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RoBERTa large trained with data from National Library of Spain (BNE)

Model Description

RoBERTa-large-bne is a transformer-based masked language model for the Spanish language. It is based on the RoBERTa large model and has been pre-trained using the largest Spanish corpus known to date, with a total of 570GB of clean and deduplicated text processed for this work, compiled from the web crawlings performed by the National Library of Spain (Biblioteca Nacional de España) from 2009 to 2019.

Training corpora and preprocessing

The National Library of Spain (Biblioteca Nacional de España) crawls all .es domains once a year. The training corpus consists of 59TB of WARC files from these crawls, carried out from 2009 to 2019.

To obtain a high-quality training corpus, the corpus has been preprocessed with a pipeline of operations, including among the others, sentence splitting, language detection, filtering of bad-formed sentences and deduplication of repetitive contents. During the process document boundaries are kept. This resulted into 2TB of Spanish clean corpus. Further global deduplication among the corpus is applied, resulting into 570GB of text.

Some of the statistics of the corpus:

Corpora Number of documents Number of tokens Size (GB)
BNE 201,080,084 135,733,450,668 570GB

Tokenization and pre-training

The training corpus has been tokenized using a byte version of Byte-Pair Encoding (BPE) used in the original RoBERTA model with a vocabulary size of 50,262 tokens. The RoBERTa-large-bne pre-training consists of a masked language model training that follows the approach employed for the RoBERTa large. The training lasted a total of 96 hours with 32 computing nodes each one with 4 NVIDIA V100 GPUs of 16GB VRAM.

Evaluation and results

For evaluation details visit our GitHub repository.


Check out our paper for all the details: https://arxiv.org/abs/2107.07253

    author = {Asier Gutiérrez-Fandiño and Jordi Armengol-Estapé and Marc Pàmies and Joan Llop-Palao and Joaquin Silveira-Ocampo and Casimiro Pio Carrino and Carme Armentano-Oller and Carlos Rodriguez-Penagos and Aitor Gonzalez-Agirre and Marta Villegas},
    title = {MarIA: Spanish Language Models},
    journal = {Procesamiento del Lenguaje Natural},
    volume = {68},
    number = {0},
    year = {2022},
    issn = {1989-7553},
    url = {http://journal.sepln.org/sepln/ojs/ojs/index.php/pln/article/view/6405},
    pages = {39--60}


This work was funded by the Spanish State Secretariat for Digitalization and Artificial Intelligence (SEDIA) within the framework of the Plan-TL.


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In no event shall the owner of the models (SEDIA – State Secretariat for digitalization and artificial intelligence) nor the creator (BSC – Barcelona Supercomputing Center) be liable for any results arising from the use made by third parties of these models.

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