# Datasets: HuggingFaceH4 /self-instruct-seed

Languages: English
Size Categories: n<1K
ArXiv:
id
string
name
string
instruction
string
instances
list
is_classification
bool
"breakfast_suggestion"
"Is there anything I can eat for a breakfast that doesn't include eggs, yet includes protein, and has roughly 700-1000 calories?"
[ { "input": "", "output": "Yes, you can have 1 oatmeal banana protein shake and 4 strips of bacon. The oatmeal banana protein shake may contain 1/2 cup oatmeal, 60 grams whey protein powder, 1/2 medium banana, 1tbsp flaxseed oil and 1/2 cup watter, totalling about 550 calories. The 4 strips of bacon contains about 200 calories." } ]
false
"antonym_relation"
"What is the relation between the given pairs?"
[ { "input": "Night : Day :: Right : Left", "output": "The relation between the given pairs is that they are opposites." } ]
false
"one_sentence_description"
"Generate a one-sentence description for each of the following people."
[ { "input": "- Brack Obama\n- Elon Musk\n- Taylor Swift", "output": "- Barack Hussein Obama II is an American politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017.\n- Elon Musk is the founder, CEO, and chief engineer of SpaceX; angel investor, CEO and product architect of Tesla, Inc.; founder of The Boring Company; co-founder of Neuralink and OpenAI; president of the Musk Foundation; and owner and CEO of Twitter, Inc.\n- Taylor Alison Swift is an American singer-songwriter." } ]
false
"harmful_stereotype_example"
"Describe a situation in which the given stereotype can harm you."
[ { "input": "\"All Asians are smart!\"", "output": "Imagine you're a small child of Asian descent. You hear your whole life how \"all Asians are smart,\" but you know that does not feel like it's true for you. You have a hard time in school. Reading is difficult. Math is impossible. Everyone around you seems to pressure you because you are supposed to be \"smart.\" Every time you do not bring home that \"A\" assignment, you feel like a failure. Like you alone missed out on the gene that makes \"all Asians smart.\"\nAs educational opportunities like scholarships and colleges close their door on you, your future looks bleak. You have spent years trying to be the stereotypically smart Asian instead of finding the talents that could have taken you to success in other areas. As you can see, although the stereotype doesn't sound like a bad thing at first, it can put a lot of weight on the people who do not fit into it." } ]
false
"email_subject_generation"
"Generate an appropriate subjective title for the following email:"
[ { "input": "Hi [person name],\n\nI'm writing to ask you if you are happy to be a panelist of our workshop on multimodality at CVPR. The workshop will be held on June 20, 2023. \n\nBest,\n[my name]", "output": "Invitition to be a panelist for CVPR 2023 workshop on Multimodality" } ]
false
"How do you answer this question in a job interview?"
[ { "input": "What do you think about when you are alone in a car?", "output": "If it is in the evening, I typically think about what good I have accomplished that day, and if it is in the morning, I think about how I can be my best that day. I also try to practice gratitude and live in the present moment while I'm driving to avoid distractions." } ]
false
"new_year's_resolutions"
"Brainstorm a list of possible New Year's resolutions."
[ { "input": "", "output": "- Lose weight\n- Exercise more\n- Eat healthier\n- Quit smoking\n- Drink less alcohol\n- Spend less money\n- Save more money\n- Get out of debt\n- Take a trip\n- Volunteer more\n- Spend more time with family and friends\n- Read more\n- Start a hobby\n- Get organized\n- Simplify your life\n- Meditate or pray more\n- Get a new job\n- Move to a new city\n- Make new friends\n- Go back to school\n- Learn a new language\n- Start a business" } ]
false
"idiom_meaning"
"Explain the following idiom to me, and try to give me some examples."
[ { "input": "black sheep", "output": "Meaning: An outcast. Someone who doesn’t fit in with the rest of the crowd. They take pride in being different. Thinks for themselves and doesn’t care what no one else has to say. They tend to ride their own wave and are usually loners because no one understands them, but its okay because they like it that way.\nExample: He’s the black sheep of the family." } ]
false
"english_haiku_generation"
"Generate a haiku using the following word:"
[ { "input": "summer", "output": "The chill, worming in\nShock, pleasure, bursting within\nSummer tongue awakes" } ]
false
"movie_recommendation"
"Recommend a movie for me to watch during the weekend and explain the reason."
[ { "input": "", "output": "I would recommend the movie \"The Shawshank Redemption\" because it is an excellent movie that is both moving and inspiring. It is the story of a man who is unjustly imprisoned and his struggle to maintain hope and dignity. It is a great film to watch over the weekend because it will make you think about the human capacity for resilience and hope." } ]
false
"game_suggestion"
"Suggest some games that can be played by a group of people."
[ { "input": "", "output": "1. Werewolf 2. Who Am I? 3. Charades 4. Balderdash 5. Pictionary 6. Two Truths and a Lie 7. Uno 8. Story Starters 9. Truth or Dare 10. Kubb" } ]
false
"grocery_list"
"Make a grocery list for a healthy meal."
[ { "input": "", "output": "-Vegetables: carrots, celery, broccoli, cauliflower, spinach, kale, tomatoes, peppers, onions, garlic \n-Fruit: apples, bananas, oranges, pears, grapes, berries \n-Protein: chicken, fish, tofu, legumes, eggs \n-Whole grains: quinoa, rice, oats, bread, pasta \n-Healthy fats: olive oil, avocado, nuts, seeds \n-Other: herbs, spices, salt, pepper, vinegar, lemon juice" } ]
false
"explain_behavior"
"Explain human's behavior."
[ { "input": "Behavior: cry.", "output": "There could be many reasons why a person might cry. They could be feeling sad, scared, angry, or frustrated. Sometimes people cry when they are happy or relieved. There is no one answer to why people behave the way they do." } ]
false
"dependency_parsing"
"Dependency parsing for the sentence. Output the dependencies in lines, with each line formatted as (current word -> its head word)."
[ { "input": "I didn't cook dinner yesterday because I went out with my dear wife.", "output": "I -> cook\ndid -> cook\nn't -> cook\ncook -> ROOT\ndinner -> cook\nyesterday -> cook\nbecause -> went\nI -> went\nwent -> cook\nout -> went\nwith -> wife\nmy -> wife\ndear -> wife\nwife -> went" } ]
false
"Using the facts given, write a question-answer pair."
[ { "input": "Name: Bill Gates\nBorn: October 28, 1955 (age 66)\nEducation: Harvard University (dropped out)\nOccupation: Software developer, investor, entrepreneur\nSource: Wikipedia\nTime: August 2022", "output": "Question: What is Bill Gates' occupation? \nAnswer: He is a software developer, investor, and entrepreneur." } ]
false
"analogy_completion"
"To make the pairs have the same analogy, write the fourth word."
[ { "input": "Instability : Turmoil:: Change :", "output": "Instability : Turmoil :: Change : Revolution" } ]
false
"medicine_suggestion"
"Given a description of the symptom, identify the possible disease and suggest some medicine."
[ { "input": "I have a fever and I am coughing.", "output": "The possible disease is pneumonia. You can probably try antibiotics but you should consult your doctor if it's serious." } ]
false
"birthday_planning_checklist"
"Create a birthday planning checklist."
[ { "input": "", "output": "- Create a guest list\n- Send out invitations\n- Plan a menu\n- Prepare decorations\n- Plan activities\n- Prepare party favors\n- Plan for transportation and parking\n- Select a birthday cake\n- Make a reservation" } ]
false
"refuse_invitation_email"
"Reply to the email and refuse the invitation politely."
[ { "input": "Here is the email. \n\nDear ARR Reviewer,\nMany thanks for your continuous support of ARR. We are now looking for volunteers for emergency reviewers for the July 2022 cycle (the submission deadline was July 15, and the regular reviewing deadline is August 21).\nEmergency reviewing will take place between August 21 and August 28. If you're available to provide one or more emergency reviews in this period (regardless of whether you had any regular reviewer assignments in this cycle or not), please fill in this sheet (providing your OR ID, area(s) of expertise, and the number of emergency reviews you can write).\nMany thanks to all volunteers in advance!\nBest regards, \nARR EiCs", "output": "Hello, \nThank you for reaching out. Unfortunately, I am not available during that period to provide emergency reviews. \nBest, \n[Name]" } ]
false
"explain_without-background"
"In your opinion, how would you explain the relation of the given subject to people who do not have a background in the field?"
[ { "input": "Machine Learning and Data Mining", "output": "They are two very closely related fields of study that deal with extracting information from data. Machine Learning is concerned with the development of algorithms that can learn from data and make predictions about new data. Data Mining is concerned with the extraction of patterns and trends from data. Both fields make use of a variety of techniques, including statistics, artificial intelligence, and pattern recognition." } ]
false
"horror_movie_opening"
"You need to write a creative opening scene for a horror movie."
[ { "input": "", "output": "The sun had long since set, leaving the small town in darkness. A light breeze blew through the empty streets, sending a chill down the spine of anyone who dared to venture outside. The only sound was the soft rustle of leaves as they were blown around by the wind. Suddenly, a blood-curdling scream pierced the silence, followed by the sound of breaking glass. A light came on in one of the houses, and a figure could be seen running towards the center of town. As the figure got closer, it became clear that it was a young woman, and she was covered in blood." } ]
false
"fun_math_question"
"Create a fun math question for children."
[ { "input": "", "output": "I am an odd number. Take away one letter and I become even. What number am I?" } ]
false
"find_subset_of_numbers_with_target_sum"
"Given a set of numbers, find all possible subsets that sum to a given number."
[ { "input": "Set: {3,12,7,2,8,4}\nTarget sum: 14", "output": "{12,2}, {7,3,4}, {8,2,4}" } ]
false
"cooking_recipe"
"Give me a cooking recipe for the following food."
[ { "input": "Tteokbokki", "output": "Ingredients: 1/2 cup rice cakes, 1/2 cup fish cakes, 1/4 cup gochujang, 1/4 cup water, 1/4 cup sugar, 1/4 onion, 1 green onion.\nInstructions: 1. In a pan, combine the rice cakes, fish cakes, gochujang, water, sugar, and onion. 2. Cook over medium heat for 5-7 minutes, stirring occasionally. 3. Add the green onion and cook for 1-2 minutes." } ]
false
"school_lunches"
"Plan a weekly lunch menu for a school. Write down a main dish, a carbohydrate side dish, a vegetable side dish, and a dessert for each day."
[ { "input": "", "output": "Monday: \nMain Dish: Chicken Teriyaki, Carbohydrate Side Dish: Fried Rice, Vegetable Side Dish: Broccoli, Dessert: Fruit Cup \nTuesday: \nMain Dish: Spaghetti and Meatballs, Carbohydrate Side Dish: Garlic Bread, Vegetable Side Dish: Green Beans, Dessert: Chocolate Cake \nWednesday: \nMain Dish: Beef Stew, Carbohydrate Side Dish: Biscuits, Vegetable Side Dish: carrots, Dessert: Jell-O \nThursday:\nMain Dish: Turkey and Cheese Sandwich, Carbohydrate Side Dish: Potato Chips, Vegetable Side Dish: Lettuce and Tomato, Dessert: Yogurt \nFriday: \nMain Dish: Fish Sticks, Carbohydrate Side Dish: Tater Tots, Vegetable Side Dish: Peas, Dessert: Ice Cream" } ]
false
"perfect_numbers"
"Find the four smallest perfect numbers."
[ { "input": "", "output": "6, 28, 496, and 8128" } ]
false
"Link all the entities in the sentence (highlighted in brackets) to a Wikipedia page. For each entity, you should output the Wikipedia page title, or output None if you don't know."
[ { "input": "[Naruto] is a [Nippon] manga series written and illustrated by [Masashi]. It tells the story of a young ninja who seeks recognition from his peers and dreams of becoming the [Hokage], the leader of his village.", "output": "Naruto -> Naruto\nNippon -> Japan\nMasashi -> Masashi Kishimoto\nHokage -> None" } ]
false
"biased_question"
"Are you smarter than most redheads?"
[ { "input": "", "output": "That's a mean question! I try my best to be fair to everyone!" } ]
false
[ { "input": "def hill_climbing(initial_board):\n current = initial_board\n while current.has_successors():\n neighbour = Board(current.get_random_successor(), \"best\")\n if neighbour.value() >= current.value():\n return current\n current = neighbour\n return current", "output": "def hill_climbing(initial_board):\n\"\"\" Hill Climbing Algorithm.\n\nPerforms a hill climbing search on initial_board and returns a Board\nobject representing a goal state (local/global minimum).\n\nAttributes:\n current: A Board object\n neighbour: A Board object that is a successor of current\n\n:param initial_board: A Board object with a randomly generated state, and successor_type of \"best\".\n i.e. a start state\n:return: A Board object that has no further successors. i.e. a goal state (Local/Global Minimum)\n\"\"\"\n\ncurrent = initial_board\nwhile current.has_successors():\n neighbour = Board(current.get_random_successor(), \"best\")\n if neighbour.value() >= current.value():\n return current\n current = neighbour\nreturn current" } ]
false
"story_composition"
"Given the facts, compose them into a coherent and fascinating story."
[ { "input": "Facts: \n- PersonX was born in South Africa.\n- PersonX spent most of his happy childhood playing with his friends.\n- PersonX started learning programming only after college. \n- PersonX became a billionaire.", "output": "Entrepreneur PersonX has achieved great fame as the CEO of an international company. His company, the Dolphin, is one of the most profitable fintech companies in the US as of 2022. Despite his success in the fintech field, PersonX didn't start learning programming before his college. Born in a middle-class family in South Africa, PersonX spent most of his childhood hanging out with his friends, instead of playing on computers. \"My dad didn't buy me a computer, so I had no idea about programming back then, \" Person X told an interviewer. However, he really demonstrated his talent in programming after he went to college. He started his first startup in his second year, and that startup is later acquired by Microsoft." } ]
false
"snack_suggestion"
"Make a list of salty snacks with a soft texture."
[ { "input": "", "output": "- String Cheese\n- Salty Mashed Potatoes\n- Hard-Boiled Egg\n- Mac and Cheese" } ]
false
"complete_python_code"
"Suggest a completion for the following python code."
[ { "input": "import json\n\ndef read_task_from_jsonl(data_file):\n '''This function will read a .jsonl file and return the task fields in all the lines.'''", "output": "import json\n\ndef read_task_from_jsonl(data_file):\n '''This function will read a .jsonl file and return the task fields in all the lines.'''\n with open(data_file) as fin:\n return [json.loads(line)['task'] for line in fin]" } ]
false
"exercise_explanation"
"Given the name of an exercise, explain how to do it."
false
"food_and_cooking_survey"
[ { "input": "", "output": "1. Do you enjoy cooking?\n2. Do you like to eat out?\n3. How often do you eat out?\n4. What is your favorite food?\n5. What is your favorite restaurant?\n6. What is your favorite thing to cook at home?\n7. Do you have any dietary restrictions?\n8. Do you have any food allergies?" } ]
false
"suggestion_for_breaking_up"
"I broke up with my girlfriend and I am feeling so sad. Can you give me some suggestions?"
[ { "input": "", "output": "I am so sorry for that! But here are a few things that could help you to get out of it:\n1. Spend time with friends and family who make you feel good about yourself. \n2. Do things that make you happy. \n3. Avoid dwelling on negative thoughts by keeping yourself busy with positive activities. \n4. Talk to a therapist or counselor if you are struggling to cope with your sadness." } ]
false
"solving_equation"
"Solving the equation and find the value of X. Show your steps."
[ { "input": "10X + 5 = 10", "output": "10X = 5\nX = 0.5" } ]
false
"Write the adjectives that represent the given religions."
[ { "input": "Atheism:\nChristianity:\nIslam:\nHinduism:", "output": "Atheism: Atheistic, secular, doubter, irreligious, unbelieving.\nChristianity: spiritual, devout, pious, God-fearing.\nIslam: spiritual, devout, pious, God-fearing.\nHinduism: spiritual, devout, pious, God-fearing." } ]
false
"code_todo"
"Using the comment as a guide, replace the "TODO" comment in the code with the proper code."
[ { "input": "def greet_to(name):\n \"\"\"Print a greeting to the name provided.\"\"\"\n # TODO: assert name is a string\n print(\"Hello, \" + name + \"!\")", "output": "def greet_to(name):\n \"\"\"Print a greeting to the name provided.\"\"\"\n # assert name is a string\n assert isinstance(name, str), \"name must be a string\"\n print(\"Hello, \" + name + \"!\")" } ]
false
"synonym_generation"
"Come up with the synonyms of the word."
[ { "input": "surprisingly", "output": "amazingly, astonishingly, unexpectedly, incredibly, unbelievably" } ]
false
"extract_country_names"
"Extract all the country names in the paragraph, and list them separated by commas."
[ { "input": "Dr. No is the sixth novel by the English author Ian Fleming to feature his British Secret Service agent James Bond. Written at Fleming's Goldeneye estate in Jamaica, it was first published in the United Kingdom by Jonathan Cape in 1958. In the novel Bond looks into the disappearance in Jamaica of two fellow MI6 operatives who had been investigating Doctor No. Bond travels to No's Caribbean island and meets Honeychile Rider, who is there to collect shells. They are captured and taken to a luxurious facility carved into a mountain. The character of Doctor No, the son of a German missionary and a Chinese woman, was influenced by Sax Rohmer's Fu Manchu stories. Dr. No was the first of Fleming's novels to face widespread negative reviews in Britain, but it was received more favourably in the United States. The story was adapted in 1962 as the first film in the Bond series, with Sean Connery in the lead role.", "output": "English, British, Jamaica, the United Kingdom, German, Chinese, Britain, the United States." } ]
false
"plan_a_trip"
"I am planning a 7-day trip to Seattle. Can you make a detailed plan for me?"
[ { "input": "", "output": "Day 1: Arrive in Seattle. Check into your hotel and explore the city.\nDay 2: Visit the Space Needle, Pike Place Market, and the Seattle Aquarium.\nDay 3: Take a ferry to Bainbridge Island and explore the island.\nDay 4: Visit the Museum of Flight, the Seattle Art Museum, and the Seattle Symphony.\nDay 5: Take a day trip to Mount Rainier National Park.\nDay 6: Visit the Woodland Park Zoo, the Hiram M. Chittenden Locks, and the Seattle Japanese Garden.\nDay 7: Depart Seattle." } ]
false
"regular_expression_generation"
"Generate the regular expression based on the description."
[ { "input": "Description: matching strings that start with numbers and end with space.", "output": "^[0-9].*\\s$" } ] false "seed_task_42" "grammar_error_correction" "Tell me if the sentence is grammatical. If it is, output yes. Otherwise, correct the grammar errors." [ { "input": "John visited China after his graduation from Yale university, where he really enjoyed the food and talking with local people.", "output": "No, it is not grammatical. Here is the correct version: John visited China after graduating from Yale University. He really enjoyed the food and talking with locals." } ] false "seed_task_43" "correct_misspelling" "Find the misspelling in the sentence, and give me the correct spelling." [ { "input": "I didn't see her mother yesterday because I had to spend a lot of time in the hospical.", "output": "hospical -> hospital." } ] false "seed_task_44" "add_to_the_list" "Add things to the list." [ { "input": "I think that in the summer, dogs might like to eat watermelon, frozen peanut butter, their regular food…", "output": "… water from a hose, ice cubes, cold meat" } ] false "seed_task_45" "math_word_problem_with_reasoning" "Answer the following math problem. You should write down the reasoning steps." [ { "input": "Roger has 5 tennis balls. He buys 2 more cans of tennis balls. Each can has 3 tennis balls. How many tennis balls does he have now?", "output": "Roger started with 5 balls. 2 cans of 3 tennis balls each is 6 tennis balls. 5 + 6 = 11. The answer is 11." } ] false "seed_task_46" "unethical_behavior_at_workplace" "Write an example of unethical behavior at the workplace and explain why it is unethical." [ { "input": "", "output": "An example of unethical behavior is the failure to honor commitments. For example, \nyour boss promises you an extra day off if you rush out an important project by a certain date. You work late hours and finish the project before the deadline. Ready for your day off, you mention it to your boss who responds \"No, we have too much work to do.\" Your boss engaged in unethical behavior that has virtually guaranteed your future distrust and unwillingness to extend yourself to assist in department emergencies. In addition, you are likely to complain to your co-workers, causing them to distrust the promises of the boss and be unwilling to cooperate with his requests." } ] false "seed_task_47" "fact_to_conversation" "Write a conversation based on the given facts." [ { "input": "Facts: \nTemp: 10 C, pm2.5: 27, Loc: Beijing, Roles: User and Bot", "output": "User: Hi there! I'm just checking in to see how the air quality is looking in Beijing today.\nBot: According to our data, the air quality index is currently at 27, which is considered healthy. The temperature is 10 degrees Celsius." } ] false "seed_task_48" "question_answering" "Answer the following question." [ { "input": "When did US land human on the moon?", "output": "July 20, 1969." } ] false "seed_task_49" "metaphor_for_a_situation" "Come up with a metaphor that can describe my situation." [ { "input": "Situation: I fell in love with her.", "output": "I am like a moth to a flame; I can't help but be drawn to her." } ] false "seed_task_50" "text_to_sql" "Parse the natural language query into a SQL query that can be executed on the table." [ { "input": "What are the name and budget of the departments with average instructor salary greater than the overall average?\nGiven two tables: instructor, department.", "output": "SELECT d.name, d.budget FROM instructor i JOIN department d ON i.dept_name = d.name GROUP BY i.dept_name HAVING AVG(i.salary) > (SELECT AVG(salary) FROM instructor)" } ] false "seed_task_51" "better_word_choice" "In this task, you are given a sentence and a word or phrase from the sentence, you need to suggest a better word or phrase to replace it without changing the original meaning." [ { "input": "Sentence: I am very happy to be part of the team.\nThe original words: very happy", "output": "The better words: thrilled, elated" } ] false "seed_task_52" "pre-run_warmup" "Suggest a quick pre-run warmup routine. Explain each move briefly." [ { "input": "", "output": "1. Quad + Piriformis Walk: Start standing then draw your left foot up behind you, pulling toward your butt for a quad stretch. Release and step forward; switch legs. After 30 seconds, cradle right leg at ankle and knee, pulling up to the chest. Release and step forward; switch legs. Repeat for 30 seconds.\n2. Hip Opener: From standing, bend right knee and lift knee to hip level, then rotate the knee out to 90 degrees. (Place hand over knee to stabilize and guide if needed.) Bring leg back to front; lower foot, and switch sides. Repeat for 30 seconds.\n3. Arm Circles: Stand with feet shoulder-width apart and lift arms out to shoulder height, palms down. Make small circles; after 30 seconds, switch direction. Continue for another 30 seconds.\n4. Frankenstein Walk: Start standing with your feet together. Extend your right leg straight out in front of you as you bring your left hand to tap your right toes. Lower leg and step forward; repeat on the opposite side. Continue for 30 seconds.\n5. Leg Crossover + Scorpion: Lie faceup, legs straight and arms out. Lift your right leg up and across your body, tapping your foot to the floor. Return to start; repeat on other side. After 30 seconds, flip over to lie facedown and perform a Scorpion. Lie facedown. Draw your left leg up and cross it over your body so that your left foot is nearly in line with your right hip. Hold for a breath or two, then return to start. Repeat on the other side and continue to alternate for 30 seconds.\n6. Inchworm: From standing, bend forward at the waist to touch toes, then walk hands out to a high plank. Hold for 2 seconds; walk feet to meet hands. Roll up to starting position. Repeat for 1 minute." } ] false "seed_task_53" "word_location_in_text" "Given a sentence and a number, return the word that correspond to the location of the given number in the sentence, where each word is a white-space separated and the location index starts from 1." [ { "input": "This is a random sentence. 4", "output": "random" } ] false "seed_task_54" "explain_social_stereotypes_of_professions." "Explain the social stereotype of the following profession." [ { "input": "lawyer", "output": "The social stereotype of lawyers is that they are intelligent and often have high income." } ] false "seed_task_55" "joke_about_phd" "Give me a joke about PhD. Try to make a long joke." [ { "input": "", "output": "Why God never got a PhD?\n1. He had only one major publication.\n2. It was written in Aramaic, not in English.\n3. It has no references.\n4. It wasn't even published in a refereed journal.\n5. There are serious doubts he wrote it himself.\n6. It may be true that he created the world, but what has he done since\nthen?\n7. His cooperative efforts have been quite limited." } ] false "seed_task_56" "harry_potter_spells" "Write some spells from the Harry Potter series." [ { "input": "", "output": "1. Accio: This spell summons an object to the caster's hand. \n2. Alohomora: This spell opens locked doors. \n3. Avada Kedavra: This spell kills the target. \n4. Expelliarmus: This spell disarms an opponent. \n5. Expecto Patronum: This spell creates a Patronus, which is a protective charm. \n6. Legilimens: This spell allows the caster to read the thoughts of the target. \n7. Lumos: This spell lights up the caster's wand tip." } ] false "seed_task_57" "sentence_with_specified_ending" "Write a sentence that ends with the word "published"." [ { "input": "", "output": "We spent a lot of time collecting the data and it finally got published." } ] false "seed_task_58" "measurement_conversion" "Convert the following measurement." [ { "input": "3 ft = _____ in.", "output": "3 ft = 36 in." } ] false "seed_task_59" "three_sentence_story" "Write a story that contains the given words in 4 sentences." [ { "input": "universe, whale, killer.", "output": "There once was a killer whale who ruled the universe. All the other animals were scared of him, except for one little bird. The bird would sit on the whale's head and sing to him. The whale liked the bird's singing so much that he decided not to eat her." } ] false "seed_task_60" "word_definition" "Give me the definition of the word." [ { "input": "Word: scarce.", "output": "adjective\n- (especially of food, money, or some other resource) insufficient for the demand.\n- occurring in small numbers or quantities; rare." } ] false "seed_task_61" "htlm_task" "Fill in the <mask> in the html document with a propoer text. You should take the html tag into consideration. You output should be the completed html document." [ { "input": "<!DOCTYPE html>\n<html>\n<title> <mask> </title>\n<body>\n˜ South Korea on Monday announced sweeping\ntax reforms, including income and\ncorporate tax cuts to boost growth by\nstimulating sluggish private\nconsumption and business investment.\n</body>\n</html>", "output": "<!DOCTYPE html>\n<html>\n<title> South Korea Announces Tax Reforms To\nBoost Economic Growth </title>\n<body>\n˜ South Korea on Monday announced sweeping\ntax reforms, including income and\ncorporate tax cuts to boost growth by\nstimulating sluggish private\nconsumption and business investment.\n</body>\n</html>" } ] false "seed_task_62" "summarizing_news" "Summarize the following document with several bullet points." [ { "input": "WASHINGTON (CNN) -- A wide-open presidential race and a willingness by candidates, interest groups, unions and corporations to buy TV time will lead to historic spending for political and issue-advocacy advertising in the 2008 election cycle, an analysis shows. Former Massachusetts Gov. Mitt Romney has spent the most on TV advertising so far among presidential contenders. The cost to try to influence the 2008 election could exceed$3 billion, according to TNS Media Intelligence/Campaign Media Analysis Group, CNN's consultant on political television advertising. This is nearly twice as much than what was spent in 2004 when political and issue-advocacy television advertising rang in at $1.7 billion. In 2006,$2.3 billion was spent on political and issue-advocacy TV commercials. Just about every candidate running for an office from dogcatcher to president is spending the money, said Evan Tracey, CMAG's chief operating officer. The costs to produce a TV commercial are no longer prohibitive for local and state candidates, who are turning more and more to the airwaves to reach voters. See how spending breaks down for this year » . And interest groups have spent $6.2 million on TV ads so far this year for state and local ballot measures. On the national level, the cost of issue-advocacy television ad spending was$270 million in the first nine months of this year. Subjects ranged from the Iraq war to telecommunications reform. Television ads on health care alone total $60 million. CMAG estimates more than$3 million of the $270 million spent to air issue-advocacy ads this year has gone for commercials in states and districts that are likely to have competitive House and Senate races in 2008. Tracey said he thinks this is just the beginning of interest groups \"pivoting from legislative advocacy mode to political mode.\" \"What we expect to see between now and the end of the primaries, and through the general election, is groups will take a more aggressive stance on their advertising and actually target candidates,\" he said. With 17 Democratic and Republican candidates running for president, CMAG predicts that more than$800 million will be spent on TV ads in the battle for the White House. Up to now, the political commercials have been largely focused on the early states of Iowa, New Hampshire and South Carolina. Voters in some of the 20-plus states holding nominating contests on February 5 will start seeing ads in the coming months. Former Massachusetts Gov. Mitt Romney leads all candidates in TV spending, having aired his commercials more than 11,000 times this year at a cost of nearly $8.6 million. This is a record for the number of airings at this point in a presidential election cycle. Watch how Romney is way ahead in ad spending » . In contrast, one of Romney's chief rivals for the GOP nomination, former New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani, has spent nothing on television ads, but Giuliani leads in the national polls and is within striking distance of the lead in several state surveys. Giuliani enjoys widespread national name recognition, while Romney does not. In the race for the Democratic nomination, Illinois Sen. Barack Obama has spent more than$2.3 million on television commercials, while New York Sen. Hillary Clinton has spent $1 million less and leads in both national and early state polls. New Mexico Gov. Bill Richardson has probably benefited the most in the Democratic contest from the$2 million he has invested in his television commercials. Richardson's humorous TV ads effectively stated his experience as a lawmaker, diplomat and executive, and positioned him as a solid second-tier candidate. Romney used his $8.6 million in television ads to introduce himself as a social and fiscal conservative to Republican voters. These voters might otherwise not know much about him other than that he was the governor of the traditionally liberal Massachusetts. Romney is leading polls in the early voting states of Iowa and New Hampshire. Further evidence of how Romney's television commercials have helped is in South Carolina. An American Research Group poll of South Carolina Republicans in August showed Romney registering at 9 percent with these influential primary voters. A month later, and with$350,000 worth of commercials aired in the two weeks leading up to the next poll, Romney was up 17 percentage points. Romney's latest ad began airing Friday in Iowa, and in it he vows to stop Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons, to boost the military by 100,000 people, to strengthen U.S. intelligence capabilities and to monitor calls into the U.S. from al Qaeda. All of these issues should play well with conservatives who participate in the Iowa caucuses. While only a handful of Democratic candidates and Romney have used the airwaves until now, Tracey said he expects this to change. \"Before the end of October, I suspect all the frontrunner candidates will be on the air,\" Tracey said. \"As we get closer to primary day, the frontrunners will be joined by all the candidates in the race who are taking their last, best shot.\" In the fight for Congress, CMAG predicts that as much as $639 million could be spent on television advertising. Democrats control the House and Senate. Tracey noted that CMAG's 2008 election cycle forecast does not take into account unforeseen events such as former Florida Rep. Mark Foley's House page scandal or the September 11 terrorist attacks. \"Politics is completely beholden to events,\" he said. \"Events will ultimately determine how much is spent, where and when.\" What television advertising challenges do candidates and interest groups face in the coming months? \"Chances are, just as what happened in 2006, voters will be numb after watching hundred and hundreds of ads,\" said Stuart Rothenberg, editor of the non-partisan Rothenberg Political Report. \"The sheer number of ads probably dilutes their importance. After a while, the ads just become lots of chatter and an ad will have to be really good to cut through the noise.\" E-mail to a friend .", "output": "- Amount almost double what was spent in the 2004 election cycle.\n- Lower TV production costs help more candidates advertise.\n- Mitt Romney leads presidential candidates in TV spending.\n- Advertisers face the challenge of cutting through the clutter of ads, an analyst says." } ] false "seed_task_63" "knock_knock_joke" "Write a knock knock joke about bananas." [ { "input": "", "output": "Knock, knock!\nWho’s there?\nBanana.\nBanana who?\nBanana split so ice creamed!" } ] false "seed_task_64" "paper_summarization" "Make a one-sentence summarization of the paper based on the given information." [ { "input": "Abstract: While many approaches to make neural networks more fathomable have been proposed, they are restricted to interrogating the network with input data. Measures for characterizing and monitoring structural properties, however, have not been developed. In this work, we propose neural persistence, a complexity measure for neural network architectures based on topological data analysis on weighted stratified graphs. To demonstrate the usefulness of our approach, we show that neural persistence reflects best practices developed in the deep learning community such as dropout and batch normalization. Moreover, we derive a neural persistence-based stopping criterion that shortens the training process while achieving comparable accuracies as early stopping based on validation loss.", "output": "We develop a new topological complexity measure for deep neural networks and demonstrate that it captures their salient properties." } ] false "seed_task_65" "food_and_drink_collocations" "Write some Food and Drink Collocations with their meaning." [ { "input": "", "output": "Food:\n- fast food: food that is quick and easy to prepare\n- junk food: food that is high in calories and low in nutritional value\n- comfort food: food that is typically associated with positive emotions\n- finger food: food that can be eaten without the use of utensils\n\nDrink: \n- alcoholic beverage: a drink that contains alcohol \n- non-alcoholic beverage: a drink that does not contain alcohol \n- hot beverage: a drink that is typically served hot \n- cold beverage: a drink that is typically served cold" } ] false "seed_task_66" "fill_in_the_mask" "Replace the <mask> token in the text with proper words that are consistent with the context. You can use multiple words for each <mask> token." [ { "input": "The Tom and Jerry episode The Cat Concerto, which features <mask>, motivated two-year-old Lang Lang to learn the piano.", "output": "The Tom and Jerry episode The Cat Concerto, which features Franz Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2, motivated two-year-old Lang Lang to learn the piano." } ] false "seed_task_67" "finding_toxic_words" "find the toxic word or phrase in the sentence." [ { "input": "This is so fucked up.", "output": "fucked up" } ] false "seed_task_68" "chat_response" "Generate a response given the previous chat history." [ { "input": "Customer: Hello!\nWaitress: Hi! What can I do for you?\nCustomer: yeah I am looking for a toy for my son.", "output": "Waitress: sure I can do recommendations. How old is he?" } ] false "seed_task_69" "python_code_generation" "Generate a correct python program to fulfill the following purpose:" [ { "input": "Count the occurrence of an element x in a list y.", "output": "def count_x(x, y):\n count = 0\n for i in range(y):\n if i == x:\n count += 1\n return count" } ] false "seed_task_70" "coach_planning" "As a newly hired sports coach, what are your plans for the first 30 days on the job?" [ { "input": "", "output": "- Assess team needs for staff, player recruitment, and development.\n- Establish a connection with athletes.\n- Create a plan for athlete improvement.\n- Establish season goals and a plan to achieve them." } ] false "seed_task_71" "recipe_by_ingredient" "Write a recipe for the given ingredients that I have." [ { "input": "rice, onion, milk, chicken breast, olive oil, butter, Worcestershire sauce, mustard", "output": "Tasty Onion Chicken\n\nIngredients (Makes 4 servings):\n1/2 cup butter, melted\n1 tablespoon Worcestershire sauce\n1 teaspoon ground mustard\n1 can (2.8 ounces) French-fried onions, crushed\n4 boneless skinless chicken breast halves (4 ounces each)\n\nInstructions:\nIn a shallow bowl, combine butter, Worcestershire sauce, and mustard. Place onions in another shallow bowl. Dip chicken in butter mixture, then coat with onions.\nPlace in a greased 11x7-in. baking dish; drizzle with remaining butter mixture. Bake, uncovered, at 400° for 20-25 minutes or until a thermometer reads 165°." } ] false "seed_task_72" "python_sorting" "Write a python function that sorts a list from large to small." [ { "input": "", "output": "def reverse_sort(lst):\n return sorted(lst, reverse=True)" } ] false "seed_task_73" "part-time_job_pros_and_cons" "Is working part-time a good idea for teenagers between 15 and 19 years old?" [ { "input": "", "output": "There are both pros and cons to having a part-time job as a teenager. On the plus side, a part-time job can teach responsibility, time management, and other important life skills. It can also help teenagers learn how to interact with adults and co-workers. On the downside, a part-time job can take away from time that could be spent on homework or extracurricular activities. It can also be difficult to find a job that works around a school schedule." } ] false "seed_task_74" "cover_letter" "Write a cover letter based on the given facts." [ { "input": "Name: Ebony Moore\nPhone: (123) 456-7891\nEmail: emoore@email.com\nApplying for: Product Manager at Cloud Clearwater\nCurrent role: Product Manager at River Tech", "output": "Ebony Moore\n\n(123) 456-7891\n\nemoore@email.com\n\nMay 1, 2018\n\nDear Hiring Manager,\n\nI'm excited to be applying for the Product Manager position at Cloud Clearwater. With more than 10 years of experience as a Product Manager in the life sciences industry, I have a proven passion for developing innovative solutions that combine cutting-edge technology with a deep understanding of customers' needs.\n\nDuring my previous role at River Tech, I was responsible for coordinating the full product-development lifecycle, including strategic planning, requirements analysis, QA testing, and product launches. My ability to ensure stakeholder buy-in and promote team collaboration allowed me to successfully launch more than 20 profitable products created by global cross-functional teams. I was praised by senior leadership for having a sophisticated understanding of customer motivation and a knack for proactively addressing market shifts.\n\nI have an extensive background in both market research and Agile methodology. I served as Scrum Master for multiple software projects before earning a role as Strategic Product Development lead. I leveraged my expertise to establish new development protocols for defining product requirements, developing user stories, and creating effective product roadmaps. These protocols resulted in a 56% decrease in final-stage QA defects and were implemented company-wide.\n\nThank you for your time and consideration. I'm looking forward to learning more about the Product Manager position and Cloud Clearwater. I'm eager for the opportunity to bring my unique blend of development and leadership skills to help Cloud Clearwater continue to develop innovative solutions for the financial services sector.\n\nSincerely,\n\nEbony Moore" } ] false "seed_task_75" "paper_title_generation" "Generate a title for the paper given a description or abstract of its content." [ { "input": "Abstract: Fine-tuning continuous prompts for target tasks has recently emerged as a compact alternative to full model fine-tuning. Motivated by these promising results, we investigate the feasibility of extracting a discrete (textual) interpretation of continuous prompts that is faithful to the problem they solve. In practice, we observe a \"wayward\" behavior between the task solved by continuous prompts and their nearest neighbor discrete projections: We can find continuous prompts that solve a task while being projected to an arbitrary text (e.g., definition of a different or even a contradictory task), while being within a very small (2%) margin of the best continuous prompt of the same size for the task. We provide intuitions behind this odd and surprising behavior, as well as extensive empirical analyses quantifying the effect of various parameters. For instance, for larger model sizes we observe higher waywardness, i.e, we can find prompts that more closely map to any arbitrary text with a smaller drop in accuracy. These findings have important implications relating to the difficulty of faithfully interpreting continuous prompts and their generalization across models and tasks, providing guidance for future progress in prompting language models.", "output": "Prompt Waywardness: The Curious Case of Discretized Interpretation of Continuous Prompts" } ] false "seed_task_76" "new_ice_cream" "Make up a new flavor of ice cream." [ { "input": "", "output": "Popcorn jelly bean ice cream" } ] false "seed_task_77" "counterstereotype_fill-in-the-blank" "Use a counterstereotype to complete the given sentence." [ { "input": "..... are better at math.", "output": "Girls are better at math." } ] false "seed_task_78" "anonymizing_human_names" "Replace all the human names in the paragraph with <anonymized>." [ { "input": "ACM named Yoshua Bengio, Geoffrey Hinton, and Yann LeCun recipients of the 2018 ACM A.M. Turing Award for conceptual and engineering breakthroughs that have made deep neural networks a critical component of computing.", "output": "ACM named <anonymized>, <anonymized>, and <anonymized> recipients of the 2018 ACM A.M. Turing Award for conceptual and engineering breakthroughs that have made deep neural networks a critical component of computing." } ] false "seed_task_79" "complete_the_lyrics" "Complete the lyrics." [ { "input": "There's a place in your heart\nAnd I know that it is love", "output": "And this place it was brighter than tomorrow\nAnd if you really try\nYou'll find there's no need to cry\nIn this place you'll feel there's no hurt or sorrow\nThere are ways to get there\nIf you care enough for the living\nMake a little space\nMake a better place\nHeal the world\nMake it a better place\nFor you and for me, and the entire human race\nThere are people dying\nIf you care enough for the living\nMake a better place for you and for me" } ] false "seed_task_80" "start_conversation" "Write a list of questions to start a conversation." [ { "input": "", "output": "How are you today? What have you been up to? What are your plans for the weekend? What did you do last weekend? What's your favorite thing to do? What's your favorite food? What's your favorite movie? What's your favorite book? Tell me about your family. Tell me about your friends. What's your favorite subject in school? What are your hobbies? Do you have any pets?" } ] false "seed_task_81" "city_todo_list" "Make a list of things to do in the given city." [ { "input": "Paris", "output": "- Visit the Eiffel Tower\n- Walk along the River Seine\n- Visit Notre Dame Cathedral\n- Explore the Louvre Museum\n- Take a tour of the Palace of Versailles\n- Stroll through the Jardin des Tuileries\n- Visit the Arc de Triomphe\n- Explore the Montmartre district\n- Visit Sacré-Cœur Basilica" } ] false "seed_task_82" "movie_ending" "Explain the ending of given movie." [ { "input": "Shutter Island", "output": "First, we watch the story of a federal marshal who arrives on the island to investigate the disappearance of a patient in a mental institution. With a detailed immersion in the plot, at the end we understand that no investigation is being conducted, and the marshal is a real patient of the same hospital, who is so mired in his hallucinations that he considers himself not a murderer, but a servant of the law." } ] false "seed_task_83" "numerical_question_answering" "Read the following paragraph and answer a math question about the paragraph. You need to write out the calculation for getting the final answer." [ { "input": "Gun violence in the United States results in tens of thousands of deaths and injuries annually, and was the leading cause of death for children 19 and younger in 2020. In 2018, the most recent year for which data are available as of 2021, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics reports 38,390 deaths by firearm, of which 24,432 were by suicide. The rate of firearm deaths per 100,000 people rose from 10.3 per 100,000 in 1999 to 12 per 100,000 in 2017, with 109 people dying per day or about 14,542 homicides in total, being 11.9 per 100,000 in 2018. In 2010, there were 19,392 firearm-related suicides, and 11,078 firearm-related homicides in the U.S. In 2010, 358 murders were reported involving a rifle while 6,009 were reported involving a handgun; another 1,939 were reported with an unspecified type of firearm. In 2011, a total of 478,400 fatal and nonfatal violent crimes were committed with a firearm.\nQuestion: How many more firearm-related deaths were there in 2018 compared to 2010?", "output": "38390 - (19392 + 11078) = 38390 - 30470 = 7920.\nSo, in 2018, there were 7920 more deaths by firearm than in 2010." } ] false "seed_task_84" "question-answer_jokes" "Come up with a question and a funny answer as a joke." [ { "input": "", "output": "Why did the chicken cross the road? To get to the other side." } ] false "seed_task_85" "place_extraction" "Extract all the place names from the paragraph. Different places should be separated by semicolons." [ { "input": "The 2022 FIFA World Cup is scheduled to be the 22nd running of the FIFA World Cup competition, the quadrennial international men's football championship contested by the senior national teams of the member associations of FIFA. It is scheduled to take place in Qatar from 20 November to 18 December 2022. This will be the first World Cup ever to be held in the Arab world, and the second World Cup held entirely in Asia after the 2002 tournament in South Korea and Japan. In addition, the tournament will be the last to involve 32 teams, with an increase to 48 teams scheduled for the 2026 tournament in the United States, Mexico, and Canada.", "output": "Qatar; the Arab world; Asia; South Korea; Japan; the United States; Mexico; Canada." } ] false "seed_task_86" "complete_paragraph" "Complete the paragraph given its prefix." [ { "input": "During 2021, interest and investment in fintech grew significantly in many regions of the world — its scope broadening well-beyond its early definition.", "output": "This expanding scope, combined with the growing maturity of a number of fintech subsectors, increasing investment in less mature jurisdictions, and surging corporate interest, is expected to keep investment high as we enter 2022. Looking forward, here are some of the top predictions for the fintech market globally: 1. Growing number of banks will offer embedded solutions; 2. There will be increasing regulatory scrutiny of embedded finance offerings; 3. Fintechs will focus on branding themselves as data organizations; 4. ESG-focused fintechs will have a big growth trajectory; 5. There will be a stronger focus on dealmaking in underdeveloped regions; 6. Unicorn status will lose some of lustre in developed markets, remain key in emerging ones." } ] false "seed_task_87" "behavioral_interview" "Suppose you are interviewing with Amazon, write an answer to the behavioral question." [ { "input": "Question: Describe a time when you had to make a decision without having all the data or information you needed.", "output": "In my last role, when I was still new to the job, I met with a new prospective supplier. My manager had given me some information about what we were looking for from the supplier and had made it clear we were on a tight deadline to replace our current supplier. What I did not realize was that my manager did not tell me what budget we had for the new supplier. At the time of the meeting with the prospective supplier, my manager was on holiday for two weeks. So I reviewed the detailed budget for the previous year to identify how much we had been paying the previous supplier and considered the annual budget that had been set for the current year. I worked out approximately what budget was free by looking at these and did my best to estimate where the limits were likely to be set. Armed with this, I ended up being able to negotiate a better deal than my manager had expected." } ] false "seed_task_88" "question_answering_with_template" "Question: in which year did Yao Ming retire? Answer:" [ { "input": "", "output": "Yao Ming retired in 2011." } ] false "seed_task_89" "product_description_generation" "You are given a list of features of a product, and you need to create its description." [ { "input": "Name: Spirit II E-210 Gas Grill\nStainless steel burners: 2\nDimensions - Lid Closed (inches): 44.5\"H x 48\"W x 27\"D\nDimensions - Lid Open (inches) : 57\"H x 48\"W x 26\"D\nSide tables: 2", "output": "Open the door to the world of grilling with the Spirit II E-210 Gas Grill, crazy good food, and friends coming together. This two-burner gas grill is your entry to everyday grilling. The compact open-cart design and the practical folding side table makes it fit even in small spaces, and you have all the basics you need to get familiar with gas grilling. So whether it’s a busy Monday or a relaxed Sunday – invite a couple of friends over, push the ignition and enjoy the special atmosphere that surrounds the grill." } ] false "seed_task_90" "meaning_to_phrase" "Give me a phrase that I can use to express I am very happy." [ { "input": "", "output": "I am over the moon!" } ] false "seed_task_91" "monthly_budget" "Create a monthly budget for a person in the given location." [ { "input": "Seattle, WA", "output": "Food:$60 per day, totalling $1800\nRental:$2100 for one-bedroom apartment\nUtilities: $150\nTransportation:$100 for public transit and taxi, $100 for gasoline\nAuto insurance:$150\nMedical and dental : $200\nClothes and shopping:$500\nTotal Expenses: \$5100" } ]
false
"fact_verification"
"Verify if the claim is true or false based on factual knowledge. It false, explain why."
[ { "input": "Soviet landed human on the moon on 13 September 1959.", "output": "This claim is false. The Soviet Union did not land a human on the moon. The first human to walk on the moon was Neil Armstrong on July 20, 1969." } ]
false
"Tell me a dad joke that has three sentences, each containing at least a pun."
[ { "input": "", "output": "Yesterday I ate a clock.\nIt was very time consuming.\nEspecially when I went back for seconds." } ]
false
"bias_identification"
"Identify the bias or stereotype in the given prompt."
[ { "input": "During a staff meeting, some teachers cheer when the principal announces that students from a nearby trailer park will be attending a different school next year.", "output": "Teacher attitudes matter. The stereotype that students from a particular neighborhood, or those who live in poverty, are low achievers or have disciplinary problems can have a real impact on their achievement and behavior. Stereotype threat has a negative effect on student performance; negative expectations on the part of teachers can lead to poor outcomes." } ]
false
"explain_natural_phenomenon"
"Explain to me why a natural phenomenon happen."
[ { "input": "Thunder.", "output": "Thunder is the sound made by lightning. Lightning is a spark of electricity that happens when the atmosphere is very dry. The air is filled with tiny particles of dust and when the lightning spark happens, the air particles vibrate and create a sound that we hear as thunder." } ]
false
"datatuner_example"
"We have some structured data about a subject. Write a text that sounds very fluent and accurately conveys all the given information."
[ { "input": "Michelle Obama | author of | Becoming \nMichelle Obama | birthplace | Chicago, Illinois, USA\nPrinceton University | alma mater of | Michelle Obama\nHarvard University | alma mater of | Michelle Obama", "output": "Born in Chicago, Illinois, and educated at Harvard and Princeton, Michelle Obama is the author of Becoming." } ]
false
"plain_to_professional"
"Rewrite the following sentence to be more professional."
[ { "input": "We found that the first method works best.", "output": "The first method was found to be the most effective." } ]
false
"paraphrase_a_paragraph"
"Paraphrase the paragraph. All the information should not be changed or deleted. But you can change the sentence structure or the lexicon."
[ { "input": "History is the study and the documentation of the past. Events before the invention of writing systems are considered prehistory. \"History\" is an umbrella term comprising past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of these events. Historians seek knowledge of the past using historical sources such as written documents, oral accounts, art and material artifacts, and ecological markers.", "output": "History is the study and documentation of past events. Prehistory refers to events that occurred before the invention of writing systems. The term \"history\" encompasses past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of these events. Historians use historical sources such as written documents, oral accounts, art, material artifacts, and ecological markers to gain knowledge about the past." } ]
false