices:\nA. squid\nB. krill\nC. algae\nD. elephant seal\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Plants turn sunlight into energy. What is the process called?\nChoices:\nA. absorption\nB. energy conversion\nC. photosynthesis\nD. eating\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is the earth orbiting?\nChoices:\nA. sun\nB. sky\nC. star\nD. moon\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Are the leaves on the plant on the left in pairs?\nChoices:\nA. No, they are not paired leaves.\nB. You can't force leaves into arranged marriages.\nC. Yes, they are paired leaves.\nD. There's no such thing as pairing.\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: The diagram presented above has two different plants. What seems to be the main difference?\nChoices:\nA. The plant on the right is prettier than the plant on the left.\nB. The plant on the left has broad leaves, while the one on the right has thin leaves.\nC. The plant on the left has more leaves than the one on the right.\nD. The plant on the right is taller than the one on the left.\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: How does the Earth's gravitational pull affect the Moon\nChoices:\nA. It pulls the Moon forward in its orbit.\nB. It bends radio waves coming from the Moon.\nC. It makes the Moon have really big spots.\nD. It pulls off the Moon's atmosphere.\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: what found ground level in the sea?\nChoices:\nA. grass\nB. gas\nC. air\nD. sand\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What life cycle is shown in the diagram?\nChoices:\nA. bee\nB. none of the above\nC. butterfly\nD. rat\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: How many stages are in this diagram?\nChoices:\nA. 6\nB. 9\nC. 8\nD. 10\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What number shows a full moon?\nChoices:\nA. 5\nB. 7\nC. 4\nD. 9\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, what is the main source of energy for deer\nChoices:\nA. owl\nB. fox\nC. none\nD. plants\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, which of the species get directly affected if all the plants dies\nChoices:\nA. owl\nB. deer\nC. fish\nD. snakes\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, which of the statement is correctly described\nChoices:\nA. eagle is decomposer\nB. plants are producer\nC. bacteria are consumer\nD. owl is producer\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the above food web diagram, which species were most directly affected if all the plants were removed\nChoices:\nA. fungi\nB. owl\nC. deer\nD. eagle\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the diagram of the food web shown, what do the deer consume?\nChoices:\nA. mice\nB. fungi\nC. green plants\nD. toads\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the diagram of the food web shown, what of these choices do coyotes directly receive energy from?\nChoices:\nA. insects\nB. owls\nC. snakes\nD. chipmunks\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Name an organism that is green plants eater in the given food web.\nChoices:\nA. spiders\nB. deer\nC. owls\nD. toads\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: Adelie Penguin is the food for ________?\nChoices:\nA. Killer whale\nB. algae\nC. krill\nD. elephant seal\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Protists and small animals are food of which of the following?\nChoices:\nA. algae\nB. seal\nC. none\nD. squid\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What would be most likely to starve if all the elephant seals died?\nChoices:\nA. krill\nB. squid\nC. killer whales\nD. adelie penguin\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What would happen if all the squids went away.\nChoices:\nA. more leapord seal\nB. more algae\nC. less krill\nD. less elephant seal\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What would happen if the cod increased?\nChoices:\nA. squid increase\nB. algae increase\nC. alge decrease\nD. krill increase\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which of the following organisms the producer?\nChoices:\nA. squid\nB. cod\nC. algae\nD. krill\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which one is prey to Elephant Seal?\nChoices:\nA. Squid\nB. leopard seal\nC. whale\nD. Algae\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Who is primary predator in this food web?\nChoices:\nA. Krill\nB. Algae\nC. leopard seal\nD. Whale\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: which animal is only a predator\nChoices:\nA. leopard seal\nB. penguin\nC. cod\nD. killer whale\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: According to the given food chain, what will happen if seeds were not present in this food chain?\nChoices:\nA. Deers would increase\nB. Population of grouse and chipmunk would decrease.\nC. There would be lesser number of bears.\nD. There would be no decomposers.\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: From the given food web identify the carnivorous animals.\nChoices:\nA. Insects and Decomposers\nB. Deer and Grouse\nC. Chipmunk and Marmot\nD. Bear and Red tailed hawk\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which competes with grouse to eat berries and flowers?\nChoices:\nA. deer\nB. seeds\nC. marmot\nD. bears\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which is a primary consumer?\nChoices:\nA. seed\nB. hawk\nC. bear\nD. Deer\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which of the following organisms seems to have the most predators?\nChoices:\nA. hawk\nB. chipmunk\nC. bear\nD. grouse\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which organism is important because it returns nutrients back to the soil?\nChoices:\nA. Decomposers\nB. berries\nC. deer\nD. insects\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which organism supplies the energy for the food web shown as the base producers of energy?\nChoices:\nA. Insects\nB. Chipmunk\nC. Deer\nD. Grasses\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which organism will most likely need to find a new source of energy after a grass fire in the food web shown above?\nChoices:\nA. Berries and Flowers\nB. Marmot\nC. Bear\nD. Red tailed Hawk\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which organisms are carnivores?\nChoices:\nA. Marmot\nB. Deer\nC. Bears\nD. Chipmunks\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: C", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: Which will most likely happen if another herbivore is introduced?\nChoices:\nA. More deer\nB. Less berries and flowers\nC. more marmot\nD. less bear\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is the correct order of the stages shown in this diagram?\nChoices:\nA. Egg, Pupa, Larval Stages\nB. Egg, Larval stages, Pupa\nC. Larval Stages, Pupa, Egg\nD. Pupa, Egg, Larval stages\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What stage follows the pupa in this diagram?\nChoices:\nA. Larval Stages\nB. Adult\nC. Egg\nD. Caterpillar\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What is the very top part shown?\nChoices:\nA. leaf scar\nB. stem\nC. none of the above\nD. apical bud\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What does the diagram represent?\nChoices:\nA. neuron\nB. proton\nC. none of the above\nD. electron\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What does the green circle represent?\nChoices:\nA. nucleus\nB. dendrite\nC. none of the above\nD. axon\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: In the diagram of the food web shown which will be most directly affected by the lowering in population of the common jellyfish?\nChoices:\nA. squilla mantis\nB. longlure frogfish\nC. nimble spray crab\nD. foxface rabbitfish\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: In the diagram of the food web shown, the common jellyfish consumes how many organisms?\nChoices:\nA. 1\nB. 4\nC. 2\nD. 3\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What does the Squilla mantis feed on?\nChoices:\nA. sunshine\nB. Longlure frogfish\nC. Tree sponge\nD. Micromonas\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What feeds on foxface rabbitfish?\nChoices:\nA. tree sponge\nB. doris chyrsoderma\nC. micromonas\nD. round stingray\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: What feeds on the jellyfish?\nChoices:\nA. micromonas\nB. lonlure frogfish\nC. aacartia clausi\nD. round stringray\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: The god of the dead and the ruler of the underworld is known as ?\nChoices:\nA. venus\nB. pluto\nC. earth\nD. moon\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: B", "source": "AI2D" }, { "user": "Question: which is known as the goddess of love and beauty ?\nChoices:\nA. Venus\nB. Sun\nC. Moon\nD. Earth\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: A", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What orbits around the earth?\nChoices:\nA. Pluto\nB. Sun\nC. Neptune\nD. Moon\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]
[ { "user": "Question: What color is the adult ladybug?\nChoices:\nA. orange\nB. black\nC. yellow\nD. red\nAnswer with the letter.", "assistant": "Answer: D", "source": "AI2D" } ]

Dataset Card for The Cauldron

image/png

Dataset description

The Cauldron is part of the Idefics2 release.

It is a massive collection of 50 vision-language datasets (training sets only) that were used for the fine-tuning of the vision-language model Idefics2.

Load the dataset

To load the dataset, install the library datasets with pip install datasets. Then,

from datasets import load_dataset
ds = load_dataset("HuggingFaceM4/the_cauldron", "ai2d")

to download and load the config ai2d for example.

Data fields

An example of a sample looks as follows:

{
    "images" = [PIL.Image]
    "texts" = [
        {
            "user": "Question: How many actions are depicted in the diagram?\nChoices:\nA. 6.\nB. 4.\nC. 8.\nD. 7.\nAnswer with the letter.",
            "assistant": "Answer: D",
            "source": "TQA"
        }
    ]
}

In images, there is a list of images, to be placed before the text. In texts, there is a conversation between a user and an assistant about the images that is represented by a list of turns.

Stats about the datasets in The Cauldron

Dataset # images # Q/A pairs # tokens
General visual question answering
VQAv2 82,772 443,757 1,595,929
COCO-QA 46,287 78,736 286,982
Visual7W 14,366 69,817 279,268
A-OKVQA 16,539 17,056 236,492
TallyQA 98,680 183,986 738,254
OK-VQA 8,998 9,009 38,853
HatefulMemes 8,500 8,500 25,500
VQA-RAD 313 1,793 8,418
Captioning
LNarratives 507,444 507,444 21,328,731
Screen2Words 15,730 15,743 143,103
VSR 2,157 3,354 10,062
OCR, document understanding, text transcription
RenderedText 999,000 999,000 27,207,774
DocVQA 10,189 39,463 337,829
TextCaps 21,953 21,953 389,658
TextVQA 21,953 34,602 181,918
ST-VQA 17,247 23,121 127,846
OCR-VQA 165,746 801,579 6,073,824
VisualMRC 3,027 11,988 168,828
IAM 5,663 5,663 144,216
InfoVQA 2,118 10,074 61,048
Diagram image-to-text 300 300 22,196
Chart/figure understanding
Chart2Text 26,985 30,242 2,852,827
DVQA 200,000 2,325,316 8,346,234
VisText 7,057 9,969 1,245,485
ChartQA 18,271 28,299 185,835
PlotQA 157,070 20,249,479 8478299.278
FigureQA 100,000 1,327,368 3,982,104
MapQA 37,417 483,416 6,470,485
Table understanding
TabMWP 22,729 23,059 1,948,166
TAT-QA 2,199 13,215 283,776
HiTab 2,500 7,782 351,299
MultiHiertt 7,619 7,830 267,615
FinQA 5,276 6,251 242,561
WikiSQL 74,989 86,202 9,680,673
SQA 8,514 34,141 1,894,824
WTQ 38,246 44,096 6,677,013
Reasoning, logic, maths
GeomVerse 9,303 9,339 2,489,459
CLEVR-Math 70,000 788,650 3,184,656
CLEVR 70,000 699,989 2,396,781
IconQA 27,315 29,859 112,969
RAVEN 42,000 42,000 105,081
Inter-GPs 1,451 2,101 8,404
Textbook/academic questions
AI2D 3,099 9,708 38,832
TQA 1,496 6,501 26,004
ScienceQA 4,985 6,218 24,872
Differences between 2 images
NLVR2 50,426 86,373 259,119
GSD 70,939 141,869 4,637,229
Spot the diff 8,566 9,524 221,477
Screenshot to code
WebSight 500,000 500,000 276,743,299
DaTikz 47,974 48,296 59,556,252

Decontamination

The Cauldron contains only the train split of each sub-datasets. On top of that, we removed the few examples containing an image also present in the test splits of MMMU, MathVista or MMBench.

References to the original datasets

References to the original datasets

@misc{AI2D, title={A Diagram Is Worth A Dozen Images}, author={Aniruddha Kembhavi and Mike Salvato and Eric Kolve and Minjoon Seo and Hannaneh Hajishirzi and Ali Farhadi}, year={2016}, eprint={1603.07396}, archivePrefix={arXiv}, primaryClass={cs.CV} }

@misc{A-OKVQA, title={A-OKVQA: A Benchmark for Visual Question Answering using World Knowledge}, author={Dustin Schwenk and Apoorv Khandelwal and Christopher Clark and Kenneth Marino and Roozbeh Mottaghi}, year={2022}, eprint={2206.01718}, archivePrefix={arXiv}, primaryClass={cs.CV} }

@inproceedings{Chart2Text, title = "Chart-to-Text: Generating Natural Language Descriptions for Charts by Adapting the Transformer Model", author = "Obeid, Jason and Hoque, Enamul", editor = "Davis, Brian and Graham, Yvette and Kelleher, John and Sripada, Yaji", booktitle = "Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Natural Language Generation", month = dec, year = "2020", address = "Dublin, Ireland", publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics", url = "https://aclanthology.org/2020.inlg-1.20", doi = "10.18653/v1/2020.inlg-1.20", pages = "138--147", }

@inproceedings{ChartQA, title = "{C}hart{QA}: A Benchmark for Question Answering about Charts with Visual and Logical Reasoning", author = "Masry, Ahmed and Long, Do and Tan, Jia Qing and Joty, Shafiq and Hoque, Enamul", booktitle = "Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022", month = may, year = "2022", address = "Dublin, Ireland", publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics", url = "https://aclanthology.org/2022.findings-acl.177", doi = "10.18653/v1/2022.findings-acl.177", pages = "2263--2279", }

@misc{CLEVR-Math, doi = {10.48550/ARXIV.2208.05358}, url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2208.05358}, author = {Lindström, Adam Dahlgren}, keywords = {Machine Learning (cs.LG), Computation and Language (cs.CL), Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (cs.CV), FOS: Computer and information sciences, FOS: Computer and information sciences, I.2.7; I.2.10; I.2.6; I.4.8; I.1.4}, title = {CLEVR-Math: A Dataset for Compositional Language, Visual, and Mathematical Reasoning}, publisher = {arXiv}, year = {2022}, copyright = {Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 4.0 International} }

@misc{CLEVR, title={CLEVR: A Diagnostic Dataset for Compositional Language and Elementary Visual Reasoning}, author={Justin Johnson and Bharath Hariharan and Laurens van der Maaten and Li Fei-Fei and C. Lawrence Zitnick and Ross Girshick}, year={2016}, eprint={1612.06890}, archivePrefix={arXiv}, primaryClass={cs.CV} }

@inproceedings{CocoQA, author = {Ren, Mengye and Kiros, Ryan and Zemel, Richard}, booktitle = {Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems}, editor = {C. Cortes and N. Lawrence and D. Lee and M. Sugiyama and R. Garnett}, pages = {}, publisher = {Curran Associates, Inc.}, title = {Exploring Models and Data for Image Question Answering}, url = {https://proceedings.neurips.cc/paper_files/paper/2015/file/831c2f88a604a07ca94314b56a4921b8-Paper.pdf}, volume = {28}, year = {2015} }

@misc{DaTikz, title={AutomaTikZ: Text-Guided Synthesis of Scientific Vector Graphics with TikZ}, author={Jonas Belouadi and Anne Lauscher and Steffen Eger}, year={2024}, eprint={2310.00367}, archivePrefix={arXiv}, primaryClass={cs.CL} }

Diagram image to text: https://huggingface.co/datasets/Kamizuru00/diagram_image_to_text by @Kamizuru00

@INPROCEEDINGS{DocVQA, author={Mathew, Minesh and Karatzas, Dimosthenis and Jawahar, C. V.}, booktitle={2021 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV)}, title={DocVQA: A Dataset for VQA on Document Images}, year={2021}, volume={}, number={}, pages={2199-2208}, keywords={Visualization;Computer vision;Text analysis;Image recognition;Image analysis;Conferences;Layout}, doi={10.1109/WACV48630.2021.00225}}

@inproceedings{DVQA, title={DVQA: Understanding Data Visualizations via Question Answering}, author={Kafle, Kushal and Cohen, Scott and Price, Brian and Kanan, Christopher}, booktitle={CVPR}, year={2018} }

@misc{FigureQA, title={FigureQA: An Annotated Figure Dataset for Visual Reasoning}, author={Samira Ebrahimi Kahou and Vincent Michalski and Adam Atkinson and Akos Kadar and Adam Trischler and Yoshua Bengio}, year={2018}, eprint={1710.07300}, archivePrefix={arXiv}, primaryClass={cs.CV} }

@inproceedings{FinQA, title = "{F}in{QA}: A Dataset of Numerical Reasoning over Financial Data", author = "Chen, Zhiyu and Chen, Wenhu and Smiley, Charese and Shah, Sameena and Borova, Iana and Langdon, Dylan and Moussa, Reema and Beane, Matt and Huang, Ting-Hao and Routledge, Bryan and Wang, William Yang", editor = "Moens, Marie-Francine and Huang, Xuanjing and Specia, Lucia and Yih, Scott Wen-tau", booktitle = "Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing", month = nov, year = "2021", address = "Online and Punta Cana, Dominican Republic", publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics", url = "https://aclanthology.org/2021.emnlp-main.300", doi = "10.18653/v1/2021.emnlp-main.300", pages = "3697--3711", }

@misc{GeomVerse, title={GeomVerse: A Systematic Evaluation of Large Models for Geometric Reasoning}, author={Mehran Kazemi and Hamidreza Alvari and Ankit Anand and Jialin Wu and Xi Chen and Radu Soricut}, year={2023}, eprint={2312.12241}, archivePrefix={arXiv}, primaryClass={cs.CV} }

@inproceedings{hatefulmeme, author = {Kiela, Douwe and Firooz, Hamed and Mohan, Aravind and Goswami, Vedanuj and Singh, Amanpreet and Ringshia, Pratik and Testuggine, Davide}, booktitle = {Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems}, editor = {H. Larochelle and M. Ranzato and R. Hadsell and M.F. Balcan and H. Lin}, pages = {2611--2624}, publisher = {Curran Associates, Inc.}, title = {The Hateful Memes Challenge: Detecting Hate Speech in Multimodal Memes}, url = {https://proceedings.neurips.cc/paper_files/paper/2020/file/1b84c4cee2b8b3d823b30e2d604b1878-Paper.pdf}, volume = {33}, year = {2020} }

@inproceedings{Hitab, title = "{H}i{T}ab: A Hierarchical Table Dataset for Question Answering and Natural Language Generation", author = "Cheng, Zhoujun and Dong, Haoyu and Wang, Zhiruo and Jia, Ran and Guo, Jiaqi and Gao, Yan and Han, Shi and Lou, Jian-Guang and Zhang, Dongmei", editor = "Muresan, Smaranda and Nakov, Preslav and Villavicencio, Aline", booktitle = "Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)", month = may, year = "2022", address = "Dublin, Ireland", publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics", url = "https://aclanthology.org/2022.acl-long.78", doi = "10.18653/v1/2022.acl-long.78", pages = "1094--1110", }

@article{IAM, author = {Marti, Urs-Viktor and Bunke, H.}, year = {2002}, month = {11}, pages = {39-46}, title = {The IAM-database: An English sentence database for offline handwriting recognition}, volume = {5}, journal = {International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition}, doi = {10.1007/s100320200071} }

@inproceedings{IconQA, title = {IconQA: A New Benchmark for Abstract Diagram Understanding and Visual Language Reasoning}, author = {Lu, Pan and Qiu, Liang and Chen, Jiaqi and Xia, Tony and Zhao, Yizhou and Zhang, Wei and Yu, Zhou and Liang, Xiaodan and Zhu, Song-Chun}, booktitle = {The 35th Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS) Track on Datasets and Benchmarks}, year = {2021} }

@INPROCEEDINGS{InfographicVQA, author={Mathew, Minesh and Bagal, Viraj and Tito, Rubèn and Karatzas, Dimosthenis and Valveny, Ernest and Jawahar, C. V.}, booktitle={2022 IEEE/CVF Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV)}, title={InfographicVQA}, year={2022}, volume={}, number={}, pages={2582-2591}, keywords={Visualization;Computer vision;Computational modeling;Layout;Data visualization;Benchmark testing;Brain modeling;Document Analysis Datasets;Evaluation and Comparison of Vision Algorithms;Vision and Languages}, doi={10.1109/WACV51458.2022.00264} }

@inproceedings{Inter-GPS, title = {Inter-GPS: Interpretable Geometry Problem Solving with Formal Language and Symbolic Reasoning}, author = {Lu, Pan and Gong, Ran and Jiang, Shibiao and Qiu, Liang and Huang, Siyuan and Liang, Xiaodan and Zhu, Song-Chun}, booktitle = {The Joint Conference of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (ACL-IJCNLP 2021)}, year = {2021} }

@misc{LocalizedNarratives, title={Connecting Vision and Language with Localized Narratives}, author={Jordi Pont-Tuset and Jasper Uijlings and Soravit Changpinyo and Radu Soricut and Vittorio Ferrari}, year={2020}, eprint={1912.03098}, archivePrefix={arXiv}, primaryClass={cs.CV} }

@misc{MapQA, title={MapQA: A Dataset for Question Answering on Choropleth Maps}, author={Shuaichen Chang and David Palzer and Jialin Li and Eric Fosler-Lussier and Ningchuan Xiao}, year={2022}, eprint={2211.08545}, archivePrefix={arXiv}, primaryClass={cs.CV} }

@misc{MIMIC-IT-General-Scene-Difference, title={MIMIC-IT: Multi-Modal In-Context Instruction Tuning}, author={Bo Li and Yuanhan Zhang and Liangyu Chen and Jinghao Wang and Fanyi Pu and Jingkang Yang and Chunyuan Li and Ziwei Liu}, year={2023}, eprint={2306.05425}, archivePrefix={arXiv}, primaryClass={cs.CV} }

@inproceedings{Multihiertt, title = "{M}ulti{H}iertt: Numerical Reasoning over Multi Hierarchical Tabular and Textual Data", author = "Zhao, Yilun and Li, Yunxiang and Li, Chenying and Zhang, Rui", booktitle = "Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)", month = may, year = "2022", address = "Dublin, Ireland", publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics", url = "https://aclanthology.org/2022.acl-long.454", pages = "6588--6600", }

@inproceedings{NLVR2, title = "A Corpus for Reasoning about Natural Language Grounded in Photographs", author = "Suhr, Alane and Zhou, Stephanie and Zhang, Ally and Zhang, Iris and Bai, Huajun and Artzi, Yoav", editor = "Korhonen, Anna and Traum, David and M{`a}rquez, Llu{'\i}s", booktitle = "Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics", month = jul, year = "2019", address = "Florence, Italy", publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics", url = "https://aclanthology.org/P19-1644", doi = "10.18653/v1/P19-1644", pages = "6418--6428", }

@INPROCEEDINGS{OCR-VQA, author={Mishra, Anand and Shekhar, Shashank and Singh, Ajeet Kumar and Chakraborty, Anirban}, booktitle={2019 International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition (ICDAR)}, title={OCR-VQA: Visual Question Answering by Reading Text in Images}, year={2019}, volume={}, number={}, pages={947-952}, keywords={Optical character recognition software;Visualization;Task analysis;Knowledge discovery;Text analysis;Text recognition;Character recognition;Optical Character Recognition (OCR), Visual Question Answering (VQA), Document image analysis, textVQA}, doi={10.1109/ICDAR.2019.00156} }

@InProceedings{okvqa, author = {Kenneth Marino and Mohammad Rastegari and Ali Farhadi and Roozbeh Mottaghi}, title = {OK-VQA: A Visual Question Answering Benchmark Requiring External Knowledge}, booktitle = {Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)}, year = {2019}, }

@InProceedings{PlotQA, author = {Methani, Nitesh and Ganguly, Pritha and Khapra, Mitesh M. and Kumar, Pratyush}, title = {PlotQA: Reasoning over Scientific Plots}, booktitle = {The IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV)}, month = {March}, year = {2020} }

@inproceedings{RAVEN, title={RAVEN: A Dataset for Relational and Analogical Visual rEasoNing}, author={Zhang, Chi and Gao, Feng and Jia, Baoxiong and Zhu, Yixin and Zhu, Song-Chun}, booktitle={Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)}, year={2019} }

RenderedText: https://huggingface.co/datasets/wendlerc/RenderedText by @wendlerc

@inproceedings{Robut, title = "{R}obu{T}: A Systematic Study of Table {QA} Robustness Against Human-Annotated Adversarial Perturbations", author = "Zhao, Yilun and Zhao, Chen and Nan, Linyong and Qi, Zhenting and Zhang, Wenlin and Tang, Xiangru and Mi, Boyu and Radev, Dragomir", editor = "Rogers, Anna and Boyd-Graber, Jordan and Okazaki, Naoaki", booktitle = "Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)", month = jul, year = "2023", address = "Toronto, Canada", publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics", url = "https://aclanthology.org/2023.acl-long.334", doi = "10.18653/v1/2023.acl-long.334", pages = "6064--6081", }

@inproceedings{SQA, title = "Search-based Neural Structured Learning for Sequential Question Answering", author = "Iyyer, Mohit and Yih, Wen-tau and Chang, Ming-Wei", editor = "Barzilay, Regina and Kan, Min-Yen", booktitle = "Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)", month = jul, year = "2017", address = "Vancouver, Canada", publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics", url = "https://aclanthology.org/P17-1167", doi = "10.18653/v1/P17-1167", pages = "1821--1831", }

@misc{WikiSQL, title={Seq2SQL: Generating Structured Queries from Natural Language using Reinforcement Learning}, author={Victor Zhong and Caiming Xiong and Richard Socher}, year={2017}, eprint={1709.00103}, archivePrefix={arXiv}, primaryClass={cs.CL} }

@inproceedings{WTQ, title = "Compositional Semantic Parsing on Semi-Structured Tables", author = "Pasupat, Panupong and Liang, Percy", editor = "Zong, Chengqing and Strube, Michael", booktitle = "Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)", month = jul, year = "2015", address = "Beijing, China", publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics", url = "https://aclanthology.org/P15-1142", doi = "10.3115/v1/P15-1142", pages = "1470--1480", }

@inproceedings{ScienceQA, author = {Lu, Pan and Mishra, Swaroop and Xia, Tanglin and Qiu, Liang and Chang, Kai-Wei and Zhu, Song-Chun and Tafjord, Oyvind and Clark, Peter and Kalyan, Ashwin}, booktitle = {Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems}, editor = {S. Koyejo and S. Mohamed and A. Agarwal and D. Belgrave and K. Cho and A. Oh}, pages = {2507--2521}, publisher = {Curran Associates, Inc.}, title = {Learn to Explain: Multimodal Reasoning via Thought Chains for Science Question Answering}, url = {https://proceedings.neurips.cc/paper_files/paper/2022/file/11332b6b6cf4485b84afadb1352d3a9a-Paper-Conference.pdf}, volume = {35}, year = {2022} }

@inproceedings{screen2words, author = {Wang, Bryan and Li, Gang and Zhou, Xin and Chen, Zhourong and Grossman, Tovi and Li, Yang}, title = {Screen2Words: Automatic Mobile UI Summarization with Multimodal Learning}, year = {2021}, isbn = {9781450386357}, publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery}, address = {New York, NY, USA}, url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3472749.3474765}, doi = {10.1145/3472749.3474765}, booktitle = {The 34th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology}, pages = {498–510}, numpages = {13}, keywords = {Mobile UI summarization, dataset., deep learning, language-based UI, screen understanding}, location = {Virtual Event, USA}, series = {UIST '21} }

@inproceedings{SpotTheDiff, title = "Learning to Describe Differences Between Pairs of Similar Images", author = "Jhamtani, Harsh and others", editor = "Riloff, Ellen and Chiang, David and Hockenmaier, Julia and Tsujii, Jun{'}ichi", booktitle = "Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing", month = oct # "-" # nov, year = "2018", address = "Brussels, Belgium", publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics", url = "https://aclanthology.org/D18-1436", doi = "10.18653/v1/D18-1436", pages = "4024--4034", }

@INPROCEEDINGS{STVQA, author={Biten, Ali Furkan and Tito, Rubèn and Mafla, Andrés and Gomez, Lluis and Rusiñol, Marçal and Jawahar, C.V. and Valveny, Ernest and Karatzas, Dimosthenis}, booktitle={2019 IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)}, title={Scene Text Visual Question Answering}, year={2019}, volume={}, number={}, pages={4290-4300}, keywords={Visualization;Task analysis;Knowledge discovery;Text recognition;Cognition;Computer vision;Semantics}, doi={10.1109/ICCV.2019.00439} }

@inproceedings{TabMWP, title={Dynamic Prompt Learning via Policy Gradient for Semi-structured Mathematical Reasoning}, author={Lu, Pan and Qiu, Liang and Chang, Kai-Wei and Wu, Ying Nian and Zhu, Song-Chun and Rajpurohit, Tanmay and Clark, Peter and Kalyan, Ashwin}, booktitle={International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR)}, year={2023} }

@inproceedings{TallyQA, title={TallyQA: Answering Complex Counting Questions}, author={Acharya, Manoj and Kafle, Kushal and Kanan, Christopher}, booktitle={AAAI}, year={2019} }

@inproceedings{TAT-QA, title = "{TAT}-{QA}: A Question Answering Benchmark on a Hybrid of Tabular and Textual Content in Finance", author = "Zhu, Fengbin and Lei, Wenqiang and Huang, Youcheng and Wang, Chao and Zhang, Shuo and Lv, Jiancheng and Feng, Fuli and Chua, Tat-Seng", booktitle = "Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)", month = aug, year = "2021", address = "Online", publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics", url = "https://aclanthology.org/2021.acl-long.254", doi = "10.18653/v1/2021.acl-long.254", pages = "3277--3287" }

@misc{textcaps, title={TextCaps: a Dataset for Image Captioning with Reading Comprehension}, author={Oleksii Sidorov and Ronghang Hu and Marcus Rohrbach and Amanpreet Singh}, year={2020}, eprint={2003.12462}, archivePrefix={arXiv}, primaryClass={cs.CV} }

@inproceedings{textvqa, title={Towards VQA Models That Can Read}, author={Singh, Amanpreet and Natarjan, Vivek and Shah, Meet and Jiang, Yu and Chen, Xinlei and Parikh, Devi and Rohrbach, Marcus}, booktitle={Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition}, pages={8317-8326}, year={2019} }

@INPROCEEDINGS{TQA, author={Kembhavi, Aniruddha and Seo, Minjoon and Schwenk, Dustin and Choi, Jonghyun and Farhadi, Ali and Hajishirzi, Hannaneh}, booktitle={2017 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)}, title={Are You Smarter Than a Sixth Grader? Textbook Question Answering for Multimodal Machine Comprehension}, year={2017}, volume={}, number={}, pages={5376-5384}, keywords={Knowledge discovery;Visualization;Cognition;Training;Natural languages;Computer vision}, doi={10.1109/CVPR.2017.571} }

@inproceedings{VisText, title = {{VisText: A Benchmark for Semantically Rich Chart Captioning}}, author = {Benny J. Tang AND Angie Boggust AND Arvind Satyanarayan}, booktitle = {The Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL)}, year = {2023}, url = {http://vis.csail.mit.edu/pubs/vistext} }

@InProceedings{Visual7w, title = {{Visual7W: Grounded Question Answering in Images}}, author = {Yuke Zhu and Oliver Groth and Michael Bernstein and Li Fei-Fei}, booktitle = {{IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition}}, year = 2016, }

@inproceedings{VisualMRC, author = {Ryota Tanaka and Kyosuke Nishida and Sen Yoshida}, title = {VisualMRC: Machine Reading Comprehension on Document Images}, booktitle = {AAAI}, year = {2021} }

@article{VQA-RAD, author = {Lau, Jason and Gayen, Soumya and Ben Abacha, Asma and Demner-Fushman, Dina}, year = {2018}, month = {11}, pages = {180251}, title = {A dataset of clinically generated visual questions and answers about radiology images}, volume = {5}, journal = {Scientific Data}, doi = {10.1038/sdata.2018.251} }

@misc{VQAv2, title={Making the V in VQA Matter: Elevating the Role of Image Understanding in Visual Question Answering}, author={Yash Goyal and Tejas Khot and Douglas Summers-Stay and Dhruv Batra and Devi Parikh}, year={2017}, eprint={1612.00837}, archivePrefix={arXiv}, primaryClass={cs.CV} }

@misc{VSR, title={Visual Spatial Reasoning}, author={Fangyu Liu and Guy Emerson and Nigel Collier}, year={2023}, eprint={2205.00363}, archivePrefix={arXiv}, primaryClass={cs.CL} }

@misc{WebSight, title={Unlocking the conversion of Web Screenshots into HTML Code with the WebSight Dataset}, author={Hugo Laurençon and Léo Tronchon and Victor Sanh}, year={2024}, eprint={2403.09029}, archivePrefix={arXiv}, primaryClass={cs.HC} }

Licensing Information

Each of the publicly available sub-datasets present in the Cauldron are governed by specific licensing conditions. Therefore, when making use of them you must take into consideration each of the licenses governing each dataset. To the extent we have any rights in the prompts, these are licensed under CC-BY-4.0.

Citation Information

If you are using this dataset, please cite

@misc{laurençon2024matters,
      title={What matters when building vision-language models?}, 
      author={Hugo Laurençon and Léo Tronchon and Matthieu Cord and Victor Sanh},
      year={2024},
      eprint={2405.02246},
      archivePrefix={arXiv},
      primaryClass={cs.CV}
}
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