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MobiLlama-1B is a Small Language Model with 1.2 billion parameters. It was trained using the Amber data sources Amber-Dataset.

Model Summary

"Bigger the better" has been the predominant trend in recent Large Language Models (LLMs) development. However, LLMs do not suit well for scenarios that require on-device processing, energy efficiency, low memory footprint, and response efficiency. These requisites are crucial for privacy, security, and sustainable deployment. This paper explores the ‘less is more’ paradigm by addressing the challenge of designing accurate yet efficient Small Language Models (SLMs) for resource-constrained devices. Our primary contribution is the introduction of an accurate and fully transparent open-source 0.5 billion (0.5B) parameter SLM, named MobiLlama, catering to the specific needs of resource-constrained computing with an emphasis on enhanced performance with reduced resource demands. MobiLlama is a SLM design that initiates from a larger model and applies a careful parameter sharing scheme to reduce both the pre-training and the deployment cost. Our work strives to not only bridge the gap in open-source SLMs but also ensures full transparency, where complete training data pipeline, training code, model weights, and over 300 checkpoints along with evaluation codes are available on our Github.

Arxiv Paper Link

Model Description

How to Use

from transformers import AutoModelForCausalLM, AutoTokenizer

tokenizer = AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained("MBZUAI/MobiLlama-1B", trust_remote_code=True)
model = AutoModelForCausalLM.from_pretrained("MBZUAI/MobiLlama-1B", trust_remote_code=True)

text = "I was walking towards the river when "
input_ids = tokenizer(text, return_tensors="pt").to('cuda').input_ids
outputs = model.generate(input_ids, max_length=1000, repetition_penalty=1.2, pad_token_id=tokenizer.eos_token_id)
print(tokenizer.batch_decode(outputs[:, input_ids.shape[1]:-1])[0].strip())

Training DataMix

Subset Tokens (Billion)
Arxiv 30.00
Book 28.86
C4 197.67
Refined-Web 665.01
StarCoder 291.92
StackExchange 21.75
Wikipedia 23.90
Total 1259.13


Hyperparameter Value
Total Parameters 1.2B
Hidden Size 2048
Intermediate Size (MLPs) 5632
Number of Attention Heads 32
Number of Hidden Lyaers 22
RMSNorm ɛ 1e^-5
Max Seq Length 2048
Vocab Size 32000


Evaluation Benchmark MobiLlama-0.5B MobiLlama-0.8B MobiLlama-1.2B
HellaSwag 52.52 54.09 62.99
MMLU 26.45 26.92 24.23
Arc Challenge 29.52 30.20 34.55
TruthfulQA 38.05 38.48 35.57
CrowsPairs 64.03 64.82 68.12
PIQA 72.03 73.17 75.29
Race 33.68 33.37 35.31
SIQA 40.22 41.60 41.96
Winogrande 57.53 57.45 61.08



      title={MobiLlama: Towards Accurate and Lightweight Fully Transparent GPT}, 
      author={Omkar Thawakar and Ashmal Vayani and Salman Khan and Hisham Cholakkal and Rao Muhammad Anwer and Michael Felsberg and Timothy Baldwin and Eric P. Xing and Fahad Shahbaz Khan},
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Dataset used to train MBZUAI/MobiLlama-1B

Collection including MBZUAI/MobiLlama-1B